CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Macedonia

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
CIA WFB Seal.png Macedonia Flag of Macedonia (WFB 2004).gif
Macedonia-CIA WFB Map (2004).png
 
Introduction Macedonia
Background: International recognition of Macedonia's independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995 and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, although differences over Macedonia's name remain. The undetermined status of neighboring Kosovo, implementation of the Framework Agreement - which ended the 2001 ethnic Albanian armed insurgency - and a weak economy continue to be challenges for Macedonia.
 
Geography Macedonia
Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 25,333 sq km
water: 477 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries: total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Natural resources: low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Land use: arable land: 22.26%
permanent crops: 1.81%
other: 75.93% (2001)
Irrigated land: 550 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: high seismic risks
Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
 
People Macedonia
Population: 2,071,210 (July 2004 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.5% (male 231,078; female 213,906)
15-64 years: 67.8% (male 707,298; female 696,830)
65 years and over: 10.7% (male 97,437; female 124,661) (2004 est.)
Median age: total: 32.8 years
male: 31.7 years
female: 33.9 years (2004 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.39% (2004 est.)
Birth rate: 13.14 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Death rate: 7.83 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 11.74 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
male: 12.67 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.73 years
male: 72.45 years
female: 77.2 years (2004 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.74 children born/woman (2004 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality: noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
Ethnic groups: Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.8%, Roma 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.3% (2002)
Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 70%, Muslim 29%, other 1%
Languages: Macedonian 68%, Albanian 25%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 2%, other 2%
Literacy: definition: NA
total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
 
Government Macedonia
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia; note - the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
local long form: Republika Makedonija
former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
local short form: Makedonija
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: Skopje
Administrative divisions: 123 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Bac, Belcista, Berovo, Bistrica, Bitola, Blatec, Bogdanci, Bogomila, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Cair (Skopje), Capari, Caska, Cegrane, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Delcevo, Delogozdi, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dobrusevo, Dolna Banjica, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov (Skopje), Drugovo, Dzepciste, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Izvor, Jegunovce, Kamenjane, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Klecevce, Kocani, Konce, Kondovo, Konopiste, Kosel, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kuklis, Kukurecani, Kumanovo, Labunista, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Lukovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovi Anovi, Meseista, Miravci, Mogila, Murtino, Negotino, Negotino-Polosko, Novaci, Novo Selo, Oblesevo, Ohrid, Orasac, Orizari, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Podares, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Rostusa, Samokov, Saraj, Sipkovica, Sopiste, Sopotnica, Srbinovo, Star Dojran, Staravina, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Topolcani, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Velesta, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vitoliste, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Vratnica, Vrutok, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zeleno, Zitose, Zletovo, Zrnovci
note: the seven municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"; new information suggests that the 123 municipalities have been consolidated into 84 municipalities
Independence: 8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsing independence from Yugoslavia)
National holiday: Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day and Ilinden
Constitution: adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991
note: in November of 2001, the Macedonian Assembly approved a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights
Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Vlado BUCKOVSKI (since 17 December 2004)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly; election last held 1 November 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%; Vlado BUCKOVSKI elected prime minister by the Assembly
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties SDSM, LDP, and BDI
Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats - members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; all serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Together for Macedonia coalition 60 (SDSM 43, LDP 12, others 5), VMRO-DPMNE 33 (VMRO 28 and LDT 5), Democratic Union for Integration 16, Democratic Party of Albanians 7, Party for Democratic Prosperity 2, National Democratic Party 1, Socialist Party of Macedonia 1
elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
Judicial branch: Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic League of the Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSH/DPA [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Republican Union of Macedonia or DRUM [Dosta DIMOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Vlachs for Macedonia [leader NA]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Agrarian Party or VMRO-Agrarian Party [Marjan GJORCEV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE (including VMRO and LDT) [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Option or VMRO-Vistinska [Boris ZMEJKOVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Macedonian [Boris STOJMENOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Vesna JANEVSKA]; League for Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Democratic Party or PDK [Basri HALITI]; National Farmers' Party [VejljoTANTAROV]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Vlado BUCKOVSKI, president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]; Together for Macedonia coalition (including the SDSM and LDP) [Vlado BUCKOVSI]; United Party for Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Civic Movement of Macedonia [Gordana SILJANOVSKA]; Movement for Macedonia's Euro-Atlantic Integration [Dosta DIMOVSKA]
International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MIGA, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nikola DIMITROV
chancery: Suite 302, 1101 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
consulate(s) general: Southfield, Michigan
FAX: [1] (202) 337-3093
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3063
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence Edward BUTLER
embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] 2 311-6180
FAX: [389] 2 311-7103
Flag description: a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
 
Economy Macedonia
Economy - overview: At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on Yugoslavia, one of its largest markets, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then rose to 2.8% in 2003. Unemployment at one-third of the workforce remains the most critical economic problem. The gray economy is estimated at around 40% of GDP. Politically, the country is more stable than in 2002.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $13.81 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,700 (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11.3%
industry: 32.1%
services: 56.6% (2003 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 16.3% of GDP (2003)
Population below poverty line: 30.2% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (2003 est.)
Labor force: 860,000 (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Unemployment rate: 36.7% (2003 est.)
Budget: revenues: $1.582 billion
expenditures: $1.661 billion, including capital expenditures of $80 million NA (2003 est.)
Public debt: 30.2% of GDP (2003)
Agriculture - products: rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton
Industries: coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco, food processing, buses, steel
Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2003 est.)
Electricity - production: 6.465 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - consumption: 6.112 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports: 100 million kWh (2001)
Oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption: 20,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports: NA (2001)
Oil - imports: NA (2001)
Current account balance: $-278 million (2003)
Exports: $1.346 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports - commodities: food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners: Serbia and Montenegro 37.8%, Germany 27%, Italy 14.7%, Greece 9.7%, Croatia 6.9%, US 6.1%, Netherlands 4.8% (2003)
Imports: $2.184 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products
Imports - partners: Greece 17.3%, Germany 12.6%, Serbia and Montenegro 9.2%, Slovenia 7.9%, Bulgaria 7.4%, Italy 6.2%, Turkey 6% (2003)
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold: $935.1 million (2003)
Debt - external: $1.929 billion (2003 est.)
Economic aid - recipient: $250 million (2003 est.)
Currency: Macedonian denar (MKD)
Currency code: MKD
Exchange rates: Macedonian denars per US dollar - NA (2003), 64.3498 (2002), 68.0371 (2001), 65.9039 (2000), 56.9018 (1999)
Fiscal year: calendar year
 
Communications Macedonia
Telephones - main lines in use: 560,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 365,300 (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: country code - 389
Radio broadcast stations: AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 410,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions: 510,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .mk
Internet hosts: 3,738 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)
Internet users: 100,000 (2002)
 
Transportation Macedonia
Railways: total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified) (2003)
Highways: total: 8,684 km
paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 3,144 km (1999 est.)
Pipelines: gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2004)
Ports and harbors: none
Airports: 17 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)
 
Military Macedonia
Military branches: Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM; including Air and Air Defense Command)
Military manpower - military age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service, tour of conscript duty is 6 months; 17 years of age for voluntary service (2004)
Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 555,611 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 448,095 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 17,595 (2004 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure: $200 million (FY01/02 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6% (FY01/02 est.)
This page was last updated on 1 January 2003



This is a snapshot of the CIA World Fact Book as it existed on 26 March 2005