Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary 1908/C Canton
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fāte, fär; mē, hėr; mīne; mōte; mūte; mōōn; then.
the third letter of our alphabet, originally having the sound of g, then of k, and finally, in some languages, equivalent to s: (mus.) name of one of the notes of the gamut, also the sound on which the system is founded—the scale C major has neither flats nor sharps, and therefore is called the natural scale.
Caaba, kä′a-ba, n. the Moslem Holy of Holies, a square building at Mecca, containing the famous Black Stone built into the south-east corner at a height convenient for being kissed. [Ar.]
Caaing-whale, kä′ing-hwāl, n. one of the Cetacea, in the dolphin family, very gregarious, and oftener stranded than any other 'whale'—16 to 24 feet long, and 10 feet in girth. Other names are Pilot-whale, Black-fish, Social Whale, Grindhval. [Scot. ca, to drive.]
Cab, kab, n. a public carriage of various sizes and shapes, with two or four wheels, drawn by one horse.—ns. Cab′by, a shortened form of Cab′man, one who drives a cab for hire; Cab′-stand, a place where cabs stand for hire; Cab′-tout, one whose business it is to call cabs.—Cabmen's shelter, a place of shelter for cabmen while waiting for hire. [Shortened from Cabriolet.]
Cab, kab, n. a Hebrew dry measure = nearly three pints. [Heb. kab—kabab, to hollow.]
Cabal, ka-bal′, n. a small party united for some secret design: the plot itself: a name in English history esp. given to five unpopular ministers of Charles II. (1672), whose initials happened to make up the word.—v.i. to form a party for a secret purpose: to plot:—pr.p. cabal′ling.—n. Cabal′ler, a plotter or intriguer. [Fr. cabale; from Cabala.]
Caballero, kä-bä-lyā′rō, n. a Spanish gentleman: a Spanish dance.
Caballine, kab′a-lin, adj. pertaining to, or suited to, a horse. [L. caballinus—caballus, a horse.]
Cabaret, kab′a-ret, n. a small tavern. [Fr., prob. for cabanaret—cabane, a hut.]
Cabas, Caba, kab′a, n. a woman's work-basket or reticule: a rush basket or pannier. [Fr.]
Cabbage, kab′āj, n. a well-known kitchen vegetable.—ns. Cabb′age-butt′erfly, a large butterfly whose larvæ injure the leaves of cabbage and other cruciferous plants; Cabb′age-moth, a moth whose larva feeds on the cabbage; Cabb′age-palm, Cabb′age-tree, a name given in different countries to different species of palm, the great terminal bud of which is eaten cooked like cabbage, or sometimes also raw in salads; Cabb′age-rose, a species of rose which has a thick form like a cabbage-head; Cabb′age-worm, the larva of the cabbage-butterfly or of the cabbage-moth. [Fr. caboche, head (choux cabus, a cabbage); from L. caput, the head.]
Cabbage, kab′āj, v.t. and v.i. to purloin, esp. a tailor of portions of a customer's cloth.—n. cloth so appropriated.
Cabbala, Cabala, kab′a-la, n. a secret science of the Jewish rabbis for the interpretation of the hidden sense of Scripture, claimed to be handed down by oral tradition.—ns. Cabb′alism, the science of the cabbala; Cabb′alist, one versed in the cabbala.—adjs. Cabbalist′ic, -al, relating to the cabbala: having a hidden meaning. [Heb. qabbālāh, tradition, qibbēl, to receive.]
Caber, kāb′ėr, n. a pole, generally the stem of a young tree, which is poised and tossed or hurled by Highland athletes. [Gael.]
Cabin, kab′in, n. a hut or cottage: a small room, esp. in a ship, for officers or passengers—hence Cab′in-pass′enger, one paying for superior accommodation.—v.t. to shut up in a cabin.—v.i. to dwell in a cabin.—n. Cab′in-boy, a boy who waits on the officers or those who live in the cabin of a ship. [Fr. cabane—Low L. capanna.]
Cabinet, kab′in-et, n. (obs.) a little cabin or hut: (Shak.) the bed or nest of a beast or bird: a small room, closet, or private apartment: a case of drawers for articles of value: a private room for consultation, esp. a king's—hence The Cabinet, a limited number of the chief ministers who govern England, being the leaders of the majority in parliament.—ns. Cab′inet-coun′cil, a council or consultation of the members of the Cabinet; Cab′inet-edi′tion (of a book), one less in size and price than a library edition, but still elegant in format; Cab′inet-mak′er, a maker of cabinets and other fine furniture; Cab′inet-phō′tograph, one of the size larger than a carte-de-visite. [Dim. of Cabin; cf. mod. Fr. cabinet.]
Cabiri, ka-bī′rī, n.pl. ancient divinities of Semitic origin, associated with fire and creative energy, worshipped in mysteries in Lemnos, Samothrace, and Indros—also Cabei′ri.—adjs. Cabir′ian, Cabir′ic.
Cable, kā′bl, n. a strong rope or chain which ties anything, esp. a ship to her anchor: a nautical measure of 100 fathoms; a cable for submarine telegraphs composed of wires embedded in gutta-percha and encased in coiled strands of iron wire; a bundle of insulated wires laid underground in a street: a cable-message.—v.t. to provide with a cable, to tie up: to transmit a message, or to communicate with any one by submarine telegram.—ns. Cā′blegram, a message sent by submarine telegraph cable; Cā′ble-mould′ing, a bead or moulding carved in imitation of a thick rope; Cā′bling, a bead or moulding like a thick rope, often worked in flutes: the filling of flutes with a moulding like a cable.—Slip the cable, to let it run out. [Fr.—Low L. caplum, a halter—cap-ĕre, to hold.]
Cabob, ka-bob′, n. an Oriental dish of pieces of meat roasted with herbs: roast meat generally in India. [Ar. kabāb.]
Caboched, Caboshed, ka-bosht′, adj. (her.) bearing the head of an animal, with only the face seen. [Fr. caboché—L. caput, head.]
Cabochon, ka-bō-shong, n. a precious stone polished but uncut.—En cabochon, rounded on top and flat on back, without facets—garnets, moonstone, &c. [Fr.]
Caboodle, ka-bōō′dl, n. (slang) crowd, company.
Caboose, ka-bōōs′, n. the kitchen or cooking-stove of a ship. [Dut. kombuis; cf. Ger. kabuse.]
Cabriole. See Capriole.
Cabriolet, kab-ri-ō-lā′, n. a covered carriage with two or four wheels drawn by one horse. [Fr. See Capriole. By 1830 shortened into Cab.]
Cacao, ka-kā′o, ka-kä′o, n. the chocolate-tree, from the seeds of which chocolate is made. [Mex. cacauatl.]
Cachæmia, Cachemia, ka-kē′mi-a, n. a morbid state of the blood.—adj. Cachē′mic. [Gr. kakos, bad, haima, blood.]
Cachalot, kash′a-lot, n. the sperm-whale. [Fr.]
Cache, kash, n. a hiding-place for treasure, for stores of provisions, ammunition, &c.: the stores themselves so hidden.—v.t. to hide anything.—n. Cache′pot, an ornamental flower-pot enclosing a common one of earthenware. [Fr. cacher, to hide.]
Cachet, kash′ā, n. a seal, any distinctive stamp.—Lettre de cachet, a letter under the private seal of the king of France under the old régime, by which the royal pleasure was made known to individuals, and the administration of justice often interfered with. [Fr.]
Cachexy, ka-kek′si, n. a bad state of body: a depraved habit of mind.—adjs. Cachec′tic, -al. [L.—Gr. kachexia—kakos, bad, hexis, condition.]
Cachinnation, kak-in-ā′shun, n. loud laughter.—adj. Cachin′natory. [L. cachinnation-em, cachinnāre, to laugh loudly—from the sound.]
Cacholong, kash′o-long, n. a variety of quartz or of opal, generally of a milky colour. [Fr.]
Cacholot. Same as Cachalot.
Cachou, kash′ōō, n. a sweetmeat, made in the form of a pill, of extract of liquorice, cashew-nut, or the like, used by some smokers in the hope to sweeten their breath. [Fr.]
Cachucha, kach′ōōch-a, n. a lively Spanish dance. [Sp.]
Cacique, ka-sēk′, n. a native chief among the West Indian aborigines. [Haytian.]
Cackle, kak′l, n. the sound made by a hen or goose.—v.i. to make such a sound.—ns. Cack′ler, a fowl that cackles: a talkative, gossiping person; Cack′ling, noise of a goose or hen. [M. E. cakelen; cog. with Dut. hakelen.]
Cacodemon, kak-o-dē′mon, n. an evil spirit: (Shak.) a nightmare. [Gr. kakos, bad, and Demon.]
Cacodyl, kak′o-dil, n. a colourless stinking liquid, composed of arsenic, carbon, and hydrogen. [Gr. kakōdēs, ill-smelling.]
Cacoethes, kak-o-ē′thēz, n. an obstinate habit or disposition. [Gr. kakos, bad, ēthos, habit.]
Cacogastric, kak-ō-gas′trik, adj. pertaining to a disordered stomach, dyspeptic. [Gr. kakos, bad, gastēr, the stomach.]
Cacography, kak-og′ra-fi, n. bad writing or spelling.—adj. Cacograph′ic [Gr. kakos, bad, and graphia, writing.]
Cacolet, kak′o-lā, n. a military mule-litter for sick and wounded. [Fr.; prob. Basque.]
Cacology, ka-kol′o-ji, n. bad grammar or pronunciation. [Gr. kakos, bad, logos, speech.]
Cacoon, ka-kōōn′, n. a large seed of a tropical climber of the bean family, used for making scent-bottles, snuff boxes, purses, &c.: a purgative and emetic seed of a tropical American climber of the gourd family.
Cacophony, ka-kof′ō-ni, n. a disagreeable sound: discord of sounds.—adjs. Cacoph′onous, Cacophon′ic, -al, Cacophō′nious, harsh-sounding. [Gr. kakos, bad, phōnē, sound.]
Cactus, kak′tus, n. an American plant, generally with prickles instead of leaves.—adj. Cactā′ceous, pertaining to or like the cactus. [Gr., a prickly plant found in Sicily.]
Cad, kad, n. a low, mean, or vulgar fellow: a bus driver or conductor, a tavern-yard loafer.—adj. Cad′dish. [Short for Cadet.]
Cadastral, ka-das′tral, adj. pertaining to a Cadastre or public register of the lands of a country for fiscal purposes: applied also to a survey on a large scale, like our Ordnance Survey on the scale of 25 inches to the mile. [Fr.—Low L. capitastrum, register for a poll-tax—L. caput, the head.]
Cadaverous, ka-dav′ė-rus, adj. looking like a dead body: sickly-looking.—n. Cadāv′er (surg. and anat.), a corpse.—adj. Cadav′eric.—n. Cadav′erousness. [L. cadaver, a dead body—cad-ĕre, to fall dead.]
Caddice, Caddis, kad′dis, n. the larva of the May-fly and other species of Phryganea, which lives in water in a sheath formed of fragments of wood, stone, shell, leaves, &c., open at both ends—caddis-worms form excellent bait for trout.—n. Cad′dis-fly.
Caddie, kad′i, n. a lad who attends a golfer at play, carrying his clubs: in 18th century a messenger or errand porter in Edinburgh. [See Cadet.]
Caddis, kad′dis, n. (Shak.) worsted ribbon. [O. Fr. cadaz, cadas.]
Caddy, kad′i, n. a small box for holding tea. [Malay kati, the weight of the small packets in which tea is made up.]
Cade, kād, n. a barrel or cask. [Fr.—L. cadus, a cask.]
Cade, kād, n. and adj. a lamb or colt brought up by hand, a pet lamb. [Ety. unknown.]
Cadeau, kad′o, n. a present. [Fr.]
Cadenas, kad′e-nas, n. in medieval times, a locked casket containing a great man's table requisites, knife, fork, spoon, &c., often in the form of a ship. [O. Fr.,—L. catena, a chain.]
Cadence, kā′dens, n. the fall of the voice at the end of a sentence: tone, sound, modulation.—adj. Cā′denced, rhythmical.—n. Cā′dency, regularity of movement: (her.) the relative status of younger sons.—adj. Cā′dent (Shak.), falling.—n. Caden′za, a flourish given by a solo voice or instrument at the close of a movement. [Fr.—L. cad-ĕre, to fall.]
Cadet, ka-det′, n. the younger or youngest son: a member of the younger branch of a family: in the army, one who serves as a private to become an officer: a student in a military school.—n. Cadet′ship.—Cadet corps, parties of boys undergoing military training. [Fr. cadet, formerly capdet—Low L. capitettum, dim. of caput, the head.]
Cadge, kaj, v.i. to beg or go about begging.—n. Cadg′er, a carrier who collects country produce, a hawker: a fellow who picks up his living about the streets. [Prob. conn. with Catch.]
Cadgy, kaj′i, adj. (prov.) frolicsome: wanton. [Cf. Dan. kaad, wanton, Ice. kátr, merry.]
Cadi, kā′di, n. a judge in Mohammedan countries. [Ar. qādī, a judge.]
Cadmean, kad-mē′an, adj. relating to Cadmus, who introduced the original Greek alphabet.
Cadmia, kad′mi-a, n. oxide of zinc, containing from 10 to 20 per cent. of cadmium. [Gr. kadmia, kadmeia (ge), Cadmean (earth), calamine.]
Cadmium, kad′mi-um, n. a white metal occurring in zinc ores. [See Cadmia.]
Cadrans, kad′rans, n. a wooden instrument by which a gem is adjusted while being cut. [Fr. cadran, a quadrant.]
Cadre, kad′r, n. a nucleus, framework, esp. the permanent skeleton of a regiment or corps, the commissioned and non-commissioned officers, &c., around whom the rank and file may be quickly grouped. [Fr.]
Caduceus, ka-dū′se-us, n. (myth.) the rod carried by Mercury, the messenger of the gods—a wand surmounted with two wings and entwined by two serpents.—adj. Cadū′cean. [L., akin to Gr. kērukeion, a herald's wand—kērux, a herald.]
Caducibranchiate, ka-dūi-si-brang′ki-āt, adj. losing the gills on attaining maturity, as all the salamanders.—n.pl. Caducibranchiā′ta. [L. caducus, caducous, branchiæ, gills.]
Caducous, ka-dū′kus, adj. falling early, as leaves or flowers.—n. Cadū′city, transitoriness, senility. [L. caducus—cad-ĕre, to fall.]
Cæcum, sē′kum, n. a blind sac: a sac or bag having only one opening, connected with the intestine of an animal.—adj. Cæ′cal. [L.—cæcus, blind.]
Caen-stone, kā′en-stōn, n. a cream-coloured limestone brought from Caen in France.
Cæsar, sē′zar, n. an absolute monarch, an autocrat, from the Roman dictator Caius Julius Cæsar (100-44 B.C.).—adj. Cæsar′ean, relating to Julius Cæsar.—ns. Cæ′sarism; Cæ′sarist; Cæ′sarship.—Cæsarean operation, the popular name for Hysterotomy, the delivery of a child by cutting through the walls of the abdomen, as is said to have been the case with Cæsar.
Cæsium, sēz′i-um, n. a silver-white, soft, and extensile alkaline metal, almost always found along with rubidium, discovered by Bunsen and Kirchhoff in 1860 by spectrum analysis.—adj. Cæs′ious, bluish green. [L. cæsius, bluish gray.]
Cæsura, Cesura, sē-zū′ra, n. a syllable cut off at the end of a word after the completion of a foot: a pause in a verse.—adj. Cæsū′ral. [L.—cædĕre, cæsum, to cut off.]
Café, käf′ā, n. a coffee-house, a restaurant.—Café chantant, a public place of entertainment where the guests hear music while sipping their liquor. [Fr.]
Caffeine, kaf′e-in, or kaf-ē′in, n. the alkaloid or active principle of coffee and tea. [Fr. caféine. See Coffee.]
Caffre, kaf′fėr, n. more correctly Kafir (q.v.).
Caftan, kaf′tan, n. a Persian or Turkish vest. [Turk. qaftán.]
Cage, kāj, n. a place of confinement: a box made of wire and wood for holding birds or small animals: (mining) a frame with one or more platforms for cars, used in hoisting in a vertical shaft: the framework supporting a peal of bells.—v.t. to imprison in a cage—p.adj. Caged, confined.—ns. Cage′ling, a bird kept in a cage; Cage′-work, open work like the bars of a cage. [Fr.—L. cavea, a hollow place.]
Cagot, kag′ō, n. one of an outcast race found scattered in the district of the western Pyrenees, most likely the descendants of lepers. [Fr.; origin unknown.]
Cahier, ka-yā′, n. a writing-book, memorandum or report: a memorial. [Fr.]
Cahoot, ka-hōōt′, n. (U.S.) company or partnership.
Caillach, kīl′yah, n. an old woman. [Gael. cailleach.]
Caimac, Caimacam. See Kaimakam.
Caiman. Same as Cayman.
Cain, kān, n. a murderer, from Cain, who killed his brother Abel (Gen. iv.).—adj. Cain′-col′oured (Shak.), reddish, the traditional colour of the hair of Cain and Judas.—n. Cain′ite, a descendant of Cain: a member of a 2d-century set of Gnostics who revered Cain and Judas.
Cain, Kain, kān, n. in old Scots law, rent paid in kind, esp. in poultry, &c.—To pay the cain, to pay the penalty. [Ir. and Gael, cáin, rent, tax.]
Cainozoic, kā-no-zō′ik, adj. belonging to the third of the great periods of geology, the same as the Tertiary (q.v.). [Gr. kainos, newly made, recent, zōon, animal.]
Caique, kä-ēk′, n. a light skiff used on the Bosporus: the skiff of a galley. [Fr.,—Turk. kaik, a boat.]
Caird, kārd, n. a tramping tinker, a gipsy, a vagrant. [Gael. and Ir. ceard.]
Cairn, kārn, n. a heap of stones, esp. one raised over a grave, or as a landmark on a mountain-top.—n. Cairn′gorm-stone, or simply Cairngorm, a name often given by jewellers to brown or yellow quartz or rock-crystal, because found among the Cairngorm Mountains in Aberdeenshire. [Celt. carn.]
Caisson, kās′on, n. a tumbril or ammunition wagon: a chest filled with explosive materials: a strong case for keeping out the water while the foundations of a bridge are being built: an apparatus for lifting a vessel out of the water for repairs or inspection: the pontoon or floating gate used to close a dry-dock. [Fr., from caisse, a case or chest. See Case.]
Caitiff, kā′tif, n. a mean despicable fellow.—adj. mean, base.—n. Cai′tive (Spens.), captive, subject. [O. Fr. caitif, (Fr. chétif)—L. captivus, a captive—cap-ĕre, to take.]
Cajole, ka-jōl′, v.t. to coax: to cheat by flattery.—ns. Cajole′ment, coaxing for the purpose of deluding: wheedling language: flattery; Cajol′er; Cajol′ery. [Fr. cajoler, to chatter; ety. dub.]
Cajuput, kaj′i-put, n. a pungent, volatile, aromatic oil, distilled from the leaves of two trees native to Australia.—Also Caj′eput. [Malay.]
Cake, kāk, n. a piece of dough that is baked: a small loaf of fine bread: any flattened mass baked, as pan-cake, &c., or as soap, wax, tobacco, &c.: a thin hard-baked kind of oaten-bread—whence Scotland is styled the 'Land of Cakes:' fancy bread, sweetened: a composition of bread with butter, sugar, spices, currants, raisins, &c., baked into any form—plum-cake, tea-cake, wedding-cake.—v.t. to form into a cake or hard mass.—v.i. to become baked or hardened.—adj. Cak′y.—Cakes and ale, a phrase covering vaguely all the good things of life.—To take the cake (slang), to carry off the honours, rank first. [Scand. kaka; cog. with Ger. kuche, Dut. koek.]
Calabar-bean, käl′a-bär-bēn, n. the seed of Physostigma venenosum, the ordeal bean of Old Calabar, used in the form of an emulsion in cases of witchcraft, the accused being plainly innocent if he can throw off the poison by vomiting.
Calabash, kal′a-bash, n. a tree of tropical America, bearing a large melon-like fruit, the shell of which, called a calabash, is used for domestic purposes, as holding liquids, &c. [Fr. calebasse—Sp. calabaza—Pers. kharbuz, melon.]
Calaboose, kal′a-bōōs, n. a prison in New Orleans, esp. a common lock-up. [Sp. calabozo, a dungeon.]
Caladium, kal-ā′di-um, n. a genus of plants of the Arum family, with edible starchy root-stocks. [Latinised from Malay kélādy.]
Calamanco, kal-a-mangk′o, n. a satin-twilled woollen stuff, checkered or brocaded in the warp. [Dut. kalamink, Ger. kalmank, Fr. calmande; origin unknown.]
Calamander, kal′a-man-dėr, n. a hard and valuable cabinet-wood of a brownish colour, with black stripes, brought from India and Ceylon. [Prob. Singh.]
Calamary, kal′a-mar-i, n. a popular name applied to numerous forms of cuttle-fish or Cephalopoda, more esp. to Loligo vulgaris.—Also Squid. [Sp. calamar—Fr. calmar—L. calamarius, calamus, a pen.]
Calamine, kal′a-mīn, n. an ore consisting essentially of carbonate of zinc. [Fr.—Low L. calamina, most prob. from L. cadmia.]
Calamint, kal′a-mint, n. a genus of Labiate plants closely allied to balm and thyme. [Fr.—Low L. calamentum, through L. from Gr. kalaminthē.]
Calamite, kal′a-mīt, n. a fossil plant abundant in the coal-measures, believed to be a kind of gigantic horse-tails (Equisetaceæ). [Formed from L. calamus, a reed.]
Calamity, kal-am′i-ti, n. a great misfortune: affliction.—adj. Calam′itous, making wretched, disastrous.—adv. Calam′itously, in a calamitous manner.—n. Calam′itousness, the quality of producing distress: distress: misery. [Fr. calamité—L. calamitat-em.]
Calamus, kal′a-mus, n. the traditional name of the sweet flag, which is no doubt the Calamus aromaticus of Roman authors, and probably the sweet calamus and sweet cane of Scripture, but not the fragrant lemon-grass of India: a genus of palms whose stems make canes or rattans: the reed pen used by the ancients in writing. [L.—Gr.]
Calash, ka-lash′, n. a light low-wheeled carriage with a folding top: a silk and whalebone hood worn by ladies to shade the face. [Fr. calèche; of Slav. origin, as Bohem. kolésa, Russ. koleso, a wheel.]
Calavance, kal′a-vans, n. a name for certain varieties of pulse.—Also Car′avance. [Sp. garbanzo, chickpea, said to be the Basque garbantzu.]
Calcaneum, kal-kā′nē-um, n. a bone of the tarsus or ankle, forming in man the prominence of the heel, the os calcis: in birds, the hypotarsus.—adjs. Calcā′neal, Calcā′nean. [L., the heel—calx, the heel.]
Calcar, kal′kar, n. (bot.) a spur or spur-like projection, esp. from the base of a petal: (anat.) an eminence in the lateral ventricles of the brain, the hippocampus minor or calcar avis.—adjs. Cal′carate; Calcar′iform; Cal′carine. [L., a spur—calx, calcis, the heel.]
Calcar, kal′kar, n. an oven or furnace for calcining the materials of frit before melting—also Fritting-furnace: an arch or oven for annealing.
Calcareous, kal-kā′re-us, adj. like or containing chalk or lime, whether waters, rocks, or soils.—n. Calcā′reousness.—adj. Calcarif′erous, better Calcif′erous, containing lime. [L. calcarius, from calx, lime.]
Calceamentum, kal-sē-a-men′tum, n. a red silk embroidered sandal forming part of the insignia of the Holy Roman Empire. [L.]
Calced, kalst, adj. shod, wearing shoes—opp. to Discalced—of Carmelites.—v.t. Cal′cēate, to shoe.—adjs. Cal′cēate, -d, shod; Cal′cēiform (bot.), having the form of a slipper; Cal′cēolate, calceiform. [Low L. calceus, a shoe—calx, calcis, the heel.]
Calceolaria, kal-se-o-lā′ri-a, n. a South American genus of Scrophulariaceæ, largely cultivated as half-hardy or greenhouse plants for the beauty and variety in colour of the two-lipped slipper-like flowers. [L. calceolus, dim. of calceus, a shoe.]
Calcium, kal′si-um, n. the metal present in chalk, stucco, and other compounds of lime.—adjs. Cal′cic, containing calcium; Cal′cific, calcifying or calcified.—v.i. Cal′cificā′tion, the process of calcifying, a changing into lime.—adjs. Cal′ciform, like chalk, pebbly; Calcif′ugous, avoiding limestone.—v.t. and v.i. Cal′cify, to make calcic: to turn into bony tissue.—adjs. Calcig′enous, forming lime; Calcig′erous, containing lime.—n. Cal′cimine, a white or tinted wash for ceilings, walls, &c., consisting of whiting, with glue, &c.—v.t. to wash with such.—adj. Cal′cinable, capable of being calcined.—n. Calcinā′tion.—v.t. Cal′cine, or Calcine′, to reduce to a calx or chalky powder by the action of heat, to burn to ashes.—v.i. to become a calx or powder by heat.—ns. Cal′cite, native calcium carbonate, or carbonate of lime—also called Calcā′reous spar and Calc′spar; Calc′-sin′ter, Calc′-tuff, Tra′vertin, a porous deposit from springs or rivers which in flowing through limestone rocks have become charged with calcium carbonate. [Formed from L. calx, chalk.]
Calcography. See Chalcography.
Calculate, kal′kū-lāt, v.t. to count or reckon: to think out: to adapt, fit (only passive, with for): (U.S.) to think, purpose.—v.i. to make a calculation: to estimate.—adjs. Cal′culable; Cal′culating, given to forethought, deliberately selfish and scheming.—n. Calculā′tion, the art or process of calculating: estimate: forecast.—adj. Cal′culātive, relating to calculation.—n. Cal′culātor, one who calculates. [L. calculāre, -ātum, to reckon by help of little stones—calculus, dim. of calx, a little stone.]
Calculus, kal′kū-lus, n. a stone-like concretion which forms in certain parts of the body: one of the higher branches of mathematics:—pl. Calculi (kal′kū-li).—adj. Cal′culose, stony or like stone: gritty: affected with stone or with gravel.—Calculus of finite differences not merely does not consider differentials, but does not assume continuity.—Differential calculus, a method of treating the values of ratios of differentials or the increments of quantities continually varying; Integral calculus, the summation of an infinite series of differentials. [L.—calx.]
Caldron. Same as Cauldron.
Caledonian, kal-e-dō′ni-an, adj. pertaining to Caledonia, or Scotland.—n. a Scotchman.
Calefaction, kal-e-fak′shun, adj. act of heating: state of being heated.—adj. Calefā′cient, warming.—n. anything that warms: a blister or superficial stimulant.—adj. Calefac′tive, communicating heat.—n. Calefac′tor, a small stove.—adj. Calefac′tory, warming.—n. a room in which monks warmed themselves: a warming-pan, a pome.—v.t. and v.i. Cal′efy, to grow warm: to make warm.—n. Cales′cence, increasing warmth. [L.,—calēre, to grow hot, facĕre, to make.]
Calendar, kal′en-dar, n. the mode of adjusting the natural divisions of time with respect to each other for the purposes of civil life: an almanac or table of months, days, and seasons, or of special facts, &c., as in the 'gardener's calendar,' &c.: a list of documents arranged chronologically with summaries of contents, as in 'calendar of state papers:' a list of canonised saints, or of prisoners awaiting trial: any list or record.—v.t. to place in a list: to analyse and index.—ns. Cal′endarer, Cal′endarist. [O. Fr. calendier—L. calendarium, an account-book, kalendæ, calends.]
Calender, kal′en-dėr, n. a press consisting of two rollers for smoothing and dressing cloth, paper, &c.: a person who calenders, properly a calendrer.—v.t. to dress in a calender.—ns. Cal′endering; Cal′endrer, one whose business it is to calender cloth; Cal′endry, a place where calendering is done. [Fr. calandre—L. cylindrus—L. kylindros.]
Calender, kal′en-dėr, n. a word somewhat loosely used for dervish in Persia and Central Asia. [Pers.]
Calends, kal′endz, n. among the Romans, the first day of each month. [L. Kalendæ—calăre, Gr. kalein, to call, because the beginning of the month was proclaimed.]
Calenture, kal′en-tūr, n. a kind of fever or delirium occurring on board ship in hot climates. [Fr. and Sp.—L. calent-em, calēre, to be hot.]
Calescence. See Calefaction.
Calf, käf, n. the young of the cow and of some other animals, as marine mammals: calf-skin leather, bookbinding in such: a stupid or a cowardly person:—pl. Calves (kävz).—ns. Calf′-love, an attachment between a boy and girl; Calf's′-foot, Calves'-foot, the foot of the calf, used in making a palatable jelly; Calf′-skin, the skin of the calf, making a good leather for bookbinding and shoes.—Divinity calf, a dark-brown calf bookbinding, with blind stamping, and without gilding—common in the binding of theological books; Golden calf, the idol set up by Aaron during the absence of Moses on Sinai, or those erected by Jeroboam at Bethel and Dan: worship of Mammon or wealth; Half-calf, a bookbinding in which the back and corners are in calf-skin; Mottled calf, a light coloured bookbinding, decorated by the sprinkling of acid in drops; Smooth calf, a binding in plain or undecorated calf leather.—The calves of our lips (Hosea, xiv. 2), an offering of praise (the Septuagint reads, 'The fruit of our lips').—Tree calf, a bright brown calf bookbinding, stained by acids with a pattern resembling the trunk and branches of a tree. [A.S. cealf; Ger. kalb.]
Calf, käf, n. the thick fleshy part of the leg behind.—adj. Calf′less, with a thin, poor calf. [Ice. kalfi; perh. the same word as the preceding.]
Caliban, kal′i-ban, n. a man of beastly nature, from the monster in Shakespeare's Tempest.
Calibre, Caliber, kal′i-bėr, n. the size of the bore of a gun: diameter: intellectual capacity.—adj. Cal′ibered.—v.t. Cal′ibrāte, to determine the calibre of.—n. Calibrā′tion. [Fr. calibre, the bore of a gun; prob. L. quā librā, with what weight, or from Ar. qālib, a form.]
Calico, kal′i-kō, n. a cotton cloth, first brought from Calicut in India: plain white unprinted cotton cloth, bleached or unbleached: coarse printed cotton cloth.—adj. made of calico: spotted—n. Cal′ico-print′er, one employed in printing calicoes.
Calid, kal′id, adj. warm.—n. Calid′ity. [L. calidus, hot.]
Calif, Caliph, kā′lif, or kal′if, n. the name assumed by the successors of Mohammed.—ns. Cal′ifate, Cal′iphate, the office, rank, or government of a calif. [Fr.—Ar. khalīfah, a successor.]
Caliginous, kal-ij′en-us, adj. dim, obscure, dark.—n. Caliginos′ity. [L. caliginos-us.]
Caligraphy. See under Calligraphy.
Calipash, kal′i-pash, n. the part of a turtle close to the upper shell, consisting of a fatty gelatinous substance of a dull greenish colour.—n. Cal′ipee, the white portion from the belly—a fatty gelatinous substance of a light-yellowish colour. [Prob. corr. of West Ind. words.]
Calipers, kal′i-pėrz, Caliper-compasses, kal′i-pėr-kum′pasez, n.pl. compasses with legs suitable for measuring the inside or outside diameter of bodies. [Corr. of Caliber.]
Caliph, Caliphate. See Calif.
Calippic, kal-ip′ik, adj. four Metonic cycles less one day, or seventy-six years. [From the Greek astronomer Callipus, a contemporary of Aristotle.]
Calisaya, kal-i-sā′ya, n. a variety of Peruvian bark.
Caliver, kal′i-vėr, n. (Shak.) a kind of light musket. [Same as Calibre.]
Calix. See Calyx.
Calixtin, Calixtine, kal-iks′tin, adj. of or belonging to the more moderate party among the Hussites, so called from their demanding the cup (L. calix) as well as the bread for the laity—also called U′traquists (L. uterque, both).—n. a follower of the Syncretist Lutheran divine, George Calixtus (1586-1656).
Calk. See Caulk.
Calk, kawk, n. a pointed piece of iron on a horse-shoe to prevent slipping—also Calk′in and Calk′er.—v.t. to provide a shoe with a calk. [L. calc-em, calx, a heel.]
Calk, Calque, kawk, v.t. to chalk, as the back of a drawing, &c., in order to transfer it, to copy by tracing.—n. Calk′ing, the copying of a picture by means of tracing.
Call, kawl, v.i. to cry aloud (with out; to, after, at, up, down): to make a short visit (with upon, for, at).—v.t. to name: to summon: to appoint or proclaim: to designate or reckon: to select for a special office, as in 'called to be an apostle,' 'to be called to the bar:' (coll.) to call bad names to some one.—n. a summons or invitation: an impulse: a demand: a short visit: a shrill whistle: the cry of a bird: admission to the rank of barrister: an invitation to the pastorate of a congregation, also the written form of such with appended list of names of persons concurring: (coll.) occasion, cause.—ns. Call′-at-large, a form of pastoral call sometimes adopted by a presbytery where a congregation is not unanimous, in which the name of the person to be called is not inscribed beforehand, and names cannot be adhibited by mandate; Call′-bird, a bird trained to allure others into snares; Call′-boy, a boy who waits upon the prompter in a theatre, and calls the actors when wanted on the stage; Call′er, one who pays a short visit; Call′ing, that station to which a person is called by Providence to fill: one's trade, profession, or occupation; Call′ing-crab, a popular name for the fiddler-crab, which waves its larger claw when disturbed; Call′-note, the note by which a bird or beast calls its young.—Call attention to, to point out; Call away, to divert the mind; Call back, to recall; Call for, to ask loudly: claim; Call forth, to bring or summon to action; Call for trumps, to lay down such cards at whist as will induce one's partner to lead a trump; Call in, to bring in from outside, as the notes in circulation, &c.; Call in question, to challenge; Call off, to summon away; Call on, or upon, to invoke, appeal to; Call out, to challenge to fight, esp. a duel: to summon to service, bring into operation; Call over, to read aloud a list; Call to account, to summon to render an account; Call up, to summon from beneath, or to a tribunal. [A.S. ceallian; Ice. kalla, Dut. kallen.]
Call, kawl, n. (Spens.) a caul or cap.
Callant, käl′ant, n. a lad. [A modern Scotch word; Dut. kalant.]
Caller, kal′ėr, adj. fresh: (Scot.) cool. [Prob. the same as Calver.]
Callet, kal′et, n. (Shak.) a scold, a woman of bad character, a trull. [Prob. Fr. caillette, a frivolous gossip; or prob. the Gael. caille, girl, may be related.]
Callid, kal′id, adj. shrewd.—n. Callid′ity, shrewdness. [L. callidus, expert.]
Calligraphy, Caligraphy, kal-lig′ra-fi, n. fine penmanship; characteristic style of writing.—adjs. Calligraph′ic, -al.—ns. Callig′raphist, Callig′rapher. [Gr., kalos, beautiful, graphein, to write.]
Calliope, kal-ī′o-pe, n. the muse of epic poetry: an instrument producing musical notes by means of steam-whistles, played by a keyboard. [Gr.]
Callipers. Same as Calipers.
Callisthenics, kal-is-then′iks, n.pl. exercises for the purpose of promoting gracefulness as well as strength of body.—adj. Callisthen′ic. [Gr. kalos, beautiful, sthenos, strength.]
Callous, kal′us, adj. hardened: unfeeling or insensible.—n. Callos′ity, a hard swelling on the skin.—adv. Call′ously.—n. Call′ousness. [L. callosus—callus, hard skin.]
Callow, kal′ō, adj. not covered with feathers: unfledged, unbearded: inexperienced: low-lying and liable to be submerged.—n. an alluvial flat. [A.S. calu; Ger. kahl, L. calvus, bald.]
Callus, kal′us, n. a thickening of the skin: a term employed in old surgical works for the exuded material by which fractures of bones are consolidated together. [L.]
Calm, käm, adj. still or quiet: serene, tranquil.—n. absence of wind—also in pl.: repose: serenity of feelings or actions.—v.t. to make calm: to quiet.—ns. Calm′ant, Calm′ative—in medical language.—adjs. Calm′ative, Calm′ant, Calmed, Calm′y (Spens.)—adv. Calm′ly.—n. Calm′ness. [Fr. calme (It. calma), from Low L. cauma—Gr. kauma, noonday heat—kai-ein, to burn.]
Calmuck. See Kalmuck.
Calomel, kal′ō-mel, n. the popular name of one of the compounds of mercury and chlorine, much used in medicine. [Fr. calomel, which Littré derives from Gr. kalos, fair, melas, black.]
Caloric, ka-lor′ik, n. heat: the supposed principle or cause of heat.—n. Calores′cence, the transmutation of heat rays into luminous rays.—adj. Calorif′ic, causing heat: heating.—ns. Calorificā′tion; Calorim′eter, an instrument for measuring the specific heat of a body; Calorim′etry, the art or process of measuring heat; Cal′orist, one who held heat to be a subtle fluid called caloric; Cal′ory, the usually accepted thermal unit, being the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram of water from 0° to 1° centigrade. [Fr. calorique, formed by Lavoisier from L. calor, heat.]
Calotte, kal-ot′, n. a plain skull-cap or coif worn by R.C. clergy. [Fr.]
Calotype, kal′ō-tīp, n. a kind of photography.—n. Cal′otypist, one who makes calotypes. [Gr. kalos, beautiful, typos, an image. Name given in 1840 by W. H. Fox Talbot (1800-77) to his method of photographing by the action of light on nitrate of silver.]
Caloyer, ka-loi′ėr, n. a Greek monk, esp. of the order of St Basil. [Fr.,—It.—Late Gr. kalogēros, kalos, beautiful, gēros, aged.]
Calp, kalp, n. the name applied in Ireland to beds of shale, sandstone, &c. containing thin seams of coal.
Calpac, Calpack, kal′pak, n. a triangular felt cap, worn by Turks and Tartars. [Turk.]
Calque. See Calk (3).
Caltrop, kal′trop, n. an instrument armed with four spikes, so arranged that one always stands upright, used to obstruct the progress of an enemy's cavalry, or of besiegers of a fortification.—Also Cal′trap. [A.S. coltetræppe, calcatrippe—L. calc-em, heel, trappa, a trap.]
Calumba, ka-lum′ba, n. the root of an East African plant, extensively used in medicine as a stomachic and tonic. [From Colombo in Ceylon.]
Calumet, kal′ū-met, n. the 'peace pipe' of the North American Indians, a tobacco-pipe having a stem of reed or painted wood about 2½ feet long, decorated with feathers, with a large bowl, usually of soap-stone. [Calumet is a Norman name for a shepherd's pipe (Fr. chalumeau—L. calamellus, calamus), given by the early French settlers from its resemblance.]
Calumny, kal′um-ni, n. false accusation: slander.—v.t. Calum′niāte, to accuse falsely: to slander.—v.i. to spread evil reports.—ns. Calum′niātion; Calum′niātor.—adjs. Calum′niātory, Calum′nious, of the nature of calumny: slanderous.—adv. Calum′niously.—Oath of calumny, a method in the law of Scotland for the prevention of calumnious and unnecessary suits, by which both parties at the beginning of a cause swear, either by themselves or their counsel, that the facts set forth by them are true—usual only in actions of divorce, &c. [L. calumnia, prob. for calvomnia, from calvi, calvĕre, to deceive.]
Calvary, kal′va-ri, n. the name of the place where Jesus was crucified: (R.C.) a series of representations of the various scenes of Christ's crucifixion: an eminence crowned with one or three crosses bearing life-size figures of Jesus and the two thieves. [The Anglicised form of the Vulgate calvaria, which was the L. rendering of the Gr. kranion, as that again of the Aramaic gogulthō or gogolthā (Heb. gulgōleth—Græcised form golgotha), all three words meaning skull.]
Calve, käv, v.i. to bring forth a calf. [A.S. cealfian. See Calf.]
Calvered, kal′verd, p.adj. from obsolete verb Cal′ver, to prepare salmon or other fish when freshly caught. [Prob. the same as Scot. Caller.]
Calvinism, kal′vin-izm, n. the doctrines of the great Genevan religious reformer, John Calvin (1509-1564), as these are given in his Institutio, esp. as regards particular election, predestination, the incapacity for true faith and repentance of the natural man, efficacious grace, and final perseverance.—n. Cal′vinist, one who holds the doctrines of Calvin.—adjs. Calvinist′ic, -al, pertaining to Calvin or Calvinism.
Calvities, kal-vish′i-ēz, n. baldness. [L.,—calvus, bald.]
Calx, kalks, n. chalk or lime: the substance of a metal or mineral which remains after being subjected to violent heat:—pl. Calxes (kalk′sēz), or Calces (kal′sēz). [L. calx, lime.]
Calycanthus, kal-i-kan′thus, n. a small order of square-stemmed aromatic shrubs, natives of North America and Japan. [Made up of Calyx and Gr. anthos.]
Calyptra, ka-lip′tra, n. a hood, covering, esp. that of the theca or capsule of mosses.—adjs. Calyp′trate, furnished with such; Calyp′triform, Calyptrimor′phous, having the form of a calyptra.—n. Calyp′trogen, the root-cap. [Gr., a veil.]
Calyx, Calix, kal′iks, or kā′liks, n. the outer covering or cup of a flower, its separate leaves termed sepals:—pl. Calyces, or Calyxes.—adjs. Cal′ycate, having a calyx; Calycīf′erous, bearing the calyx; Calyciflō′ral, Calyciflō′rate, Calyciflō′rous, having the petals and stamens borne upon the calyx; Calyc′iform, having the form of a calyx; Cal′ycine, Calyc′inal, pertaining to a calyx.—n. Cal′ycle, an accessory calyx outside the true one.—adjs. Cal′ycled, having a calycle; Cal′ycoid, Calycoi′deous, like a calyx. [L.,—Gr. kalyx—kalyptein, to cover.]
Cam, kam, n. (mech.) a device for changing a regular rotary motion into a reciprocating motion, various forms of which are the cam-wheel and shaft, the heart-wheel, the wiper-wheel, and the eccentric. [Dut. kam.]
Camaieu, kam′ī-ū, n. a cameo: a painting in monochrome, or in simple colours not imitating nature: a style of printing pictures producing the effect of a pencil-drawing.—Also Cam′ayeu. [Fr. See Cameo.]
Camaraderie, kam-a-rad-rē′, n. good-fellowship: the intimacy of comradeship. [Fr.]
Camarilla, kam-ar-il′a, n. a body of secret intriguers, esp. of a court party against a king's legitimate ministers: a small room. [Sp. dim. of camara, a chamber.]
Camass, ka-mas′, n. a small plant growing in the north-western United States, also its nutritious bulb.—ns. Camass′ia, a genus of liliaceous plants nearly related to the European Scilla; Camass′-rat, a small gopher rodent which devours the bulbs of the camass.
Camber, kam′bėr, n. a convexity upon an upper surface, as of a deck amidships, a bridge, or lintel: the curve of a ship's plank: a small dock in the royal yards where timber is loaded and discharged.—v.t. to curve ship-planks, to arch slightly. [Fr.—L. camerāre, to vault.]
Cambist, kam′bist, n. one skilled in the science of exchange.—ns. Cam′bism, Cam′bistry. [It—L. cambīre, to exchange.]
Camberwell beauty, kam′ber-wel bū′ti, n. (Vanessa antiopa) a fancy name for one of the largest and most beautiful of British butterflies.
Cambium, kam′bi-um, n. a layer of vascular tissue formed between the wood and the bark of exogens, in which the annual growth is formed. [Low L.—cambium—L. cambīre, to change.]
Camboge, obsolete form of Gamboge.
Cambrel, kam′brel, n. a bent piece of wood or iron on which butchers hang the carcasses of animals: the hock of a horse. [Prob. conn. with Camber.]
Cambrian, kam′bri-an, adj. pertaining to Cambria or Wales: Welsh: the name given by Sedgwick in 1836 to a group or series of sedimentary deposits which come next in order to the Archæan System.—n. an inhabitant of Cambria, or Wales. [Formed from Cymry, Welshmen, or Cymru, Wales.]
Cambric, kām′brik, n. a kind of fine white linen, originally manufactured at Cambrai in the French department of Nord.
Cambuca, kam-bū′ka, n. a pastoral staff: a curved stick used in the game of pall-mall.—Also Cambut′ta. [Low L., of Celt. origin.]
Came, kām, did come pa.t. of Come.
Camel, kam′el, n. an animal of Asia and Africa with one or two humps on its back, used as a beast of burden and for riding.—adj. Cam′el-backed, hump-backed.—ns. Cam′eleer, one who drives or rides a camel; Cam′eline, camlet.—adj. Cam′elish, like a camel, obstinate.—n. Cam′elry, troops mounted on camels.—Camel's hair, the hair of the camel: the hair of the squirrel's tail used for paint-brushes; Camel's thorn, a shrub of the bean family which camels eat greedily. [L. camelus—Gr. kamēlos—Heb. gāmāl.]
Cameleon. See Chameleon.
Camellia, ka-mel′ya, n. a species of evergreen shrubs, natives of China and Japan, noted for the singular beauty of their flowers. [Named from Kamel, Latinised Camellus, a Moravian Jesuit, who collected plants in the Philippine Islands in 1639.]
Camelopard, kam′el-ō-pärd, or kam-el′ō-pärd, n. the giraffe. [L.,—Gr. camēlopardalis; from Gr. kamēlos, the camel, and pardalis, the panther.]
Camelot, kam′lot, n. Same as Camlet.
Cameo, kam′ē-ō, n. an engraved gem in which the figure or subject is carved in relief. [It. camméo (Fr. camée)—Low L. cammæus traced by Littré to Gr. kamnein, to work; by the late Mr C. W. King through an Ar. form, 'an amulet,' from Pers. camahen, loadstone, the usual material for Babylonian cylinders.]
Camera, kam′ėr-a, n. the variety of camera-obscura used by photographers.—ns. Cam′era-lū′cida, an instrument by which the rays of light from an object are reflected by a specially shaped prism, forming an image on the paper underneath; Cam′era-obscū′ra, an instrument for throwing the images of external objects on a white surface placed within a dark chamber or box. [L.]
Camera, kam′ėr-a, n. a vaulted room: the judge's private chamber (In camera, of a case heard there rather than in public court).—adj. Cam′erāted, divided into chambers: arched or vaulted.
Cameronian, kam-er-ōn′i-an, n. a follower of the Covenanter Richard Cameron, killed at Airds Moss in 1680, a member of the Reformed Presbyterian Church.—adj. pertaining to this party, or to the famous Cameronian regiment (26th Foot, now the First Battalion of Scottish Rifles) in the British army, which had its origin in a body of Cameronians (1689).
Camis, kam′is, n. (Spens.) a loose robe made of some light material, as silk, &c.: a chemise. [See Chemise.]
Camisade, kam-i-sād′, n. a night attack, probably because shirts were often put on over the armour.—Also Camisad′o. [Sp., from camisa, a shirt.]
Camisards, kam′is-ar, n.pl. the insurgent Huguenots of the Cevennes, so called from the camise or blouse worn by the peasants.
Camise, kam′ēs, n. the usual Arab shirt.—Also Cam′iso, Cam′ese.
Camisole, kam′is-ōl, n. a sleeved jacket, a woman's loose morning gown or jacket.
Camlet, kam′let, n. a cloth originally made of camel's hair, but now chiefly of wool and goat's hair. [Fr.—Low L. camelotum—L. camelus.]
Camomile, Chamomile, kam′o-mīl, n. a plant, or its dried flowers, used in medicine, affording a bitter stomachic and tonic. [Fr.—L.—Gr. chamaimēlon, the earth-apple, from the apple-like smell of its blossoms—chamai, on the ground, mēlon, an apple.]
Camorra, kam-or′a, n. the name of a secret society in the former kingdom of Naples, whose members, the Camorristi, for many years terrorised the country.—ns. Camorr′ism; Camorr′ist. [It.]
Camp, kamp, n. the ground on which an army pitch their tents: the tents of an army, quarters generally, a permanent military station, as at Aldershot: any fortified site in which a force once defended itself, as a Roman or British camp: any temporary quarters for travellers, &c.—v.i. to encamp or pitch tents.—ns. Camp′-foll′ower, any one who follows in the train of an army, but takes no part in battle; Camp′meet′ing, a religious gathering held in the open air or in a temporary encampment in the fields; Camp′-shed′ding, -sheet′ing, -shot, an erection of piles, &c., along the bank of a river or an embankment, for strengthening; Camp′-stool, or -bed′stead, a portable folding-stool, a trestle-bed. [Fr. camp, a camp—L. campus, a plain.]
Camp, kamp, n. (obs.) conflict: an old form of the game of football.—v.i. to fight, struggle.—v.i. Cam′ple, to wrangle. [A.S. camp, battle; cf. Ger. kampf.]
Campagnol, kam-pa-nyol′, n. a French name for several species of field-mice or voles.
Campaign, kam-pān′, n. a large open field or plain: the time during which an army keeps the field: an excursion into the country: an organised series of operations in the advocacy of a political or social cause.—v.i. to serve in a campaign.—ns. Campagn′a, once equivalent to champaign, now used only of the Campagna, an undulating, mostly uncultivated and unhealthy plain around Rome; Campaign′er, one who has served in several campaigns. [Fr. campagne—L. campania—campus, a field.]
Campanero, kam-pa-nē′ro, n. one of the South American bell-birds, the arapunga, &c. [Sp., a bellman.]
Campanile, kam-pan-ē′lā (sometimes also kam-pan-ēl′, and even kam′pan-il and kam′pan-īl), n. a name adopted from the Italian to signify a bell-tower of the larger kind, and usually applied only to such as are detached from the church: (pl. usually Campaniles, but sometimes the It. Campanili). [It., from campana, a bell.]
Campanology, kam-pan-ol′o-ji, n. the subject or science of bells or bell-ringing.—ns. Cam′panist, Campanol′ogist, one skilled in the same.—adj. Campanolog′ical. [It. campana, a bell, and Gr. logos, a discourse.]
Campanula, kam-pan′ū-la, n. a genus of flowers, commonly known as bell-flowers or bells, usually blue or white, the best-known species the harebell and Scotch bluebell.—The Canterbury Bells is a biennial species—seen in many florists' varieties.—adjs. Campan′iform, Campan′ulate, Campan′ular.—n. Campanulā′ria, a common genus of Hydroids, with stems simple or branched, the nutritive polyps surrounded by transparent bell-shaped sheaths. [It. campana, a bell.]
Campbellite, kam′bel-īt, n. a follower of Alexander Campbell (1788-1866), founder of the sect known as the 'Disciples of Christ.'
Campeachy, kam′pēch-i, adj. pertaining to the red dye-wood better known as Logwood, first exported from Campeachy in Yucatan.
Campeador, kam-pe-a-dōr′, n. a warrior. [Sp.]
Campestral, kam-pes′tral, adj. growing in or pertaining to fields.—Also Campes′trian. [L. campestris, from campus.]
Camphine, kam′fīn, n. rectified oil of turpentine.—Also Cam′phene.
Camphor, kam′for, n. a solid essential oil, mostly obtained from the camphor laurel of India, China, and Japan, having a peculiar hot aromatic taste and a pleasant smell.—adj. Camphorā′ceous, like camphor.—v.t. Cam′phorate, to impregnate with camphor.—adjs. Cam′phorate, Camphor′ic, pertaining to camphor. [Fr. camphre—Low L. camphora—Malay kapur, chalk.]
Campion, kam′pi-un, n. the common name of plants belonging to the genera Lychnis and Silene. [Perh. from L. campus, a field.]
Campo santo, kam′po sant′o, n. the Italian name for a cemetery or burying-ground, esp. for one enclosed by an arcade. [Lit. 'holy ground,' the earth of that at Pisa having been brought from Palestine.]
Campylospermous, kam-pi-lō-sper′mus, adj. (bot.) having the albumen of the seed curved at the margin so as to form a longitudinal furrow on the ventral face. [Gr. kampylos, curved, sperma, a seed.]
Campylotropal, kam-pi-lot′rō-pal, adj. (bot.) curved so as to bring the true apex close to the base—of an ovule or seed.—Also Campylot′ropous. [Gr. kampylos, curved, trepein, to turn.]
Camstairy, kam-stār′i, adj. perverse, unruly. [Ety. dub.; first part at any rate cam, crooked.]
Camstone, kam′stōn, n. a kind of clay used to whiten doorsteps, &c.
Cam-wood, kam′-wood, n. a dye-wood obtained from Baphia nitida, a leguminous tree, a native of Angola. It is at first white, but turns red on exposure to air. [Perh. from African name kambi.]
Can, kan, v.i. to be able: to have sufficient power:—pa.t. Could.—Can is used for gan in M. E. and even in Spenser. [A.S. cunnan, to know (how to do a thing), to be able, pres. indic. can; Goth. kunnan, Ger. können, to be able. See Know.]
Can, kan, n. a vessel for holding or carrying liquids, generally of tinned iron, with a handle over the top: a chimney-pot: a vessel of tin-plate in which meat, fruit, &c. are hermetically sealed for exporting—in England usually called a tin: a drinking-mug.—v.t. to put up for preservation in cans.—n.pl. Canned′-goods, meat, fruit, &c. so prepared for preservation.—n. Can′nery, a place where meat, fish, fruit, &c. are canned. [A.S. canne; cf. L. canna, a reed, Gr. kannē, a reed.]
Canaanite, kā′nan-īt, n. a descendant of Canaan, the son of Ham: a native of the land of Canaan.—adj. Cā′naanitish.
Cañada, kan′ya-da, n. a narrow cañon. [Sp.]
Canadian, ka-nā′di-an, adj. and n. pertaining to Canada: a native of Canada.—Canada balsam (see Balsam).
Canaigre, ka-nā′ger, n. a Texan dock whose root is used in tanning,
Canaille, ka-nāl′, n. the mob, the vulgar rabble. [Fr., a dog—L. canis.]
Canakin. See Cannikin.
Canal, kan-al′, n. an artificial watercourse for navigation: a duct in the body for any of its fluids.—n. Canal′-boat, a boat for canal traffic.—adjs. Canalic′ular, canal-shaped; Canalic′ulate, -d, channelled, grooved.—ns. Canalic′ulus (anat.), a small furrow or channel; Canalisā′tion, the construction of canals.—v.t. Canal′ise, to make a canal through: to convert into a canal. [L. canalis, a water-pipe.]
Canard, ka-när′, or ka-närd′, n. an extravagant or lying story. [Fr., lit. 'duck.']
Canary, ka-nā′ri, n. a light sweet wine from the Canary Islands: a bird originally from the Canary Islands: a lively dance.—adj. canary-coloured, bright yellow.—ns. Canā′ry-bird, a canary: (slang) a jail-bird: a mistress; Canā′ry-grass, a grass of which the seed is much used as food for canary-birds; Canā′ry-wood, the dark-coloured timber of two lauraceous trees of the Azores and Madeira.
Canarese, kan-a-rēz′, adj. pertaining to Canara in western India.—n. a native thereof: the language of the Dravidian group, allied to Telegu.—Also Kanarese′.
Canaster, ka-nas′tėr, n. a kind of tobacco, so called from the rush basket in which it was originally brought from Spanish America. [Sp. canastra—L.—Gr. kanastron.]
Can-can, kan-kan, n. a dance in some public balls at Paris and elsewhere, characterised by immodest gestures and postures. [Usually referred to L. quamquam, the pronunciation of which was long hotly disputed in the French schools; Littré quotes an O. Fr. caquehan, a noisy assembly.]
Cancel, kan′sel, v.t. to erase or blot out by crossing with lines: to annul or suppress, as a printed page, &c.: to obliterate: to frustrate: to counterbalance or compensate for: to remove equivalent quantities on opposite sides of an equation:—pr.p. can′celling; pa.p. can′celled.—n. the suppression of a printed page or sheet, the page so cancelled, or the new one substituted. [Fr. canceller—L. cancell-āre, from cancelli, railings, lattice-work, dim. of cancer.]
Cancelli, kan-sel′ī, n.pl. cross-pieces forming a lattice-work or grating, as in the division between the choir and the body of a church: (anat.) reticulations.—adjs. Can′cellate, -d, marked latticewise, reticulated.—n. Cancellā′tion.—adj. Can′cellous. [L., a lattice.]
Cancer, kan′sėr, n. the name for an important group of malignant tumours, divided into two groups, Carcinomata and Sarcomata, the name being now strictly used only of the former: a constellation between Gemini and Leo, and a sign of the zodiac showing the limits of the sun's course northward in summer: the typical genus of the family Cancridæ—v.i. Cancer′ate, to become cancerous.—ns. Cancerā′tion; Can′cerite, a petrified crab.—adj. Can′cerous, of or like a cancer.—adv. Can′cerously.—n. Can′cerousness.—adjs. Can′criform, Can′croid, crab-like. [L. cancer; cog. with Gr. karkinos, a crab.]
Cancionero, kan-thē-on-ē′ro, n. a collection of songs. [Sp.]
Candelabrum, kan-de-lā′brum, n. a branched and ornamented candlestick:—pl. Candelā′bra. [L.]
Candent, kan′dent, adj. making white: glowing with heat.
Candescence, kan-des′ens, n. a white heat.—adj. Candes′cent. [L. candesc-ĕre, inceptive of cand-ēre, to glow.]
Candid, kan′did, adj. frank, ingenuous: free from prejudice: fair, impartial.—adv. Can′didly.—n. Can′didness. [Fr. candide—L. candidus, white—cand-ēre, to shine.]
Candidate, kan′di-dāt, n. one who offers himself for any office or honour, so called because, at Rome, the applicant used to dress in white.—ns. Can′didature, Can′didateship, Can′didacy. [L. candidatus, from candidus.]
Candied. See Candy.
Candle, kan′dl, n. wax, tallow, or other like substance surrounding a wick: a light.—ns. Can′dle-berr′y, the wax-myrtle, also its fruit: the fruit of Aleurites triloba, the candle-berry tree; Can′dle-bomb, a small glass bomb filled with water, exploding on being held in a candle-flame; Can′dle-coal (same as Cannel-coal); Can′dle-dip′ping, the method of making candles by dipping instead of moulding; Can′dle-end, the end-piece of a burnt-out candle; Can′dle-fish, the eulachon, a deep-sea fish of the smelt family found along the north-west coast of America, producing eulachon oil: another West American fish, resembling a pollock—the black candle-fish or horse-mackerel; Can′dle-hold′er, one who holds a candle to another while working—hence one who renders another slight assistance, or humours him; Can′dle-light, the light of a candle, illumination by means of candles: the time when candles are lighted; Can′dle-light′er, one whose business is to light the candles: a spill; Can′dle-pow′er, the illuminating power of a standard sperm candle—a unit of luminosity; Can′dlestick, an instrument for holding a candle, originally a stick or piece of wood; Can′dle-wast′er, one who studies late; Can′dle-wood, the wood of various West Indian and Mexican resinous trees.—Burn the candle at both ends, to waste in two directions at once.—Not fit to hold a candle to, not fit even to be some one's inferior, not to be compared with.—Sell by the candle, to offer for sale as long as a small piece of candle burns, the bid made just before it goes out being successful.—The game is not worth the candle, the thing is not worth the labour or expense of it. [A.S. candel—L. candela, from cand-ēre, to glow.]
Candlemas, kan′dl-mas, n. a festival of the R.C. Church in honour of the purification of the Virgin Mary, on 2d February, and so called from the number of candles used. [Candle and Mass.]
Candock, kan′dok, n. the yellow water-lily. [Can (n.) and Dock.]
Candour, kan′dur, n. freedom from prejudice or disguise: sincerity: justice: openness. [L. candor, whiteness, from candēre, to be shining.]
Candy, kan′di, Sugar-candy, shoog′ar-kan′di, n. a sweetmeat made of sugar: anything preserved in sugar.—v.t. to preserve or dress with sugar: to congeal or crystallise as sugar.—v.i. to become congealed.—p.adj. Can′died, encrusted with candy or sugar: (fig.) sugared, flattering. [Fr. candi, from Ar. qandah, candy.]
Candy, kan′di, n. a South Indian weight, generally containing 20 maunds, about 500 pounds English.—Also Can′die and Kan′dy. [Tamil.]
Cane, kān, n. the stem of one of the smaller palms—the calamus or rattan, or the larger grasses—bamboo and sugar-cane: a walking-stick.—v.t. to beat with a cane.—ns. Cane′-brake, a brake or thicket of canes; Cane′-chair, a chair made of rattan; Cane′-mill, a mill for bruising sugar-canes for the manufacture of sugar; Cane′-sū′gar, sugar obtained from the sugar-cane; Cane′-trash, refuse of sugar-cane used for fuel in boiling the juice; Cān′ing, a thrashing with a cane.—adj. Cān′y, made of cane.—Malacca cane, a walking-cane made without removing the bark from the brown-mottled or clouded stem of the palm, Calamus Scipionum, brought from Singapore or Sumatra. [Fr. canne—L. canna—Gr. kannē, a reed.]
Canella, kan-el′a, n. a genus of low aromatic trees, one species the whitewood of wild cinnamon of the West Indies, yielding canella or white cinnamon bark.
Canephor, kan′e-fōr, n. (archit.) a female figure bearing a basket on her head. [Gr. kanēphoros, one of the bearers upon their heads at the Panathenaic festival of the baskets containing the sacrificial implements.]
Canescent, ka-nes′ent, adj. tending to white: hoary. [L. canescens—canēre—canus, hoary.]
Cangue, Cang, kang, n. a Chinese portable pillory borne on the shoulders by petty offenders. [Fr. cangue—Port. cango, a yoke.]
Canicular, ka-nik′ū-lar, adj. pertaining to the Dog-star (Canic′ula) or to the Dog-days: (coll. and hum.) pertaining to a dog. [L. canicularis, canicula, dim. of canis, a dog.]
Canine, ka-nīn′, adj. like or pertaining to the dog.—Canine appetite, an inordinate appetite; Canine letter = R; Canine teeth, the four sharp-pointed tearing teeth in most mammals, one on each side of the upper and lower jaw, between the incisors or cutting teeth and the molars or grinders. [L. caninus, canis, a dog.]
Canister, kan′is-tėr, n. a box or case, usually of tin, for holding tea, shot, &c.: short for canister-shot, or case-shot.—n. Can′ister-shot (same as Case-Shot, q.v.). [L. canistrum, a wicker-basket; Gr. kanastron—kannē, a reed.]
Canities, ka-nish′i-ēz, n. whiteness of the hair.
Canker, kang′kėr, n. an eating sore: a gangrene: a disease in trees, or in horses' feet: anything that corrupts, consumes, irritates, or decays.—v.t. to eat into, corrupt, or destroy: to infect or pollute: to make sour and ill-conditioned.—v.i. to grow corrupt: to decay.—adj. Cank′ered, corroded: venomous, malignant: soured: crabbed.—adv. Cank′eredly.—n. Cank′eredness.—adj. Cank′erous, corroding like a canker.—n. Cank′er-worm, a worm that cankers or eats into plants.—adj. Cank′ery, affected with canker: (Scot.) crabbed. [L. cancer, a crab, gangrene.]
Canna, kan′na, n. a genus of reed-like plants—Indian shot: the upright stem of a candlestick, &c.: the tube by which the wine was taken from the chalice. [L., a reed.]
Canna, kan′na, n. cotton-grass. [Gael. cánach.]
Cannabic, kan′a-bik, adj. pertaining to hemp.—ns. Cann′abin, a resin obtained from the plant Cannabis Indica; Cann′abis, a genus of urticaceous plants, yielding bhang.
Cannel, kan′el, n. a bituminous coal that burns with a bright flame, and is much used for making coal oils and gas.—Also Cann′el-coal, Can′dle-coal. [Prob. conn. with Candle, because of the similarity in burning.]
Cannelure, kan′e-lūr, n. a groove or a fluting: a groove round the cylindrical part of a bullet. [Fr.]
Cannibal, kan′i-bal, n. one who eats human flesh.—adj. relating to cannibalism.—n. Cann′ibalism, the practice of eating human flesh.—adj. Cannibalist′ic—adv. Cann′ibally (Shak.). [Sp., a corr. of Caribals (Eng. Caribs), the native name of the West India Islanders, who ate human flesh.]
Cannikin, kan′i-kin, n. a small can. [Dim. of Can.]
Cannon, kan′un, n. a great gun used in war: a stroke in billiards in which the player hits both the red and his opponent's ball.—v.i. to cannonade: to make a cannon at billiards: to collide.—n. Cannonade′, an attack with cannon.—v.t. to attack or batter with cannon.—ns. Cannonad′ing; Cann′on-ball, a ball usually made of cast-iron, to be shot from a cannon; Cann′on-bit, or Cann′on, a smooth round bit; Cann′on-bone, the long bone between the knee and the foot of a horse; Cannoneer′, Cannonier′, one who manages cannon; Cann′on-game, a form of billiards in which, the table having no pockets, the game consists in making a series of cannons; Cann′on-met′al, an alloy of about 90 parts of copper and 10 of tin, from which cannon are manufactured.—adj. Cann′on-proof, proof against cannon-shot.—ns. Cann′onry, cannonading: artillery; Cann′on-shot, a cannon-ball: the distance to which a cannon will throw a ball. [Fr. canon, from L. canna, a reed.]
Cannot, kan′ot, v.i. to be unable. [Can and Not.]
Cannula, kan′ū-la, n. a surgical tube, esp. that enclosing a trocar or perforator, and the breathing-tube inserted in the windpipe after tracheotomy.—adj. Cann′ulate. [Dim. of canna, a reed.]
Canny, kan′i, adj. (Scot.) knowing: shrewd: having supernatural power (see Uncanny): comfortable: careful in money matters: gentle: sly or pawky.—adv. Cann′ily.—n. Cann′iness.—To ca' canny, to go or act cautiously. [From Can, to be able.]
Canoe, ka-nōō′, n. a boat made of the hollowed trunk of a tree, or of bark or skins: a skiff driven by paddling.—v.t. to paddle a canoe.—n. Canoe′ist. [Sp. canoa—Haytian canoa.]
Cañon, kan-yon′, n. a deep gorge or ravine between high and steep banks, worn by watercourses. [Sp. cañon, a hollow, from root of Cannon.]
Canon, kan′un, n. a law or rule, esp. in ecclesiastical matters: a general rule: standard: the books of Scripture accepted as the standard or rule of faith by the Christian Church: a species of musical composition: one bound by certain vows over and above those binding upon regular members of his community—a canon regular: a clerical dignitary belonging to a cathedral, enjoying special emoluments, and obliged to reside there part of the year: a list of saints canonised: (print.) a large kind of type.—n. Can′oness, a female beneficiary of a regular religious college.—adjs. Canon′ic, -al, according to or included in the canon: regular: ecclesiastical.—adv. Canon′ically.—n.pl. Canon′icals, the official dress of the clergy, regulated by the church canons.—ns. Canonic′ity, the state of belonging to the canon of Scripture; Canonisā′tion.—v.t. Can′onise, to enrol in the canon or list of saints.—n. Can′onist, one versed in the canon law.—adj. Canonist′ic.—ns. Can′on-law, a digest of the formal decrees of councils, œcumenical, general, and local, of diocesan and national synods, and of patriarchal decisions as to doctrine and discipline; Can′onry, the benefice of a canon.—Canon of the mass, that part of the mass which begins after the 'Sanctus' with the prayer 'Te igitur,' and ends just before the 'Paternoster;' Canon residentiary, a canon obliged to reside at a cathedral and take a share in the duty; Honorary canon, one having the titular rank of canon in a cathedral, but without duties or emoluments; Minor canon, a cleric in orders, attached to a cathedral, his duty being to assist the canons in singing divine service. [A.S., Fr., from L. canon—Gr. kanōn, a straight rod—kannē, a reed.]
Canophilist, ka-nof′i-list, n. a lover of dogs. [L. canis, a dog, Gr. philein, to love.]
Canopus, ka-nō′pus, n. a bright star in the southern constellation Argo navis: an Egyptian vase for holding the entrails of the body embalmed.—adj. Canop′ic. [L.,—Gr.]
Canopy, kan′o-pi, n. a covering over a throne or bed: a covering of state stretched over the head: any covering, as the sky: a roof-like projection over a niche, tomb, statue, &c.: the wooden covering over prebends' stalls in cathedrals, pulpits, altars, &c.—v.t. to cover with a canopy:—pr.p. can′opying; pa.p. can′opied. [Fr. canapé—Low L. canopeum—Gr. kōnōpeion, a mosquito curtain—kōnōps, a mosquito.]
Canorous, kan-ō′rus, adj. musical: melodious.—adv. Canō′rously.—n. Canō′rousness. [L. canorus, from canor, melody—canĕre, to sing.]
Canstick, kan′stik, n. (Shak.) a candlestick.
Cant, kant, v.i. to speak in a conventional manner: to use the language of thieves, &c.: to talk in an affectedly solemn or hypocritical way.—n. a hypocritical or affected style of speech: the language peculiar to a sect: odd or peculiar talk of any kind: slang: a common saying: affected use of religious phrases or sentiments.—n. Cant′er, one who cants, a beggar: one who makes hypocritical professions.—adj. Cant′ing, whining, pretending to piety: (her.) allusive (see Allusive). [L. cantāre, freq. of canĕre, to sing.]
Cant, kant, n. an inclination from the level: a toss or jerk: a sloping or tilted position: one of the segments forming a side-piece in the head of a cask: a ship's timber lying obliquely to the line of the keel.—v.t. to turn on the edge or corner: to tilt or toss suddenly.—ns. Cant′ing, tilting; Cant′ing-coin; Cant′ing-wheel; Cant′-rail, a timber running along the tops of the upright pieces in the sides of the body of a railway-carriage and supporting the roof and roof-sticks. [Prob. conn. with Dut. kant; Ger. kante, corner.]
Cant, kant, n. sale by auction.—v.t. to sell by auction. [O. Fr. encant, auction; der. uncertain, cf. Low L. incantāre, to put up to auction.]
Cant, kant, adj. brisk: lively. [Scot.; der. unknown. See Canty.]
Can't, känt, a colloquial contraction for Cannot.
Cantab, kan′tab, for Cantabrigian, adj. of or pertaining to Cambridge—Latinised Cantabrigia.
Cantabank, kan′ta-bangk, n. a strolling singer. [It. cantambanco.]
Cantaloup, kan′ta-loop, n. a small, ribbed variety of musk-melon. [Fr.,—It. Cantalupo, a town near Rome, where it was first grown in Europe.]
Cantankerous, kan-tang′kėr-us, adj. cross-grained: perverse in temper.—adv. Cantan′kerously.—n. Cantan′kerousness. [M. E. contak, quarrelling.]
Cantar, kan′tär, n. a Turkish weight of 100 rotls or pounds.
Cantata, kan-tä′ta, n. originally the name applied to a sort of musical narrative by one person, accompanied by a single instrument; subsequently an air was introduced—the modern concert-aria: now also a choral work, either sacred, and similar to, but shorter than the oratorio, or secular, either lyric or dramatic, but not intended for the stage.—ns. Canta′te, the 98th Psalm, from its opening words in Latin, 'Cantate Domino;' Can′tatrice, a female singer. [It.,—L. cantāre, freq. of canĕre, to sing.]
Canteen, kan-tēn′, n. a tin vessel used by soldiers for holding liquors: a barrack-tavern, or refreshment-house for the use of the soldiers. [Fr. cantine—It. cantina, a cellar; further der. uncertain.]
Canter, kan′tėr, n. an easy gallop.—v.i. to move at an easy gallop.—v.t. to make to canter. [Orig. Canterbury-gallop, from the easy pace at which the pilgrims rode to the shrine at Canterbury.]
Canterbury, kan′tėr-ber-ri, n. a stand with divisions in it for holding books, music, &c.—Canterbury Bells (see Campanula).
Cantharides, kan-thar′i-dēz, n.pl. Spanish flies, used for blistering.—adjs. Canthar′idal, Cantharid′ian, Cantharid′ic, composed of cantharides.—n. Canthar′idine, the active principle of blistering-flies. [L. cantharis, beetle, pl. cantharides.]
Cantharus, kan′tha-rus, n. a large two-handled drinking-cup: a laver in the atrium before ancient churches;—pl. Can′tharī, [L.]
Canthus, kan′thus, n. the angle formed by the junction of the eyelids: one of the upper and lower or anterior and posterior extremities of the compound eyes of insects:—pl. Can′thi (-thī). [Gr. kanthos, corner of the eye.]
Canticle, kan′ti-kl, n. a song: a non-metrical hymn, esp. one of those used in the public services of the church, as the Benedicite: (pl.) the Song of Solomon.—n. Can′ticum, a canticle: a part-song in an ancient play. [L. canticulum, dim of canticum.]
Cantilena, kan-ti-lē′na, n. a ballad or light song: a cantus firmus or melody for church use: a singing exercise or solfeggio. [L.]
Cantilever, kan′ti-lēv-ėr, n. a large bracket used in architecture for supporting cornices, balconies, and even stairs—the principle has been applied in the construction of bridges to support enormous weights.—Also Can′taliver. [Prob. made up of Cant, angle, and Fr. lever, to raise.]
Cantillate, kan′ti-lāt, v.t. and v.i. to chant, intone.—n. Cantillā′tion.—adj. Can′tillatory.
Cantion, kan′shun, n. (Spens.) a song.
Cantle, kan′tl, n. a fragment or edge of anything: the protuberant part of the back of a saddle: (Scot.) the top of the head.—v.t. to cut a piece from: to divide.—ns. Cant′let, a fragment, cantle; Cant′ling, the lower course of bricks enclosing a brick-clamp. [Cant, edge.]
Canto, kan′tō, n. division of a song or poem: the treble or leading melody.—n. Can′tor, the leader of the singing in a church, a precentor.—adjs. Cantō′rial; Cantō′ris (gen. of L. cantor), of or belonging to the cantor or precentor.—n. Can′tus, a melody, esp. an ecclesiastical style of music.—Canto fermo, the simple melody of the hymns and chants used in the Christian Church of the West from the earliest times. [It.,—L. cantus—canĕre, to sing.]
Canton, kan′tun, n. a division of territory, constituting in Switzerland a separate government, in France a subdivision of an arrondissement: (her.) an ordinary of a shield, being a square occupying generally the dexter, sometimes the sinister, chief of the field.—v.t. to divide into cantons: to allot quarters to troops.—adjs. Can′tonal, pertaining to or divided into cantons; Can′toned (archit.), ornamented at the corners with projecting pilasters: (her.) placed in the midst of charges occupying the corners.—n. Can′tonment (also pronounced can-tōōn′ment), the temporary quarters of troops when taking part in manœuvres or active operations: in India, permanent military towns, distinct and at some little distance from the principal cities. [O. Fr. canton; It. cantone, corner, district—canto, a corner: cf. Cant (2).]