An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/Chapter VIII

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CHAPTER VIII.


THE PRONOUN.


The Pronouns are divided into Personal, Possessive, Relative, Indefinite and Interrogative. What are generally termed “Demonstrative Pronouns” will be found under the Adjective Chapter VI.


SECTION I.


The personal pronouns are as follows, their forms differing according to the context.

THE FIRST PERSON SINGULAR.

(a.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, is particularly used with verbs commencing with a vowel as:—

(b.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, is probably the original word whence An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is contracted. It is better to use An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex than An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, for the contraction An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is not always understood whereas An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is known all over Yezo.

(c.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex may be derived thus; An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. “I;” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “to be;” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex a substantivising particle. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex are sometimes used together in a sentence; as for instance:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al,
Moi je vois,
\left . \begin{array}{lcl}
 \\
\end{array} \right \rbrace “I see.”

(d.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is a simple contraction of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, and is now considered by some to be a somewhat impolite mode of speech.

(e.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex may be derived from An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “to be,” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, a plural form of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. It is supposed to be only used by superiors to inferiors when speaking of oneself.

(f.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is sometimes heard for “I”; it is a contraction of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex which means “we,” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, which signifies “to be” or “to be at a place.” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is principally used by low class Japanese when attempting to speak Ainu, and by Ainu only when addressing Japanese or persons but imperfectly acquainted with the Ainu language. It has come to be pigeon Ainu.

THE SECOND PERSON SINGULAR.

The pronouns of the second person singular are:—

(a.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex appears to be the original word from which An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex has been formed; thus:—

(b.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is now a very contemptuous expression, and is a corruption of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex. It is in fact pigeon Ainu, and equals An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex of the 1st. person.

(c.) An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, which is a contraction of An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, is, like An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, a more polite form of speech than An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, but neither are so often used. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex were originally plurals, and are still so used in certain contexts.

Sometimes the words An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex are heard for the first and second person singular respectively, but not often. An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex is a verb meaning “to abide,” “to stay.” Thus An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex really means “I who am here;” and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex “you who are there.”

THE THIRD PERSON.

There is no proper third personal pronoun. Its place is supplied by the word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, and the demonstrative adjectives.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “this person” (man or woman).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al; “this thing.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “that thing or person” (a little way off.)
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “that thing or person” (a greater distance off).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “this thing” (whether far off or near).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “that thing or fellow” (a word of contempt).

Sometimes, however, the particle An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, contracted from An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “another person,” or “the person” is used as an honourable way of speaking of one’s own master or a superior; thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “he is calling you.”

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, pronounced in full, is sometimes used by a servant when addressing his master. In such cases An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex means “you;” thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al “who?” An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “the other person,” i.e. “you.”

The above forms are used only at the beginning of sentences, and are never immediately prefixed to verbs. Before verbs, “we” is expressed by An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, and “ye” by An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; and after verbs “we” is An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex.

The following are examples.

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “we are Ainu.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “ye are Ainu.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “we make.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “we make.”

The plurals of the third person pronouns are as follows:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “these persons.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “they” (persons a little way off).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “they,” (persons farther off).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “these things,” “these.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “those things,” “they” (a short distance off).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al
\left . \begin{array}{lcl}
 \\
\end{array} \right \rbrace “those things,” “they” (a greater distance off).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “they” or “those.”

[N.B.] Care should be taken not to use An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex when persons are intended; for An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex can only be correctly applied to the lower orders of creation.

Thus the pronouns are:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
\left . \begin{array}{lcl}
 \\
 \\
 \\
 \\
\end{array} \right \rbrace “I.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
\left . \begin{array}{lcl}
 \\
 \\
 \\
\end{array} \right \rbrace “I.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
\left . \begin{array}{lcl}
 \\
 \\
 \\
 \\
 \\
 \\
\end{array} \right \rbrace “You.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
\left . \begin{array}{lcl}
 \\
\end{array} \right \rbrace “He,” “she,” “it.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, before a verb.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, after a verb.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
\left . \begin{array}{lcl}
 \\
 \\
 \\
 \\
 \\
\end{array} \right \rbrace “We.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
\left . \begin{array}{lcl}
 \\
 \\
\end{array} \right \rbrace “Ye.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex,
\left . \begin{array}{lcl}
 \\
 \\
 \\
\end{array} \right \rbrace “They.”

The reflexive pronoun An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “self,” is used as follows:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; “I myself.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al; “you yourself.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex; “he himself” or “she herself.”

Before verbs a kind of double reflexive is sometimes used; thus:—


§ II. THE CASES OF PRONOUNS.


The various forms of the first and second persons mentioned above in Sect. I, may be termed nominatives. The following examples will illustrate this:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, I have just come (i.e. come for the first time.)
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al “have you been?”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al “did you say something?
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “I am going.”

The following is an example of the longer form of a pronoun used without the corresponding short one, e.g.:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al “what do you think?”

The first person, moreover, has forms corresponding to the English objective case. They are:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “me.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “you.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “us.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “us.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex, “ye.” e.g.:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “he struck me.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “God made us.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “he loves us.”

In the second person the objective case is rendered by An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex for the singular, and An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex for the plural; never by the longer forms given in Section I; e.g.:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “the dog will bite you.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “I will employ you” (plural).

The action of the first person upon the second is indicated by placing the objective of the person before the verb, and the word An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex after it; thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “I will beat you” (plural).
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “I love you” (singular).

When construed with passive verbs, the second person takes the substantive verb An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex after the verb; e.g.:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “you are loved.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “ye are made.”

The third person has as a rule no special forms for the objective case; but An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/alex the passive particle is sometimes used as an objective of the 3rd person, thus:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al or An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “they will probably be struck.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “those men have been killed.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al “shall I prepare the table”?

Postpositions sometimes take the objective case of pronouns, and sometimes the full form; e.g.:—

An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “he went from me.
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “come behind us.”
An Ainu–English–Japanese Dictionary/al, “ the person who went after you.”