1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Lowell, Abbott Lawrence

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LOWELL, ABBOTT LAWRENCE (1856-       ), American educationist (see 17.73), built for Harvard at his own expense a president's house, which was finished in 1912. From the time that he became president (1909) he took great interest in the social life of the students, and was specially desirous that members of the entering class should have the opportunity of becoming thoroughly acquainted. The result was the erection of an attractive group of dormitories in which all freshmen roomed and had their meals together (see also Harvard University). President Lowell was a strong supporter of free speech among the members of the faculty. After the outbreak of the World War in 1914 he refused to accept, in spite of considerable pressure, the resignation of Prof. Hugo Munsterberg, who had defended the German cause. In 1915 Prof. Kuno Meyer, of the university of Berlin, a prospective exchange professor to Harvard, sent a letter of protest because of the publication in one of the college magazines of a satirical poem, Gott mit Uns, by an undergraduate. In his reply President Lowell pointed out that freedom of speech was an important characteristic of American universities as distinguished from those in Germany. He was chairman of the executive committee of the League to Enforce Peace, and later was a strong supporter of the League of Nations.

He was the author of Public Opinion and Popular Government (1913, based on lectures at Johns Hopkins University); The Governments of France, Italy, and Germany (1914, abridged from his earlier Government and Parties in Continental Europe) and Greater European Governments (1918, abridged from earlier works).

His brother Percival Lowell (1855-1916), American astronomer (see 17.73), died at Flagstaff, Ariz., Nov. 12 1916. In 1910 he lectured in London before the Royal Institute and in Paris before the Association Astronomique.

His sister Amy Lowell (1874-       ), American poet, was born in Brookline, Mass., Feb. 9 1874. She was an accomplished writer of vers libre and well known as a critic.

Her works include A Dome of Many-Colored Glass (1912 ; Sword Blades and Poppy Seed (1914); Six French Poets (1915); Men, Women, and Ghosts (1916); Tendencies in Modern American Poetry (1917); Can Grande's Castle (1918); Pictures of the Floating World (1919); Legends (1921); Fir-Flower Tablets (1921), translations from the Chinese, with the collaboration of Florence Ayscough.