An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter VI

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An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary by John Batchelor
Chapter VI: The Adjective
CHAPTER VI.


THE ADJECTIVE.


The adjective now undergoes no declension or change to express either case, gender, or comparison, or to point out its relation to other words in a sentence. They may be conveniently classed under two heads, viz, simple and compound.


§ I. SIMPLE ADJECTIVES.



§ II. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.


The compound adjectives end in An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. Thus:—

Other adjectives appear to be transitive verbs rendered intransitive by prefixing An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex to them, which particle gives them a reflexive force. Thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to open.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “opened;” “cleared away.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to twist.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “twisted.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to spread out.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “spread out.”

Some adjectives are simply transitive verbs rendered into the passive voice or past tense by having the particle An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex prefixed to them. Thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to place.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “placed.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to bite.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “bitten.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to cleave.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “cleft.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to jump.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “jumped.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to say.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “spoken.”

Adjectives may be made plural if necessary by suffixing the ordinary plural particle An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex to them. Thus:—

singular. plural.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “good,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “good.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “bad,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “bad.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “small,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “small.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “fat,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “fat.”


§ III. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.


The comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives are not so extensively used as in English, the meaning being often left to be gathered from the context; but should it be necessary to be explicit, the comparative degree is formed by placing the word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “yet; “more,” and the superlative by placing, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “most” before the positive degree; e.g.

positive. comparative. superlative.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “good,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “better.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “best.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “small,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “smaller.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “smallest.”

“The comparative with “than” may be expressed in six different ways:—(a) with the word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; (b) with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; (c) with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; (d) with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; (e) with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; (f) with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. One illustration of each method is here given with an example.

(a). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex originally means “to surpass,” and may be translated by “than;” e.g. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “I am faster than you” (lit. than you, I go fast.)

(b). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex means “very,” “more,” e.g. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; “the sea is greater than the land” (lit. than the land, the sea is more great.)

(c). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex means “excess”:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,” this village is nearer than that” (lit. than that village, this village is a nearer village.)

(d). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex means “surpassingly”; e.g.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a hare is swifter than a horse” (lit. than a horse, a hare is surpassingly swift of foot.)

(e). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; e.g.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “you are a slower walker than I” (lit. than me, you go more slowly).

(f). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex means “surpassing,” e.g.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “you are taller than I (lit. surpassing me, you are tall.)


§ IV. DEMONSTRATIVE ARTICLES.


The demonstrative articles “this,” “that,” “these” and “those,” are as follows:—

singular. {[sc|plural.}}
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “this.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “that.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “that,”
(a short distance off.)

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “that,”
(a good distance off.)

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “these.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “those.”
(a short distance off.)

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “those.”
(a good distance off.)

The singular form of these adjectives may be prefixed to plural nouns; but the plural forms can never be placed before singular nouns. The reason is that An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is really a plural verb meaning “to dwell at” or “be in” a place. It is the plural form of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “to be.”


§ V. THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN PARTICLES AND WORDS UPON SOME OF THE ADJECTIVES.


When the particle An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is prefixed to certain adjectives it has the power of changing them into verbs; e.g.

adjectives. verbs.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “soft.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to be unable to endure.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “hard.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to be able to endure.”

Some adjectives, by taking An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex after them, become adverbs; e.g.

adjectives. adverbs.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “new.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “newly.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “true.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “truly.”

A few adjectives become adverbs by taking the word from after them; e.g.

adjectives.
adjectives. adverbs.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “neat.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a neat thing.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “dirty.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a dirty thing.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “delicious.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a delicious thing.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “clean.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a clean thing.”

The letter An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, which is here compounded with the adjectives, is a contraction of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “a thing.” This should be carefully borne in mind lest, in construing, mistakes should arise. The An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex converts the adjective to which it is attached, into a concrete, not into an abstract, noun. Thus An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is not “thinness,” but “a thin thing;” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is not “largeness,” but “a large thing;” nor is An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “wisdom,” but “a wise person” or “thing.”

As the other adjectives, namely a few of the simple, and all of the remaining compound adjectives, are incapable of taking the contracted form An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex after them, they are followed by the word in full, that is, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex softened into An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “an old person.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a mouldy thing.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “an eloquent person.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a quarrelsome person.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a weak thing.”