An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter III

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An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary by John Batchelor
Chapter III: Letter Changes
CHAPTER III.


LETTER CHANGES.


No sonant letter begins a sentence, but in composition surds are sometimes changed into sonants. These changes are as follows:—

K becomes g.
P ............ b.
T ............ d.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is sometimes changed into An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex before An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, the An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex of which is dropped; thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “lads.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “girls.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex becomes An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex in some places, thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a lad.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex becomes An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex in some places and vice versa. Thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “underneath.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex becomes An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex in some districts: Thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “preaching.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex becomes An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex before An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al; thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for tan be, “this thing.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al; “this girl.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex become An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex before An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex before An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “will make.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to kill outright.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to cut through.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “newly.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex becomes An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al before An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex before An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my house.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “my garden.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al “my master.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex becomes An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex before An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al; thus: An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “it is a person.”

When one word ending with a vowel is immediately followed by another commencing with a vowel, the final vowel of the first word is in some cases dropped; thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the whole world.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a foreigner.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al “everybody.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex becomes An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex before An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, as, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “to recognize,” while An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is sometimes heard for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, as, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “to defeat.”

Care must always be taken to pronounce the double consonants as in speaking Italian or Japanese. As:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “where?” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a multitude.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “sand” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “in,” “to.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to lace up” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a difference.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “now” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “long.”

When it is desirable to give special clearness or emphasis to a noun or adjective ending with a vowel, such final vowel may be reduplicated preceded by the consonant An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; thus :—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a tooth.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a day;” “a lake.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “good,”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al “black,” “dark.”

There are some cases in which it is customary to reduplicate the final vowel, such reduplication being almost universally practiced by the Ainu. As:—For example:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex instead of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “twigs.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex    ,,     ,,  An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “a sum.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex instead of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a rain cloud.”