An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/Section III

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§ III. WORD BUILDING.


Besides the dissimilarities in Grammar as set forth in the preceding paragraph, there are also other important differences existing between the two languages which Prof. Chamberlain has not noted in his essay. What he has given, however, are fully sufficient to prove that the present Japanese tongue has no grammatical connection with Ainu. This fact may be fully and very interestingly emphasized by considering the manner in which the Ainu build up their words, illustrations of which it is now proposed to give.

(1) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex. This word means “he sent him to set them at variance with each other over something.” The following is a chemical analysis of the word:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, root meaning “do.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, an intensifying root meaning “severely;” “intently.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to do intently” or “severely.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, a root meaning “to” when used before some verbs.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to scold;” “to beat;” “do severely to.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, root meaning “together” or “union” or “mutually.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to quarrel with each other.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, used as a suffix to verb expresses “cause.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, a root expressive of the past tense.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to make quarrel.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, expressive of the 3rd personal pronoun “he.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “make them quarrel with each other.” The An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex is added after the An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex for the sake of euphony only.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, expressive of the objective case.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “he made them quarrel with each other over something.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to do through another;” “to send to do.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “he sent and set them at variance with each other over something.”

(2) Take now the word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex “to forsake,” “to backslide.” It may be analized thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, 3rd. per. pro. nom. “they.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, (euphonically An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex), 2nd, per. pro. obj. “him.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, reflex. prop. “self” (from the root An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “to exist”).

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, root meaning “to;” “with regard to.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, objective of the verb, “it.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, root of maka “open.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, a plural personal root to verbs (as An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex a plural ending to some nouns).

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, a causitive ending to verbs. Hence, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “to forsake” (lit. “they made him cast himself away (from) with reference to it”). E. g. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “they made him forsake the customs of the ancients.” It would perhaps be superfluous to remark that the chief root of this long word is simply An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “open,” the transitive of which is An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “to open.”

Thus do many roots cluster round the little verbs An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “to do;” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “open.” Every root always retains one or other of its meanings though of course modified in each as the subject and object require. This kind of—I was going to say vivisection, but substitute postmortem examination proves, I think, that the Ainu language has grown from a monosyllabic to an agglutinative or combinatory one; and shows that it was also capable of greater developement had the race survived, come into the arena of civilization, and cultivated it. Indeed, such words as the above show how the Ainu language has passed from the “Rhematic” into the “Dialectic” stage of developement.

In the above examples verbs only have been given; let us now take an adjective and adverb as further illustrations of this matter.

Thus:—

(a) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “good.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “a good thing.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “goodness.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to better.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to gain.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “something gained.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to make another gain.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to gain of oneself.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to make oneself gain.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to make oneself gain something for himself.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “that which one causes himself to gain for himself.”

(b) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “the year after next.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, an intensifying particle both as regards place, time, and state.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “other;” “next;” “different.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “year;” “season.”

Hence, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “the year after next.”

The word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex belongs to the same class.

Thus:

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, as given above.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “the day after to-morrow.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “the morrow following the day after to-morrow.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “the third day after to-morrow.”

The word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “elsewhere,” is also of peculiar interest when dissected. Thus:—An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, a separating particle whose root meaning is “off”; “from”; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “to be,” the verb of existence, the An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex being merely euphonius; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, a particle meaning “place”; and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “at” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al “in.” Hence, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “at another place”—i.e. “elsewhere.”

But even nouns of apparently two syllables only may in some instances be shown to be derived, through the process of agglutinization, from three roots. Nay, a one syllable word is sometimes seen to be derived from two several roots. Thus:—

(a) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “clothing.” This is compounded from An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, passive particle “is”; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “to wear”; and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “an article.” Hence, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “articles worn”; “clothing.” Another way of saying the same word is An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “clothing.”
(b) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, “a river.” One would naturally suppose this to be a simple word, yet careful consideration shows it to be a compound. Thus:—An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “water”; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, a contraction of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex a plural suffix in common use. Hence, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex, “waters,” i.e. a “stream” or “river.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex is often heard when reciting traditions or singing songs.

But perhaps one of the most interesting methods of building up words and one which may not for a moment be ignored or overlooked by the student of this language is exemplified in the following examples. But first let it be understood that An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex has the sense of “facing”; “fore”; “looking inwards”; “tending towards one”; “in front.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex has the opposite meaning of “off”; “away from”; “behind”; “back.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/alex has a reflexive and intransitive force and perhaps represents the infinitive mood. With these words as keys we will take the three following compounds as illustrations.

(1) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.t. To open; to clear away.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.i. To have cleared away of itself.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.i. & adj. To turn from but with the face looking upwards and forward.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.i. & adj. To clear off; to go away entirely and leave an open space.

(2) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.t. To wind; to twist.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.i. To twist by its own power.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.i. & adj. To be twisted; wound up.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.i. & adj. Twisted back out of place.

(3) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.t. To spread out.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.i. To spread out of itself.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.i. & adj. To open up as a flower from the bud.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter I/al, v.i. & adj. To fall apart as one’s coat or dress when blown by the wind.

Such words as these show great development of speech and the nicities shown in them will be duly appreciated by any lover of philological research.