CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Angola

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
CIA WFB Seal.png Angola Flag of Angola (WFB 2004).gif
Angola map.png
 
Introduction Angola
Background: Angola has begun to enjoy the fruits of peace since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. DOS SANTOS has pledged to hold national elections in 2006.
 
Geography Angola
Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map references: Africa
Area: total: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries: total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Coastline: 1,600 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use: arable land: 2.41%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 97.35% (2001)
Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issues: overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
 
People Angola
Population: 10,978,552 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,410,326; female 2,363,368)
15-64 years: 53.7% (male 2,998,892; female 2,897,837)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 137,340; female 170,789) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 18.1 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.1 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.93% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 45.14 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 25.86 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 192.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 179.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 204.97 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 36.79 years
male: 36.06 years
female: 37.55 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.33 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 3.9% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 240,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 21,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases: typhoid fever, malaria, trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis
overall degree of risk: very high (2004)
Nationality: noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42%
male: 56%
female: 28% (1998 est.)
 
Government Angola
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
Government type: republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system
Capital: Luanda
Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992; note - new constitution has not yet been approved
Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a position of real power
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by universal ballot for a NA-year term; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, others 7
Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly
Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE]
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
consulate(s) general: Houston and New York
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher William DELL
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] (2) 445-481, 447-028, 446-224
FAX: [244] (2) 446-924
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
 
Economy Angola
Economy - overview: Angola has been an economy in disarray because of a quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. An apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI on February 22, 2002, but consequences from the conflict continue including the impact of wide-spread land mines. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and more than half of exports. Much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to continue reforming government policies and to reduce corruption. While Angola made progress in bringing inflation down further, from 325% in 2000 to about 106% in 2002, the government has failed to make sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF such as increasing foreign exchange reserves and promoting greater transparency in government spending. Increased oil production supported 7% GDP growth in 2003.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $20.42 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8%
industry: 67%
services: 25% (2001 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 31.7% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: 70% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 76.6% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 5.57 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)
Budget: revenues: $4.874 billion
expenditures: $6.012 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles
Industrial production growth rate: 1% (2000)
Electricity - production: 1.45 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 1.348 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2001)
Oil - production: 742,400 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 31,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Oil - proved reserves: 5.691 billion bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production: 530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 530 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 79.57 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance: $-475 million (2003)
Exports: $9.669 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partners: US 47.7%, China 23.4%, Taiwan 8%, France 7.4% (2003)
Imports: $4.08 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partners: Portugal 18.2%, South Africa 12.4%, US 12.2%, Netherlands 11.6%, France 6.5%, Brazil 6.1%, UK 4.2% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $638.4 million (2003)
Debt - external: $9.164 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $383.5 million (1999)
Currency: kwanza (AOA)
Currency code: AOA
Exchange rates: kwanza per US dollar - 74.6063 (2003), 43.5302 (2002), 22.0579 (2001), 10.041 (2000), 2.791 (1999), 0.393 (1998); note - in December 1999 the kwanza was revalued with six zeroes dropped off the old value
Fiscal year: calendar year
 
Communications Angola
Telephones - main lines in use: 96,300 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 130,000 (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links
domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Radio broadcast stations: AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)
Radios: 815,000 (2000)
Television broadcast stations: 6 (2000)
Televisions: 196,000 (2000)
Internet country code: .ao
Internet hosts: 17 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
Internet users: 41,000 (2002)
 
Transportation Angola
Railways: total: 2,761 km
narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2003)
Highways: total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (1999)
Waterways: 1,300 km (2004)
Pipelines: gas 214 km; liquid natural gas 14 km; liquid petroleum gas 30 km; oil 837 km; refined products 56 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Namibe (Mocamedes), Porto Amboim, Soyo
Merchant marine: total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 26,123 GRT/42,879 DWT
by type: cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1
registered in other countries: 4 (2004 est.)
Airports: 244 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 32
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 211
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 95
under 914 m: 80 (2004 est.)
 
Military Angola
Military branches: Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Air and Air Defense Forces (FANA)
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 17 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years plus time for training (2001)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,620,219 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,317,328 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 113,103 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $265.1 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (2003)
This page was last updated on 1 January 2003



This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005