American Diplomacy in the Orient/Appendix
|←Chapter XIII||American Diplomacy in the Orient by
A PROTOCOL BETWEEN CHINA AND THE TREATY POWERS, SEPTEMBER 7, 1901.
THE plenipotentiaries of Germany, His Excellency M. A. Mumm von Schwarzenstein ; of Austria-Hungary, His Excellency M. M. Czikann von Wahlborn ; of Belgium, His Excellency M. Joostens ; of Spain, M. B. J. de Cologan ; of the United States, His Excellency M. W. W. Rockhill ; of France, His Excellency M. Paul Beau ; of Great Britain, His Excellency Sir Ernest Satow ; of Italy, Marquis Salvago Raggi ; of Japan, His Excellency M. Jutaro Komura ; of the Netherlands, His Excellency M. F. M. Knobel ; of Russia, His Excellency M. M. de Giers ; and of China, His Highness Yi-K'uang Prince Ching of the first rank, President of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and His Excellency Li Hung-chang, Earl of Su-i of the first rank, Tutor of the Heir Apparent, Grand Secretary of the Wen-hua Throne Hall, Minister of commerce, Superintendent of the northern trade, Governor-General of Chihli, have met for the purpose of declaring that China has complied to the satisfaction of the Powers with the conditions laid down in the note of the 22d of December, 1900, and which were accepted in their entirety by His Majesty the Emperor of China in a decree dated the 27th of December.
ARTICLE I a .
By an Imperial Edict of the 9th of June last, Tsai Feng, Prince of Ch'iin, was appointed Ambassador of His Majesty the Emperor of China, and directed in that capacity to convey to His Majesty the German Emperor the expression of the regrets of His Majesty the Emperor of China and of the Chinese Government for the assassina-
tion of His Excellency the late Baron von Ketteler, German min- ister.
Prince Ch'iin left Peking the 12th of July last to carry out the orders which had been given him.
ARTICLE I b .
The Chinese Government has stated that it will erect on the spot of the assassination of His Excellency the late Baron von Ketteler a commemorative monument, worthy of the rank of the deceased, and bearing an inscription in the Latin, German, and Chinese languages, which shall express the regrets of His Majesty the Emperor of China for the murder committed.
Their Excellencies the Chinese Plenipotentiaries have informed His Excellency the German Plenipotentiary, in a letter dated the 22d of July last, that an arch of the whole width of the street would be erected on the said spot, and that work on it was begun the 25th of June last.
Imperial Edicts of the 13th and 21st of February, 1901, inflicted the following punishments on the principal authors of the outrages and crimes committed against the foreign Governments and their nationals :
Tsai-I Prince Tuan and Tsai Lan Duke Fu-kuo were sentenced to be brought before the autumnal court of assize for execution, and it was agreed that if the Emperor saw fit to grant them their lives, they should be exiled to Turkestan and there imprisoned for life, without the possibility of commutation of these punishments.
Tsai Hstin Prince Chuang, Ying Nien, President of the Court of censors, and Chao Shu-Chiao, President of the Board of punish- ments, were condemned to commit suicide.
Yil Hsien, Governor of Shanhsi, Chi Hsiu, President of the Board of rites, and Hsu Cheng-yu, formerly senior vice-President of the Board of punishments, were condemned to death.
Posthumous degradation was inflicted on Kang Yi, assistant Grand Secretary, President of the Board of works, Hsu Tung, Grand Secre- tary, and Li Ping-heng, formerly Governor-General of Szu-ch'uan.
An Imperial Edict of February 13th, 1901, rehabilitated the memories of Hsu Yung-yi, President of the Board of war, Li Shan, President of the Board of works, Hsu Ching-cheng, senior vice- President of the Board of works, Lien Yuan, vice-Chancellor of the Grand Council, and Yuan Chang, vice-President of the Court of sacrifices, who had been put to death for having protested against the outrageous breaches of international law of last year.
Prince Chuang committed suicide the 21st of February, 1901, Ying Nien and Chao Shu-chiao the 24th, Yii Hsien was executed the 22d, Chi Hsiu and Hstt Cheng-yu on the 26th. Tung Fu-hsiang, General in Kan-su, has been deprived of his office by Imperial Edict of the 13th of February, 1901, pending the determination of the final punishment to be inflicted on him.
Imperial Edicts dated the 29th of April and 19th of August, 1901, have inflicted various punishments on the provincial officials convicted of the crimes and outrages of last summer.
An Imperial Edict promulgated the 19th of August, 1901, ordered the suspension of official examinations for five years in all cities where foreigners were massacred or submitted to cruel treatment.
So as to make honorable reparation for the assassination of Mr. Sugiyama, chancellor of the Japanese legation, His Majesty the Emperor of China by an Imperial Edict of the 18th of June, 1901, appointed Na Tung, vice-President of the Board of revenue, to be his Envoy Extraordinary, and specially directed him to convey to His Majesty the Emperor of Japan the expression of the regrets of His Majesty the Emperor of China and of his Government at the assassination of the late Mr. Sugiyama.
The Chinese Government has agreed to erect an expiatory monu- ment in each of the foreign or international cemeteries which were desecrated and in which the tombs were destroyed.
It has been agreed with the Representatives of the Powers that
the legations interested shall settle the details for the erection of these monuments, China bearing all the expenses thereof, estimated at ten thousand taels for the cemeteries at Peking and within its neighborhood, and at five thousand taels for the cemeteries in the provinces. The amounts have been paid and the list of these cemeteries is enclosed herewith.
China has agreed to prohibit the importation into its territory of arms and ammunition, as well as of materials exclusively used for the manufacture of arms and ammunition.
An Imperial Edict has been issued on the 25th of August, 1901, forbidding said importation for a term of two years. New Edicts may be issued subsequently extending this by other successive terms of two years in case of necessity recognized by the Powers.
By an Imperial Edict dated the 29th of May, 1901, His Majesty the Emperor of China agreed to pay the Powers an indemnity of four hundred and fifty millions of Haikwan Taels. This sum repre- sents the total amount of the indemnities for States, companies or societies, private individuals, and Chinese referred to in Article VI of the note of December 22d, 1900.
(a) These four hundred and fifty millions constitute a gold debt calculated at the rate of the Haikwan tael to the gold currency of each country, as indicated below.
Haikwan tael = marks 3.055
= Austro-Hungary crown 3.595
= gold dollar 0.742
= francs 3.750
= pound sterling 3s. Od.
= yen 1.407
= Netherlands florin . . . . . . . 1.796
= gold rouble (17.424 dolias fine) .... 1.412
This sum in gold shall bear interest at 4 per cent, per annum, and the capital shall be reimbursed by China in thirty-nine years in the manner indicated in the annexed plan of amortization.
Capital and interest shall be payable in gold or at the rates of exchange corresponding to the dates at which the different payments fall due.
The amortization shall commence the 1st of January, 1902, and shall finish at the end of the year 1940. The amortizations are payable annually, the first payment being fixed on the 1st of Janu- ary, 1903.
Interest shall run from the 1st of July, 1901, but the Chinese Government shall have the right to pay off within a term of three years, beginning January, 1902, the arrears of the first six months, ending the 31st of December, 1901, on condition, however, that it pays compound interest at the rate of 4 per cent, per annum on the sums the payments of which shall have thus been deferred. In- terest shall be payable semiannually, the first payment being fixed on the 1st of July, 1902.
(b) The service of the debt shall take place in Shanghai, in the following manner :
Each Power shall be represented by a delegate on a commission of bankers authorized to receive the amount of interest and amorti- zation which shall be paid to it by the Chinese authorities desig- nated for that purpose, to divide it among the interested parties, and to give a receipt for the same.
(c) The Chinese Government shall deliver to the Doyen of the Diplomatic Corps at Peking a bond for the lump sum, which shall subsequently be converted into fractional bonds bearing the signa- tures of the delegates of the Chinese Government designated for that purpose. This operation and all those relating to issuing of the bonds shall be performed by the above-mentioned Commission, in accordance with the instructions which the Powers shall send their delegates.
(d) The proceeds of the revenues assigned to the payment of the bonds shall be paid monthly to the Commission.
(e) The revenues assigned as security for the bonds are the fol- lowing :
1. The balance of the revenues of the Imperial maritime Customs after payment of the interest and amortization of preceding loans secured on these revenues, plus the proceeds of the raising to five
per cent, effective of the present tariff on maritime imports, includ- ing articles until now on the free list, but exempting foreign rice, cereals, and flour, gold and silver bullion and coin.
2. The revenues of the native customs, administered in the open ports by the Imperial maritime Customs.
3. The total revenues of the salt gabelle, exclusive of the fraction previously set aside for other foreign loans.
The raising of the present tariff on imports to five per cent, effec- tive is agreed to on the conditions mentioned below.
It shall be put in force two months after the signing of the present protocol, and no exceptions shall be made except for mer- chandise shipped not more than ten days after the said signing.
1. All duties levied on imports " ad valorem " shall be converted as far as possible and as soon as may be into specific duties. This conversion shall be made in the following manner : The average value of merchandise at the time of their landing during the three years 1897, 1898, and 1899, that is to say, the market price less the amount of import duties and incidental expenses, shall be taken as the basis for the valuation of merchandise. Pending the result of the work of conversion, duties shall be levied " ad valorem."
2. The beds of the rivers Peiho and Whangpu shall be improved with the financial participation of China.
The Chinese Government has agreed that the quarter occupied by the legations shall be considered as one specially reserved for their use and placed under their exclusive control, in which Chinese shall not have the right to reside, and which may be made defensible.
The limits of this quarter have been fixed as follows on the an- nexed plan :
On the west, the line 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
On the north, the line 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
On the east, Ketteler street (10, 11, 12).
Drawn along the exterior base of the Tartar wall and following the line of the bastions, on the south the line 12.1.
In the protocol annexed to the letter of the 16th of January, 1901, China recognized the right of each Power to maintain a per- manent guard in the said quarter for the defense of its legation.
The Chinese Government has consented to raze the forts of Taku and those which might impede free communication between Peking and the sea ; steps have been taken for carrying this out.
The Chinese Government has conceded the right to the Powers in the protocol annexed to the letter of the 16th of January, 1901, to occupy certain points, to be determined by an agreement between them, for the maintenance of open communication between the cap- ital and the sea. The points occupied by the Powers are :
Huang-tsun, Lang-fang, Yang-tsun, Tientsin, Chun-liang Ch'eng, Tang-ku, Lu-tai, Tang-shan, Lan-chou, Chang-li, Ch'in-wang tao,
The Chinese Government has agreed to post and to have pub- lished during two years in all district cities the following Imperial edicts :
(a) Edict of the 1st of February, prohibiting forever, under pain of death, membership in any antiforeign society.
(b) Edicts of the 13th and 21st February, 29th April, and 19th August, enumerating the punishments inflicted on the guilty.
(c) Edict of the 19th August, 1901, prohibiting examinations in all cities where foreigners were massacred or subjected to cruel treatment.
(d) Edict of the 1st of February, 1901, declaring all governors- general, governors, and provincial or local officials responsible for order in their respective districts, and that in case of new anti- foreign troubles or other infractions of the treaties which shall not be immediately repressed, and the authors of which shall not have been punished, these officials shall be immediately dismissed, with- out possibility of being given new functions or new honors.
The posting of these edicts is being carried on throughout the
The Chinese Government has agreed to negotiate the amend- ments deemed necessary by the foreign Governments to the treaties
of commerce and navigation and the other subjects concerning com- mercial relations, with the object of facilitating them.
At present, and as a result of the stipulation contained in Article VI concerning the indemnity, the Chinese Government agrees to assist in the improvement of the courses of the rivers Peiho and Whangpu, as stated below.
(a) The works for the improvement of the navigability of the Peiho, begun in 1898, with the cooperation of the Chinese Govern- ment, have been resumed under the direction of an international Commission. As soon as the administration of Tientsin shall have been handed back to the Chinese Government, it will be in a posi- tion to be represented on this Commission, and will pay each year a sum of sixty thousand Haikwan taels for maintaining the works.
(b) A conservancy Board, charged with the management and control of the works for straightening the Whangpu and the im- provement of the course of that river, is hereby created.
This Board shall consist of members representing the interests of the Chinese Government and those of foreigners in the shipping trade of Shanghai. The expenses incurred for the works and the general management of the undertaking are estimated at the annual sum of four hundred and sixty thousand Haikwan taels for the first twenty years. This sum shall be supplied in equal portions by the Chinese Government and the foreign interests concerned. Detailed stipulations concerning the composition, duties, and revenues of the conservancy Board are embodied in annex hereto.
An Imperial Edict of the 24th of July, 1901, reformed the Office of foreign affairs (Tsungli Yamen), on the lines indicated by the Powers, that is to say, transformed it into a Ministry of foreign affairs (Wai-wu Pu), which takes precedence over the six other Ministries of the State. The same edict appointed the principal members of this Ministry.
An agreement has also been reached concerning the modification of Court ceremonial as regards the reception of foreign Representa- tives and has been the subject of several notes from the Chinese Plenipotentiaries, the substance of which is embodied in a memo- randum herewith annexed.
Finally, it is expressly understood that as regards the declara- tions specified above and the annexed documents originating with the foreign Plenipotentiaries, the French text only is authoritative.
The Chinese Government having thus complied to the satisfaction of the Powers with the conditions laid down in the above-mentioned note of December 22d, 1900, the Powers have agreed to accede to the wish of China to terminate the situation created by the disorders of the summer of 1900. In consequence thereof the foreign Pleni- potentiaries are authorized to declare in the names of their Govern- ments that, with the exception of the legation guards mentioned in Article VII, the international troops will completely evacuate the city of Peking on the 17th September, 1901, and, with the excep- tion of the localities mentioned in Article IX, will withdraw from the province of Chihli on the 22d of September.
The present final Protocol has been drawn up in twelve identic copies and signed by all the Plenipotentiaries of the Contracting Countries. One copy shall be given to each of the foreign Plenipo- tentiaries, and one copy shall be given to the Chinese Plenipoten- tiaries.
Peking, 7th September, 1901.
A. V. MUMM. M. CZIKANN. JOOSTENS. f
B. J. DE COLOGAN. Signatures
W. W. ROCKHILL.
BEAU. J seak
SALVAGO RAGGI. Chmese
JUTAEO KOMUKA. Plenipotentiaries.
F. M. KNOBEL. M. DE GIERS.
B. THE EMIGRATION TREATY BETWEEN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES, 1894.
Signed March 17, 1894 ', Proclaimed December , 1894.
Whereas, on the 17th day of November, A. D. 1880, and of Kwanghsii, the sixth year, tenth moon, fifteenth day, a Treaty was concluded between the United States and China for the purpose of regulating, limiting, or suspending the coming of Chinese laborers to, and their residence in, the United States ;
And whereas the Government of China, in view of the antagonism and much deprecated and serious disorders to which the presence of Chinese laborers has given rise in certain parts of the United States, desires to prohibit the emigration of such laborers from China to the United States ;
And whereas the two Governments desire to cooperate in pro- hibiting such emigration, and to strengthen in other ways the bonds of friendship between the two countries ;
And whereas the two Governments are desirous of adopting recip- rocal measures for the better protection of the citizens or subjects of each within the jurisdiction of the other ;
Now, therefore, the President of the United States has appointed Walter Q. Gresham, Secretary of State of the United States, as his Plenipotentiary, and His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of China has appointed Yang Yii, Officer of the second rank, Sub-Director of the Court of Sacrificial Worship, and Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States of America, as his Plenipotentiary ; and the said Plenipotentiaries having exhibited their respective Full Powers found to be in due and good form, have agreed upon the following articles :
The High Contracting Parties agree that for a period of ten years, beginning with the date of the exchange of the ratifications of this Convention, the coming, except under the conditions hereinafter specified, of Chinese laborers to the United States shall be absolutely prohibited.
The preceding Article shall not apply to the return to the United States of any registered Chinese laborer who has a lawful wife, child, or parent in the United States, or property therein of the value of one thousand dollars, or debts of like amount due him and pending settlement. Nevertheless every such Chinese laborer shall, before leaving the United States, deposit, as a condition of his return, with the collector of customs of the district from which he departs, a full description in writing of his family, or property, or debts, as aforesaid, and shall be furnished by said collector with such certificate of his right to return under this Treaty as the laws of the United States may now or hereafter prescribe and not incon- sistent with the provisions of this Treaty ; and should the written description aforesaid be proved to be false, the right of return there- under, or of continued residence after return, shall in each case be forfeited. And such right of return to the United States shall be exercised within one year from the date of leaving the United States ; but such right of return to the United States may be ex- tended for an additional period, not to exceed one year, in cases where by reason of sickness or other cause of disability beyond his control, such Chinese laborer shall be rendered unable sooner to return which facts shall be fully reported to the Chinese consul at the port of departure, and by him certified, to the satisfaction of the collector of the port at which such Chinese subject shall land in the United States. And no such Chinese laborer shall be permitted to enter the United States by land or sea without producing to the proper officer of the customs the return certificate herein required.
The provisions of this Convention shall not affect the right at present enjoyed of Chinese subjects, being officials, teachers, stu- dents, merchants or travelers, for curiosity or pleasure, but not laborers, of coming to the United States and residing therein. To entitle such Chinese subjects as are above described to admission into the United States, they may produce a certificate from their Government or the Government where they last resided viseM by
the diplomatic or consular representative of the United States in the country or port whence they depart.
It is also agreed that Chinese laborers shall continue to enjoy the privilege of transit across the territory of the United States in the course of their journey to or from other countries, subject to such regulations by the Government of the United States as may be necessary to prevent said privilege of transit from being abused.
In pursuance of Article III of the Immigration Treaty between the United States and China, signed at Peking on the 17th day of November, 1880 (the 15th day of the tenth month of Kwanghsti, sixth year), it is hereby understood and agreed that Chinese laborers or Chinese of any other class, either permanently or temporarily residing in the United States, shall have for the protection of their persons and property all rights that are given by the laws of the United States to citizens of the most favored nation, excepting the right to become naturalized citizens. And the Government of the United States reaffirms its obligation, as stated in said Article III, to exert all its power to secure protection to the persons and pro- perty of all Chinese subjects in the United States.
The Government of the United States, having by an Act of the Congress, approved May 5, 1892, as amended by an Act approved November 3, 1893, required all Chinese laborers lawfully within the limits of the United States before the passage of the first named Act to be registered as in said Acts provided, with a view of afford- ing them better protection, the Chinese Government will not object to the enforcement of such acts, and reciprocally the Government of the United States recognizes the right of the Government of China to enact and enforce similar laws or regulations for the regis- tration, free of charge, of all laborers, skilled or unskilled (not mer- chants as defined by said Acts of Congress), citizens of the United States in China, whether residing within or without the treaty ports.
And the Government of the United States agrees that within twelve months from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of
this Convention, and annually, thereafter, it will furnish to the Gov- ernment of China registers or reports showing the full name, age, occupation and number or place of residence of all other citizens of the United States, including missionaries, residing both within and without the treaty ports of China, not including, however, diplomatic and other officers of the United States residing or travel- ing in China upon official business, together with their body and
This Convention shall remain in force for a period of ten years beginning with the date of the exchange of ratifications, and, if six months before the expiration of the said period of ten years, neither Government shall have formally given notice of its final termination to the other, it shall remain in full force for another like period of ten years.
In faith whereof, we, the respective plenipotentiaries, have signed this Convention and have hereunto affixed our seals.
Done, in duplicate, at Washington, the 17th day of March, A. D.
WALTER Q. GRESHAM [SEAL.]
(Chinese Signature) [SEAL.]
C. TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND JAPAN.
Signed November 22, 1894 ; Proclaimed March 21, 1895.
The President of the United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, being equally desirous of maintaining the relations of good understanding which happily exist between them, by extending and increasing the intercourse between their respective States, and being convinced that this object cannot better be accom- plished than by revising the Treaties hitherto existing between the two countries, have resolved to complete such a revision, based upon principles of equity and mutual benefit, and, for that purpose, have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say : The President of the United States of America, Walter Q. Gresham, Secretary of State of the United States, and His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, Jushii Shinichiro Kurino, of the Order of the Sacred Treasure, and
of the Fourth Class ; who, after having communicated to each other their full powers, found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles :
The citizens or subjects of each of the two High Contracting Par- ties shall have full liberty to enter, travel, or reside in any part of the territories of the other Contracting Party, and shall enjoy full and perfect protection for their persons and property.
They shall have free access to the Courts of Justice in pursuit and defense of their rights ; they shall be at liberty equally with native citizens or subjects to choose and employ lawyers, advocates and representatives to pursue and defend their rights before such Courts, and in all other matters connected with the administration of justice they shall enjoy all the rights and privileges enjoyed by native citi- zens or subjects.
In whatever relates to rights of residence and travel ; to the pos- session of goods and effects of any kind ; to the succession to per- sonal estate, by will or otherwise, and the disposal of property of any sort and in any manner whatsoever which they may lawfully acquire, the citizens or subjects of each Contracting Party shall enjoy in the territories of the other the same privileges, liberties, and rights, and shall be subject to no higher imposts or charges in these respects than native citizens or subjects, or citizens or subjects of the most favored nation. The citizens or subjects of each of the Contracting Parties shall enjoy in the territories of the other entire liberty of conscience, and, subject to the laws, ordinances, and regulations, shall enjoy the right of private or public exercise of their worship, and also the right of burying their respective countrymen, according to their religious customs, in such suitable and convenient places as may be established and maintained for that purpose.
They shall not be compelled, under any pretext whatsoever, to pay any charges or taxes other or higher than those that are, or may be paid by native citizens or subjects, or citizens or subjects of the most favored nation.
The citizens or subjects of either of the Contracting Parties residing in the territories of the other shall be exempted from all
compulsory military service whatsoever, whether in the army, navy, national guard, or militia ; from all contributions imposed in lieu of personal service ; and from all forced loans or military exactions or
There shall be reciprocal freedom of commerce and navigation between the territories of the two High Contracting Parties.
The citizens or subjects of each of the High Contracting Parties may trade in any part of the territories of the other by wholesale or retail in all kinds of produce, manufactures, and merchandise of lawful commerce, either in person or by agents, singly or in partner- ship with foreigners or native citizens or subjects ; and they may there own or hire and occupy houses, manufactories, warehouses, shops and premises which may be necessary for them, and lease land for residential and commercial purposes, conforming themselves to the laws, police and customs regulations of the country like native citizens or subjects.
They shall have liberty freely to come with their ships and car- goes to all places, ports, and rivers in the territories of the other, which are or may be opened to foreign commerce, and shall enjoy, respectively, the same treatment in matters of commerce and navi- gation as native citizens or subjects, or citizens or subjects of the most favored nation, without having to pay taxes, imposts or duties, of whatever nature or under whatever denomination levied in the name or for the profit of the Government, public functionaries, pri- vate individuals, corporations, or establishments of any kind, other or greater than those paid by native citizens or subjects, or citizens or subjects of the most favored nation.
It is, however, understood that the stipulations contained in this and the preceding Article do not in any way affect the laws, ordi- nances and regulations with regard to trade, the immigration of laborers, police and public security which are in force or which may hereafter be enacted in either of the two countries.
The dwellings, manufactories, warehouses, and shops of the citi- zens or subjects of each of the High Contracting Parties in the
territories of the other, and all premises appertaining thereto des- tined for purposes of residence or commerce, shall be respected.
It shall not be allowable to proceed to make a search of, or a domiciliary visit to, such dwellings and premises, or to examine or inspect books, papers, or accounts, except under the conditions and with the forms prescribed by the laws, ordinances and regulations for citizens or subjects of the country.
No other or higher duties shall be imposed on the importation into the territories of the United States of any article, the produce or manufacture of the territories of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, from whatever place arriving; and no other or higher duties shall be imposed on the importation into the territories of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan of any article, the produce or manu- facture of the territories of the United States, from whatever place arriving, than on the like article produced or manufactured in any other foreign country ; nor shall any prohibition be maintained or imposed on the importation of any article, the produce or manufac- ture of the territories of either of the High Contracting Parties, into the territories of the other, from whatever place arriving, which shall not equally extend to the importation of the like article, being the produce or manufacture of any other country. This last pro- vision is not applicable to the sanitary and other prohibitions occa- sioned by the necessity of protecting the safety of persons, or of cattle, or of plants useful to agriculture.
No other or higher duties or charges shall be imposed in the ter- ritories of either of the High Contracting Parties on the exportation of any article to the territories of the other than such as are, or may be, payable on the exportation of the like article to any other for- eign country ; nor shall any prohibition be imposed on the exporta- tion of any article from the territories of either of the two High Contracting Parties to the territories of the other which shall not equally extend to the exportation of the like article to any other country.
The citizens or subjects of each of the High Contracting Parties shall enjoy in the territories of the other exemption from all transit duties, and a perfect equality of treatment with native citizens or subjects in all that relates to warehousing, bounties, facilities, and
All articles which are or may be legally imported into the ports of the territories of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan in Japanese vessels may likewise be imported into those ports in vessels of the United States, without being liable to any other or higher duties or charges of whatever denomination than if such articles were im- ported in Japanese vessels ; and, reciprocally, all articles which are or may be legally imported into the ports of the territories of the United States in vessels of the United States may likewise be im- ported into those ports in Japanese vessels, without being liable to any other or higher duties or charges of whatever denomination than if such articles were imported in vessels of the United States. Such reciprocal equality of treatment shall take effect without distinction, whether such articles come directly from the place of origin or from any other place.
In the same manner, there shall be perfect equality of treatment in regard to exportation, so that the same export duties shall be paid, and the same bounties and drawbacks allowed, in the territo- ries of either of the High Contracting Parties on the exportation of any article which is or may be legally exported therefrom, whether such exportation shall take place in Japanese vessels or in vessels of the United States, and whatever may be the place of destination, whether a port of either of the High Contracting Parties or of any
No duties of tonnage, harbor, pilotage, lighthouse, quarantine, or other similar or corresponding duties of whatever nature, or under whatever denomination levied in the name or for the profit of Gov- ernment, public functionaries, private individuals, corporations, or establishments of any kind, shall be imposed in the ports of the
territories of either country upon the vessels of the other country which shall not equally and under the same conditions be imposed in the like cases on national vessels in general or vessels of the most favored nation. Such equality of treatment shall apply reci- procally to the respective vessels, from whatever port or place they may arrive, and whatever may be their place of destination.
In all that regards the stationing, loading, and unloading of vessels in the ports, basins, docks, roadsteads, harbors or rivers of the terri- tories of the two countries, no privilege shall be granted to national vessels which shall not be equally granted to vessels of the other country ; the intention of the High Contracting Parties being that in this respect also the respective vessels shall be treated on the footing of perfect equality.
The coasting trade of both the High Contracting Parties is ex- cepted from the provisions of the present Treaty, and shall be regu- lated according to the laws, ordinances and regulations of the United States and Japan, respectively. It is, however, understood that citizens of the United States in the territories of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan and Japanese subjects in the territories of the United States, shall enjoy in this respect the rights which are, or may be, granted under such laws, ordinances and regulations to the citizens or subjects of any other country.
A vessel of the United States laden in a foreign country with cargo destined for two or more ports in the territories of His Ma- jesty the Emperor of Japan, and a Japanese vessel laden in a foreign country with cargo destined for two or more ports in the territories of the United States, may discharge a portion of her cargo at one port, and continue her voyage to the other port or ports of destina- tion where foreign trade is permitted, for the purpose of landing the remainder of her original cargo there, subject always to the laws and customs regulations of the two countries.
The Japanese Government, however, agrees to allow vessels of the United States to continue, as heretofore, for the period of the
duration of the present Treaty, to carry cargo between the existing open ports of the Empire, excepting to or from the ports of Osaka, Niigata, and Ebisuminato.
Any ship-of-war or merchant vessel of either of the High Con- tracting Parties which may be compelled by stress of weather, or by reason of any other distress, to take shelter in a port of the other, shall be at liberty to refit therein, to procure all necessary supplies, and to put to sea again, without paying any dues other than such as would be payable by national vessels. In case, however, the master of a merchant vessel should be under the necessity of disposing of a part of his cargo in order to defray the expenses, he shall be bound to conform to the regulations and tariffs of the place to which he may have come.
If any ship-of-war or merchant vessel of one of the High Con- tracting Parties should run aground or be wrecked upon the coasts of the other, the local authorities shall inform the Consul General, Consul, Vice-Consul, or Consular Agent of the district, of the occur- rence, or if there be no such consular officers, they shall inform the Consul General, Consul, Vice-Consul, or Consular Agent of the nearest district.
All proceedings relative to the salvage of Japanese vessels, wrecked or cast on shore in the territorial waters of the United States, shall take place in accordance with the laws of the United States, and, reciprocally, all measures of salvage relative to vessels of the United States, wrecked or cast on shore in the territorial waters of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, shall take place in accordance with the laws, ordinances, and regulations of Japan.
Such stranded or wrecked ship or vessel, and all parts thereof, and all furniture and appurtenances belonging thereunto, and all goods and merchandise saved therefrom, including those which may have been cast into the sea, or the proceeds thereof, if sold, as well as all papers found on board such stranded or wrecked ship or vessel, shall be given up to the owners or their agents, when claimed by them. If such owners or agents are not on the spot, the same shall be delivered to the respective Consuls General, Consuls, Vice-
Consuls, or Consular Agents upon being claimed by them within the period fixed by the laws, ordinances and regulations of the country, and such Consular officers, owners, or agents shall pay only the expenses incurred in the preservation of the property, together with the salvage or other expenses which would have been payable in the case of the wreck of a national vessel.
The goods and merchandise saved from the wreck shall be exempt from all the duties of the Customs unless cleared for consumption, in which case they shall pay the ordinary duties.
When a vessel belonging to the citizens or subjects of one of the High Contracting Parties is stranded or wrecked in the territories of the other, the respective Consuls General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, and Consular Agents shall be authorized, in case the owner or master, or other agent of the owner, is not present, to lend their official assistance in order to afford the necessary assistance to the citizens or subjects of the respective States. The same rule shall apply in case the owner, master, or other agent is present, but re- quires such assistance to be given.
All vessels which, according to United States law, are to be deemed vessels of the United States, and all vessels which, accord- ing to Japanese law, are to be deemed Japanese vessels, shall, for the purposes of this Treaty, be deemed vessels of the United States and Japanese vessels, respectively.
The Consuls General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, and Consular Agents of each of the High Contracting Parties, residing in the territories of the other, shall receive from the local authorities such assistance as can by law be given to them for the recovery of deserters from the vessels of their respective countries.
It is understood that this stipulation shall not apply to the citizens or subjects of the country where the desertion takes place.
AJITICLE XIV. The High Contracting Parties agree that, in all that concerns
commerce and navigation, any privilege, favor or immunity which either High Contracting Party has actually granted, or may here- after grant, to the Government, ships, citizens, or subjects of any other State, shall be extended to the Government, ships, citizens, or subjects of the other High Contracting Party, gratuitously, if the concession in favor of that other State shall have been gratuitous, and on the same or equivalent conditions if the concession shall have been conditional : it being their intention that the trade and navigation of each country shall be placed, in all respects, by the other, upon the footing of the most favored nation.
Each of the High Contracting Parties may appoint Consuls Gen- eral, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, Pro-Consuls, and Consular Agents, in all the ports, cities, and places of the other, except in those where it may not be convenient to recognize such officers.
This exception, however, shall not be made in regard to one of the High Contracting Parties without being made likewise in regard to every other Power.
The Consuls General, Consuls, Vice-Consuls, Pro-Consuls, and Consular Agents, may exercise all functions, and shall enjoy all privileges, exemptions, and immunities which are, or may hereafter be, granted to Consular officers of the most favored nation.
The citizens or subjects of each of the High Contracting Parties shall enjoy in the territories of the other the same protection as native citizens or subjects in regard to patents, trade-marks and designs, upon fulfillment of the formalities prescribed by law.
The High Contracting Parties agree to the following arrange- ment :
The several Foreign Settlements in Japan shall, from the date this Treaty comes into force, be incorporated with the&respective Japanese Communes, and shall thenceforth form part of the general municipal system of Japan. The competent Japanese Authorities
shall thereupon assume all municipal obligations and duties in re- spect thereof, and the common funds and property, if any, belong- ing to such Settlements shall at the same time be transferred to the said Japanese Authorities.
When such incorporation takes place existing leases in perpetuity upon which property is now held in the said Settlements shall be confirmed, and no conditions whatsoever other than those contained in such existing leases shall be imposed in respect of such property. It is, however, understood that the Consular Authorities mentioned in the same are in all cases to be replaced by the Japanese Author- ities. All lands which may previously have been granted by the Japanese Government free of rent for the public purposes of the said Settlements shall, subject to the right of eminent domain, be per- manently reserved free of all taxes and charges for the public pur- poses for which they were originally set apart.
This Treaty shall, from the date it comes into force, be substi- tuted in place of the Treaty of Peace and Amity concluded on the 3d day of the 3d month of the 7th year of Kayei, corresponding to the 31st day of March, 1854 ; the Treaty of Amity and Commerce concluded on the 19th day of the 6th month of the 5th year of Ansei, corresponding to the 29th day of July, 1858 ; the Tariff Convention concluded on the 13th day of the 5th month of the 2d year of Keio, corresponding to the 25th day of June, 1866 ; the Convention concluded on the 25th day of the 7th month of the llth year of Meiji, corresponding to the 25th day of July, 1878, and all Arrangements and Agreements subsidiary thereto concluded or existing between the High Contracting Parties ; and from the same date such Treaties, Conventions, Arrangements and Agreements shall cease to be binding, and, in consequence, the jurisdiction then exercised by Courts of the United States in Japan and all the ex- ceptional privileges, exemptions and immunities then enjoyed by citizens of the United States as a part of, or appurtenant to such jurisdiction, shall absolutely and without notice cease and deter- mine, and thereafter all such jurisdiction shall be assumed and exer- cised by Japanese Courts.
This Treaty shall go into operation on the 17th day of July, 1899, and shall remain in force for the period of twelve years from that date.
Either High Contracting Party shall have the right, at any time thereafter, to give notice to the other of its intention to terminate the same, and at the expiration of twelve months after such notice is given this Treaty shall wholly cease and determine.
This Treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications thereof shall be exchanged, either at Washington or Tokio, as soon as possible and not later than six months after its signature.
In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty in duplicate and have thereunto affixed their seals.
Done at the City of Washington the 22d day of November, in the eighteen hundred and ninety-fourth year of the Christian era, cor- responding to the 22d day of the llth month of the 27th year of Meiji.
WALTER Q. GRESHAM [SEAL.] SHIKICHIRO KURINO [SEAL.]
D. JOINT RESOLUTION FOR ANNEXING THE HAWAHAN ISLANDS TO THE UNITED STATES, 1898.
Whereas the Government of the Republic of Hawaii having, in due form, signified its consent, in the manner provided by its con- stitution, to cede absolutely and without reserve to the United States of America all rights of sovereignty of whatsoever kind in and over the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies, and also to cede and transfer to the United States the absolute fee and ownership of all public, Government, or Crown lands, public buildings or edifices, ports, harbors, military equipment, and all other public property of every kind and description belonging to the Government of the
Hawaiian Islands, together with every right and appurtenance thereunto appertaining : Therefore,
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That said cession is accepted, ratified, and confirmed, and that the said Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies be, and they are hereby, annexed as a part of the territory of the United States and are subject to the sovereign dominion thereof, and that all and singular the property and rights hereinbefore mentioned are vested in the United States of America.
The existing laws of the United States relative to public lands shall not apply to such lands in the Hawaiian Islands ; but the Con- gress of the United States shall enact special laws for their manage- ment and disposition: Provided, That all revenue from or pro- ceeds of the same, except as regards such part thereof as may be used or occupied for the civil, military, or naval purposes of the United States, or may be assigned for the use of the local govern- ment, shall be used solely for the benefit of the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands for educational and other public purposes.
Until Congress shall provide for the government of such islands all the civil, judicial, and military powers exercised by the officers of the existing government in said islands shall be vested in such person or persons and shall be exercised in such manner as the President of the United States shall direct; and the President shall have power to remove said officers and fill the vacancies so occa- sioned.
The existing treaties of the Hawaiian Islands with foreign na- tions shall forthwith cease and determine, being replaced by such treaties as may exist, or as may be hereafter concluded, between the United States and such foreign nations. The municipal legislation of the Hawaiian Islands, not enacted for the fulfillment of the trea- ties so extinguished, and not inconsistent with this joint resolution nor contrary to the Constitution of the United States nor to any existing treaty of the United States, shall remain in force until the Congress of the United States shall otherwise determine.
Until legislation shall be enacted extending the United States customs laws and regulations to the Hawaiian Islands the existing
customs relations of the Hawaiian Islands with the United States and other countries shall remain unchanged.
The public debt of the Republic of Hawaii, lawfully existing at the date of the passage of this joint resolution, including the amounts due to depositors in the Hawaiian Postal Savings Bank, is hereby assumed by the Government of the United States ; but the liability of the United States in this regard shall in no case exceed four mil- lion dollars. So long, however, as the existing Government and the present commercial relations of the Hawaiian Islands are continued hereinbefore as provided said Government shall continue to pay the interest on said debt.
There shall be no further immigration of Chinese into the Hawai- ian Islands, except upon such conditions as are now or may here- after be allowed by the laws of the United States ; and no Chinese, by reason of anything herein contained, shall be allowed to enter the United States from the Hawaiian Islands.
The President shall appoint five commissioners, at least two of whom shall be residents of the Hawaiian Islands, who shall, as soon as reasonably practicable, recommend to Congress such legislation concerning the Hawaiian Islands as they shall deem necessary or proper.
SEC. 2. That the commissioners hereinbefore provided for shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
SEC. 3. That the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, and to be immediately available, to be expended at the discretion of the Presi- dent of the United States of America, for the purpose of carrying this joint resolution into effect.
Approved July 7, 1898.
E. THE SAMOAN TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES, GERMANY, AND GREAT BRITAIN, 1899.
Signed December 2, 1899; Proclaimed February 16, 1900.
The President of the United States of America, His Imperial Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, and Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Em- press of India, desiring to adjust amicably the questions which have arisen between them in respect to the Samoan group of Islands, as well as to avoid all future misunderstanding in respect to their joint or several rights and claims of possession or jurisdiction therein, have agreed to establish and regulate the same by a special conven- tion ; and whereas the Governments of Germany and Great Britain have, with the concurrence of that of the United States, made an agreement regarding their respective rights and interests in the aforesaid group, the three Powers before named in furtherance of the ends above mentioned have appointed respectively their Pleni- potentiaries as follows :
The President of the United States of America, the Honorable John Hay, Secretary of State of the United States ;
His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia, His Ambas- sador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Herr von Holleben ; and
Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, the Right Honorable Lord Pauncef ote of Preston, G. C. B., G. C. M. G., Her Britannic Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary :
who, after having communicated each to the other their respec- tive full powers which were found to be in proper form, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles :
The General Act concluded and signed by the aforesaid Powers at Berlin on the 14th day of June, A. D. 1889, and all previous trea- ties, conventions and agreements relating to Samoa, are annulled.
Germany renounces in favor of the United States of America all her rights and claims over and in respect to the Island of Tutuila, and all other islands of the Samoan group east of Longitude 171 west of Greenwich.
Great Britain in like manner renounces in favor of the United States of America all her rights and claims over and in respect to the Island of Tutuila and all other islands of the Samoan group east of Longitude 171 west of Greenwich.
Reciprocally, the United States of America renounce in favor of Germany all their rights and claims over and in respect to the Islands of Upolu and Savaii and all other Islands of the Samoan group west of Longitude 171 west of Greenwich.
It is understood and agreed that each of the three signatory Pow- ers shall continue to enjoy, in respect to their commerce and com- mercial vessels, in all the islands of the Samoan group privileges and conditions equal to those enjoyed by the Sovereign Power, in all ports which may be open to the commerce of either of them.
The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible, and shall come into force immediately after the exchange of ratifica- tions.
In faith whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this Convention and have hereunto affixed our seals.
Done in triplicate, at Washington, the second day of December, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety- nine.
JOHN HAT [SEAL.] HOLLEBEX [SEAL.] PAUNCEFOTE [SEAL.]
F. PROTOCOL BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND SPAIN, AUGUST 12, 1898.
William R. Day, Secretary of State of the United States, and His Excellency Jules Cambon, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of France at Washington, respec- tively possessing for this purpose full authority from the Govern- ment of the United States and the Government of Spain, have concluded and signed the following articles, embodying the terms on which the two Governments have agreed in respect to the matters hereinafter set forth, having in view the establishment of peace between the two countries, that is to say :
ARTICLE I. Spain will relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title to
Spain will cede to the United States the island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and also an island in the Ladrones to be selected by the United
The United States will occupy and hold the city, bay and harbor of Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall determine the control, disposition and government of the Philip- pines.
Spain will immediately evacuate Cuba, Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies ; and to this end each Government will, within ten days after the signing of this protocol, appoint Commissioners, and the Commissioners so appointed shall, within thirty days after the signing of this protocol, meet at Havana for the purpose of arranging and carrying out the details of the aforesaid evacuation of Cuba and the adjacent Span- ish islands ; and each Government will, within ten days after the signing of this protocol, also appoint other Commissioners, who
shall, within thirty days after the signing of this protocol, meet at San Juan in Porto Rico, for the purpose of arranging and carrying out the details of the aforesaid evacuation of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies.
The United States and Spain will each appoint not more than five commissioners to treat of peace, and the commissioners so ap- pointed shall meet at Paris not later than October 1, 1898, and proceed to the negotiation and conclusion of a treaty of peace, which treaty shall be subject to ratification according to the respective constitutional forms of the two countries.
Upon the conclusion and signing of this protocol, hostilities be- tween the two countries shall be suspended, and notice to that effect shall be given as soon as possible by each Government to the com- manders of its military and naval forces.
Done at Washington in duplicate, in English and in French, by the Undersigned, who have hereunto set their hands and seals, the 12th day of August, 1898.
[SEAL.] WILLIAM R. DAT. [SEAL.] JULES C AMBON.
TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND SPAIN, 1898. Signed December 10, 1898 ; Proclaimed April 11, 1899.
The United States of America and Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain, in the Name of Her August Son Don Alfonso XIII, desir- ing to end the state of war now existing between the two countries, have for that purpose appointed as Plenipotentiaries :
The President of the United States,
William R. Day, Cushman K. Davis, William P. Frye, George Gray, and Whitelaw Reid, citizens of the United States ;
and Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain,
Don Eugenio Montero Rios, President of the Senate,
Don Buenaventura de Abarzuza, Senator of the Kingdom and ex-Minister of the Crown,
Don Jose' de Garnica, Deputy to the Cortes and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court ;
Don Wenceslao Ramirez de Villa-Urrutia, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at Brussels, and
Don Rafael Cerero, General of Division ;
Who, having assembled in Paris, and having exchanged their full powers, which were found to be in due and proper form, have, after discussion of the matters before them, agreed upon the following
Spain relinquishes all claim to sovereignty over and title to Cuba.
And as the island is, upon its evacuation by Spain, to be occupied by the United States, the United States will, so long as such occu- pation shall last, assume and discharge the obligations that may under international law result from the fact of its occupation, for the protection of life and property.
Spain cedes to the United States the island of Porto Rico and other islands now under Spanish sovereignty in the West Indies, and the island of Guam in the Marianas or Ladrones.
Spain cedes to the United States the archipelago known as the Philippine Islands and comprehending the islands lying within the following line :
A line running from west to east along or near the twentieth parallel of north latitude, and through the middle of the navigable channel of Bachi, from the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) to the one hundred and twenty-seventh (127th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, thence along the one hundred and twenty-seventh (127th) degree meridian of longitude east of Green- wich to the parallel of four degrees and forty-five minutes (4 45') north latitude, thence along the parallel of four degrees and forty- five minutes (4 45') north latitude to its intersection with the
meridian of longitude one hundred and nineteen degrees and thirty- five minutes (119 35') east of Greenwich, thence along the me- ridian of longitude one hundred and nineteen degrees and thirty- five minutes (119 35') east of Greenwich to the parallel of latitude seven degrees and forty minutes (7 40') north, thence along the parallel of latitude seven degrees and forty minutes (7 40') north to its intersection with the one hundred and sixteenth (116th) de- gree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, thence by a direct line to the intersection of the tenth (10th) degree parallel of north latitude with the one hundred and eighteenth (118th) degree merid- ian of longitude east of Greenwich, and thence along the one hun- dred and eighteenth (118th) degree meridian of longitude east of Greenwich to the point of beginning.
The United States will pay to Spain the sum of twenty million dollars ($20,000,000) within three months after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty.
The United States will, for the term of ten years from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, admit Spanish ships and merchandise to the ports of the Philippine Islands on the same terms as ships and merchandise of the United States.
The United States will, upon the signature of the present treaty, send back to Spain, at its own cost, the Spanish soldiers taken as prisoners of war on the capture of Manila by the American forces. The arms of the soldiers in question shall be restored to them.
Spain will, upon the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, proceed to evacuate the Philippines, as well as the island of Guam, on terms similar to those agreed upon by the Commissioners appointed to arrange for the evacuation of Porto Rico and other islands in the West Indies, under the Protocol of August 12, 1898, which is to continue in force till its provisions are completely exe- cuted.
The time within which the evacuation of the Philippine Islands and Guam shall be completed shall be fixed by the two Govern-
merits. Stands of colors, uncaptured war vessels, small arms, guns of all calibres, with their carriages and accessories, powder, ammu- nition, livestock, and materials and supplies of all kinds, belonging to the land and naval forces of Spain in the Philippines and Guam, remain the property of Spain. Pieces of heavy ordnance, exclusive of field artillery, in the fortifications and coast defenses, shall remain in their emplacements for the term of six months, to be reckoned from the exchange of ratifications of the treaty ; and the United States may, in the mean time, purchase such material from Spain, if a satisfactory agreement between the two Governments on the subject shall be reached.
Spain will, upon the signature of the present treaty, release all prisoners of war, and all persons detained or imprisoned for political offenses, in connection with the insurrections in Cuba and the Phil- ippines and the war with the United States.
Reciprocally, the United States will release all persons made pris- oners of war by the American forces, and will undertake to obtain the release of all Spanish prisoners in the hands of the insurgents in Cuba and the Philippines.
The Government of the United States will at its own cost return to Spain and the Government of Spain will at its own cost return to the United States, Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippines, according to the situation of their respective homes, prisoners released or caused to be released by them, respectively, under this article.
The United States and Spain mutually relinquish all claims for indemnity, national and individual of every kind, of either Govern- ment, or of its citizens or subjects, against the other Government, that may have arisen since the beginning of the late insurrection in Cuba and prior to the exchange of ratifications of the present treaty, including all claims for indemnity for the cost of the war.
The United States will adjudicate and settle the claims of its citi- zens against Spain relinquished in this article.
In conformity with the provisions of Articles I, II, and IH of this treaty, Spain relinquishes in Cuba, and cedes in Porto Rico and other islands in the West Indies, in the island of Guam, and in the Philippine Archipelago, all the buildings, wharves, barracks, forts, structures, public highways and other immovable property which, in conformity with law, belong to the public domain, and as such belong to the Crown of Spain.
And it is hereby declared that the relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, to which the preceding paragraph refers, cannot in any respect impair the property or rights which by law belong to the peaceful possession of property of all kinds, of provinces, muni- cipalities, public or private establishments, ecclesiastical or civic bodies, or any other associations having legal capacity to acquire and possess property in the aforesaid territories renounced or ceded, or of private individuals, of whatsoever nationality such individuals may be.
The aforesaid relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, in- cludes all documents exclusively referring to the sovereignty relin- quished or ceded that may exist in the archives of the Peninsula. Where any document in such archives only in part relates to said sovereignty, a copy of such part will be furnished whenever it shall be requested. Like rules shall be reciprocally observed in favor of Spain in respect of documents in the archives of the islands above referred to.
In the aforesaid relinquishment or cession, as the case may be, are also included such rights as the Crown of Spain and its authorities possess in respect of the official archives and records, executive as well as judicial, in the islands above referred to, which relate to said islands or the rights and property of their inhabitants. Such ar- chives and records shall be carefully preserved, and private persons shall without distinction have the right to require, in accordance with law, authenticated copies of the contracts, wills, and other in- struments forming part of notarial protocols or files, or which may be contained in the executive or judicial archives, be the latter in Spain or in the islands aforesaid.
Spanish subjects, natives of the Peninsula, residing in the terri- tory over which Spain by the present treaty relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty, may remain in such territory or may remove therefrom, retaining in either event all their rights of property, including the r^ght to sell or dispose of such property or of its proceeds ; and they shall also have the right to carry on their industry, commerce and professions, being subject in respect thereof to such laws as are applicable to other foreigners. In case they remain in the territory they may preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Spain by making, before a court of record, within a year from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, a declaration of their decision to pre- serve such allegiance ; in default of which declaration they shall be held to have renounced it and to have adopted the nationality of the territory in which they may reside.
The civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the territories hereby ceded to the United States shall be determined by the Congress.
The inhabitants of the territories over which Spain relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty shall be secured in the free exercise of their
The Spaniards residing in the territories over which Spain by this treaty cedes or relinquishes her sovereignty shall be subject in mat- ters civil as well as criminal to the jurisdiction of the courts of the country wherein they reside, pursuant to the ordinary laws govern- ing the same ; and they shall have the right to appear before such courts, and to pursue the same course as citizens of the country to which the courts belong.
Judicial proceedings pending at the time of the exchange of rati- fications of this treaty in the territories over which Spain relin- quishes or cedes her sovereignty shall be determined according to the following rules :
1. Judgments rendered either in civil suits between private indi- viduals, or in criminal matters, before the date mentioned, and with respect to which there is no recourse or right of review under the Spanish law, shall be deemed to be final, and shall be executed in due form by competent authority in the territory within which such judgments should be carried out.
2. Civil suits between private individuals which may on the date mentioned be undetermined shall be prosecuted to judgment before the court in which they may then be pending or in the court that may be substituted therefor.
3. Criminal actions pending on the date mentioned before the Supreme Court of Spain against citizens of the territory which by this treaty ceases to be Spanish shall continue under its jurisdiction until final judgment ; but, such judgment having been rendered, the execution thereof shall be committed to the competent authority of the place in which the case arose.
The rights of property secured by copyrights and patents acquired by Spaniards in tbe island of Cuba, and in Porto Rico, the Philip- pines and other ceded territories, at the time of the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, shall continue to be respected. Spanish scientific, literary and artistic works, not subversive of public order in the territories in question, shall continue to be admitted free of duty into such territories, for the period of ten years, to be reckoned from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty.
Spain shall have the power to establish consular officers in the ports and places of the territories, the sovereignty over which has been either relinquished or ceded by the present treaty.
The Government of each country will, for the term of ten years, accord to the merchant vessels of the other country the same treat- ment in respect of all port charges, including entrance and clearance dues, light dues, and tonnage duties, as it accords to its own mer- chant vessels, not engaged in the coastwise trade.
This article may at any time be terminated on six months' notice given by either Government to the other.
It is understood that any obligations assumed in this treaty by the United States with respect to Cuba are limited to the time of its occupancy thereof ; but it will upon the termination of such occu- pancy, advise any Government established in the island to assume the same obligations.
The present treaty shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by Her Majesty the Queen Regent of Spain ; and the ratifica- tions shall be exchanged at Washington within six months from the date hereof, or earlier if possible.
In faith whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this treaty and have hereunto affixed our seals.
Done in duplicate at Paris, the tenth day of December, in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-eight.
[SEAL.] WILLIAM R. DAY. [SEAL.] EUGENIC MONTERO Rios.
[SEAL.] CUSHMAN K. DAVIS. [SEAL.] B. DE ABARZUZA.
[SEAL.] WM. P. FRYE. [SEAL.] J. DE GARNICA.
[SEAL.] GEO. GRAY. [SEAL.] W. R. DE VILLA URRUTIA.
[SEAL.] WHITELAW REID. [SEAL.] RAFAEL CERERO.
ACTEON affair, at Honolulu, 121.
Adams, English pilot, in Japan, 8.
Adams, John Quincy, on treatment of Napier by Chinese, 63 ; on the Opium War, 73 ; suggested for Chinese Mis- sion, 78 ; on Christian missions in Hawaiian Islands, 107.
Allen, Dr. H. N., reception of, in Korea, 329 ; American minister to Korea, 329.
American Board of Foreign Missions, sends missionaries to Hawaii, 106 ; expenditures of, in Hawaii, 109.
Amherst, Lord, sent as ambassador to China (1815), 25.
Angell, Dr. James B., one of commis- sion to negotiate immigration treaty with China, 294 ; American minister to China, 295.
Annara, Roberts sent on mission to, 46 ; Roberts's embassy at, 48.
Annexation, Vancouver's attempted, of Hawaiian Islands, 112 ; of Hawaiian Islands attempted by Lord Paulet, 124 ; provisional, of Hawaii to United States (1851), 130; of Formosa and Lew Chew Islands by United States proposed, 229 ; of Hawaii to United States indicated (1850-1860), 365; of Hawaii, Secretary Marcy directs American minister to propose, 366; treaty of, negotiated with Hawaii, 366 ; to United States, Lord Palmer- ston declares to be destiny of Ha- waii, 368 ; treaty negotiated between Hawaii and United States February, 1893, 377; treaty of, with Hawaii, (1893), withdrawn by President Cleveland, 378 ; treaty between Ha- waii and United States negotiated in 1897, 381 ; Japanese opposition to, of Hawaii to United States, 382; joint resolution for, to United States signed July, 1898, 383 ; reason for, of Hawaii to United States, 384 ; of Philippine Islands by United States,
405 ; text of joint resolution of Con- gress for the, of Hawaii, 463.
Apia, American squadron destroyed by hurricane at, 392.
Arrow War, cause of, 223 ; views of British statesmen as to, 224 ; viewa of United States ministers as to, 225.
Atlantic cable, one of messages over, in 1858, announced peace in China, 245.
Audience, by Dutch officials at Yedo, 14; Ismailoff's, with Chinese em- peror, 20; Lord Macartney's, with Chinese emperor, 23.
Audience question, raised on Ward's arrival at Peking, 249; prolonged discussion of, 250 ; in China again raised, 269 ; temporary settlement of, in 1873, 270 ; again raised in China, in 1891, 270 ; points involved in, 271 ; settlement of, 271 ; finally settled by peace agreement between China and allies in 1901, 431.
Aulick, Commodore, selected to com- mand Japan expedition, 146 ; recalled from Japan expedition, 147 ; dis- agreement of, with Minister Mar- shall, 206.
Balestier, J., commissioner to negotiate treaty with Borneo, 142.
Baranoff, governor of Russian Amer- ica, attempts annexation of Hawaiian Islands, 112.
Barrier Forts, American naval force fires upon, 226.
Berlin Act, substance of, regarding Samoa, 394.
Berlin Samoan Conference, 393.
Biddle, Commodore, enters Bay of Yedo, 1846, 143.
Blount, J. H., commissioner to investi- gate Hawaiian revolution and condi- tions, 378.
Bogue Forts fire on British squadron, 62.
Borneo, Balestier negotiates treaty with sultan of, 142.
Bo wring 1 , Sir John, British governor of Hongkong, 215 ; course pursued by, in relation to Lorcha Arrow, 223 ; linguist and hymnologist, 223.
Boxers, outbreak of, in China, 408 ; meaning of name, I Ho Tuan or, 408 ; origin of, 409 ; cause of uprising of, 409 ; missions, not chief cause of uprising of, in China, 412 ; most po- tent cause of uprising of, political, 414 ; proclamation of empress dow- ager favorable to, 416 ; progress of uprising of, 417; attack railroad stations, 419 ; aimed to drive out foreigners and not Christians partic- ularly, 421 ; Chinese government sympathizes with, and gives aid to, 421 ; question of punishment of lead- ers of, in peace negotiations, 428.
Bridgman, Rev. E. C., American mis- sionary and editor of Chinese Reposi- tory, 3 ; secretary of Cushing em- bassy, 79.
British East India Company, see East India Company.
Burke, Edmund, on American whale fishery, 102.
Burlingame, Anson, career of, 257 ; ap- pointed American minister to China, 258 ; arrives in China, 258 ; secures adoption of " a policy of coopera- tion," 258 ; appointed Chinese envoy to Western powers, 263; character and conduct of, as Chinese envoy, 264 ; death of, 264 ; Elaine's opinion of, 267.
Burlingame embassy, constitution of, 263 ; reception of, in United States and Europe, 264; object of, 265; result of, treaty of 1868 with United States, 265.
California, Chinese laborers arrive in, 282 ; influence of development of, on Hawaiian industries, 365, 368, 370; opposition in, to Chinese immigra- tion, 285.
Canton, attacked by Capt. Weddel (1635), 5 ; Chinese ports closed ex- cept, 7 ; foreign women excluded from, 19 ; Krusenstern's attempt to trade at, 21 ; only port open to Brit- ish trade, 24 ; first American vessel arrives at, 27 ; Shaw, first American consul at, 32 ; conduct of trade at, 33 ; exchange of prisoners by United i
States and Great Britain at, 39 ; for- eign factories at, 41 ; embarassments of trade at, 43 ; treatment of Roberts's embassy at, 47 ; conditions of trade at, 56 ; Lord Napier at, 57 ; English trade stopped at, 62 ; British troops stationed in factories at, 62 ; Napier withdraws from, 62; execution of Chinese opium dealer at, 67 ; fac- tories at, closed to stop opium trade, 69 ; ransomed from assault during Opium War, 70 ; Americans indem- nified for injuries during Opium War, 74 ; riot at, over weather-vane of American consul, 91 ; riot at, dur- ing negotiation of Cushing treaty, 92 ; enlargement of factories at, 95 ; residence of foreign representatives outside walls of, 96; bombardment and capture of, by British (1856), 223 ; Americans charged with par- ticipating in British attack on, 227 ; looting of palaces in, by British, 228 ; sack of, by allies (1857), 233.
Carrington, Edward, American con- sular agent at Canton, 39.
Carysf ort affair at Hawaii, 124.
Chang Chih Tung, viceroy, author of book on reforms for China, 417.
Chang Yen Huan, one of Chinese peace commissioners sent to Japan, 339; biographical note on, 339.
Charlton, Richard, British consul-gen- eral to Hawaiian Islands, 113 ; ap- peals to Lord Paulet to enforce claims against Hawaii, 124.
Charter oath, taken by Mikado, 199.
China, early relations of, with Japan, 2 ; early relations of, with the West, 2 ; Dutch squadron arrives off coast of, 4 ; first European vessel to, 4 ; Portuguese outrages in, 4; British vessels arrive in (1635), 5; cause of antipathy to foreigners by, 6 ; early missionaries to, 6 ; early relations of, with Spain, 6 ; ports of, closed, ex- cept Canton, 7 ; European attempts during 17th and 18th centuries to trade with, 16; treaty of 1689, with Russia, 17 ; war between Russia and, 17th century, 17 ; Russian ambassa- dors of 1693 and 1719 to, 18 ; treaty of 1727, with Russia, 21 ; early trade of Russia with, 21; British trade with, during 18th century, 22 ; Ma- cartney embassy to, 22 ; King of England in 1795 sends presents to emperor of, 24; Amherst embassy
to (1815), 25 ; first American vessel arrives in, 27 ; American trade with, 30 ; fur trade with, 31 ; Shaw, first American consul in, 32 ; profits of, 37 ; relaxation of trade regulations in, 41 ; better position of United States politically in, 44 ; use of opium in, 64; Opium War between Great ] Britain and, 70; treaty between Great Britain and (1842), 71 ; grants Americans equal commercial rela- tions with British, 75 ; Gushing mis- sion to, 79 ; treaty of Wang Hiya (1844) between United States and, 86; exterritoriality first applied in, 92; treaty between France and (1844), 95; isthmus of Panama, bulwark of independence of, 133 ; projected steamship line between San Francisco and, 146 ; Davis, United States commissioner to, 204 ; Marshall, United States commis- sioner to; 205 ; Yeh, high commis- sioner of, 205 ; attempts of Marshall to secure interview with commis- sioner of, 205 ; E-liang receives President's letter from Marshall for delivery to emperor of, 206 ; Tai- ping Rebellion in, 208 ; services ren- dered to, by Gen. Ward and his " Ever Victorious Army," 212 ; Mc- Lane succeeds Marshall as minister to, 213 ; McLane's treatment by high commissioner of, 214; determination of foreign ministers to, to proceed to Peiho and renew demands, 216 ; ar- rival of foreign ministers to, at mouth of Peiho, 216 ; opposition of, to treaty revision, 217 ; reception of foreign ministers by commissioner of, on banks of Peiho, 217 ; commissioner of, without plenary powers, 217 ; fail- ure of conference relative to revision of treaties with, 218 ; McLane urges a more vigorous policy in, 218 ; Amer- ican merchants at Shanghai pay du- ties to, 218 ; Parker charge* of United States in, 219; neutrality of United States during Taiping Rebellion in, 220 ; Dr. Parker appointed commis- sioner to, 221 ; attempts of Parker to secure revision of treaty with, 221 ; return by viceroy at Shang- hai of President's letter to emperor of, with seals broken, 222 ; the Ar- row War between Great Britain and, 223 ; American surveying party fired upon near Canton, 225; attack on
forts near Canton, by Americans, 226 ; Yeh excuses firing on survey- ing party near Canton, 226 ; charge of participation by Americans in British attack on Canton, 227 ; Brit- ish campaign in, delayed by Sepoy Rebellion, 228 ; looting of palaces in Canton, by British, 228 ; plan of Minister Parker to avoid war in, 229 ; conservative policy of United States in relation to, 229 ; Reed suc- ceeds Parker as United States minis- ter to, 231 ; instructed to cooperate with powers in peaceful efforts, 231 ; United States could not make war against, without authority of Congress, 232 ; Lord Elgin, British, and Baron Gros, French representa- tive in, 232; sack of Canton, by allies, 283 ; war by England and France (1857) against, 233; Reed fails to secure interview with high commissioner of, 233 ; disappoint- ment of Elgin" and Gros at United States' policy toward, 233 ; attitude of Russia toward, 234 ; Reed advo- cates strong measures in dealing with, 234; foreign ministers unite in demanding revision of treaties, 235 ; attitude of United States as to coercive measures with, 236 ; refuses to allow foreign ministers to directly communicate with court, 236 ; for- eign ministers to, proceed to the Peiho, 236 ; foreign ministers from Peiho demand appointment of pleni- potentiaries by, 237 ; foreign minis- ters proceed to Tientsin, 238 ; Taku forts of, taken by assault, 238 ; trea- ties of 1858 negotiated, 238; Lord Elgin's coercive measures in secur- ing treaty with, 241 ; provisions of treaties of 1858 with, 242 ; relative to toleration of Christianity in, 243 ; trade and tariff regulations nego- tiated and settlement of claims against, 243 ; United States returns part of Canton Indemnity Fund to, 244 ; Dr. Williams, charge" of United States legation in, 244; Ward, min- ister to, 245 ; foreign ministers ar- rive at Peiho on way to exchange ratifications with, 246 ; exchange of Russian treaty with, 246 ; Ward de- layed in exchange of ratifications with, 246; battle of the Peiho and repulse of allies by, 247 ; allied forces retire to Shanghai after de-
feat by, 248; Ward conducted to Peking 1 by direction of emperor of, 249 ; audience question prevents ex- change of ratifications with, 251 ; Ward leaves Peking without ex- changing ratifications with, 252 ; Ward retires as minister to, 253 ; Williams, charge" of American lega- tion in, 253 ; unattractiveness of mission to, 253 ; Elgin and Gros re- turn to, in 1860, with large force, 254 ; allies capture Taku forts and march to Peking, 254 ; result of war between Great Britain and France and, 254; Tsung-li Yamen estab- lished to conduct foreign affairs of, 257 ; Burlingame appointed Ameri- can minister to, 258 ; adoption of " a policy of cooperation," by foreign ministers to, 258 ; forbids entrance of Confederate cruisers into its ports. 259 ; progress of, in Western learn- ing, 261 ; Burlingame appointed en- voy of, to Western powers, 263 ; Burlingame embassy of, 263 ; re- turn of embassy to, on death of Bur- lingame, 264; treaty between United States and (1868), 265 ; riots against missionaries at Tientsin, in 1870, 268 ; regency of empress dowager ceases, 268 ; audience question again raised in, 269, 270 ; laborers im- ported into Hawaii from, for sugar plantations, 271 ; youths sent to United States from, to be edu- cated, 272; coolie trade of, 275; indifference of government of, to coolie trade, 277 ; commission sent by, to investigate condition of coolies in Cuba, 279 ; congressional consid- eration of immigration from, 286 ; commission sent to, to secure modi- fication of treaty as to Chinese immigration, 294 ; treaty between United States and (1880), relative to immigration, 294 ; United States prohibits opium trade by treaty with, 295 ; Great Britain declines to entertain proposal of, to suppress opium trade, 297 ; treaty between United States and (1888), negotiated but not finally ratified, 300 ; treaty between United States and (1894), 302 ; attitude of, in regard to Chi- nese immigration, 306; early rela- tions of Korea with, 307 ; disclaims control over Korea, 320 ; interdicts Korea from sending- minister to
United States, 327 ; inconsistent at- titude of, toward Korea, 328 ; United States opposes and ignores attitude of, as to Korean ministers, 329 ; op- poses Japanese attempt to secure influence in Korea, 332 ; rivalry of, and Japan in Korea causes war of 1894, 332; war of 1894 between Japan and, see Chinese- Japanese War ; places interests of its sub- jects in Japan in hands of United States, 335 ; cession to Japan by, of Liaotung Peninsula, Formosa, and Pescadores islands, 340 ; treaty of peace between Japan and (1895), 340 ; part taken by Americans in peace negotiations between Japan and, 341 ; Gen. Grant aids in set- tling dispute between Japan and, covering Lew Chew Islands, 350; Russia, Germany, and France com- bine in favor of, after war with Japan, 361 ; troubles in, closely fol- lowing cession of Philippines to United States, 407 ; Boxer outbreak in, 408 ; anti-foreign sentiment in, 409 ; classes of foreigners in, 409 ; missionary movement in, 409 ; pro- gress of Christianity in, 410 ; anti- Christian riots in, 410 ; usefulness of missionaries socially and politically in, 411 ; missions not chief cause of Boxer uprising, 412 ; effect of West- ern commerce on industries of, 412 ; construction of railroads in, a cause of anti-foreign feeling, 413 ; foreign commercial invasion of, 413 ; politi- cal aggressions in, most potent in causing Boxer uprising, 414 ; seizure of territory of, by Germany and Rus- sia, 414 ; leases Wei-hai-wei to Great Britain, 415 ; France secures terri- torial concessions in southern pro- vinces of, 415 ; progress of Boxer uprising in, 4J.7 ; reforms attempted by emperor of, 417 ; emperor of, practically dethroned and reformers punished, 418 ; increase of anti-for- eign sentiment in, 418 ; allies attack Taku forts in, 419 ; Boxers in, seize railroad stations, 41 9 ; German min- ister to, murdered by Boxers, 419 ; repulse of relief column on march to Peking, 419 ; siege of legations in Peking, 419 ; empress dowager and government of, in sympathy with Boxers, 421 ; change of policy of United States in sending troops to,
422 ; circular note of July 3, 1900, as to intentions of United States in, 423 ; Rockhill, special commissioner to, 424; appoints Li Hung Chang and Prince Ching peace plenipoten- tiaries, 424; four important decla- rations by powers relating to, 425; United States desires, to punish Boxer leaders, not to surrender them to allies, 425 ; Anglo-German agreement in regard to, 426 ; French propositions, basis of peace negotia- tions with, 426 ; took no part in puni- tive expeditions in, 426 ; joint note of powers to, containing twelve de- mands, 427 ; question of punishment of Boxer leaders, in negotiations with, 428; Rockhill assumes con- duct of negotiations with, on depar- ture of Conger, 428 ; question of in- demnity to be paid by, in peace negotiations, 429 ; United States fa- vors lump sum indemnity from, 429 ; peace agreement signed by, and al- lies September 7, 1901, 430 ; provi- sions of peace agreement with, 430 ; indemnities to be paid by, 430 ; in- fluence of United States in peace negotiations between powers and, 431 ; circular note of United States favoring " open door " policy in, 432 ; United States favors view of, in rate of exchange on indemnity payments, 433 ; place of, in world politics, 434 ; Wensiang and Sir Robert Hart on latent powers of, 434; Russia, the power most feared by, 436 ; text of peace, agreement between powers and (September 7, 1901), 441 ; text of treaty on immigration between United States and (1894), 450.
China trade, conduct of America, 30 ; increase of, 36 ; congressional legis- lation relating to, 38; affected by war of 1812, 39; vexatious condi- tions of, 56 ; withdrawal of mono- poly of East India Company over, 57 ; Lord Napier, chief superintend- Qnt of British, 57.
Chinese, view of foreigners, 43 ; as- sumed contempt for trade, 60 ; con- tempt of, for foreigners, 203.
Chinese emigration, in early times, 274; causes of, 274. See also Coolie Trade; Coolies.
Chinese exclusion, congressional com- mittee favors, 287 ; opposed by Sen- ator Morton, 289; bill passed by
Congress favoring, vetoed by Presi- dent Hayes, 293; bill passed by Congress on, vetoed by President Arthur, 299 ; limitation on, in treaty of 1880, as to laborers in United States, 300; provisions of treaty of 1888 relative to, 300 ; Scott Act re- lating to, 301 ; presidential election of 1888 and, 301; treaty of 1894 relative to, 302 ; increased sentiment in United States in favor of, 302; bill introduced in 57th Congress for, 302 ; debate upon, in 57th Congress, 303; bill for, in 57th Congress de- feated, 304 ; change of public opin- ion in United States, since 1868, in regard to, 305.
Chinese immigration, to United States commences, 282 ; Burlingame treaty on, 282 ; opposition in California to, 285 ; Californian legislation against, unconstitutional, 28'3 ; congressional committee to investigate, 286; ma- jority report of committee against, 287; report of committee on, 287; Morton's report favorable to, 289 ; bill restricting, vetoed by President, 293 ; treaty of 1880 relative to, 294; commission sent to China to secure restriction of, 294 ; treaty provision for regulation of, by United States, 295 ; text of treaty of United States ( 1894) relating to, 450. See also Chi- nese Emigration ; Chinese Exclusion ; Coolie Trade ; Coolies.
Chinese-Japanese War, origin of, 332 ; efforts of United States to prevent, 333 ; United States declines to join in intervention to prevent, 334 ; China and Japan place interest of their subjects in other countries in hands of United States, 335; two Japanese spies at Shanghai, dur- ing, 335 ; Great Britain again pro- poses joint intervention in, 337 ; Japanese successes in, 337 ; United States declines to join powers in in- tervention, 337 ; Japan declines to accede to advice of United States to stop, 338; United States becomes medium of communication between belligerents in, looking toward peace, 339 ; Chinese peace commission sent to Hiroshima, during, 339 ; end of war, 340 ; Japanese dismiss the Chi- nese peace commission, 340; Wei- hai-wei captured by Japanese, 340 ; results of, 341 ; effect of, on interna-
tional relations of Japan, 360 ; effect of, on Chinese feeling toward for- eigners, 413.
Chinese merchants, integrity of, 34.
Ching, Prince, appointed plenipoten- tiary to negotiate peace with allies, 424.
Chinese Repository (footnote), 3.
Chosen, see Korea.
Choshiu, prince of, rebels against Sho- gun and closes strait of Shimonoseki, 192.
Christianity, in Japan, 9; hostility of Japanese government to, 200 ; in Japan at time treaties were made, 200 ; United States protests against hostility of Japanese government to Christianity, 200 ; provision in Chi- nese treaty of 1858 relative to tolera- tion of, 243 ; first effort to introduce, into Korea, 309 ; progress of, in China, 410.
Christian missions, see Missions; Mis- sionaries.
Christians, prosecution of, in Japan, 11 ; insulting treatment of, in Japan, 145 ; persecution of, in Korea, 309.
Clayton, John M., negotiates for United States treaty with Hawaii, 128.
Cochin-China, see Annam.
Co-hong at Canton, 34; system of, abolished, 77.
Columbia River, discovery of, 99.
Commerce, of the East with the West, 2 ; restrictions on, of modern origin, 2 ; exposed condition of American, in Pacific, 45 ; unprotected state of American, 46 ; assumed contempt of Chinese officials for. 60 ; increase of American, in Pacific, 135 ; the prin- cipal object of Christian nations with the East, 412.
Confederate cruisers, interfere with whaling industry, 105 ; forbidden entrance to Chinese ports, 259.
Conger, Edward H., United States minister, conducts peace negotia- tions with China after Boxer upris- ing, 427 ; success of, in conducting affairs in China, 428.
Consular courts, see Exterritoriality.
Coolies, treatment of, in Peru and Cuba, 276 ; in Peru petition Ameri- can legation for aid, 278. See also Coolie Trade.
Coolie trade, origin and evils of, 275 ;
horrors of, 276 ; indifference of Chi- nese government to, 277 ; proclama- mation of gentry of Amoy against, 277 ; Chinese commission investi- gates, with Cuba, 279 ; legislation against, 280 ; relations of Americans to, 281. See also Chinese Emigra- tion ; Chinese Exclusion ; Coolies.
Copper trade of Japan with Europe, 8.
Corea, see Korea.
Creasy, predicts opening of Japan by United States, 134.
Cuba, treatment of Chinese coolies in, 276 ; Chinese commission investi- gates condition of coolies in, 279; intolerable condition of affairs in, 400.
Gushing, Caleb, selected for Chinese mission, 79 ; Webster's letter of in- structions to, 80 ; negotiates treaty of Wang Hiya, 86 ; on exterritorial- ity, 88 ; Chinese criticism of, 90, 92 ; biographical sketch of, 94.
Gushing embassy, personnel of, 79; President's letter to emperor of China carried by, 81 ; arrival of, at Macao, 82; departure of, from China, 93.
Dana, Richard H., on Christian mis- sions in Hawaiian Islands, 107.
Davis, C. K., one of American com- missioners to negotiate peace with Spain, 403.
Davis, John W., United States com- missioner to China, 96, 204 ; career of, 205.
Day, W. R., one of American commis- sioners to negotiate peace with Spain, 403.
De Long, C. E., American minister, accompanies Iwakura embassy to United States, 346.
De Tocqueville, on United States as a world power, 135.
De Tromelin, Admiral, supports de- mands of French consul at Hono- lulu, 129.
Delano, Captain, visits Hawaiian Is- lands, 101.
Denby, Charles, minister to China, on audience question, 272; opinion of, on Chinese exclusion, 304 ; favorable comment of, on missionaries in China, 412 ; on Dr. Martin, 420.
Deshima, Dutch factory at, 11 ; de- scription of island of, 12 ; foreign women excluded from, 19.
Dewey, Admiral, effect of victory of, at Manila Bay on policy of United States, 400 ; qualities of, as diplo- matist, 400.
Diplomatic officers, relations between naval officers and, 207.
Dole, S. B., president of Hawaiian pro- visional government, 377.
Dolphin affair at Honolulu, 116.
Dutch, squadron arrives off Chinese coast (1622), 4; occupy Pescadores Islands, 4 ; colony on Formosa, 5 ; reach Japan (1600), 7; allowed to have factory at Deshima, 11 ; trade with Japan at Deshima, 12 ; officials' audience at Yedo, 14.
Dutch East India Company, Deshima, 14 ; charters American vessel to visit Japan, 136.
East India Company, British, control of China trade, 22; withdrawal of monopoly of, over China trade, 57 ; opium trade of, with China, 64 ; at- tempt to open commerce with Korea, 308.
Elgin, Lord, negotiates treaty with Japan (1858), 183 ; opinion of "Arrow War, 224 ; British representative in China, 232 ; coercive measures of, in securing treaty with China. 241.
E-liang, Viceroy, receives Commis- sioner Marshall and accepts Presi- dent's letter to emperor, 206.
Embassy, Chinese, to Western nations (1420), 3; Portuguese, to China (1517), 4; from Japanese princes visits Pope, 9 ; Macartney, to China, 22 ; of Lord Amherst to China (1815), 25; of Edmund Roberts (1832), 46; Gushing, to China, 79 ; French, ar- rival of, at Canton, 80 ; Macartney, secretaries of, 109 ; Amherst, Mor- rison, secretary of, 110 ; Roberts, J. R. Morrison interpreter of, 110 ; from Japan to United States (1860), 184 ; from Korea to the United States, 326 ; Burlingame, of China to the Western powers, 263 ; Japa- nese, of 1872, to the United States and Europe, 345 ; Hawaiian, to Samoa, 374.
" Ever Victorious Army," organized and led by General Ward, 212 ; de- cisive influence of, on Taiping Re- bellion, 212 ; Colonel Gordon suc- ceeds General Ward in command of, 212.
Everett, Alexander H., United States commissioner to China, 96; letters of credence to Japan given, 142.
Exclusion of Chinese, see Chinese Ex- clusion.
Exclusive policy of China strength- ened, 64.
Expansion, of United States in the Pa- cific prophesied, 135 ; United States intended no, at commencement of Spanish War, 399; Seward prophe- sies, of United States, 401.
Exterritoriality, in treaty of Wang Hiya, 87 ; principle of, 87 ; origin of, 88 ; first application of, in China, 92 ; not reserved by United States in first treaty with Hawaii, 114; limited in treaty between Korea and United States, 325 ; in Japanese treaties, 344 ; injustice of practice of, in Japan, 354 ; partiality shown by consuls in Japan in practice of. 354 ; extreme application of, in Japan in regard to postal service and quaran- tine, 355 ; proposed modification of, in Japan, 358 ; abolished in Japan, 363.
Eye (Superintendent), 59.
Factories, foreign, at Canton, 42.
Feudal system of Japan abolished, 199.
Filibustering, prevalence of, in United States, 365.
Foote, Lucius H., United States minis- ter to Korea, 326.
Formosa, Dutch colony on, 5 ; Minister Parker suggests occupation of, by United States, 229; cession of, by China to Japan, 340.
France, early relations of, with Siam, 46 ; treaty between China and (1844), 95 ; threatens independence of Ha- waiian Islands (1839), 119 ; demands of, on Hawaii, 120 ; Hawaiian inde- pendence recognized by Great Brit- ain and, 124 ; difficulties of Hawaii with, 129 ; Judd sent as special Ha- waiian commissioner to, 129 ; sends special commissioner to Hawaii (1850), 130; treaty between Japan and (1858), 183 ; war against China by England and (1857), 233 ; treaty between China and (1858), 238, 242 ; naval expedition of, to Korea, 309 ; naval expedition of, forced to retire from Korea, 310 ; treaty between Korea and (1886), 331; secures ter-
ritorial concessions in southern China,
415. Frye, W. P., one of American commis-
missioners to negotiate peace with
Spain, 403. Fur trade, American, with China, 31 ;
origin and growth of, 99; method
of conducting, 100.
General Sherman, schooner, burned and crew killed by Koreans, 310.
Genoa, duke of, attempts to communi- cate with king of Korea, 322.
Germany, attempt of, to enter into ne- gotiations with Korea, 318; treaty between Korea and (1883), 327 ; con- sul of, violates Japanese quarantine on plea of exterritorial right, 355 ; influence and interest of, in Samoa, 390 ; consul of, assumes control of Samoa, 390 ; high-handed course of, in Samoa, 391 ; seizure of Kiaochau by, 414 ; minister of, to China mur- dered by Boxers, 419 ; proposes China surrender to allies leaders of Boxer uprising, 425 ; agreement be- tween Great Britain and, as to China, 426.
Gibson, prime minister of Hawaii, his career, 373.
Glynn, Commander, sent to Japan to demand surrender of shipwrecked Americans, 144 ; confers with Presi- dent on opening of Japan, 146.
Grant, General U. S., note on opinion of, as to military power of Japan, 342 ;* visit of, to Japan in 1879, 350 ; aids in settling dispute between China and Japan concerning Lew Chew Islands, 350.
Gray, Captain, discovers Columbia River, 99.
Gray, George, one of American com- missioners to negotiate peace with Spain, 403.
Great Britain, vessels of, arrive in China (1635), 5 ; subjects of, arrive in Japan (1613), 8; increased com- mercial supremacy of, during eigh- teenth century, 22 ; sends Lord Ma- cartney as ambassador to China, 22 ; sends embassy to China (1815), 25 ; forced to surrender opium at Canton, 69 ; treaty between China and (1842), 71 ; sends consul-general to Hawaiian Islands, 1 13 ; Lord Russell compels Hawaii to negotiate treaty with, 121 ; Hawaiian independence recognized
by France and, 124 ; Paulet compels cession of Hawaiian Islands to, 125 ; cession of Hawaiian Islands to, dis- avowed, 126 ; new treaty agreed upon by Judd commission with, 130 ; treaty between Japan and (1854), 166; treaty between Japan and (1858), 183; demands and secures from Japan indemnity for murder of Richardson, 189 ; cause of Arrow War between China and, 223 ; war ag-ainst China by France and (1857), 233 ; treaty between China and (1858), 238, 242; legislation of, against coolie trade, 280 ; declines to entertain proposal to suppress opium trade, 297 ; attitude of, regarding opium trade in China, 299 ; futile at- tempt of, to open intercourse with Korea, 321 ; treaty between Korea and (1883), 327 ; leads in opposition to revision of Japanese treaties, 356 ; prevents revision of Japanese treat- ies, 359 ; finally favors revision of Japanese treaties, 361 ; treaty be- tween Japan and (1894), as to revi- sion of treaties, 361 ; attempts to se- cure joint guaranty of neutrality and independence of Hawaii, 372 ; China leases Wei-hai-wei to, 415 ; agree- ment between Germany and, as to China, 426 ; liberal trade policy of, in the Orient, 436 ; friendship be- tween United States and, 437.
Gros, Baron, French representative in China, 232.
Gutzlaff, Dr. Charles, secretary for British government during Opium War, 110 ; with Morrison's voyage to Japan, 137 ; on British expedition to Korea, 308.
Harris, Townsend, early life and fitness of, for Japanese mission, 172 ; ap- pointed consul-general to Japan, 172 ; arrives at Shimoda, 173 ; Japanese attempt to secure departure of, 173 ; experiences of, at Shimoda, 174 ; ne- gotiates treaty between Japan and United States (1857), 175; hermit life of, at Shimoda, 175 ; journey of, to Yedo to deliver President's letter, 176; observance of Sunday by, 178; entrance of, into Yedo, 178 ; audi- ence of Shogun by, 178; details of treaty negotiations of, with Japanese commissioners, 180 ; success of, in treaty negotiations, 181 ; Se ward's
remarks on retirement of, as minister, 185 ; Japanese appreciation of ser- vices of, 185 ; great diplomatic ser- vices of, 186 ; puzzled at relations of Mikado and Shogun, 187 ; opposed to exterritoriality in Japan, 352; tariff provision inserted by, in Japa- nese treaty, 353.
Hart, Sir Robert, services of, to China, and his treatment by Boxers, 420; views of, on the menace of China to the peace of the world, 435.
Hawaiian Islands, discovery of, 98 ; situation and resources of, 98 ; Amer- ican fur traders at, 99; Vancouver visits, 100 ; sandalwood trade of, 101 ; first whale ship arrives at, 102 ; increase of whaling vessels at, 104 ; condition of, at time of discovery. 105 ; all under rule of Kamehameha, 106 ; American missionaries sent to, 106 ; success of Christian missions, 106 ; results of missionary work in, 108; commercial importance of, to United States, 111 ; attempts of for- eign powers to secure possession of, 111 ; Vancouver attempts to annex, 111 ; Earanoff (Russian) attempts to annex, 112; first consul of United States to, 113; Charlton, British con- sul-general to, 113 ; treaty negotiated between United States and (1826), 114; lawlessness in, 114; missionary and anti-missionary parties in, 115 ; disgraceful proceedings of crew of Dolphin in, 116; visit of the Vin- cennes to, 117 ; relation of foreigners to local laws of, 118; France threat- ens independence of (1839), 119 ; Ro- man Catholic and Protestant contro- versy in, 119; French troops landed at, 120; treaty forced by French authorities upon (1839), 120 ; Lord Russell compels, to negotiate treaty with Great Britain, 121 ; commis- sion sent from, to Europe and United States, 121 ; President's message concerning, 122 ; policy of United States toward, declared by Webster, 123 ; joint declaration of Great Brit- ain and France recognizing independ- ence of, 124 ; Lord Paulet threatens independence of, 124 ; Paulet com- pels cession of, to Great Britain, 125 ; proclamation of king on cession of, to Great Britain, 125 ; occupation of, by British forces, 125 ; Admiral Thomas disavows cession of, to Great
Britain, 126 ; restoration of, to king, 126 ; controversy of, with United States over criminal trials, 127 ; treaty relations of, unsatisfactory, 127 ; treaty of United States with (1849), 128; difficulties of, with France, 129 ; Judd sent to France as special commissioner of, 129 ; Judd commission from, agrees upon new treaty with Great Britain, 130 ; spe- cial French commissioner sent to (1850), 130 ; provisional cession of, to United States, 130 ; settlement of French difficulty with, 131 ; Roman Catholics granted liberty in, 131 ; ultimate annexation of, to United States indicated, 365; fear that, might be occupied by American fili- busters, 365; rapid decrease of na- tives in, 366 ; negotiation under Sec- retary Marcy of annexation treaty with, 366 ; death of Kamehameha III. during negotiation for annexa- tion of, to United States, 367 ; reci- procity treaties of (1855 and 1867), with United States fail of ratifica- ( tion, 367 ; reciprocity treaty between United States and (1876), 369 ; terri- torial integrity of, secured, 369 ; final result of reciprocity treaty, an- nexation of, to United States, 370 ; sugar-growing in, 370 ; progress and prosperity of, 370 ; importation of Portuguese, Chinese, and Japanese into, for sugar plantations, 371 ; re- newal of reciprocity treaty between United States and (1884), 371 ; trans- fer Pearl Harbor to United States for a naval station, 371; United States declines to join in guaranty of neutrality and independence of, 372; United States withholds ap- proval of alliance between Samoa and, 373 ; ambitious schemes of Kala- kaua, king of, 373 ; career of Gib- son, prime minister of, 373 ; embassy from, to Samoa, 374 ; invited to take part in International American Con- ference of 1890, 374 ; Kalakaua dies and Liliuokalani succeeds to throne of, 375 ; attempted coup d'etat of queen of, in January, 1893, 376 ; re- volution of January 16-17, 1893, in, 376 ; monarchy overthrown and pro- visional government established in, 377 ; treaty of annexation between United States and, negotiated Feb- ruary, 1893, 377 ; annexation treaty
of, withdrawn by President Cleve- land, 878; J. H. Blount, commis- sioner to investigate revolution and conditions in, 378 ; American minister to provisional goverment of, directed to negotiate with queen for her re- storation, 378 ; negotiations of Amer- ican minister with queen and provi- sional government of, 379 ; report of Senator Morgan on revolution in, 380; constitutional convention of, 380 ; republican constitution of, pro- claimed July 4, 1894, 381 ; unex- ampled prosperity of, under the Re- public, 381 ; annexation treaty be- tween United States and, negotiated in 1897, 381 ; Japanese opposition to annexation of, to United States, 382 ; predominance of Japanese in popula- tion of, 382 ; joint resolution for annexation to United States passed July, 1898, 383 ; organized as a terri- tory of United States, 383 ; reasons for annexation of, 384 ; text of joint resolution of Congress for annexing, 463.
Hermit Kingdom, The, see Korea.
Hong merchants at Canton, 34 ; rela- tions of, with Lord Napier, 58.
Hoppo, Chinese official in charge of trade at Canton, 35.
Humboldt, on influence of Isthmus of Panama on the Far East, 133.
I Ho Tuan, see Boxers.
li-Kamon, Japanese chief minister of state, directs signature of Harris treaty, 182.
Immigration of Chinese, see Chinese Immigration.
Imperial College, established, 261 ; Dr. Martin, president of, 261.
Inouye Kaoru, Count, early visit of, to Europe, 195 ; one of Japanese com- missioners to negotiate treaty with Korea, 320 ; proposed compromise by, of 'exterritoriality in Japan, 358 ; public feeling in Japan compels, to resign portfolio, 358.
International American Conference of 1890, Hawaii invited to take part in, 374.
Ism ail off , Russian ambassador to China, 19 ; reception of, at Peking, 20.
Ito, Marquis, early visit of, to Europe, 195 ; negotiates treaty with Li Hung Chang, 332 ; one of Japanese peace commissioners at Shimonoseki, 340 ;
vice-ambassador of Iwakura em- bassy, 345 ; spokesman of Iwakura embassy, 346 ; on commercial pro- gress of Japan, 435.
Iwakura embassy, constitued, 345 ; Americans accompany, 346; recep- tion of, in United States, 346 ; pub- lic functions at Washington in honor of, 347 ; negotiations of, with secre- tary of state, 347 ; fruitless visit of, to European capitals, 348.
Iwakura, Prince, Japanese ambassador to United States and Europe, 345 ; character of, 348.
Jackson, President, letter of, to Kameharneha III., 117 ; letter from Kamehameha III. to, 118.
Japan, early relations of, with China and Korea, 2 ; early commerce of, 2 ; Pinto in 1542 discovers, 7 ; Dutch vessels reach (1600), 7 ; Spaniards reach, 7; English arrive in (1613), 8; early European trade with, 8; early liberal policy of, 9 ; Xavier and Jesuits arrive in, 9 ; nobles of, visit Pope (1582), 9; edict of Sho- gun expelling priests from, 10 ; re- bellion of native Christians in, 11 ; exclusive and seclusive policy estab- lished in, 11 ; early trade with, very profitable, 12 ; prosperity of in 17th century, 16 ; opening of, 133 ; isth- mus of Panama, bulwark of inde- pendence of, 133 ; opening of, se- quence to operations in China, 134 ; opening of, by United States, pre- dicted by Creasy, 134 ; first Amer- ican vessel to visit, 136 ; American attempts to open trade with, 136 ; voyage of the Morrison (1837) to, 137 ; voyage of the Manhattan (1845) to, 139; Roberts accredited to, but did not proceed there, 140, 141 ; presents carried by Roberts intended for emperor of, 141 ; resolution in Congress in 1845 in relation to, 142 ; Commodore Biddle attempts to open communication with, 143 ; Commo- dore Biddle insulted on expedition to, 143 ; Dr. Parker reports harsh treat- ment of shipwrecked Americans in, 144 ; the Preble visits, to demand sur- render of shipwrecked Americans, 144 ; cruel treatment of shipwrecked Americans in, 145 ; cause of deter- mination of United States to force treaty on, 145 ; American whalers in
waters of, 145 ; necessity of coaling station in, between San Francisco and China, 146 ; expedition to, see Japan Expedition ; Perry, Matthew Calbraith ; Aulick succeeded by Perry in command of Japan expe- dition, 147 ; consternation in, caused by arrival of Perry, 151 ; copies of President's letter sent to principal daimios of, 159 ; preparations of, for return of Perry, 159 ; negotiation of first treaty with, 162; treaty be- tween United States and (1854), 164, 165 ; results of Japan expedition on, 166; treaty between Great Britain and (1854), 166; treaties of, with other nations, 166 ; appreciation of Commodore Perry's service by, 168 ; first American vessel arrives in, af- ter treaty is signed, 171 ; Townsend Harris appointed consul-general to, 172; opposition to Consul-General Harris in, 175 ; treaty of United States with (1857), 175 ; delivery of President's letter to emperor of, by Harris, 176 ; treaty between United States and (1858), 182 ; treaty be- tween Great Britain and (1858), 183 ; treaties of, with Russia and France (1858), 183; embassy from, to United States (1860), 184; relations of Mikado and Shogun in, 187 ; anti- foreign feeling in, 188 ; murder of secretary of United States legation in, 188 ; murder of Richardson in, 189; indemnity demanded of, for murder of Richardson, 189; con- tinued anti-foreign demonstrations in, 189; American legation in, burned by rioters, 189 ; American minister retires to Yokohama at request of government of, 190 ; indemnities paid by, for burning of American legation and murder of secretary, 190 ; Shogun issues order closing ports and expel- ling foreigners from, 190 ; Ameri- can minister protests against order expelling foreigners from, 191 ; co- operative policy of United States in, 191 ; Pruyn induces withdrawal of order against foreigners in, 192 ; Prince of Choshiu closes strait of Shimonoseki in, 192 ; indemnity for Shimonoseki affair paid by, 194; United States returns share of Shi- monoseki indemnity to, 194 ; Ito and Inouye secretly leave, for Europe,
195 ; effect of Richardson and Shi- monoseki affairs on policy of, 195 ; Mikado sanctions treaties between powers and, 195 ; repeal of decree prohibiting Japanese from leaving, 197 ; return to Yedo of American minister to, 197 ; contest between Shogun and Mikado for government of, 197 ; Shogun surrenders govern- ment of, to Mikado, 198 ; Shogun's followers continue civil war in, 198 ; Mikado grants audience to foreign ministers to, 198; Mutsuhito be- comes Mikado of, 199 ; daimios of, surrender feudal rights to Mikado, 199 ; native Christians in, when treat- ies made, 200 ; hostility of govern- ment to native Christians in, 200 ; United States protests against hos- tility to Christianity by government of, 200; effect of reforms on inter- national relations of, 201 ; United States foremost in development of, 201 ; early relations of Korea with, 307 ; attempt of, to reinstate suzer- ainty over Korea, 319 ; treaty be- tween Korea and (1876), 320; Ko- rean embassy to, 321 ; attempt of, to secure predominant influence in Korea, 331 ; rivalry of, and China in Korea causes war of 1894, 332; places interests of subjects in China in hands of United States, 335; war of 1894 between China and, see Chinese- Japanese War; treaty of peace between China and (1895), 340 ; cession to, by China of Liao- tung Peninsula, Formosa, and Pes- cadores Islands, 340 ; part taken by Americans in peace negotiations be- tween China and, 341 ; letter of thanks from emperor of, to Presi- dent, 341 ; note on Gen. Grant's opinion of military power of, 342 ; exterritorial and tariff provisions of treaties with, 344 ; Iwakura embassy to secure revision of treaties with, 345 ; failure of Iwakura embassy to secure abandonment of exterritorial- ity by powers in, 348 ; course to be pursued by, on failure of Iwakura embassy, 349 ; reforms instituted in, 349; part taken by Americans in reformation of, 350; visit of Gen. Grant to, in 1879,350; progress of reforms in, 351; again, i 1878, attempts to secure revision of the treaties, 352 ; injustice of tariff pro-
visions in treaties with, 352 ; tariff provision in Harris treaty beneficial to, 353; tariff provision in British treaty, disastrous to, 353 ; injustice and partiality of consular courts in, 354 ; extreme application of exterri- toriality in regard to postal service and quarantine in, 355 ; unavailing efforts of, to secure revision of treat- ies, 356 ; Great Britain leads in op- position to revision of treaties of, 356; independent action of United States in regard to treaty revision with, 357 ; treaty between United States and (1878), 357 ; proposes modified form of exterritoriality, 358; public feeling in, compels Inouye to resign, 358 ; extradition treaty between United States and (1886) 358; further efforts of, by Okuma to secure treaty revision pre- vented by Great Britain, 359; pro- mulgation of constitution of, 360 ; effect of war with China upon inter- national relations of, 360 ; treaty be- tween Great Britain and (1894), as to revision of treaties, 361 ; opposi- tion of foreign residents in, to treaty revision, 362 ; freed from exercise of exterritorial rights by the powers, 363 ; extraordinary progress of, 364 ; laborers imported into Hawaii from, for sugar plantations, 371 ; protests against annexation of Hawaii to United States, 382; wonderful de- velopment of, as a world power, 435 ; Russia, the power most feared by, 436 ; text of treaty of, with United States (1895), 453.
Japan expedition, determined upon, 146 ; Aulick selected to command, 146 ; preparations for, 147 ; Perry succeeds Aulick in command of, 147 ; action of Dutch in relation to, 149 ; functions attending depar- ture of, 149 ; Dr. Williams, chief interpreter of, 150 ; enters Bay of Yedo, July 8, 1853, 150; conster- nation caused by arrival of, at Yedo, 151 ; object of, explained to Japa- nese, 152 ; negotiations of, with gov- ernor of Uraga, 153 ; surveying parties from, advance toward Yedo, 154 ; delivers President's letter to Japanese princes, 156 ; orderly con- duct of members of, towards natives, 158; departs from Bay of Yedo, 158 ; proceeds to China, 159 ; Japa-
nese preparations for return of, 159 ; Perry determines to hasten return of, to Japan, 160 ; reenters Bay of Yedo, February 12, 1854, 160; de- livery of presents brought by, 163 ; Japanese presents delivered to, 163 ; banquet given Japanese officials by, 164 ; Japanese dinner given, 165 ; success of, 166 ; reception of treaty negotiated by, in Europe and Amer- ica, 167 ; Humphrey Marshall's opin- ion of proposed, 207. See also Perry, Matthew Calbraith.
Jarvis, John J., Hawaiian commis- sioner, negotiates treaty (1849) with United States, 128.
Jones, Captain Thomas ap Catesby, negotiates treaty for United States with Hawaii, 114; arbitrates be- tween missionary and anti-mission- ary parties in Hawaii, 115.
Jones, John C., consul of United States to Hawaii, 113.
Judd, Dr., sent as special Hawaiian commissioner to France, 129.
Kagoshima, bombarded and burned by British squadron, 189,
Kalakaua, visits Europe, Asia, and United States, 373 ; ambitious ideas of, 373 ; death of, in 1891, 375.
Kamehameha, king of island of Ha- waii, 105 ; becomes ruler of entire group, 106.
Kamehameha III., President's letter to, 117; letter to President from, 118; death of, during negotiations for an- nexation to United States, 367.
Kang-wa, captured and burned by French, 309.
Kauai, Hawaiian Island of, placed under Russian protection, 112; Rus- sian fort on, destroyed by order of Xamehameha, 113.
Kearny, Commodore, course pursued by, during Opium War, 74 ; secures American interests in China, 75 ; protests against British occupation of Hawaii, 125.
Kendrick, Captain, voyages of, 99.
Kiakta, Russia fur trade at, 31.
Kiaochau, seizure of, by Germany, 414.
Kido, vice-ambassador of Iwakura em- bassy, 345.
Kioto, Mikado's court at, 187 ; Shogun visits Mikado at, 190.
Kiying, Chinese high commissioner to negotiate treaty with Gushing, 85 ;
at Tientsin in 1858 during negotia- tion of treaties, 239 ; character and death of, 240.
Korea, early relations of, with Japan, 2 ; resolution in Congress in 1845 in relation to, 142 ; styled " Naboth's Vineyard of the Far East," 307 ; early relations of, with China and Japan, 307; British East India Company attempts to open commerce with, 308 ; first effort to introduce Chris- tianity into, 309; persecution of Christians in, 309 ; French naval ex- pedition to, 309 ; French forces com- pelled to retire from, 310; the Gen- eral Sherman burned and crew killed in, 310; kindly treatment of ship- wrecked Americans in, 311 ; Consul- Geueral Seward advises attempt to open relations with, 312 ; American minister to China directed to nego- tiate with, 313 ; naval expedition of United States to, 313 ; notified by Tsung-li Yamen of American expe- dition, 314; American expedition appears off coast of, 314; American vessels fired upon by forts of, 314 ; on failure of, to apologize Americans destroy forts, 315 ; communication of official of, with Minister Low, 315 ; failure of American expedition to, due to incorrect information, 316; Consul-General Seward's informa- tion as to, from adventurers, 317 ; attempts of Russia and Germany to enter into negotiations with, 318 ; at- tempt of Japan to reinstate suzer- ainty over, 319 ; independence of, recognized by Japan, 320 ; treaty be- tween Japan and (1876), 320 ; efforts of, to prevent strangers from visiting shores, 320 ; China disclaims control over, 320 ; embassy of to Japan, 321 ; visited by Russian, British, and French naval vessels, 321; British failure to open intercourse with, 321 ; duke of Genoa attempts to commu- nicate with king of, 322 ; delegation from, to Li Hung Chang advised to make treaty with United States, 323 ; Senator Sargent introduces resolu- tion to send commissioner to, 323 ; Shuf eldt makes futile visit to, 324 ; United States legation at Peking in- formed of willingness of, to make treaty, 324 ; treaty between United States and (1882), 324; exterritorial rights of United States in, 325 ; Foote,
first American minister to, 326 ; em- bassy from, sent to United States, 326; treaties negotiated by Great Britain and Germany with, 327 ; ap- points minister to United States, 327 ; China interdicts, from sending min- ister to United States, 327 ; incon- sistent attitude of China toward,328 ; China claims subordination of min- isters of, 329 ; United States opposes and ignores China's attitude as to ministers of, 329 ; friendly attitude of, toward United States, 329; American aid in transformation of, 330 ; missions in, 330 ; treaty be- tween France and (1886), 331 ; Jap- anese attempt to secure predominant influence in, 331 ; Japanese and Chi- nese intrigues in, 332 ; China resists Japanese attempt to secure influence in, 332 ; rivalry of China and Japan causes war of 1894, 332 ; cause of Chinese-Japanese War, see Chinese- Japanese War; appeals to United States to intervene to secure its inde- pendence, 333 ; independence of, recognized by Chinese-Japanese peace treaty, 340 ; new danger to, after Chinese-Japanese War, 342.
Kotou or kowtow, Ismailoff performs, 20 ; Lord Amherst refuses to per- form, 25 ; Minister Ward declines to perform, 250.
Krusenstern, attempt of, to trade at Canton, 21 ; opinion of, of American enterprise, 29.
Kung, Prince, president of Tsung-li Yamen, 256 ; character of, 256.
Kweiliang receives from Ward Presi- dent's letter for delivery to emperor, 251 ; member of Tsung-li Yamen. 257.
Lagoda, the, imprisonment of crew of, by Japanese. 144.
Land of the Morning Calm, see Korea.
L'Artemise affair, 119.
Lawrence, the, imprisonment of crew of, by Japanese, 144.
Letter of sultan of Muscat to Presi- dent, 53 ; of President to Kameha- meha III., 117 ; of Kamehameha III. to President Jackson, 118; from President to emperor of Japan de- livered at Uraga, 156 ; of Li Hung Chang regarding opium trade, 297.
Lew Chew Islands, Perry recommends occupation of, by United States, 229 ;
Gen. Grant aids Japan and China in settling dispute concerning, 350.
Liaotung Peninsula cession of, by China to Japan, 340.
Liholiho, king of Hawaiian Islands, 106.
Li Hung Chang, letter of, regarding opium trade, 297 ; advises Koreans to make treaty with United States, 323 ; announces China's policy as to Korean ministers, 328 ; Chinese peace commissioner at Shimonoseki, 340 ; appointed plenipotentiary to nego- tiate peace with allies, 424 ; on cause of Boxer uprising, 416 ; removed as member of Tsung-li Yamen, 417.
Liliuokalani succeeds Kalakaua as ruler of Hawaii, 375 ; character of, 375; attempted coup d'e*tat of, in January. 1893, 376 ; dethroned, 377 ; declares that she would behead revo- lutionists, if restored to power, 379.
Lin, Chinese commissioner to suppress opium trade, 68; destroys opium seized, 70.
Linguist, in trade at Canton, 34.
Lodge, Senator, argument of, for Chi- nese exclusion, 303.
Looting, of Cantonese palaces by Brit- ish (1856), 228.
Luzon, Island of, American commis- sioners instructed to demand cession of, 403.
Macartney, Lord, embassy of, to China, 22.
Macao, Portuguese establishment at, 33.
Malietoa, king of Samoa, 389; and chiefs accept Berlin Act, 394 ; death of, 395.
Malietoa Tanu declared king of Samoa by chief justice, 396.
Manhattan, The, enters Bay of Yedo (1845), 139.
Manila Bay, effect of victory of, on policy of 'United States, 400.
Marcy, William L., conservative policy of, as Secretary of State, in relation to China, 229 ; directs American minister to propose annexation of Hawaii, 366.
Marshall, Humphrey, United States commissioner to China, 205 ; efforts of, to secure interview with Chinese commissioner, 205; received by E-liang, 206; disagreements be- tween, and Commodores Aulick and
Perry, 206; futile efforts of, to in- terview Commissioner Yeh, 213 ; re- call of, 213.
Martin, Dr. W. A. P., on the Opium War, 73 ; assists in negotiation of treaty of 1858 between China and United States, 239; president of Imperial College, 261 ; treatment of, during Boxer uprising, 420.
Mataafa, rival for Samoan kingship, 390.
McCarthy, Justin, on the Opium War, i4*
McCulloch, Hugh, opinion of, as to Dr. Peter Parker, 230.
McKinley, President, problems to be solved by, at close of Spanish War, 402 ; change of policy of, as to Phil- ippines, 404.
McLane, Robert M., minister of United States, visits headquarters of Taiping leader, 210; visit of, misinterpreted as act of homage, 210 ; views of, as to Taiping Rebellion, 211 ; indig- nation of, at treatment by Chinese high commissioner, 214 ; proceeds to Shanghai, 215 ; communicates with Viceroy E-liang, 215 ; resigns as minister to China, 219.
Mikado, relations between Shogun and, 187, 196; Shogun visits, at Kioto, 190 ; sanctions treaties of Japan with powers, 195; Mutsuhito becomes, 199 ; Shogun surrenders government to, 198 ; grants audience to ministers and transfers capital to Yedo, 198 ; takes the " charter oath," 199.
Missionaries, early French, to China, 6 ; edict expelling Jesuit, from Japan, 10 ; American, sent to Hawaiian Is- lands, 106 ; success of, in Hawaiian Islands, 107 ; diversity of opinion as to, in the Orient, 109; services of, as interpreters to embassies, 109 ; and their opponents in Hawaii, 115; Tientsin riots against French, 268 ; Korea visited by French, 309 ; in Samoa, 386 ; usefulness of, in China, socially and politically, 411.
Missions, in Korea, 330 ; French inter- pretation of treaty provision relative to, in Korea, 331 ; in China, 409. See also Christianity ; Missionaries.
Morgan, John T., report of, upon Ha- waiian revolution, in the Senate, 380.
Morrison, J. R., services as interpreter to Roberts's embassy, 110.
Morrison, Dr. Robert, interpreter of
Amherst embassy, 110; invited to come to China by D. W. C. Olyphant, 137.
Morrison, The, voyage of, to Japan (1837), 137.
Morton, Oliver P., chairman of com- mittee of Congress on Chinese immi- gration, 286; death of, and report in favor of Chinese immigration, 289.
Muscat, Roberts sent on mission to, 46 ; extent of sultanate of, 51 ; reception of Roberts at, 52 ; treaty of United States with, 52 ; letter of sultan of, to President, 53.
Mutsu, Count, one of Japanese peace commissioners at Shimonoseki, 340.
Mutsuhito, becomes Mikado, 199.
Nagasaki, location of Dutch factory, 11; Preble enters harbor of (1849), 144.
Nanking, capture of, by Taipings, 208 ; Roberts visits Taiping court at, 210.
Napier, Lord, chief superintendent of British trade in China, 57 ; attempts to communicate with Chinese offi- cials at Canton, 58 ; governor's letter refusing to receive, 59 ; requested to withdraw to Macao, 60 ; commu- nications of, with Chinese governor, 61 ; withdraws from Canton, 62 ; illness and death of, at Macao, 62.
Naval officers, relations between diplo- matic officers and, 207.
Nevius, Dr., on the Opium War, 73.
Northwest coast, American trade be- tween China and, 31 ; American ships on, 99.
Okuba, vice-rmbassador of Iwakura embassy, 345.
Okuma, Count, succeeds Inouye as minister of foreign affairs of Japan, 359 ; opinion of future of Japan, 436.
Olyphant & Co., send vessel to Japan, 137.
Olyphant, D. W. C., American mer- chant at Canton, 137.
" Open Door ' ' policy, Secretary Hay's circular note in favor of, in China, 432.
Opium, Chinese on use of, 65 ; deliv- ered by British superintendent to Chinese, 69 ; seized and destroyed by Chinese, 70.
Opium trade, commencement of, in China, 64; imperial edict (1796) against, 65; illicit, in China, 66;
large increase in, 66 ; large profits from, 66 ; increased efforts of Chinese to suppress, 67 ; increase of illicit, 67 ; Lin, Chinese commissioner to sup- press, 68 ; stringent prohibitions against, 68 ; Chinese close foreign factories to stop, 69; not adjusted by Anglo-Chinese treaty (1842), 71 ; United States by treaty with China prohibits, 295; communication of W. N. Pethick on, 295 ; Great Brit- ain declines to entertain proposal of China to prohibit, 297; Li Hung Chang's letter regarding, 297 ; op- position of United States to, 298; Lord Elgin opposes prohibition clause in United States treaty of 1858, 299.
Opium War, causes of, 64 ; course of, 70 ; moral aspects of, 72.
Pacific Ocean, European occupation of islands of, 26 ; whale fishery in, 104 ; Se ward's prophecy as to importance of, 135.
Pacific Railroad, Chinese laborers work on, 283.
Pago Pago Harbor, cession of, by Sa- moa to United States not acted on by Senate, 388 ; Tutuila, in which is, transferred to United States, 397.
Palmerston, Lord, on ultimate annex- ation of Hawaii to United States, 368.
Panama, Isthmus of, bulwark of China and Japan, 133.
Parker, Dr. Peter, urges in 1841 send- ing minister to China, 77 ; secretary of Gushing embassy, 79 ; on Morri- son's voyage to Japan, 138 ; reports harsh treatment of shipwrecked Americans in Japan, 144 ; charge* d'affaires of United States in China, 205 ; again becomes charge", 219 ; visits United States, 221 ; appointed commissioner to China, 221 ; indig- nation at Yeh in avoiding interview, 221 ; plan of, to avoid war in China, 229 ; retires as minister to China, 230 ; life of, after retirement, 230 ; McCulloch's opinion of, 230.
Paulet, Lord George, threatens Ha- waiian independence, 124 ; compels cession of Hawaiian Islands to Great Britain, 125.
Pearl Harbor, transferred by Hawaii to United States for a naval station, 371 ; protest of British minister
to cession of, by Hawaii to United States, 372.
Peiho, foreign ministers arrive at mouth of, 216 ; reception of foreign ministers by Chinese commissioner on banks of, 217 ; failure of confer- ence and departure of foreign min- isters from, 218 ; foreign ministers proceed to, 236 ; American, French, and British arrive at mouth of, 246 ; channel of, obstructed by Chinese, 246; battle of, between China and allies, 247.
Peking, Gushing directed to reach, if possible, 81 ; Gushing abandons idea of reaching, 87 ; Gushing criticised for not attempting to reach, 93 ; Minister Ward at, 249; Minister Ward leaves, without exchange of ratifications, 252 ; captured by allied forces, 254 ; siege of the legations in, 419.
Perry, Matthew Calbraith, 147 ; suc- ceeds Aulick in command of Japan expedition, 147 ; banquet given, on sailing of Japan expedition, 149 ; seclusive policy of, in dealing with Japanese, 152 ; religious custom of, 154 ; firmness of, in dealing with Japanese, 155 ; ceremonious delivery of President's letter by, 156 ; informs Japanese he will return the follow- ing spring, 157 ; determines to hasten his return to Japan, 160 ; resolute course of, in regard to place of nego- tiation, 161 ; negotiations of, with Japanese plenipotentiaries, 162 ; ban- quets Japanese officials, 164 ; suc- cess of, in his mission to Japan, 166 ; Japanese appreciation of services of, 168 ; dedication of Japanese monu- ment to, 169 ; disagreement with Minister Marshall, 206. See also Japan Expedition.
Peru, treatment of Chinese coolies in, 276; coolies in, petition American legation for aid, 278.
Pescadores Islands, Dutch occupy, 4 ; cession of, by China to Japan, 340.
Pethick, W. N., secretary of Li Hung Chang, on opium trade, 295; sketch of his life, 295.
Philippines, occupied by Spaniards (1543), 6 ; disposition of, at close of Spanish War, a problem, 402 ; per- plexity of President regarding, 402 ; instructions of American commis- sioners regarding, 403 ; attitude of
American commissioners in regard to, 404 ; conferences at Paris between commissioners regarding, 404 ; effect of President's Western trip on acqui- sition of, 404 ; reasons advanced for United States acquiring, 405 ; Spain cedes, to United States, 405 ; trou- bles in China closely following ces- sion of, to United States, 407 ; acqui- sition of, makes United States an Asiatic power, 438.
Port Arthur, seizure of, by Russia, 414.
Portuguese, arrive in China, 4 ; out- rages in China, 4; visit Japan (1542) 7 ; establishment at Macao, 33 ; im- ported from Azores for Hawaiian sugar plantations, 371.
Preble, The, Expedition of, to Japan, 144.
Protocol of August 12, 1898, between Spain and United States, 402 ; text of, 468.
Pruyn, Robert H., appointed minister to Japan, 89 ; refuses to leave Yedo after burning of legation, 190 ; re- tires to Yokohama at request of Japanese government, 190.
Reed, William B., succeeds Dr. Parker as minister to China, 231 ; political reasons for appointment of, 231 ; commissioned as minister instead of commissioner, 231 ; fails to secure interview with Commissioner Yeh, 233 ; resigns as minister to China and returns home, 244 ; opinion of, respecting Dr. Williams, 273.
Reid, Whitelaw, one of American commissioners to negotiate peace with Spain, 403.
Richardson, murder of, by Japanese, 189.
Roberts, Edmund, urges protection of American commerce in Pacific, 45 ; sent on mission to Siam, Muscat, and Annam, 46 ; treatment of, at Canton, 47 ; attempted negotiations of, at Annam, 48 ; reception of, in Siam, 49; reception of, at Muscat, 52 ; exchanges ratifications of Siam- ese treaty, 54 ; death and services of, at Macao, 55 ; furnished with letters of credence to emperor of Japan, 140, 141 ; presents intended for emperor of Japan carried by, 141.
Roberts, Rev. J. J., relations of, to
Taiping Rebellion, 209; visits Tai- ping court at Nankin, 210.
Rock Springs, indemnity for anti- Chinese riots at, 301.
Rockhill, W. W., sent as special com- missioner to China during siege of legations, 424; on departure of Conger from China, assumes charge of peace negotiations, 428.
Rodgers, Admiral, in command of ex- pedition to Korea, 314.
Rome, Japanese Christians visit, 9.
Russia, early relations of China and, 16; war between China and, 17th century, 17; treaty of, 1689, with China, 17; envoy from, to Peking (1693), 18; envoy from, to Peking (1719), 19; early trade of China with, 21 ; treaty of, 1727, with, 21 ; Hawaiian island of Kauai placed under protection of, 112 ; treaty between Japan and (1855), 166; treaty between Japan and (1858), 183; treaty between China and (1858), 238, 242; attempt of, to enter into negotiations with Korea, 318; increasing influence of, in far East, 342; seizure of Port Arthur by, 414; announces that it has no intention to acquire Chinese terri- tory, 425 ; the power most feared by China and Japan, 436.
Samoa, United States withholds ap- proval of alliance between Hawaii and, 373 ; embassy from Hawaii to, 374 ; missionaries in, 386 ; arrival of traders in, 387 ; first attention of United States called to, 387 ; cession of Pago Pago harbor by, to United States, not acted on by Senate, 388 ; Steinberger sent as agent of United States to, 388 ; Steinberger reports and is again sent to, 388; Stein- berger becomes premier of, and is deported, 388; United States de- clines protectorate over, 389 ; trea- ties of, with United States (1878) and other countries, 389; disorders in, over kingship, 389 ; German in- terest and influence in, 390 ; Ameri- can consul raises flag over, 390 ; German consul assumes control of government of, 390 ; American con- sul second time proclaims protecto- rate over, 390 ; conference at Wash- ington concerning, between United States, Great Britain, and Germany,
391 ; failure of conference to reach an agreement regarding, 391 ; Ger- many dethrones Malietoa and in- stalls Tamasese as king of, 392; American squadron sent to, de- stroyed by hurricane at Apia, 392; desire of United States to preserve independence of, 392 ; conference at Berlin in reference to, between United States, Great Britain, and Germany, 393 ; instructions to Amer- ican commissioners at Berlin Con- ference concerning, 393 ; agreement reached by Berlin Conference as to, 394; joint protectorate over, by United States, Great Britain, and Germany, 394 ; unsatisfactory opera- tion of tripartite protectorate, 395 ; civil war in, following death of Ma- lietoa, 396; foreign sympathy with rivals for kingship, 396 ; joint com- mission sent to, by United States, Great Britain, and Germany, 396 ; re- port of joint commission on, and tri- partite protectorate abandoned, 397 ; partition of, 397 ; efforts and failure of United States to preserve inde- pendence of, 397 ; lesson from at- tempted joint control of, 398; text of treaty of 1899, between United States, Germany, and Great Britain, regarding, 466.
Sandalwood, Hawaiian trade in, 101 ; value of trade in, to Hawaiian Islands, 101 ; exhaustion of supply of, in Hawaiian Islands, 102.
Sandwich Islands, see Hawaiian Islands.
Sargent, Senator, submits report of committee on Chinese immigration, 287 ; introduces resolution to send a commissioner to Korea, 323.
Satsuma, Prince of, Richardson mur- dered by followers of, 189 ; refuses to pay indemnity demanded for murder, 189 ; capital of, bombarded by British squadron, 189.
Scott Act, relating to Chinese exclu- sion, 301.
Sen Ki-yu, book of, on Western civili- zation, 259 ; eulogy of, on Washing- ton, 260; degraded on account of book, 260; reinstated and made member of Tsung-li Yamen, 260; presented by United States with portrait of Washington, 261.
Seward, George F., consul-general at Shanghai, advises attempt to open
relations with Korea, 312; inform- ants of, as to Korea, a party of ad- venturers, 317.
Seward, William H., on expansion of United States in Pacific, 135; re- marks of, on retirement of Harris as minister to Japan, 185 ; favors an nexation of Hawaii, 367 ; prophesies expansion of United States in, 401.
Shanghai, rising 1 commercial impor- tance of, 96 ; capture of Chinese city of, by Taipings, 208.
Shaw, Samuel, first visit of, to China, 27 ; report of, to Jay, 31 ; appointed first American consul at Canton, 32 ; death of, 38.
Shimmi, Japanese envoy, expresses views on Western civilization, 185.
Shimoda, vessels only permitted to enter at, 172 ; Townsend Harris ap- pointed consul-general to reside at, 172 ; Harris arrives at, 173.
Shimonoseki, affair of, 192 ; American vessel fired on in strait of, 193 ; United States naval steamer en- gages batteries at, 193 ; joint naval expedition of powers silence bat- teries at, 193 ; indemnity paid by Japan for affair at, 194; United States returns to Japan share of in- demnity for affair at, 194; peace negotiations at, between China and Japan, 340.
Shogun, audience of, by Dutch officials, 14; audience of, by Harris, 178; op- position to, on account of treaties with Western nations, 187 ; rela- tions between Mikado, and, 187, 196 ; visits Mikado at Kioto, 190 ; sur- renders government to Mikado, 198.
Ships, outfit of, engaged in China trade, 30.
Shufeldt, Commodore R. W., sent to Chinese seas instructed to make treaty with Korea, 323; negotiates treaty with Korea, 324 ; experience and service of, 325.
Siam, early French relations with, 46 ; Roberts sent on mission to, 46 ; re- ception of Roberts at, 49 ; treaty of United States with (1833), 50; ex- change of ratifications of United States treaty with, 54; Townsend Harris negotiates new treaty with, 172.
Simpson, Sir George, one of Hawaiian commissioners to Europe and United States, 121.
Snow, Samuel, American consul at Canton, 38.
Spain, occupies Philippines, 6 ; vessels of, visit Japan, 7 ; war between United States and, 399 ; truce pro- tocol between United States and, 402 ; cedes Philippines to United States, 405; text of protocol of August 12, 1898, and treaty of peace between United States and, 468.
Spanish War, influence of, upon the annexation of Hawaii, 383 ; policy of the United States at commencement of, 399; territory held by United States at close of, 400 ; negotiations of peace at conclusion of, 403.
Spheres of influence in China, agree- ments between Russia and Great Britain, and Germany and Great Britain as to, 415 ; Secretary Hay's note in favor of "open door" and against, 432.
Steinberger, A. B., sent to Samoa as agent of United States to report conditions, 388 ; becomes premier of Samoan king and is deported, 388.
Sumatra, murder of crew of Friendship in, 45.
Sugar-growing, in Hawaii, 370.
Swift, John T., one of commission to negotiate treaty of immigration with China, 294.
Taiping Rebellion, extent of, 208; origin and leader of, 209 ; condition of, in 1853, 210 ; McLane visits head- quarters of rebels to study condition of, 210 ; insulting address to McLane by leader of, 210 ; McLane's views upon, 211 ; progress of, and cause of its failure, 211 ; attitude of United States towards, 211 ; services of Gen- eral Ward and his " Ever Victorious Army " in suppressing, 212 ; neu- trality of United States during, 220.
Taku Forts, British and French allies demand surrender of, 237 ; taken by assault, 238 ; repulse of British and French forces at, 247; successfully assaulted by allies, 254 ; bombard- ment of, by allies during Boxer up- rising, 419.
Talienwan, China leases port of, to Russia, 415.
Tamasese, rival for Samoan kingship, 389.
Tariff, in Anglo-Chinese treaty (1842), 76; provisions relating to, in Japa-
nese treaties, 345 ; fixed in Japanese treaties, 352.
Tatnall, Commodore, part taken by, at battle of the Peiho, 247 ; famous saying of, 248.
Terranova affair, 40.
Thomas, Admiral, disavows act of ces- sion of Hawaii (1843) to Great Brit- ain, 126.
Tientsin, foreign ministers arrive at, 238 ; negotiation of treaties of 1858 at, 238 ; riots at, in 1870, 268 ; at- tack on foreigners at, in 1900, 419.
Tokio, name of Yedo changed to, 198.
Trade, overland, of China with Russia, 21 ; early European, with Japan, 12 ; of East India Company with China, 22 ; course of American, with China, 30 ; conduct of, at Canton, 33 ; re- strictions on, at Canton, 35 ; regula- lations relaxed in China, 41 ; em- barassments of, at Canton, 43 ; in- crease of United States, following treaties, 95 ; Hawaiian, in sandal- wood, 101. See also China Trade ; Fur Trade; Opium Trade.
Treaty, between Russia and China (1689), 17; between Russia and China (1727), 21; United States, with Siam (1833), 50 ; United States, with Muscat, 52 ; exchange of rati- fications of United States, with Siam, 54 ; of peace between Great Britain and China (1842), 71 ; tariff in Anglo- Chinese (1842), 76 ; of Wang Hiya, between China and United States (1844), 86 ; of Wang Hiya, impor- tance of, 89 ; of France with China (1844), 95; negotiated between Hawaii and United States (1826), 114, 121, 128 ; forced from Hawai- ian government by French authori- ties (1839), 120 ; negotiated by Lord Russell with Hawaii under compul- sion, 121 ; criminal trials of foreign- ers in Hawaii under French, 127 ; of United States with Hawaii (1849), 128 ; of United States with Borneo (1850), 142 ; of Japan with United States (1854), 164; of Japan with Great Britain (1854), 166 ; of Japan with Russia (1855), 166; of Japan with United States, ratified, 168 ; of Siam with United States, negotiated by Harris, 172 ; of Japan with United States (1857), 175 ; of Japan with United States (1858), 182 ; of Japan with United States, provisions
of, 182 ; of Japan with Great Britain, Russia, and France (1858), 183 ; be- tween China and United States (1844), clause relative to revision of, 217 ; of China with United States (1858), 238, 242; of China with Russia, Great Britain, and France ; of China with United States (1868), 265; of China with United States (1880), relating to immigration, 294 ; of China with United States, prohib- iting opium trade, 295 ; of United States with China (1888), negoti- ated but not finally ratified, 300 ; of China with United States (1894), 302 ; of Korea with Japan (1876), 320 ; of Korea with United States, 324 ; of Korea with Great Britain (1883), 327 ; of Korea with Germany (1883), 327 ; of Korea with France (1886), 331 ; of peace between China and Japan (1895), 340; of Japan with United States (1878), 357 ; of Japan with United States on extra- dition (1886), 358; of Japan with Great Britain (1894), 361 ; of Japan with United States (1894) 362 ; reci- procity, of 1855 and one of 1867, be- tween Hawaii and United States, fail of ratification, 367 ; reciprocity, be- tween Hawaii and United States (1876), 369; of annexation of Ha- waii to United States, negotiated in 1893, 377 ; same in 1897, 381 ; ioint resolution of annexation, passed July, 1898, 383; of Samoa with United States (1878) and other coun- tries, 389 ; of China with the pow- ers (1901), 430; text of, between China and powers (September 7, 1901), 441 ; text of, of China with United States (1894), 450 ; text of, of Japan with United States (1894), 453 ; text of, between United States, Germany, and Great Britain (1899), regarding Samoa, 466 ; text of, of peace between United States :and Spain, 1898, 468.
Trescot, William H., one of commis- sion to negotiate treaty of immigra- tion with China, 294.
Tribute-bearer, Lord Macartney con- sidered, by Chinese, 23; Webster's instruction that Gushing was not, 80.
Tsiyeng, Chinese high commissioner to negotiate treaty with Gushing, 85; report of, to emperor upon negotia-
tions at Wang Hiya, 90 ; Gushing' a opinion of, 91.
Tsung-li Yamen, established, 256 ; ap- preciates Burlingame's policy of cooperation, 259 ; Sen Ki-yu made a member of, 260 ; on request of United States notifies Korea of in- tended American expedition, 314; abolished and succeeded by Wai-wu Pu, 431.
Tung Wen Kwan, the imperial college, 261.
Tutuila, one of Samoan group trans- ferred to United States, 397-
Tyler, President, message of, regard- ing Chinese mission, 78 ; letter of, to emperor of China, 81.
United States, extension of commerce, of, in Pacific, 26 ; commercial diffi- culties of, in the Pacific, 26; first vessel of, to reach China, 27 ; com- mercial enterprise of, 29 ; conduct of China trade by, 30 ; fur trade of, with China, 31 ; increase of trade of, with China, 36 ; better position of, in regard to political relations, 44 ; exposed condition of commerce of, in Pacific, 45 ; almost exclusive trade of, in furs and sandal wood, 10 1 ; opin- ion in, regarding Opium War, 73 ; in- terests of, during Opium War, 74 ; interests of, in China, 76; treaty of Wang Hiya between China and 86 ; effect of Chinese treaties on commerce of, 95 ; extent of whaling industry of, 103 ; first ship to carry flag of, to England, 103 ; attitude of, to Hawaiian independence, 111 ; consul of, to Hawaii established, 113 ; treaty negotiated between Hawaiian Islands and (1826), 114; Hawaiian commission arrives in (1842), 121 ; policy of, toward Hawaii declared by Webster, 123; controversy of, with Hawaii over criminal trials,
127 ; treaty of Hawaii with (1849),
128 ; provisional cession of Hawaiian Islands to, 130 ; Creasy on, in Orient, 134 ; Seward on, in Orient, 135 ; early attempts of, to open trade with Ja- pan, 136 ; cause of determination of, to force treaty on Japan, 145 ; sends expedition to Japan, 147 ; treaty be- tween Japan and (1854), 164, 165; sends squadron to dedication of Perry monument in Japan, 169; treaty of Japan with (1857), 175 ;
delivery of letter of President of, to emperor of Japan by Harris, 176 ; negotiation of treaty of 1857 between Japan and, 180 ; treaty between Japan and (1858), 182; rioters burn legation of, at Yedo, 189 ; Japanese embassy to (1860), 184 ; murder of secretary of legation of, in streets of Yedo, 188 ; cooperative policy of, in Japan, 191 ; returns share of Shi- monoseki indemnity to Japan, 194 ; protests against hostility of Japanese government to Christianity, 200; foremost in development of Japan, 201 ; attitude of, towards Taiping Rebellion, 211 ; hostilities at Canton between China and, 225; proposed acquisition of Formosa and Lew Chew Islands by, 229 ; conservative policy of, in relation to China, 229 ; policy of peaceful cooperation by, in China, 231 ; could not make war against China without consent of Congress, 232 ; opposed to coercive measures with China, 236; treaty between China and (1858), 238, 242 ; claims of citizens of, against China settled, 243 ; returns to China part of Canton Indemnity Fund, 244; Bur- lingame embassy in, 264 ; treaty of China with (1868), 265; firm atti- tude of, on audience question, 269 ; Chinese youths sent to, to be edu- cated, 272 ; demand for Chinese la- bor in, 274 ; legislation of, against coolie trade, 281 ; Chinese laborers arrive on Pacific coast of, 282 ; treaty between China and (1880), relative to immigration, 294 ; treaty right of, to regulate Chinese immigration, 295 ; by treaty with China prohibits opium trade, 295 ; opposed from out- set to opium trade, 298 ; treaty be- tween China and (1888) negotiated but not finally ratified, 300; in- creased sentiment in, against Chinese immigration, 302 ; treaty between China and (1894), 302; change, since 1868, of public opinion in, in regard to Chinese exclusion, 305 ; vessel of, burned and its crew killed by Koreans, 310 ; investigation by, as to the affairs of the General Sher- man, 312 ; naval expedition of, to Korea, 313 ; Li Hung Chang advises Koreans to make treaty with, 323 ; treaty between Korea and (1882), 324 ; exterritorial rights of, in Korea,
325 ; Korean embassy sent to, 326 ; citizens of, aid in transformation of Korea, 330; efforts of, to prevent Chinese-Japanese War, 333 ; declines to unite with Great Britain to pre- vent Chinese-Japanese War, 334; letter of thanks from emperor of Japan for services of, during Chinese War, 341 ; Iwakura embassy arrives in, 346 ; part taken by citizens of, in reforms in Japan, 350; treaty be- tween Japan and (1878), 357; extra- dition treaty between Japan and (1886), 358; treaty between Japan and (1894), regarding revision of treaties, 362 ; reciprocity treaty be- tween Hawaii and (1876), 369; Ha- waii cedes Pearl Harbor to, 371 ; declines to join in guaranty of neu- trality and independence of Hawaii, 372 ; withholds approval of alliance between Hawaii and Samoa, 373; lands marines at Honolulu during revolution of January 16-17, 1893, 377 ; annexation treaty between Ha- waii and, negotiated February, 1893, 377 ; Hawaiian annexation treaty withdrawn by President Cleveland, 378 ; sends Blount as commissioner to investigate Hawaiian revolution and conditions, 378 ; efforts of Presi- dent of, for peaceful restoration of Hawaiian queen, 379; failure of, to secure restoration of Hawaiian queen, 379; annexation treaty be- tween Hawaii and, negotiated in 1897, 381 ; joint resolution of annexa- tion passed July, 1898, 383 ; Hawaii organized as territory of, 383 ; rea- sons for annexation of Hawaii to, 384 ; sends agent to Samoa to report conditions, 388; declines protector- ate over Samoa, 389 ; treaty between Samoa and (1878), 389 ; desire of, to preserve Samoan independence, 392 ; sends commissioners to Berlin Samoan Conference, 393 ; secures Tutuila in partition of Samoan group, 397 ; efforts and failure of, to preserve Samoan independence, 397 ; policy of, at commencement of war with Spain, 399 ; policy of, affected by victory of Manila Bay, 400 ; ter- ritory held by, at close of Spanish War, 400 ; prophetic words of Sew- ard as to expansion of, 401 ; truce protocol of August 12, 1898, between Spain and, 402 ; commissioners of, to
negotiate treaty of peace with Spain, 403; instructions to commissioners of, at peace negotiations, 403 ; rea- sons advanced for acquisition of Phil- ippines by, 405; Spain cedes Phil- ippines to, 405 ; change of policy of, as to military cooperation in China, 422 ; policy of, in China, outlined in circular note of July 3, 1900, 423 ; desires China to punish Boxer lead- ers, not surrender them to allies, 425 ; position of, on questions of punish- ment and indemnity in Chinese peace negotiations, 428, 429 ; influence of, in peace negotiations between China and allies, 431 ; favors " open door " policy in China, 432 ; favors China's view as to rate of exchange on in- demnity payments, 433; friendship between Great Britain and, 437 ; just and liberal conduct of, in the Orient, 438; on acquiring Philippines be- came an Asiatic power, 438 ; task and duty of, in the Orient, 438 ; text of treaty on immigration between China and (1894), 450; text of treaty of, with Japan (1895), 453 ; text of joint resolution of Congress for an- nexing Hawaii to, 463 ; text of Sa- moau treaty (1899) .between Ger- many, Great Britain, and, 466 ; text of protocol of August 12, 1898, and treaty of peace between Spain and, 468.
Uraga, Perry's Japan expedition an- chors opposite, 150 ; President's let- ter to emperor of Japan delivered at, 156.
Vancouver, Captain George, visits Ha- waiian Islands, 100 ; attempts to an- nex Hawaiian Islands, 111.
Van Valkenburgh, R. B., appointed minister to Japan, 197.
Wai-wu Pu, Tsung-li Yamen abolished and succeeded by, 431.
Wang Hiya, treaty of, 86.
Ward, Frederick T., general in Chi- nese service, 212 ; organizes " Ever Victorious Army," 212; his death, 212.
Ward, John E., appointed United States minister to China, 245; de- layed at Peking over audience ques- tion, 249 ; departs from Peking, 252 ; course pursued by, criticised, 252; retires as minister to China, 253.
Weather-vane, Chinese superstition concerning' American consul's, 91.
Webster, Daniel, on importance of Chinese mission, 78 ; letter of in- structions by, to Gushing, 80 ; United States policy toward Hawaii declared by, 123.
Webster, Fletcher, secretary of Gush- ing embassy, 79.
Weddel, Captain, 5.
Wei-hai-wei, fortress of, captured by Japanese, 340 ; China leases, to Great Britain, 415.
Wensiang, member of Tsung-li Yamen, and foremost Chinese statesman of his time, 257; on the danger of awakening China, 434.
Whale fishery, superiority of Ameri- can colonies in, 102 ; after American Revolution, 103 ; growth of Ameri- can, 104; effect of Confederate cruisers on, 105 ; decline of Ameri- can, 105 ; in Japanese waters, 145.
Williams, Dr. S. Wells, on Morrison's voyage to Japan, 138 ; joins Japan expedition as chief interpreter, 150 ; assists in negotiations of treaty of 1858 between China and United States, 238 ; view of, as to relations of foreign ministers during negotia- tions at Tientsin, 241 ; succeeds in securing provision of toleration of Christianity in Chinese treaty of 1858, 243 ; charge" of United States legation in China, 244, 253 ; author of " The Middle Kingdom " and Chi- nese dictionary, 273 ; retires from diplomatic service, 273 ; accepts chair of Chinese Literature at Yale University, 273; profound learning of, 274.
Women, foreign, excluded from China and Japan, 19, 42.
Xavier, Francis, arrives in Japan
(1549), 9; lands on Chinese coast and death there, 410.
Yamagutsi, vice-ambassador of Iwa- kura embassy, 345.
Yedo, consternation caused at, by arri- val of Japan expedition, 151 ; Amer- ican surveying parties advance near to, 154 ; preparations of defense at, in expectation of Perry's return, 159 ; official visit of Harris to, 177 ; mur- der of secretary of United States legation in streets of, 188 ; American legation at, burned by rioters, 189 ; American minister retires from, to Yokohama at request of Japanese government, 190 ; postponement of opening port of, 192; return of American legation to, 197 ; Mikado transfers capital to, and name changed to Tokio, 198.
Yedo, Bay of, the Morrison enters (1837), 138 ; the Manhattan enters (1845), 139; Commodore Biddle en- ters, in 1846, 143 ; Commodore Perry enters, July 8, 1853, 150 ; Japan ex- pedition returns to, 160.
Yeh, Chinese commissioner present at interview between Chinese commis- sioner and Davis, 204 ; Chinese high commissioner, 205 ; farewell note of, to Minister Marshall, 213 ; avoids in- terview with Minister McLane, 214 ; refuses interview to Minister Parker, 221 ; excuses attack of Americans by Chinese forts near Canton, 226 ; ex- cuses himself from receiving Minister Reed, 233 ; captured by allies, sent to Calcutta, where he died, 233 ; un- reasonably blamed for his conduct toward foreigners, 233.
Yokohama, Perry's negotiations take place on future site of, 162 ; Ameri- can minister, at request of Japanese government, retires to, 190.
Electrotyped and printed by H. O. Houghton &> Co. Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A.
JX Foster, John Watson
1421 American diplomacy in the
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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY
34 JO H. American Diplomacy in the Orient
JOHN W. FOSTER
At last we have a dispassionate account of the origin and process of American expansion. Mr. Foster's position as Special Plenipotentiary to Great Britain, Germany, China, and Japan has afforded him an intimate acquaintance with the history and workings of American diplomacy in the East, and gives authority to his account of the early American commercial intercourse with China, the opening of Japan, the political history and annexation of Hawaii and the Philippines, and the relation of the United States to other countries of the Pacific. Mr. Foster pays special attention to the results of the Spanish War in the Far East, and shows the honorable part the United States has borne in the stirring events of the most recent phases of international politics. Mr. Foster's treatment of the subject is impartial and his narrative clear and readable. Booklo-i'ers Bulletin .