Boston Cooking-School Cook Book/Chapter 42

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Chapter XLII. FOOD VALUES.

A STUDY of food values is essential for the making of properly balanced menus. A minimum of time devoted to this subject will give one a working knowledge which will prove of inestimable value.

The energy value of foods and the energy requirements of the body are estimated in calories. Requirements of:

Children
Age
1–2 years 900–1200 calories per day
2–5 years 1200–1500 calories per day
6–9 years 1400–2000 calories per day
10–13 years 1800–2200 calories per day
14–20 years 2300–5000 calories per day
Adults
Age
  • When sleeping .4 calorie per pound of body weight per hour.
  • At slight exercise .6 calorie per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: At meals, sewing, reading, writing, etc.
  • At light exercise 1 calorie per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: Standing and walking.
  • At active muscular exercise 2 calories per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: General housework, carpentering, tennis, etc.
  • At severe muscular exercise 3 calories per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: Digging, horseshoeing, football, etc.
    60–70 years 10% reduction
    70–80 years 20% reduction
    80–90 years 30% reduction

How to Determine the Number of Calories Required Daily by an Individual Using the Above Table[edit]

Woman. Age 35. Weight 125
Sleeping 8 hours
Slight exercise: At meals, sewing, reading, etc. 8 hours
At light exercise: Standing and walking 6 hours
At active muscular exercise: General housework 2 hours
8 * .4 calorie = 3.2 calories
8 * .6 calorie = 4.8 calories
6 * 1 calorie = 6 calories
2 * 2 calories = 4 calories
= 18 calories required per pound of body weight
125 * 18 calories = 2250 calories for day’s requirement.

Other calculations show that the needs of a person estimated in calories vary from twenty-two to thirty-five hundred for one day. Of this amount from ten to fifteen per cent (220 to 425 calories) should come from protein foods and .015 iron gram should be furnished.

It is not necessary to consider the amount of calcium (of which .7 gram is the daily requirement) if one pint of milk is supplied for each person. An adequate milk supply will furnish also one-third the amount of phosphorus required, making this calculation practically unnecessary.

Foods rich in fats have the highest caloric value, while foods rich in protein, sugar, and starch have greater caloric value than those containing much water.

The following table will enable one to calculate quickly the number of calories, protein calories, and grams of iron supplied by the more common foods. The figures for the most part are given in hundreds and even numbers to facilitate this calculation. They therefore vary slightly from those found in Bulletin 28, Department of Agriculture, but seem, nevertheless, especially well adapted for everyday use, for investigation shows that even the best authorities differ.

“The Laboratory Manual of Dietetics” by Professor Mary Swartz Rose and “Science and Nutrition” by Graham Lusk are valuable books to consult for the further consideration of this important subject.

TABLE OF FOOD VALUES OF THE MORE COMMON FOODS[edit]

Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams
Almonds 1 cup shelled 4 oz. 700 95 .0021
Apples 2 qts. 3 lbs. 600 16 .0030
Apricots, Dried 32/3 cups (56 halves) 1 lb. 1200 84
Asparagus 1 can 1 lb. net 80 27 .0038
Fresh 20 large stalks 1 lb. 100 32 .0043
Bacon, Smoked 1 lb. 2600 172 .0052
Bananas 3 large 1 lb. 300 14 .0018
Barley, Pearl 2 cups 1 lb. 1600 154 .0057
Beans, String 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 110 24 .0040
1 qt. 12 oz. 130 28 .0059
Dried 2 cups 1 lb. 1500 408 .0300
Dried Lima 2 cups 1 lb. 1500 328 .0292
Beef, Corned 1 lb. 1200 259 .0093
Dried, Salted, or Smoked 1 lb. 800 544 .0200
Liver 1 lb. 600 350 .0118
Porterhouse Steak 1 lb. 1000 346 .0120
Roast 1 lb. 1550 428 .0155
Round, Lean 1 lb. 650 353 .0130
Rump, Lean 1 lb. 800 346 .0120
Beets 1 pt. 1 lb. 200 23 .0026
Bread, Bakers’ 1 loaf 1 lb. 1100 168 .0033
Graham 1 loaf 1 lb. 1100 160 .0143
Bread Crumbs 1 cup 23/4 oz. 200 128 .0006
Butter 1 tbsp 1/2 oz. 100
2 cups 1 lb. 3400 18
Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams
Cabbage 1/4 head 1 lb. 120 25 .0042
Carrot 3 large 1 lb. 150 16 .0024
Cauliflower 1 very small head 11 oz. 100 23
Celery 1 bunch 1 lb. 60 16 .0016
Cheese, American 1 lb. 2000 522
Neufchatel 1 cheese 21/2 oz. 225 52
Cherries, Candied 10 medium 1 oz. 100
Chicken, Broilers 1 lb. 300 232
Chocolate
Unsweetened 1 cake 8 oz. 1400 118
Citron 1 lb. 1400 9
Clams, Round 1 pt. 1 lb. 200 117
Cocoa 1 box 1/2 lb. 1100 195
Cocoanut, Shredded 1 cup 24/5 oz. 500 20
Corn, Canned 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 550 63 .0031
Corn Meal 3 cups 1 lb. 1600 166 .0048
Cornstarch 1 cup 41/2 oz. 450 0
Crackers, Unsweetened 1 lb. 1800 176 .0063
Cranberries 1 qt. 1 lb. 200 7 .0026
Cream, Heavy 1/2 pt. 8 oz. 800 19 .0008
Thin 1/2 pt. 8 oz. 440 23 .0004
Cucumbers 2 medium 1 lb. 68 12
Currants, Dried 23/8 cup 1 lb. 1400 43
Dates, Unstoned 1 package 10 oz. 850 21 .008
Egg 1 2 oz. 75 25 .0014
Flour 1 cup 4 oz. 400 50 .0016
Entire Wheat 1 cup 4 oz. 400 62 .0053
Graham 1 cup 5 oz. 500 75 .0066
Fish
Haddock 1 lb. 160 152 .0016
Halibut Steak 1 lb. 550 337 .0011
Lobsters 1 lb. 140 107
Oysters, Solid 1 cup 200 100
Salmon, Canned 1 lb. 660 353 .0026
Fowl 1 lb. 750 248 .0097
Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams
Grapes 13/4 cup 1 lb. 328 23 .0042
Ham, Smoked, Medium Fat 1 lb. 1600 248 .0096
Hominy, Raw 1 cup 6 oz. 600 56
Lamb, Leg, Medium Fat 1 lb. 800 288 .0104
Loin 1 lb. 1200 290 .0120
Shoulder 1 lb. 1200 261 .0096
Chops, Broiled 1 lb. 1400 332 .0126
Leg, Hind Quarter, Medium Fat 1 lb. 850 288 .0110
Lemons 2 large 111/2 oz. 100 9 .0013
Lard 1 cup 8 oz. 2000 0
Lentils, Dried 21/3 cups 1 lb. 1581 466 .0096
Lettuce 1 head 9 oz. 50 12 .0025
Macaroni, Uncooked 1 cup 4 oz. 400 60
Milk, Skim 1 cup 81/2 oz. 80 32 .0050
Whole 1 cup 81/2 oz. 170 34 .0005
Molasses, Cane 1 cup 12 oz. 900 33
Mushrooms 44 1 lb. 200 63
Oats, Rolled 1 cup 23/4 oz. 300 48 .0027
Oil, Salad or Cooking 1 tbsp. 2/5 oz. 100 0
Onions 41/2 large 1 lb. 200 25 .0022
Orange Juice 1 cup 8 oz. 100 0
Oranges 1 large 9.5 oz. 100 6 .0006
Peanuts 1 cup shelled 51/3 oz. 800 156 .0028
Peas, Canned 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 300 78 .0045
Dried 1 cup 8 oz. 800 222 .0120
Pecans, Shelled 1 cup 51/3 oz. 1100 58
Pineapples 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 800 8 .0088
Pork, Loin Chops, Medium Fat 1 lb. 1200 243 .0084
Salt Fat 1 lb. 3500 34 .0014
Potatoes 4 medium 1 lb. 300 32 .0045
Prunes 46 (22/3 cups) 1 lb. 1200 32 .0108
Rice 1 cup 8 oz. 800 74 .0024
Raisins 1 cup 51/3 oz. 500 15 .0050
Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams
Rye Meal 1 cup 41/8 oz. 400 31
Sausage, Pork 1 lb. 2000 235 .0080
Spinach 1 pk. 3 lbs. 300 105 .0399
Sugar, Confectionery 1 cup 41/2 oz. 500 0
Brown 1 cup 51/2 oz. 600 0
Granulated 1 cup 8 oz. 900 0
Tapioca (Pearl) 1 cup 6 oz. 600 21
Tomatoes, Fresh 4 medium 1 lb. 100 16 .0017
Canned 1 qt. can 2 lbs. 1 oz. 200 43
Tripe 1 lb. 260 212
Turkey 1 lb. 1000 292 .0110
Turnip 2 1 lb. 150 16 .0019
Veal, Breast, Medium Fat 1 lb. 700 280 .0098
Leg, Medium Fat 1 lb. 600 280 .0114
Liver, Medium Fat 1 lb. 550 344 .0126
Loin, Medium Fat 1 lb. 670 290 .0162
Walnuts 1 cup 4 oz. 800 83 .0023
1. As Purchased

Cards may be used keep records of the food values of recipes or meals, ruled and made out as follows:

Recipe or Meal MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams

HOW TO ESTIMATE THE FOOD VALUE OF A RECIPE[edit]

Illustration. Baking Powder Biscuits[edit]

First enter the list of ingredients with the amount of each required. Consult Table of Food Values for the protein, iron grams, and total calories, and enter in their respective columns.

MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams

Flour2 cups800100.0030 Lard1 tbsp.125 Butter1 tbsp.100 Milk1/2 cup8517.00025 Totals1110117.00325

HOW TO ESTIMATE THE FOOD VALUE OF A MEAL[edit]

Illustration. Breakfast for Four[edit]

First enter the list of food to be served with the amount of each required. Consult Table of Food Values for the protein, iron grams, and total calories and enter in their respective columns.

MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams

Oranges4 (large)38 oz.40028.0024 Hominy3/4 cup41/2 oz.45042 Baking Powder Biscuitssee recipe card1110125.00325 Sugar1/4 cup2 oz.225 Whole Milk2 cups34968.0010 Butter2 tbsps.1 oz.200 Totals2725263.00665

HOW TO ESTIMATE THE FOOD VALUE OF A DAYS RATIONS[edit]

Calculate lunch and dinner same as breakfast, entering on cards as follows:

MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams </THEAD>

Macaroni1/4 lb.40060 Cheese2 oz.15065 Thin White Sauce2 cupsp. 26681577.0013 Golden Corn Cake Recipep. 751470162.0057 Butter2 oz.400 Lettuce1/2 head256.00125 Oil2 tbsps.200 Bananas31 lb.30014.0018 Cream1/4 pt.22011.0002 Totals3980395.00965

MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams Beef Rump, Lean1 lb.800346.0120 Potatoes41 lb.30032.0045 Spinach1/2 pk.15052.0199 Norwegian Prune Puddingp. 416165016.0054 Cream1/4 pt.22011.0002 Bread1/2 loaf1/2 lb.55084.00165 Butter1 oz.200 Totals3870541.04365

Enter meals as follows:

MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams

Breakfast2725263.00665 Lunch or Supper3980395.00965 Dinner3870541.04365 Totals10,5751199.05995 Required10,0001,000.06 toto 12,0005,000

Recipe or Meal: Baking Powder Biscuit Recipe or Meal: Breakfast for Four Recipe or Meal: Lunch or Supper Recipe or Meal: Dinner Recipe or Menu: Day’s Ration for Four