Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography/Mosquera, Tomás Cipriano de

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MOSQUERA, Tomás Cipriano de, Colombian statesman, b. in Popayan, 30 Sept., 1798; d. in Coconuco, 7 Oct., 1878. He entered the patriot army in 1813, and in 1816 was taken prisoner by the Spaniards, but escaped to Jamaica. On his return, early in 1819, he joined the patriot forces again, and took part in all the campaigns of Colombia and Peru, the latter under Bolivar, who promoted him to the rank of general in 1829, and sent him as envoy to Peru. After Bolivar's death he emigrated to the United States, and travelled through Europe, returning to his country in 1833 to occupy a seat in congress. He became a skilful and distinguished soldier in the civil wars of his country, and played an important part in her history. He was senator, secretary of state, minister to foreign countries, and president of the republic. Under his administration, from 1845 till 1848, the country prospered in every respect. In 1859 he was eommander-in-chief in the revolution that overthrew the conservative government of Ospina. He summoned a convention for the constitution of a new government, according to the federal system and on the most liberal principles. Capital punishment was abolished, religious toleration was proclaimed, and freedom of the press was established. Congress granted Mosquera in 1863 the title of grand-general, and in 1864 an annual pension of $12,000. In 1866 he was again elected president, but in May, 1867, by a successful revolution, he was deprived of his office, tried, and banished to Lima, where he was crowned with honors and granted a pension. After three years he returned, and became governor of the state of Cauca and member of congress. He was a member of several scientific societies, and wrote a “Vida de Bolívar” (New York, 1853) and a “Memoria sobre geografía física y política de la Nueva Granada.”