1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Schwarz, Karl

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SCHWARZ, KARL (1812-1885), German Protestant theologian, was born at Wiek on the Isle of Rügen on the 19th of November 1812. His father, Theodor Schwarz, pastor at Wiek, was well known as a preacher, and as the writer of a number of popular works (parables, romances, &c.) under the pseudonym “Theodor Melas.” Karl Schwarz pursued the study of theology and philosophy at Halle, and afterwards at Bonn (1831) and Berlin {1832-1834). At Berlin he came under the influence of Schleiermacher and Hegel, whose influences are seen in his work Das Wesen der Religion (1847). In 1837 he was imprisoned for six months on account of his advanced political opinions. After his release he helped (from 1838) with the Hallische Jahrbücher. From 1843-1845 he lectured at Halle, and was then suspended by the government. In 1849, however, he was appointed professor extraordinarius, and later received a number of distinctions (in 1858 chief court preacher, &c.). Schwarz took an important part in the founding and directing of the German Protestantenverein, and became an eminent exponent of liberal theology. His work Zur Geschichte der neuesten Theologie (1856, 4th ed. 1869) is a valuable source for the history of theology in Germany. His other works include Lessing als Theologe (1854) and Grundriss der christl. Lehre (1873, 5th ed. 1876). He died on the 25th of March 1885. In his memory a Karl-Schwarz-stiftung was founded in connexion with the theological faculty at Jena.

See G. Rudloff, Karl Schwarz (1887); F. Hummel, Die Bedeutung der Schrift von Karl Schwarz: Über das Wesen der Religion (1890); and Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopädie.