1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Twining, Louisa
TWINING, LOUISA (1820-1912), English philanthropic worker, was born in London Nov. 16 1820. In early life she was an artist, and published Symbols and Emblems of Mediaeval Christian Art (1852) and Types and Figures of the Bible (1854). In 1853, however, she became interested in movements for social reform, and began the work in connexion with the Poor Law to which she devoted the rest of her life. In March 1861 she helped to establish a home for workhouse girls sent out to service, and in 1864 a Workhouse Visiting Society. In 1867 an act was passed separating infirmaries from workhouses, and after 12 more years of work Miss Twining in 1879 established the Workhouse Infirmary Nursing Association. She was a Poor Law guardian for Kensington during 1884-90, and for Tonbridge Union during 1893-6. She promoted the opening of Lincoln's Inn Fields to the public, helped to start the Metropolitan and National Association for nursing the poor in their homes, did much to secure the appointment of police matrons, and was president of the Women's Local Government Society. She published Recollections of Life and Work (1893), Workhouse and Pauperism (1898), and many papers on Poor Law subjects. She died in London Sept. 25 1912.