1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Almoravides
|←Almora||1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 1
|Almqvist, Karl Jonas Ludwig→|
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ALMORAVIDES (properly Murābiṭis, the name being corrupted through the Spanish), a Berber horde from the Sahara which, in the 11th century, founded the fourth dynasty in Morocco. By this dynasty the Moorish empire was extended over Tlemçen and a great part of Spain and Portugal. The name is derived from the Arab. Murābit, a religious ascetic (see Marabout). The most powerful of the invading tribes was the Lamţūna (“ veiled men ”) from the upper Niger, whose best-known representatives now are the Tuareg. They had been converted to Mahommedanism in the early times of the Arab conquest, but their knowledge of Islam did not go much beyond the formula of the creed-“ there is no god but God, and Mahomet is the apostle of God, ”-and they were ignorant of the law. About the year 1040 or a little earlier, one of their chiefs, Yaḥya ibn Ibrāhīm, made the pilgrimage to Mecca. On his way home he attended the teachers of the mosque at Ķairawān, in Tunisia, who soon learnt from him that his people knew little of the religion they were supposed to profess, and that though his will was good, his own ignorance was great. By the good offices of the theologians of Ķairawān, one of whom was from Fez, Yaḥya was provided with a missionary, `Abd-Allah ibn Yāzīn, a zealous partisan of the Mālekis, one of the four orthodox sects of Islam. His preaching was for long rejected by the Lamţūnas, so on the advice of his patron Yaḥya, who accompanied him, he retired to an island in the Niger, where he founded a ribāţ or Moslem monastery, from which as a centre his influence spread. There was no element of heresy in his creed, which was mainly distinguished by a rigid formalism and strict obedience to the letter of the Koran and the orthodox tradition or Sunna. 'Abd-Allah imposed a penitential scourging on all converts as a purification, and enforced a regular system of discipline for every breach of the law, even on the chiefs. Under such directions the Murābiṭis were brought to excellent order. Their first military leader, Yaḥya ibn Omar, gave them a good military organization. Their main force was infantry, armed with javelins in the front ranks and pikes behind, formed into a phalanx and supported by camelmen and horsemen on the flanks. From the year 1053 the Murābiṭis began to impose their orthodox and puritanical religion on the Berber tribes of the desert, and on the pagan negroes. Yaḥya was killed in battle in 1056, but 'Abd-Allah, whose influence as a religious teacher was paramount, named his brother Abu Bakr as chief. Under him the Murābiṭis soon began to spread their power beyond the desert, and subjected the tribes of the Atlas. They then came in contact with the Berghwāta, a Berber people of central Morocco, who followed a heresy founded by Salaḥ ibn Tārif 300 years previously. The Berghwāta made a fierce resistance, and it was in battle with them that 'Abd-Allah ibn Yāzīn won the crown of martyrdom. They were, however, completely conquered by Abu Bakr, who espoused the defeated chief's widow, Zaīnāb.
In 1061 Abu Bakr made a division of the power he had established, handing over the more settled parts to his cousin, Yūsef ibn Tashfin, as Viceroy, resigning to him also his favourite wife Zaīnāb, who had the reputation of a sorceress. For himself he reserved the task of suppressing the revolts which had broken out in the desert, but when he returned to resume control he found his cousin too powerful to be superseded, so he had to go back to the Sahara, where in 1087 he too attained martyrdom, having been wounded with a poisoned arrow in battle with the pagan negroes.
Ibn Tashfin, who was largely guided by Zaīnāb, had in the meantime brought what is now known as Morocco to complete subjection, and in 1062 had founded the city of Marrākesh (“ Morocco City ”). He is distinguished as Yūsef I. In 1080 he conquered the kingdom of Tlemçen and founded the present city of that name, his rule extending as far east as Oran. In 1086 he was invited by the Mahommedan princes in Spain to defend them against Alphonso VI., king of Castile and Leon. In that year Yūsef passed the straits to Algeciras, and on the 23rd of October inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at Sacralias, or in Arabic, Zallāka, near Badajoz. He was debarred from following up his victory by trouble in Africa which he had to settle in person. When he returned to Spain in 1090 it was avowedly for the purpose of deposing the Mahommedan princes and annexing their states. He had in his favour the mass of the inhabitants, who were worn out by the oppressive taxation imposed by their spendthrift rulers. Their religious teachers detested the native Mahommedan princes for their religious indifference, and gave Yūsef a fetwa-or legal opinion-to the effect that he had good moral and religious right to dethrone the heterodox rulers who did not scruple to seek help from the Christians whose bad habits they had adopted. By 1094 he had removed them all, and though he regained little from the Christians except Valencia, he reunited the Mahommedan power and gave a check to the reconquest of the country by the Christians. After friendly correspondence with the caliph at Bagdad, whom he acknowledged as Amīr el Mūminīn, “ Prince of the Faithful, ” Yūsef in 1097 assumed the title of “ Prince of the Resigned ”- Amīr el Muslimīn. He died in 1106, when he was reputed to have reached the age of 100.
The Murābiṭi power was at its height at Yūsef's death, and the Moorish empire then included all North-West Africa as far as Algiers, and all Spain south of the Tagus, with the east coast as far as the mouth of the Ebro, and the Balearic Islands. Three years afterwards, under Yūsef's son and successor, 'Ali III. of Morocco, Madrid, Lisbon and Oporto were added, and Spain was again invaded in 1119 and 1121, but the tide had turned, the French having assisted the Aragonese to recover Saragossa. In 1138 'Ali III. was defeated by Alphonso VII. of Castile and Leon, and in 1139 by Alphonso I. of Portugal, who thereby won his crown, and Lisbon was recovered by the Portuguese in 1147. Ali III. was a pious nonentity, who fasted and prayed while his empire fell to pieces under the combined action of his Christian foes in Spain and the agitation of the Muwāḥḥadis or “ Almohades ” (q.v.) in Morocco. After `Ali's death in 1142, his son Tashfin lost ground rapidly before the Muwāḥḥadis, and in 1145 he was killed by a fall from a precipice while endeavouring to escape after a defeat near Oran. His two successors Ibrāhīm and Isḥāk are mere names. The conquest of the city of Marrākesh by the Muwāḥḥadis in 1147 marked the fall of the dynasty, though fragments of the Murābiṭis continued to struggle in the Balearic Islands, and finally in Tunisia.
The amirs of the Murābiṭi dynasty were as follows:-Yūsef I., bin Tashfin (1061); 'Ali III. (1106); Tashfin I. (1143); Ibrāhīm II. (1145); Isḥāk (1146).
See Budgett Meakin, The Moorish Empire (London, 1899); the anonymous Raéd el Kadds (Fez. 1326), translated by Baymier as Roudh el-Kartas (Paris, 1860); Ibn Khaldūn, Kitāb el `A'ibr . . . fi Aīyām el Maghrib, &c:. (cir. 1405), partly translated by de Slane as Histoire des Berbers, vol. ii. (Algiers, 1852-1856); Makkāri, History of the Mahommedan Dynasties in Spain, translated by Gayangos (London, 1840); Histoire des Mussulmans d'Espagne, by R. Dozy, vol. iv. (Leiden, 1861). (B. M.*; D. H.)