An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter VI

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CHAPTER VI.


THE ADJECTIVE.


The adjective now undergoes no declension or change to express either case, gender, or comparison, or to point out its relation to other words in a sentence. They may be conveniently classed under two heads, viz, simple and compound.


§ I. SIMPLE ADJECTIVES.



§ II. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.


The compound adjectives end in An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. Thus:—

Other adjectives appear to be transitive verbs rendered intransitive by prefixing An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex to them, which particle gives them a reflexive force. Thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to open.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “opened;” “cleared away.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to twist.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “twisted.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to spread out.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “spread out.”

Some adjectives are simply transitive verbs rendered into the passive voice or past tense by having the particle An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex prefixed to them. Thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to place.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “placed.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to bite.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “bitten.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to cleave.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “cleft.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to jump.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “jumped.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to say.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “spoken.”

Adjectives may be made plural if necessary by suffixing the ordinary plural particle An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex to them. Thus:—

singular. plural.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “good,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “good.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “bad,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “bad.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “small,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “small.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “fat,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “fat.”


§ III. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.


The comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives are not so extensively used as in English, the meaning being often left to be gathered from the context; but should it be necessary to be explicit, the comparative degree is formed by placing the word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “yet; “more,” and the superlative by placing, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “most” before the positive degree; e.g.

positive. comparative. superlative.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “good,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “better.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “best.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “small,” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “smaller.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “smallest.”

“The comparative with “than” may be expressed in six different ways:—(a) with the word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; (b) with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; (c) with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; (d) with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; (e) with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; (f) with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. One illustration of each method is here given with an example.

(a). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex originally means “to surpass,” and may be translated by “than;” e.g. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “I am faster than you” (lit. than you, I go fast.)

(b). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex means “very,” “more,” e.g. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; “the sea is greater than the land” (lit. than the land, the sea is more great.)

(c). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex means “excess”:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,” this village is nearer than that” (lit. than that village, this village is a nearer village.)

(d). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex means “surpassingly”; e.g.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “a hare is swifter than a horse” (lit. than a horse, a hare is surpassingly swift of foot.)

(e). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; e.g.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “you are a slower walker than I” (lit. than me, you go more slowly).

(f). The comparative with An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex means “surpassing,” e.g.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “you are taller than I (lit. surpassing me, you are tall.)


§ IV. DEMONSTRATIVE ARTICLES.


The demonstrative articles “this,” “that,” “these” and “those,” are as follows:—

singular. {[sc|plural.}}
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “this.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “that.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “that,”
(a short distance off.)

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “that,”
(a good distance off.)

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “these.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “those.”
(a short distance off.)

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “those.”
(a good distance off.)

The singular form of these adjectives may be prefixed to plural nouns; but the plural forms can never be placed before singular nouns. The reason is that An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is really a plural verb meaning “to dwell at” or “be in” a place. It is the plural form of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “to be.”


§ V. THE INFLUENCE OF CERTAIN PARTICLES AND WORDS UPON SOME OF THE ADJECTIVES.


When the particle An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is prefixed to certain adjectives it has the power of changing them into verbs; e.g.

adjectives. verbs.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “soft.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to be unable to endure.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “hard.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “to be able to endure.”

Some adjectives, by taking An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex after them, become adverbs; e.g.

adjectives. adverbs.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “new.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “newly.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “true.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “truly.”

A few adjectives become adverbs by taking the word from after them; e.g.

adjectives.
adjectives. adverbs.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “neat.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a neat thing.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “dirty.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a dirty thing.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “delicious.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a delicious thing.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “clean.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “a clean thing.”

The letter An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, which is here compounded with the adjectives, is a contraction of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “a thing.” This should be carefully borne in mind lest, in construing, mistakes should arise. The An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex converts the adjective to which it is attached, into a concrete, not into an abstract, noun. Thus An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is not “thinness,” but “a thin thing;” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is not “largeness,” but “a large thing;” nor is An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “wisdom,” but “a wise person” or “thing.”

As the other adjectives, namely a few of the simple, and all of the remaining compound adjectives, are incapable of taking the contracted form An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex after them, they are followed by the word in full, that is, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex softened into An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, thus:—