1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Garfield, Harry Augustus
GARFIELD, HARRY AUGUSTUS (1863- ), American educator, son of James A. Garfield, 20th president of the U.S., was born at Hiram, O., Oct. 11 1863. After graduating from Williams College in 1885, he taught for a year in St. Paul's school, Concord, N.H., and from 1888 to 1903 practised law in Cleveland. He was professor of contracts in the Law school of Western Reserve University from 1891 to 1897; helped to organize, in 1896, the municipal association of Cleveland; and served as president of the Cleveland chamber of commerce, 1908-9. He was professor of politics at Princeton University from 1903 to 1908 and in the latter year became president of Williams College. In Aug. 1917 he was appointed Federal fuel administrator by President Wilson. His duty was to conserve the coal supply and keep the price within reasonable bounds. Local committees were appointed throughout the country to study local conditions and their reports formed the basis for the prices fixed in different localities. The ensuing winter was unusually severe, and serious shortage of coal threatened. This led to his issuing his “idle Mondays” order in Jan. 1918, closing non-essential industries for five consecutive days beginning Jan. 18 and on every Monday thereafter up to March 25. This roused a storm of protest from many manufacturers; and the U.S. Senate voted a resolution, requesting postponement, but this reached him after the order had been signed. On Feb. 14, however, the order was suspended and priority for certain shipments substituted. He disapproved of the method of settling the coal strike in Dec. 1919 and resigned his office, resuming that of president of Williams College.