Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary 1908/S Sand
fāte, fär; mē, hėr; mīne; mōte; mūte; mōōn; then.
the nineteenth letter in our alphabet, its sound that of the hard open sibilant: as a medieval Roman numeral—7—also 70; S—70,000.—Collar of ss, a collar composed of a series of the letter s in gold, either linked together or set in close order.
Sab, sab, n. (Scot.) a form of sob.
Sabadilla, sab-a-dil′a, n. a Mexican plant, whose seeds yield an officinal alkaloid, veratrine, employed chiefly in acute febrile diseases in strong healthy persons.—Also Cebadill′a, Cevadill′a.
Sabaism, sā′bā-izm. Same as Sabianism.—Also Sā′bæism, Sā′beism, Sā′bæanism.
Sa′bal, sā′bal, n. a genus of fan-palms.
Sabalo, sab′a-lō, n. the tarpon. [Sp.]
Sabaoth, sa-bā′oth, n.pl. armies, used only in the B. phrase, 'the Lord of Sabaoth': erroneously for Sabbath. [Heb. tsebāōth, pl. of tsābā, an army—tsābā, to go forth.]
Sabbath, sab′ath, n. among the Jews, the seventh day of the week, set apart for the rest from work: among Christians, the first day of the week, in memory of the resurrection of Christ, called also Sunday and the Lord's Day: among the ancient Jews, the seventh year, when the land was left fallow: a time of rest.—adj. pertaining to the Sabbath.—n. Sabbatā′rian, a very strict observer of the Sabbath: one who observes the seventh day of the week as the Sabbath.—adj. pertaining to the Sabbath or to Sabbatarians.—ns. Sabbatā′rianism; Sabb′ath-break′er, one who profanes the Sabbath; Sabb′ath-break′ing, profanation of the Sabbath.—adjs. Sabb′athless (Bacon), without Sabbath or interval of rest: without intermission of labour; Sabbat′ic, -al, pertaining to, or resembling, the Sabbath: enjoying or bringing rest.—n. Sabbat′ical-year, every seventh year, in which the Israelites allowed their fields and vineyards to lie fallow.—adj. Sabb′atine, pertaining to the Sabbath.—v.i. and v.t. Sabb′atise, to keep the Sabbath: to convert into a Sabbath.—n. Sabb′atism, rest, as on the Sabbath: intermission of labour.—Sabbath-day's journey, the distance of 2000 cubits, or about five furlongs, which a Jew was permitted to walk on the Sabbath, fixed by the space between the extreme end of the camp and the ark (Josh. iii. 4); Sabbath School (see Sunday school).—Witches' Sabbath, a midnight meeting of Satan with witches, devils, and sorcerers for unhallowed orgies and the travestying of divine rites. [L. Sabbatum, gener. in pl. Sabbata—Gr. Sabbaton—Heb. Shabbāth, rest.]
Sabbatia, sa-bā′ti-a, n. a genus of small North American herbaceous plants of the gentian family. [From Sabbati, an 18th-cent. Italian botanist.]
Sabbaton, sab′a-ton, n. a strong, armed covering for the foot, worn in the 16th century. [Sabot.]
Sabean, sā-bē′an, n. an Arabian, native of Yemen.—adj. pertaining to Saba in Arabia.
Sabeline, sab′e-lin, adj. pertaining to the sable.—n. the skin of the sable.
Sabella, sā-bel′ä, n. a genus of tubiculous annelids or sea-worms.—ns. Sabellā′ria; Sabellarī′idæ.
Sabellian, sā-bel′i-an, n. a follower of Sabellius, a 3d-century heretic, banished from Rome by Callistus.—adj. pertaining to Sabellius or his heresy.—n. Sabell′ianism, the heresy about the distinction of Persons in God held by Sabellius and his school—the Trinity resolved into a mere threefold manifestation of God to man, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit not distinct subsistences, but merely one and the same person in different aspects.
Sabian, sā′bi-an, n. a worshipper of the host of heaven—sun, moon, and stars—also Tsā′bian.—ns. Sā′bianism, Sā′baism, the worship of the host of heaven, an ancient religion in Persia and Chaldea: the doctrines of the Sabians or Mandæans (see Mandæan). [Heb. tsābā, a host.]
Sabine, sā′bīn, n. one of an ancient people of central Italy, ultimately subjected by Rome, 241 B.C.
Sable, sā′bl, n. a Siberian species of Marten, with lustrous dark-brown or blackish fur: its fur: a fine paint-brush made of sable: the colour black: (pl.) black clothes, mourning clothes.—adj. of the colour of the sable's fur: blackish, dark-brown: made of the fur of the sable.—v.t. to sadden.—adjs. Sā′ble-stoled; Sā′ble-vest′ed. [O. Fr. sable—Russ. sabolĭ.]
Sablière, sab-li-ār′, n. a sand-pit. [Fr.]
Sabot, sä-bō′, n. a wooden shoe, worn by the French peasantry: a piece of soft metal attached to a projectile to take the groove of the rifling.—n. Sabotier′, a wearer of wooden shoes: a Waldensian. [Fr. sabot—Low L. sabbatum, a shoe.]
Sabre, sā′bėr, n. a heavy one-edged sword, slightly curved towards the point, used by cavalry.—v.t. to wound or kill with a sabre.—ns. Sā′bre-bill, a South American bird: a curlew; Sā′bre-fish, the hair-tail or silver eel.—adj. Sā′bre-toothed, having extremely long upper canine teeth.—n. Sā′bre-wing, a humming-bird. [Fr. sabre—Ger. säbel, prob. from the Hung. szablya.]
Sabre-tache, sā′bėr-tash, n. an ornamental leather case worn by cavalry officers at the left side, suspended from the sword-belt.—Also Sā′bre-tash. [Fr. sabre-tache—Ger. säbeltasche, säbel, a sabre, Ger. tasche, a pocket.]
Sabrina-work, sa-brī′na-wurk, n. a variety of appliqué embroidery-work.
Sabulous, sab′ū-lus, adj. sandy, gritty.—n. Sabulos′ity, sandiness, grittiness. [L. sabulum, sand.]
Saburra, sā-bur′ä, n. a foulness of the stomach.—adj. Saburr′al.—n. Saburrā′tion, sand-baking: the application of a hot sand-bath.
Sac, sak, n. (bot., zool.) a sack or bag for a liquid.—adjs. Sac′cāte, -d, pouched: pouch-like; Sac′cular, like a sac, sacciform; Sac′culate, -d, formed in a series of sac-like expansions: encysted.—ns. Sacculā′tion, the formation of a sac: a series of sacs; Sac′cule, Sac′culus, a small sac:—pl. Sac′culi. [Fr.,—L. saccus, a bag.]
Sac, sak, n. (law) the privilege of a lord of manor of holding courts. [A.S. sacu, strife.]
Saccade, sa-kād′, n. a violent twitch of a horse by one pull: a firm pressure of the bow on the violin-strings so that two are sounded at once. [Fr.]
Saccata, sa-kā′tä, n. the molluscs as a branch of the animal kingdom.
Saccharilla, sak-a-ril′a, n. a kind of muslin.
Saccharine, sak′a-rin, adj. pertaining to, or having the qualities of, sugar.—n. Sac′charāte, a salt of a saccharic acid.—adjs. Sacchar′ic, pertaining to, or obtained from, sugar and allied substances; Saccharif′erous, producing sugar, as from starch.—v.t. Sac′charify, to convert into sugar.—ns. Saccharim′eter, Saccharom′eter, an instrument for measuring the quantity of saccharine matter in a liquid; Saccharim′etry, Saccharom′etry; Sac′charin, a white crystalline solid slightly soluble in cold water, odourless, but intensely sweet; Saccharin′ity.—v.t. Sac′charise, to convert into sugar:—pr.p. sac′charīsing; pa.p. sac′charīsed.—adjs. Sac′charoid, -al, having a texture resembling sugar, esp. loaf-sugar.—n. Sac′charose, the ordinary pure sugar of commerce.—adj. Sac′charous.—n. Sac′charum, a genus of grasses, including the sugar-cane. [Fr. saccharin—L. saccharum, sugar.]
Saccharite, sak′a-rīt, n. a fine granular variety of feldspar.
Saccharocolloid, sak-a-rō-kol′oid, n. one of a large group of the carbohydrates.
Saccharomyces, sak-a-rō-mī′sēz, n. a genus of the yeast fungi. [Low L. saccharum, sugar, Gr. mykēs, a mushroom.]
Sacciform, sak′si-form, adj. having the form of a sac: baggy.—adj. Saccif′erous.
Saccobranchia, sak-ō-brang′ki-a, n.pl. a division of tunicates with saccate gills.—adj. and n. Saccobranch′iāte. [Gr. sakkos, a sack, brangchia, gills.]
Saccolabium, sak-ō-lā′bi-um, n. a genus of orchids. [L. saccus, a sack, labium, a lip.]
Saccomyoid, sak-ō-mī′oid, adj. having cheek-pouches. [Gr. sakkos, sack, mys, a mouse.]
Saccopharyngidæ, sak-o-fā-rin′ji-dē, n. a family of lyomerous fishes, including the bottle-fish, noted for swallowing fishes larger than themselves.
Saccos, sak′os, n. a tight sleeveless vestment worn by Oriental patriarchs and metropolitans during divine service, corresponding to the Western dalmatic. [Gr. sakkos, a sack.]
Sacellum, sā-sel′um, n. a little sanctuary, a small uncovered place consecrated to a divinity: a canopied altar-tomb:—pl. Sacell′a. [L., dim. of sacrum, neut. of sacer, consecrated.]
Sacerdotal, sas-ėr-dō′tal, adj. priestly.—v.t. Sacerdō′talise, to render sacerdotal.—ns. Sacerdō′talism, the spirit of the priesthood: devotion to priestly interests, priestcraft: the belief that the presbyter is a priest in the sense of offering a sacrifice in the eucharist; Sacerdō′talist, a supporter of sacerdotalism.—adv. Sacerdō′tally. [L. sacerdos, a priest—sacer, sacred, dăre, to give.]
Sachem, sā′chem, n. a chief of a North American Indian tribe, a sagamore: one of the Tammany leaders.—ns. Sā′chemdom, Sā′chemship.
Sachet, sa-shā, n. a bag of perfume. [Fr.]
Sack, sak, n. a large bag of coarse cloth for holding grain, flour, &c.: the contents of a sack: (also Sacque) a woman's gown, loose at the back, a short coat rounded at the bottom: a measure of varying capacity.—v.t. to put into a sack: (slang) to dismiss.—ns. Sack′-bear′er, any bombycid moth of the family Psychidæ; Sack′cloth, cloth for sacks: coarse cloth formerly worn in mourning or penance.—adj. Sack′clothed.—ns. Sacked′-frī′ar, a monk who wore a coarse upper garment called a saccus; Sack′er, a machine for filling sacks; Sack′-fil′ter, a bag-filter; Sack′ful, as much as a sack will hold; Sack′-hoist, a continuous hoist for raising sacks in warehouses; Sack′ing, coarse cloth or canvas for sacks, bed-bottoms, &c.; Sack′-pack′er, in milling, a machine for automatically filling a flour-sack; Sack′-race, a race in which the legs of competitors are encased in sacks.—Get the sack, to be dismissed or rejected; Give the sack, to dismiss. [A.S. sacc—L. saccus—Gr. sakkos—Heb. saq, a coarse cloth or garment, prob. Egyptian.]
Sack, sak, v.t. to plunder: to ravage.—n. the plunder or devastation of a town: pillage.—ns. Sack′age; Sack′ing, the storming and pillaging of a town.—adj. bent on pillaging.—Sack and fork (Scot.), the power of drowning and hanging. [Fr. sac, a sack, plunder (saccager, to sack)—L. saccus, a sack.]
Sack, sak, n. the old name of a dry Spanish wine of the sherry genus, the favourite drink of Falstaff.—n. Sack′-poss′et, posset made with sack.—Burnt sack, mulled sack. [Fr. sec (Sp. seco)—L. siccus, dry.]
Sackbut, sak′but, n. a kind of trumpet, the predecessor of the trombone: (B.) a kind of stringed instrument resembling the guitar. [Fr. saquebute—Sp. sacabuche—sacar, to draw out, buche, the maw or stomach, prob. Old High Ger. būh (Ger. bauch), the belly.]
Sack-doodle, sak-dōōd′l, v.i. to play on the bagpipe.
Sackless, sak′les, adj. (Scot.) guiltless: innocent: guileless. [A.S. sacleás, without strife, sacu, strife, -leás, -less.]
Sacodes, sā-kō′dēz, n. a genus of beetles of the family Cyphonidæ. [Gr. sakos, a shield, eidos, form.]
Sacque, sak. See Sack (1).
Sacra, sā′kra, n. a sacral artery:—pl. Sā′cræ (-krē).
Sacral, sā′kral, adj. See Sacrum.
Sacrament, sak′ra-ment, n. an holy ordinance instituted by Christ as an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace (Baptism and the Lord's Supper—amongst Roman Catholics, also Confirmation, Penance, Holy Orders, Matrimony, and Extreme Unction): the Lord's Supper specially: an oath of obedience taken by Roman soldiers on enlistment: any solemn obligation: materials used in a sacrament.—v.t. to bind by an oath.—adj. Sacramen′tal, belonging to or constituting a sacrament.—ns. Sacramen′talism, the attachment of excessive importance to the sacraments: the doctrine that there is in the sacraments themselves a special direct spiritual efficacy to confer grace; Sacramen′talist, one who holds this view.—adv. Sacramen′tally.—ns. Sacramentā′rian, one who holds a high or extreme view of the efficacy of the sacraments: (obs.) one who rejects the doctrine of the real presence in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper; Sacramentā′rianism, the holding of extreme views with regard to the efficacy of sacraments.—adj. Sacramen′tary, pertaining to the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, or to the sacramentarians.—n. a book containing all the prayers and ceremonies used at the celebration of the R.C. sacraments: a sacramentarian. [L. sacramentum, a sacred thing—sacrāre, to consecrate—sacer, sacred.]
Sacrarium, sā-krā′ri-um, n. the part of a church where the altar is, the sanctuary: in ancient Rome, any sacred place, the place where the Penates were stored.—n. Sac′rary (obs.), a holy place.—v.t. Sā′crate (obs.), to consecrate.
Sacrarium, sā-krā′ri-um, n. the complex sacrum of any bird.
Sacre. Same as Saker.
Sacred, sā′kred, adj. set apart or dedicated, esp. to God: made holy: proceeding from God: religious: entitled to respect or veneration: inviolable: devoted to destruction: opposed to secular, as sacred music or history: not liable to punishment.—adv. Sā′credly.—n. Sā′credness.—Sacred ape, the hanuman of India; Sacred beetle, an Egyptian scarab; Sacred cat, the house cat of Egypt, sacred to Pasht; Sacred fish, one of the fresh-water fishes of the Nile; Sacred Heart (R.C.), the physical heart of Christ, adored with special devotion since the 18th century. [O. Fr. sacrer—L. sacrāre—L. sacer, sacred.]
Sacrificati, sak-ri-fi-kā′tī, n.pl. in the early church, those who sacrificed to idols in persecution, but returned as penitents afterwards.
Sacrifice, sak′ri-fīs, v.t. to offer up, esp. on the altar of a divinity: to destroy or give up for something else: to devote or destroy with loss or suffering: to kill.—v.i. to make offerings to God.—n. the fundamental institution of all natural religions, primarily a sacramental meal at which the communicants are a deity and his worshippers, and the elements the flesh and blood of a sacred victim: the act of sacrificing or offering to a deity, esp. a victim on an altar: that which is sacrificed or offered: destruction or loss of anything to gain some object: that which is given up, destroyed, or lost for some end: mere loss of profit.—n. Sacrif′icant, one who offers a sacrifice.—adj. Sacrif′icātory, offering sacrifice.—n. Sac′rificer, a priest.—adj. Sacrifi′cial, relating to, or consisting in, sacrifice: performing sacrifice.—adv. Sacrifi′cially.—Sacrifice hit, in base-ball, a hit to enable another player to score or to gain a base.—Eucharistic sacrifice, the supposed constant renewal of the sacrifice of Christ in the mass. [O. Fr.,—L. sacrificium—sacer, sacred, facĕre, to make.]
Sacrilege, sak′ri-lej, n. profanation of a sacred place or thing: the breaking into a place of worship and stealing therefrom.—n. Sac′rileger (obs.).—adj. Sacrilē′gious, polluted with sacrilege: profane: violating sacred things.—adv. Sacrilē′giously.—ns. Sacrilē′giousness; Sac′rilēgist, one guilty of sacrilege. [Fr. sacrilège—L. sacrilegium—sacer, sacred, legĕre, to gather.]
Sacrist, sā′krist, n. a sacristan: a person in a cathedral who copies out music for the choir and takes care of the books.—ns. Sā′cring, consecration; Sā′cring-bell, in R.C. churches, a small bell rung to call attention to the more solemn parts of the service of the mass; Sac′ristan, an officer in a church who has charge of the sacred vessels and other movables: a sexton; Sac′risty, an apartment in a church where the sacred utensils, vestments, &c. are kept: vestry. [Low L. sacristia, a vestry, sacristanus, sacrista, a sacristan—L. sacer.]
Sacrosanct, sak′rō-sangkt, adj. very sacred or inviolable.—n. Sacrosanc′tity. [L. sacrosanctus—sacer, sacred, sanctus, pa.p. of sancīre, to hallow.]
Sacrum, sā′krum, n. a triangular bone situated at the lower part of the vertebral column (of which it is a natural continuation), and wedged between the two innominate bones, so as to form the keystone to the pelvic arch.—adj. Sā′cral.—n. Sācral′gia, pain in the region of the sacrum.—adjs. Sācrocos′tal, connected with the sacrum and having the character of a rib (also n.); Sācroil′iac, pertaining to the sacrum and ilium; Sācrolum′bar, pertaining to sacral and lumbar vertebræ; Sācropū′bic, pertaining to the sacrum and to the pubes; Sācrorec′tal, pertaining to the sacrum and the rectum; Sācrosciat′ic, pertaining to the sacrum and the hip; Sācrover′tebral, pertaining to the sacrum and that part of the vertebral column immediately anterior to it. [L. sacrum (os, bone), sacred.]
Sad, sad (comp. Sad′der, superl. Sad′dest), adj. sorrowful: serious: cast down: calamitous: weary: sombre: stiff: doughy: dejected: troublesome: sober, dark-coloured: (obs.) ponderous, heavy.—v.t. to grieve.—v.t. Sad′den, to make sad: to render heavy: to grow hard.—v.i. to grow sad.—adjs. Sad′-eyed (Shak.), having an expression of sadness in the eyes; Sad′-faced (Shak.), having an expression of sadness in the face; Sad′-heart′ed (Shak.), having the heart full of sadness.—adv. Sad′ly.—n. Sad′ness. [A.S. sæd, sated, weary; cf. Dut. zat, Ger. satt; L. sat, satis.]
Saddening, sad′n-ing, n. a method of applying mordants in dyeing and printing cloths, so as to give duller shades to the colours employed.
Saddle, sad′l, n. a seat or pad, generally of leather, for a horse's back: anything like a saddle, as a saddle of mutton, veal, or venison—a butcher's cut, including a part of the backbone with the ribs on one side: a part of the harness used for drawing a vehicle: the seat on a bicycle: (naut.) a block of wood fastened to some spar, and shaped to receive the end of another spar.—v.t. to put a saddle on, to load: to encumber.—n. Sadd′le-back, a hill or its summit when shaped like a saddle: a raccoon oyster: the great black-backed gull: the harp-seal: a variety of domestic geese: the larva of the bombycid moth: (archit.) a coping thicker in the middle than at the edges.—adj. Sadd′le-backed, having a low back and an elevated head and neck.—ns. Sadd′le-bag, one of two bags united by straps for carrying on horseback; Sadd′le-bar, a bar for sustaining glass in a stained-glass window; Sadd′le-blank′et, a small blanket folded under a saddle; Sadd′le-bow, the arched front of a saddle from which the weapon often hung; Sadd′le-cloth, the housing or cloth placed under a saddle.—n.pl. Sadd′le-feath′ers, the long slender feathers which droop from the saddle or rump of the domestic cock.—ns. Sadd′le-girth, a band passing round the body of a horse to hold the saddle in its place; Sadd′le-horse, a horse suitable for riding; Sadd′le-joint, a joint made in plates of sheet-iron so that the margins interlock: (anat.) a joint admitting movement in every direction except axial rotation; Sadd′le-lap, the skirt of a saddle; Sadd′le-plate, the bent plate which forms the arch of the furnace in locomotive steam-boilers; Sadd′le-quern, an ancient quern for grinding grain; Sadd′ler, a maker of saddles: the harp-seal; Sadd′le-rock, a variety of the oyster; Sadd′le-roof, a roof having two gables; Sadd′ler-cor′poral, a non-commissioned officer in the household cavalry, with the charge of the saddles; Sadd′ler-ser′geant, a sergeant in the cavalry who has charge of the saddlers: (U.S.) a non-commissioned staff-officer of a cavalry regiment; Sadd′lery, occupation of a saddler: materials for saddles: articles sold by a saddler.—adjs. Sadd′le-shaped, shaped like a saddle: (bot.) bent down at the sides: (geol.) bent down at each side of a ridge; Sadd′le-sick, galled with much riding.—ns. Sadd′le-tree, the frame of a saddle.—Put the saddle on the right horse, to impute blame where it is deserved. [A.S. sadol, sadel; cf. Dut. zadel, Ger. sattel.]
Sadducee, sad′ū-sē, n. one of a Jewish sceptical school or party of aristocratic traditionists in New Testament times.—adj. Saddūcē′an, of or relating to the Sadducees.—ns. Saddūcee′ism, Sadd′ūcism, scepticism. [Gr. Saddoukaios—Heb. Tsedūqīm, from their supposed founder Zadok, or from the race of the Zadokites, a family of priests at Jerusalem since the time of Solomon.]
Sadina, sa-dē′na, n. a clupeoid fish resembling a sardine. [Sp. sardina.]
Sad-iron, sad′-ī′urn, n. a smoothing-iron: a box-iron.
Sadr, sad′r, n. the lote-bush.
Sad-tree, sad′-trē, n. the night jasmine.
Sae, sā, adv. the Scotch form of so.
Safe, sāf, adj. unharmed: free from danger or injury: secure: securing from danger or injury: no longer dangerous: clear: trusty: sound: certain.—n. a chest or closet for money, &c., safe against fire, thieves, &c., generally of iron: a chest or cupboard for meats: (coll.) a safety-bicycle.—v.t. to safeguard.—v.t. Safe′-conduct′ (Spens.).—ns. Safe′-con′duct, a writing, passport, or guard granted to a person to enable him to travel with safety; Safe′-depos′it, a safe storage for valuables; Safe′guard, he who, or that which, guards or renders safe: protection: a guard, passport, or warrant to protect a traveller: a rail-guard at railway switches: (zool.) a monitor lizard.—v.t. to protect.—n. Safe′-keep′ing, preservation from injury or from escape.—adv. Safe′ly, in a safe manner.—ns. Safe′ness; Safe′-pledge, a surety for one's appearance at a day assigned; Safe′ty, freedom from danger or loss: close custody: a safeguard: Safe′ty-arch (archit.), an arch built in the body of a wall to relieve the pressure, as over a door or window; Safe′ty-belt, a belt made of some buoyant material, or capable of being inflated, for helping a person to float; Safe′ty-bī′cycle, a low-wheeled bicycle; Safe′ty-buoy, a buoy for helping a person to float: a life-preserver; Safe′ty-cage (mining), a cage by which a fall would be prevented in case of the breakage of the rope by means of safety-catches; Safe′ty-chain, a check-chain of a car-truck: a safety-link; Safe′ty-fuse, a waterproof woven tube enclosing an inflammable substance which burns at a regular rate; Safe′ty-hoist, a hoisting-gear so arranged as to prevent its load being thrown precipitately down in case of accident; Safe′ty-lamp, a lamp surrounded by wire-gauze, used for safety in mines on account of the inflammable gases; Safe′ty-lock, a lock that cannot be picked by ordinary means: in firearms, a lock with some device for preventing accidental discharge; Safe′ty-match, a match which can be ignited only on a surface specially prepared for the purpose; Safe′ty-pā′per, a paper so prepared as to resist alteration by chemical or mechanical means; Safe′ty-pin, a pin in the form of a clasp with a guard covering its point; Safe′ty-plug, a plug of soft metal in an opening in a steam-boiler, so as to melt when the temperature rises to its fusing-point, and allow of an escape of steam; Safe′ty-rein, a rein for preventing a horse from running away; Safe′ty-stop, a contrivance for preventing accidents in machinery; Safe′ty-tube, a tube used in chemical operations to prevent the bursting of vessels by gas, and for other purposes; Safe′ty-valve, a valve in the top of a steam-boiler, which lets out the steam when the pressure is too great for safety. [O. Fr. sauf—L. salvus; prob. allied to solus.]
Saffian, saf′i-an, n. a name applied to skins tanned with sumac and dyed in bright colours. [Russ.]
Safflower, saf′flow-ėr, n. an annual herbaceous composite plant, cultivated all over India for its red dye—Carthamine. [O. Fr. saflor, through It. from Ar. usfūr—safrā, yellow.]
Saffo, saf′ō, n. (obs.) a bailiff: a catchpole. [It.]
Saffron, saf′run, n. a bulbous plant of the crocus kind with deep-yellow flowers: a colouring substance prepared from its flowers.—adj. having the colour of saffron: deep yellow.—adj. Saff′rony.—n. Saf′ranine, a coal-tar producing yellowish colour used in dyeing. [O. Fr. safran (It. zafferano)—Ar. za‛farān—safrā, yellow.]
Sag, sag, v.i. to bend, sink, or hang down: to yield or give way as from weight or pressure: to hang heavy: to make leeway.—n. a droop.—adj. loaded. [M. E. saggen, from Scand.; Sw. sacka, to sink down; cf. Ger. sacken, to sink.]
Saga, sä′ga, n. a tale, historical or fabulous, in the old prose literature of Iceland.—n. Sä′gaman, a narrator of sagas. [Ice. saga, pl. sögur—segja, say.]
Sagacious, sa-gā′shus, adj. keen or quick in perception or thought: acute: discerning and judicious: wise.—adv. Sagā′ciously.—ns. Sagā′ciousness, Sagac′ity, acuteness of perception or thought: acute practical judgment: shrewdness. [L. sagax, sagacis—sagīre, to perceive quickly.]
Sagamore, sag′a-mōr, n. a chief among some tribes of American Indians—prob. conn. with sachem.
Sagapenum, sag-a-pē′num, n. a fetid gum-resin, the concrete juice of a Persian species of Ferula, formerly used in hysteria, &c. [Gr. sagapēnon.]
Sagathy, sag′a-thi, n. (obs.) a woollen stuff. [Fr. sagatis—L. saga, a mantle.]
Sage, sāj, n. any plant of genus Salvia, of the mint family, esp. Common or Garden Sage, used for flavouring meats.—ns. Sage′-app′le, a gall formed on a species of sage; Sage′-bread, bread baked from dough mixed with a strong infusion of sage in milk; Sage′-brush, a collective name of various shrubby species of Artemisia in the western United States; Sage′-cock, -grouse, a large North American grouse; Sage′-green, a gray slightly mixed with pure green; Sage′-rabb′it, a small hare or rabbit abounding in North America; Sage′-rose, a plant of the genus Cistus: an evergreen shrub of tropical America; Sage′-sparr′ow, a fringilline bird characteristic of the sage-brush of North America; Sage′-thresh′er, the mountain mocking-bird of west North America; Sage′-will′ow, a dwarf American willow.—adj. Sā′gy, full of, or seasoned with, sage.—Apple-bearing sage, a native of southern Europe, with large reddish or purple bracts, and bearing on its branches large gall-nuts; Meadow Sage, or Meadow clary, a common ornament of meadows in the south of England, with bluish-purple flowers; Oil of sage, an essential oil, yielded by the sage, once much used in liniments against rheumatism. [O. Fr. sauge (It. salvia)—L. salvia—salvus, safe.]
Sage, sāj, adj. discriminating, discerning, wise: well judged.—n. a wise man: a man of gravity and wisdom.—adv. Sage′ly.—n. Sage′ness.—Seven sages, or wise men (see Seven). [Fr. sage (It. saggio, savio), from a L. sapius (seen in ne-sapius), wise—sapĕre, to be wise.]
Sagene, sā′jēn, n. a fishing-net. [L.,—Gr. sagēnē.]
Sagene, sā′jēn, n. a Russian unit of long measure, of seven English feet.
Sagenite, sāj′en-īt, n. acicular crystals of rutile occurring in reticulated forms embedded in quartz.—adj. Sagenit′ic. [Gr. sagēnē, a drag-net.]
Sageretia, saj-e-rē′ti-a, n. a genus of polypetalous plants belonging to the buckthorn order. [Named from Aug. Sageret, 1763-1852.]
Sagesse, sazh-es′, n. wisdom. [Fr.]
Saggar, Sagger, sag′ar, -ėr, n. a box of hard pottery in which porcelain is enclosed for baking—also v.t.—ns. Sagg′ard; Sagg′ar-house, a house in which unbaked vessels are put into saggars. [Safeguard.]
Sagina, sa-jī′na, n. a genus of polypetalous plants of the pink family.—v.t. Sag′inate, to pamper: to fatten.—n. Saginā′tion. [L. sagināre, to fatten.]
Sagitta, saj′it-a, n. a northern constellation—the Arrow: a genus of small pelagic worms.—adj. Sag′ittal, arrow-shaped: (anat.) straight, pertaining to the sagittal suture.—adv. Sag′ittally.—ns. Sagittā′ria, a genus of aquatic plants, some species with sagittate leaves and white flowers; Sagittā′rius, the Archer, one of the signs of the zodiac; Sag′ittary, a centaur: a public building in Venice.—adj. of or like an arrow.—adjs. Sag′ittāte, -d, Shaped like an arrow-head, as a leaf; Sagittiling′ual, having a long slender tongue, as a woodpecker. [L. sagitta, an arrow.]
Sago, sā′go, n. a nutritive farinaceous substance produced from the pith of several East Indian palms.—n. Sā′go-palm. [Malay sāgu.]
Sagra, sā′gra, n. a genus of phytophagous beetles of brilliant colours.
Saguaro, sa-gwar′ō, n. the giant cactus.
Saguin, sag′win, n. a South American monkey.—Also Sag′oin, Sag′ouin.
Saguinus, sag-ū-ī′nus, n. a genus of South American marmosets.
Sagum, sā′gum, n. a military cloak worn by ancient Roman soldiers. [L., prob. of Celt. origin.]
Sahib, sä′ib, n. a term of respect given in India to persons of rank and to Europeans. [Hind. sāhib—Ar. sāhib.]
Sahlite, sä′līt, n. a variety of augite, from the silver-mines of Sahla in Sweden.
Sai, sä′i, n. a South American monkey. [Braz.]
Saibling, sāb′ling, n. the char.
Saic, sä′ik, n. a Turkish or Grecian vessel common in the Levant. [Fr. saïque—Turk. shāīqa.]
Said, sed, pa.t. and pa.p. of say: the before-mentioned, as the said witness.
Saiga, sī′gä, n. a west Asian antelope. [Russ.]
Saikless. Same as Sackless.
Sail, sāl, n. a sheet of canvas, &c., spread to catch the wind, by which a ship is driven forward: a ship or ships: a trip in a vessel: a fleet: arm of a windmill: speed: a journey.—v.i. to be moved by sails: to go by water: to begin a voyage: to glide or float smoothly along.—v.t. to navigate: to pass in a ship: to fly through.—adj. Sail′able, navigable.—n. Sail′-boat, a boat propelled by a sail.—adjs. Sail′-borne; Sail′-broad (Milt.), broad or spreading like a sail.—n. Sail′-cloth, a strong cloth for sails.—adj. Sailed, having sails set.—ns. Sail′er, a sailor: a boat or ship with respect to its mode of sailing, or its speed; Sail′-fish, the basking shark: the quill-back; Sail′-fluke, the whiff; Sail′-hoop, a mast-hoop; Sail′ing, act of sailing: motion of a vessel on water: act of directing a ship's course: the term applied to the different ways in which the path of a ship at sea, and the variations of its geographical position, are represented on paper, as great circle sailing, Mercator's sailing, middle latitude sailing, oblique sailing, parallel sailing, plane sailing; Sail′ing-ice, an ice-pack through which a sailing-vessel can force her way.—n.pl. Sail′ing-instruc′tions, written directions by the officer of a convoy to the masters of ships under his care.—n. Sail′ing-mas′ter, a former name for the navigating officer of a war-ship.—adj. Sail′less, destitute of sails.—ns. Sail′-liz′ard, a large lizard having a crested tail; Sail′-loft, a loft where sails are cut out and made; Sail′-māk′er, a maker of sails: in the United States navy, an officer who takes charge of the sails; Sail′or, one who sails in or navigates a ship: a seaman; Sail′or-fish, a sword-fish; Sail′or-man, a seaman; Sail′or-plant, the strawberry geranium; Sail′or's-choice, the pin-fish: the pig-fish; Sail′or's-purse, an egg-pouch of rays and sharks; Sail′-room, a room in a vessel where sails are stowed.—adj. Sail′y, like a sail.—n. Sail′-yard, the yard on which sails are extended.—n.pl. Stay′-sails, triangular sails, suspended on the ropes which stay the masts upon the foresides—from the jib-boom, bowsprit, and deck in the case of the foremast, and from the deck in the case of the mainmast.—Sail close to the wind, to run great risk; Sailors' Home, an institution where sailors may lodge, or aged and infirm sailors be permanently cared for.—After sail, the sails carried on the mainmast and mizzen-mast; Fore-and-aft sails, those set parallel to the keel of a ship, as opp. to Square sails, those set across the ship; Full Sail, with all sails set; Make sail, to spread more canvas, in sailing; Set sail, to spread the sails, to begin a voyage; Shorten sail, to reduce its extent; Strike sail, to lower the sail or sails: (Shak.) to abate one's pretensions of pomp or superiority; Take the wind out of one's sails, to deprive one of an advantage; Under sail, having the sails spread. [A.S. segel, cf. Dut. zeil, Ger. segel.]
Saimiri, sī′mi-ri, n. a squirrel monkey.
Sain, sā′in (Shak.), pa.p. of say.
Sain, sān, v.t. (Scot.) to bless so as to protect from evil. [A.S. segnian—L. signāre—signum, mark.]
Sainfoin, sān′foin, n. a leguminous fodder-plant.—Also Saint′foin. [Fr., sain, wholesome, foin, hay—L. sanum fœnum.]
Saint, sānt, n. a sanctified or holy person: one eminent for piety: one of the blessed dead: one canonised by the R.C. Church: an image of a saint: an angel: (pl.) Israelites as a people: Christians generally.—v.t. to salute as a saint.—adj. Saint′ed, made a saint: holy: sacred: gone to heaven: canonised.—n. Saint′hood.—adj. Saint′ish, somewhat saintly, or affectedly so.—n. Saint′ism, the character or quality of a saint: sanctimoniousness.—adjs. Saint′-like, Saint′ly, like or becoming a saint.—adv. Saint′lily.—n. Saint′liness.—adj. Saint′-seem′ing, appearing like a saint.—n. Saint′ship, the character of a saint.—Saint's day, a day set apart for the commemoration of a particular saint; St Agnes's flower, the snowflake; St Andrew's cross, a North American shrub; St Andrew's Day, 30th November; St Anthony's fire, erysipelas; St Anthony's nut, the pig-nut or hawk-nut; St Audrey's necklace, a string of holy stones; St Barbara's cress, the yellow rocket; St Barnaby's thistle, the English star-thistle; St Bennet's herb, the herb bennet; St Bernard, a kind of dog; St Blase's disease, quinsy; St Cassian beds, a division of the Triassic series; St Crispin's Day, 25th October; St David's Day, 1st March; St Domingo duck, a West Indian duck; St Domingo grebe, the smallest grebe in America; St Elmo's fire (see Elmo's fire); St George's Day, 23d April; St George's ensign, the distinguishing flag of the British navy, a red cross on a white field; St Hubert's disease, hydrophobia; St John's bread, the carob bean: ergot of rye; St John's Day, 27th December; St John's hawk, a blackish variety of the rough-legged buzzard; St Julien, an esteemed red Bordeaux wine from the Médoc region; St Leger, the name of a race run at Doncaster, so called since 1778 from Col. St Leger; St Luke's summer, a period of pleasant weather about the middle of October; St Martin's evil, drunkenness; St Martin's summer, a season of mild, damp weather in late autumn; St Nicholas's Day, 6th December; St Patrick's Day, 17th March; St Peter's finger, a belemnite; St Peter's fish, the dory; St Peter's wort, a name of several plants; St Pierre group, a thick mass of shales in the upper Missouri region; St Swithin's Day, 15th July; St Valentine's Day, 14th February; St Vitus's dance, chorea.—All-Saints' Day, a feast observed by the Latin Church on 1st November, in the Greek Church on the first Sunday after Pentecost; Communion of the Saints, the spiritual fellowship of all true believers, the blessed dead as well as the faithful living, mystically united in each other in Christ; Intercession, Perseverance, of saints (see Intercession, Perseverance); Latter-day saints, the Mormons' name for themselves; Patron saint, a saint who is regarded as a protector, as St George of England, St Andrew of Scotland, St Patrick of Ireland, St David of Wales, St Denis of France, St James of Spain, St Nicholas of Russia, St Stephen of Hungary, St Mark of Venice, &c. [Fr.,—L. sanctus, holy.]
Saint-Simonism, sānt-sī′mon-izm, n. the socialistic system founded by the Comte de Saint-Simon (1760-1825).—ns. Saint-Simō′nian (also adj.); Saint-Simō′nianism; Saint-Sī′monist.
Sair, sār, adj. (Scot.) sore.—adv. Sair′ly.
Sair, sār, v.t. to serve: to fit: to satisfy: to give alms.—n. Sair′ing, as much as serves the turn: enough.
Saith, seth, v.t. and v.i. 3d pers. sing. pres. indic. of say.
Saith, sāth, n. (Scot.) the coalfish. [Gael. savidhean.]
Saiva, sī′va, n. a votary of Siva.—n. Sai′vism.
Sajou, sa-jōō′, n. a South American monkey.
Sake, sak′e, n. a Japanese fermented liquor made from rice: a generic name for all spirituous liquors.
Sake, sāk, n. cause: account: regard, as 'for my sake': contention: fault: purpose.—For old sake's sake, for the sake of old times, for auld langsyne. [A.S. sacu, strife, a lawsuit; Dut. zaak, Ger. sache; A.S. sacan, to strive, Goth. sakan. Seek is a doublet.]
Saker, sā′kėr, n. a species of falcon: a species of cannon. [Fr.,—Low L. falco sacer, sacred falcon.]
Saki, sak′i, n. a genus of long-tailed South American monkeys.
Sakieh, sak′i-e, n. a Persian wheel used in Egypt for raising water.—Also Sak′ia, [Ar. saqieh.]
Sal, sal, n. a large gregarious timber tree of north India, with hard, dark-brown, coarse-grained, durable wood. [Hind. sāl.]
Sal, sal, n. salt, used in chemistry and pharmacy with various adjectives, as Sal′-alem′broth, a solution of equal parts of corrosive sublimate and ammonium chloride—also Salt of wisdom; Sal′-ammō′niac, chloride of ammonium, with a sharp, saline taste; Sal′-seignette′, Rochelle salt; Sal′-volat′ile, a solution of carbonate of ammonia in alcohol—a common remedy for faintness. [L.]
Salaam, Salam, sa-läm′, n. a word of salutation in the East, chiefly among Mohammedans: homage.—v.i. to perform the salaam. [Ar. salām, peace; Heb. shalām, to be safe.]
Salable, Salableness, Salably. Same as Saleable, &c. See Sale.
Salacious, sal-ā′shi-us, adj. lustful: lecherous.—adv. Salā′ciously, lustfully: lecherously.—ns. Salā′ciousness, Salac′ity, lust, lecherousness. [L. salax—salīre, to leap.]
Salad, sal′ad, n. a preparation of raw herbs (lettuce, endive, chicory, celery, mustard and cress, water-cress, onions, radishes, tomatoes, chervil, &c.) cut up and seasoned with salt, vinegar, &c.: a dish of some kind of meat, chopped, seasoned, and mixed with a salad.—ns. Salad-bur′net, the common burnet, used as a salad; Sal′ading, herbs for salads: the making of salads; Sal′ad-oil, olive-oil, used in dressing salads; Sal′ad-plate, a small plate for salad; Sal′ad-rock′et, the garden rocket; Sal′ad-spoon, a large and long-handled spoon for stirring and mixing salads, made of wood or other material not affected by vinegar.—Salad days, days of youthful inexperience. [Fr. salade—Old It. salata—salare, to salt—L. sal, salt.]
Salagramma, sä-lä-grä′mä, n. a stone sacred to Vishnu.
Salal-berry, sal′al-ber′i, n. a berry-like plant of California, about the size of a common grape.
Salam. See Salaam.
Salamander, sal′a-man-dėr, n. a genus of tailed Amphibians, nearly related to the newts, harmless, but long dreaded as poisonous, once supposed able to live in fire: (her.) a four-legged creature with a long tail surrounded by flames: a poker used red-hot for kindling fires: a hot metal plate for browning meat, &c.—adjs. Salaman′driform; Salaman′drine, like a salamander: enduring fire; Salaman′droid—also n. [Fr. salamandre—L.,—Gr. salamandra; of Eastern origin.]
Salamba, sa-lam′ba, n. a contrivance for fishing used at Manila and elsewhere in the East.
Salamis, sal′a-mis, n. a genus of lepidopterous insects.
Salangane, sal′ang-gān, n. a Chinese swift which constructs edible nests.
Salary, sal′a-ri, n. a recompense for services: wages.—v.t. to pay a salary.—adj. Sal′aried, receiving a salary. [O. Fr. salarie (Fr. salaire, It. salario)—L. salarium, salt-money, sal, salt]
Salda, sal′da, n. a genus of true bugs.
Sale, sāl, n. act of selling: the exchange of anything for money: power or opportunity of selling: demand: public showing of goods to sell: auction.—adj. Sale′able, that may be sold: in good demand.—n. Sale′ableness.—adv. Sale′ably.—ns. Sale′room, an auction-room; Sales′man, a man who sells goods:—fem. Sales′woman.—adj. Sale′-tongued, mercenary.—n.pl. Sale′wares, merchandise.—n. Sale′work, work or things made for sale, or merely for sale: work carelessly done.—Forced sale, a sale compelled by a creditor; Terms of sale, the conditions imposed on a purchaser. [Scand., Ice. sala.]
Sale, sāl, n. (Spens.) a kind of basket-like net, made of sallows or willows. [A.S. sealh, willow.]
Salebrous, sal′ē-brus, adj. rough, rugged.—n. Salebros′ity. [Fr.,—L. salebrosus, rough.]
Salep, sal′ep, n. the dried tubers of Orchis mascula: the food prepared from it.—Also Sal′op. [Ar.]
Saleratus, sal-e-rā′tus, n. sodium bicarbonate, used in baking-powders.—Also Salærā′tus. [L. sal aeratus, aerated salt.]
Salewe, sal-ū′, v.t. (Spens.) to salute. [Salute.]
Salian, sā′li-an, adj. pertaining to a tribe of Franks on the lower Rhine.—n. one of this tribe.—adj. Sal′ic, denoting a law among the Salian Franks limiting the succession of certain lands to males—extended in the 14th century to the succession to the crown of France. [Fr. salique—Low L. Lex salica.]
Salian, sā′li-an, adj. pertaining to the Salii or priests of Mars in ancient Rome.—Salian hymns, songs sung by these, with dances, &c.
Saliant, sāl′i-ant, adj. Same as Salient.
Saliaunce, sal-i-äns′, n. (Spens.). See Salience.
Salicetum, sal-i-sē′tum, n. a thicket of willows:—pl. Salicē′tums, Salicē′ta.
Salicin, -e, sal′i-sin, n. a bitter crystalline glucoside, obtained from the bark of willows and poplars.—n. Sal′icylāte, a salt of salicylic acid.—adjs. Sal′icylāted, combined with salicylic acid; Salicy′lic, obtained from the willow.—Salicylate of sodium, a product occurring in small white crystals, used very largely in acute rheumatism. [L. salix, salicis, a willow.]
Salicornia, sal-i-kor′ni-a, n. a genus of apetalous plants—the glass-wort, marsh-samphire. [Fr.,—L. sal, salt, cornu, a horn.]
Salient, sā′li-ent, adj. leaping or springing: (fort.) projecting outwards, as an angle: prominent: striking: (geom.) denoting any angle less than two right angles: (her.) of a beast of prey nearly rampant.—n. Sā′lience, the quality or condition of being salient: projection: (Spens.) a leaping, assaulting, onslaught.—adv. Sā′liently. [Fr.,—L. saliens, -entis, pr.p. of salīre, to leap.]
Salière, sa-lyār′, n. a saltcellar. [Fr.]
Saliferous, sā-lif′ėr-us, adj. bearing salt.—Saliferous system, the Triassic, from its rich deposits. [L. sal, salis, salt, ferre, to bear.]
Salify, sal′i-fī, v.t. to combine with an acid in order to make a salt:—pa.t. and pa.p. sal′ified.—adj. Salifī′able.—n. Salificā′tion, the act of salifying.
Saline, sā′līn, or sā-līn′, adj. consisting of, or containing, salt: partaking of the qualities of salt.—n. an effervescent powder used as a gentle aperient: a salt-spring.—ns. Salī′na, salt-works; Salinā′tion, the act of washing in salt liquor; Sal′ine, Sal′in, a salt, reddish substance obtained from the ashes of potato-leaves; Saline′ness.—adjs. Salinif′erous; Salin′iform.—ns. Salin′ity; Salinom′eter, Salim′eter, a hydrometer for measuring the amount of salt in any given solution.—adj. Salī′no-terrene′, composed of salt and earth.—v.t. Sal′ite, to season with salt.—n. Sal′itral, a place where saltpetre occurs. [Fr.,—L. salinus—sal, salt.]
Salique, sal′ik, or sa-lēk′. Same as Salic (see Salian).
Saliva, sa-lī′va, n. the spittle, one of the digestive fluids, mainly the product of the salivary glands.—adjs. Salī′val, Sal′ivant, producing salivation.—n. Salī′va-pump, a device for carrying off the accumulating saliva.—adj. Sa′livary, pertaining to, secreting, or containing saliva.—n. that which produces salivation.—v.t. Sal′ivāte, to produce an unusual amount of saliva.—n. Salivā′tion, an unusual flow of saliva.—adj. Sal′ivous, like spittle. [Fr.,—L., allied to Gr. sialon, saliva.]
Salix, sā′liks, n. a genus of apetalous trees and shrubs, the willows. [L.]
Sallee-man, sal′ē-man, n. a Moorish pirate.—Also Sall′ee-rō′ver. [Sallee, on the coast of Morocco.]
Sallet, sal′et, n. a light kind of helmet of the 15th century, with projection behind, used by foot-soldiers. [O. Fr. salade, through It. celata, a helmet, from L. cælata, figured—cælāre, to engrave.]
Sallie, sal′i, n. (Scot.) a hired mourner at a funeral.
Sallow, sal′ō, n. a tree or low shrub of the willow kind—(Scot.) Sauch.—adj. Sall′owy, abounding in sallows. [A.S. sealh; Ger. sahl.]
Sallow, sal′ō, adj. of a pale, yellowish colour.—v.t. to tinge with a sallow colour.—adj. Sall′owish, somewhat sallow.—ns. Sall′ow-kitt′en, a kind of puss-moth; Sall′ow-moth, a British moth of a pale-yellow colour; Sall′owness.—adj. Sall′owy. [A.S. salo, salu; cf. Dut. zaluw, and Old High Ger. salo.]
Sally, sal′i, n. a leaping or bursting out: a sudden rushing forth of troops to attack besiegers: excursion: outburst of fancy, wit, &c.: levity: a projection.—v.i. to rush out suddenly: to mount:—pa.t. and pa.p. sall′ied.—n. Sall′y-port, a passage by which a garrison may make a sally: a large port for the escape of a crew when a fire-ship is set on fire. [Fr. saillie—saillir (It. salire)—L. salire, to leap.]
Sally, sal′i, n. a kind of stone-fly: a wren.—n. Sall′ypick′er, one of several different warblers.
Sally-lunn, sal′i-lun, n. a sweet spongy tea-cake. [From the name of a girl who sold them in the streets of Bath about the close of the 18th century.]
Sally-wood, sal′i-wōōd, n. willow-wood.
Salmagundi, sal-ma-gun′di, n. a dish of minced meat with eggs, anchovies, vinegar, pepper, &c.: a medley, miscellany.—Also Salmagun′dy. [Fr. salmigondis—It. salami, pl. of salame, salt meat—L. sal, salt, conditi, pl. of condito, seasoned—L. condīre, -ītum, to pickle.]
Salmi, Salmis, sal′mi, n. a ragout of roasted woodcocks, &c., stewed with wine, morsels of bread, &c. [Fr. salmis—It. salame, salt meat.]
Salmiac, sal′mi-ak, n. sal-ammoniac.
Salmon, sam′un, n. a large fish, brownish above, with silvery sides, the delicate flesh reddish-orange in colour—ascending rivers to spawn: the upper bricks in a kiln which receive the least heat.—ns. Sal′mō, the leading genus of Salmonidæ; Salm′on-col′our, an orange-pink; Salm′onet, a young salmon; Salm′on-fish′ery, a place where salmon-fishing is carried on; Salm′on-fly, any kind of artificial fly for taking salmon; Salm′on-fry, salmon under two years old; Salm′oning, the salmon industry, as canning; Salm′on-kill′er, a sort of stickleback; Salm′on-leap, -ladd′er, a series of steps to permit a salmon to pass up-stream.—adj. Salm′onoid.—ns. Salm′on-peal, -peel, a grilse under 2 lb.; Salm′on-spear, an instrument used in spearing salmon; Salm′on-spring, a smolt or young salmon of the first year; Salm′on-tack′le, the rod, line, and fly with which salmon are taken; Salm′on-trout, a trout like the salmon, but smaller and thicker in proportion; Salm′on-weir, a weir specially designed to take salmon.—Black salmon, the great lake trout; Burnett salmon, a fish with reddish flesh like a salmon; Calvered salmon, pickled salmon; Cornish salmon, the pollack; Kelp salmon, a serranoid fish; Kippered Salmon, salmon salted and smoke-dried; Quoddy salmon, the pollack; Sea salmon, the pollack; White salmon, a carangoid Californian fish. [O. Fr. saulmon—L. salmo, from salīre, to leap.]
Salnatron, sal-nā′tron, n. crude sodium carbonate.
Salomonic. Same as Solomonic.
Salon, sa-long′, n. a drawing-room: a fashionable reception, esp. a periodic gathering of notable persons, in the house of some social queen: the great annual exhibition of works by living artists at the Palais des Champs Elysées in Paris. [Fr.]
Saloon, sa-lōōn′, n. a spacious and elegant hall or apartment for the reception of company, for works of art, &c.: a main cabin: a drawing-room car on a railroad: a liquor-shop.—ns. Saloon′ist, Saloon′-keep′er, one who retails liquor. [Fr. salon—salle; Old High Ger. sal, a dwelling, Ger. saal.]
Saloop, sa-lōōp′, n. a drink composed of sassafras tea, with sugar and milk. [Salep.]
Salop. Same as Salep.
Salopian, sal-ō′pi-an, adj. pertaining to Shropshire (L. Salopia), as the ware, a name given to Roman pottery found in Shropshire.
Salpa, sal′pa, n. a remarkable genus of free-swimming Tunicates.—adjs. Sal′pian; Sal′piform.
Salpicon, sal′pi-kon, n. stuffing, chopped meat. [Fr.]
Salpiglossis, sal-pi-glos′is, n. a genus of gamopetalous plants, native to Chili, with showy flowers resembling petunias, [Gr. salpingx, a trumpet, glōssa, tongue.]
Salpinctes, sal-pingk′tes, n. the rock-wrens. [Gr. salpingktēs, a trumpeter.]
Salpingitis, sal-pin-jī′tis, n. inflammation of a Fallopian tube.—adjs. Salpingit′ic, Salpin′gian, pertaining to a Fallopian or to a Eustachian tube.—n. Sal′pinx, a Eustachian tube or syrinx. [Gr. salpingx, a trumpet.]
Salpornis, sal-por′nis, n. a genus of creepers inhabiting Asia and Africa. [Gr. salpingx, a trumpet, ornis, a bird.]
Salsaginous, sal-saj′i-nus, adj. saltish: growing in brackish places.
Salsamentarious, sal-sa-men-tā′ri-us, adj. (obs.) salted.
Salse, sals, n. a mud volcano: a conical hillock of mud. [Fr.,—L. salsus, salīre, to salt.]
Salsify, sal′si-fi, n. a biennial plant growing in meadows throughout Europe, whose long and tapering root has a flavour resembling asparagus—also Sal′safy—often called Oyster-plant.—Black salsify, the related scorzonera. [Fr.,—It. sassefrica, goat's-beard—L. saxum, a rock, fricāre, to rub.]
Salsilla, sal-sil′a, n. one of several species of Bomarea, with edible tubers. [Sp., dim. of salsa, sauce.]
Salsola, sal′sō-la, n. a genus of plants, including the salt-wort and prickly glass-wort.—adj. Salsolā′ceous. [L. salsus—salīre, to salt.]
Salt, sawlt, n. chloride of sodium, or common salt, a well-known substance used for seasoning, found either in the earth or obtained by evaporation from sea-water: anything like salt: seasoning: piquancy: abatement, modification, allowance: an experienced sailor: that which preserves from corruption: an antiseptic: (chem.) a body composed of an acid and a base united in definite proportions, or of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, or iodine, with a metal or metalloid: (obs.) lust.—v.t. to sprinkle or season with salt: to fill with salt between the timbers for preservation.—adj. containing salt: tasting of salt: overflowed with, or growing in, salt-water: pungent: lecherous: (coll.) costly, expensive—ns. Salt′-block, a salt-evaporating apparatus; Salt′-bott′om, a flat piece of ground covered with saline efflorescences: Salt′-bush, an Australian plant of the goose-foot family; Salt′-cake, the crude sodium sulphate occurring as a by-product in the manufacture of hydrochloric acid; Salt′-cat, a mixture given as a digestive to pigeons; Salt′er, one who salts, or who makes, sells, or deals in salt, as in Drysalter: a trout leaving salt-water to ascend a stream; Sal′tern, salt-works; Salt′-foot, a large saltcellar marking the boundary between the superior and inferior guests; Salt′-gauge, an instrument for testing the strength of brine; Salt′-glaze, a glaze produced upon ceramic ware by putting common salt in the kilns after they have been fired.—adj. Salt′-green (Shak.), sea-green.—ns. Salt′-group, a series of rocks containing salt, as the Onondaga salt-group; Salt′-hold′er, a saltcellar; Salt′-horse, salted beef; Salt′ie, the salt-water fluke or dab; Salt′ing, the act of sprinkling with salt: the celebration of the Eton 'Montem.'—adj. Salt′ish, somewhat salt.—adv. Salt′ishly, so as to be moderately salt.—ns. Salt′ishness, a moderate degree of saltness; Salt′-junk, hard salt beef for use at sea.—adj. Salt′less, without salt: tasteless.—n. Salt′-lick, a place to which animals resort for salt.—adv. Salt′ly.—ns. Salt′-marsh, land liable to be overflowed by the sea or the waters of estuaries; Salt′-marsh cat′erpillar, the hairy larva of an arctiid moth; Salt′-marsh hen, a clapper-rail; Salt′-marsh terr′apin, the diamond-backed turtle; Salt′-mine, a mine where rock-salt is obtained; Salt′ness, impregnation with salt; Salt′-pan, a pan, basin, or pit where salt is obtained or made; Salt′-pit, a pit where salt is obtained; Salt′-rheum, a cutaneous eruption; Salts, Epsom salt or other salt used as a medicine.—adj. Salt′-sliv′ered, slivered and salted, as fish for bait.—ns. Salt′-spoon, a small spoon for serving salt at table; Salt′-spring, a brine-spring; Salt′-wa′ter, water impregnated with salt, sea-water; Salt′-works, a place where salt is made; Salt′-wort, a genus of plants of many species, mostly natives of salt-marshes and sea-shores, one only being found in Britain, the Prickly S., which was formerly burned for the soda it yielded.—adj. Salt′y (same as Saltish).—Salt a mine, to deposit ore in it cunningly so as to deceive persons who inspect it regarding its value; Salt of lemon, or sorrel, acid potassium oxalate, a solvent for ink-stains; Salt of soda, sodium carbonate; Salt of tartar, a commercial name for purified potassium carbonate; Salt of vitriol, sulphate of zinc; Salt of wormwood, carbonate of potash.—Above the salt, at the upper half of the table, among the guests of distinction; Attic salt, wit; Below the salt, at the lower half of the table; Be not worth one's salt, not to deserve even the salt that gives relish to one's food; Bronzing salt, used in burning gun-barrels; Epsom salts, magnesium sulphate, a cathartic; Essential salts, those produced from the juices of plants by crystallisation; Glauber's salt, or Horse salts, a well-known cathartic, used in woollen dyeing; Lay salt on the tail of, to catch; Neutral salt, a salt in which the acid and the base neutralise each other; Rochelle salt, sodium potassium tartrate, a laxative; Spirits of salt, the old name for muriatic or hydrochloric acid; Take with a grain of salt, to believe with some reserve. [A.S. sealt; cf. Ger. salz, also L. sal, Gr. hals.]
Saltant, sal′tant, adj. leaping: dancing: (her.) salient.—v.i. Sal′tāte, to dance.—n. Saltā′tion, a leaping or jumping: beating or palpitation: (biol.) an abrupt variation.—n.pl. Saltatō′ria, a division of orthopterous insects including grass-hoppers, locusts, and crickets.—adjs. Saltatō′rial, Saltatō′rious; Sal′tatory, leaping: dancing: having the power of, or used in, leaping or dancing. [L. saltans, pr.p. of saltāre, -ātum, inten. of salīre, to leap.]
Saltarello, sal-ta-rel′ō, n. a lively Italian dance in triple time, diversified with skips, for a single couple—also the music for such: an old form of round dance. [It.,—L. saltāre, to dance.]
Saltcellar, sawlt′sel-ar, n. a small table vessel for holding salt. [For salt-sellar, the last part being O. Fr. saliere—L. salarium—sal, salt.]
Saltierra, sal-tyer′a, n. a saline deposit in the inland lakes of Mexico. [Sp.,—L. sal, salt, terra, land.]
Saltigrade, sal′ti-grād, adj. formed for leaping, as certain insects.—n. one of a certain tribe of spiders which leap to seize their prey. [L. saltus, a leap, gradi, to go.]
Saltimbanco, sal-tim-bangk′ō, n. (obs.) a mountebank: a quack. [It.]
Saltire, Saltier, sal′tēr, n. (her.) an ordinary in the form of a St Andrew's Cross.—adj. Sal′tierwise. [O. Fr. saultoir, sautoir—Low L. saltatorium, a stirrup—L. saltāre, to leap.]
Saltpetre, sawlt-pē′tėr, n. the commercial name for nitre.—adj. Saltpē′trous. [O. Fr. salpestre—Low L. salpetra—L. sal, salt, petra, a rock.]
Saltus, sal′tus, n. a break of continuity in time: a leap from premises to conclusion. [L., a leap.]
Salubrious, sa-lū′bri-us, adj. healthful: wholesome.—adv. Salū′briously.—ns. Salū′briousness, Salū′brity, [L. salubris—salus, salutis, health.]
Salue, sal-ū′, v.t. (Spens.) to salute.
Salutary, sal′ū-tar-i, adj. belonging to health: promoting health or safety: wholesome: beneficial.—n. Salūdador′ (obs.), a quack who cures by incantations.—adv. Sal′ūtarily, in a salutary manner: favourably to health.—n. Sal′ūtariness.—adj. Salūtif′erous, health-bearing.—adv. Salūtif′erously. [L. salutaris—salus, health.]
Salute, sal-ūt′, v.t. to address with kind wishes: to greet with a kiss, a bow, &c.: to honour formally by a discharge of cannon, striking colours, &c.—n. act of saluting: the position of the hand, sword, &c. in saluting: greeting: a kiss: a complimentary discharge of cannon, dipping colours, presenting arms, &c., in honour of any one.—ns. Salūtā′tion, act of saluting: that which is said in saluting, any customary or ceremonious form of address at meeting or at parting, or of ceremonial on religious or state occasions, including both forms of speech and gestures: (obs.) quickening, excitement: the Angelic Salutation (see Ave); Salūtatō′rian, in American colleges, the member of a graduating class who pronounces the salutatory oration.—adv. Salū′tatorily.—adj. Salū′tatory, pertaining to salutation.—n. a sacristy in the early church in which the clergy received the greetings of the people: an oration in Latin delivered by the student who ranks second.—n. Salū′ter. [L. salutāre, -ātum—salus, salutis.]
Salvage, sal′vāj, adj. (Spens.). Same as Savage.
Salvage, sal′vāj, n. compensation made by the owner of a ship or cargo in respect of services rendered by persons, other than the ship's company, in preserving the ship or cargo from shipwreck, fire, or capture: the goods and materials so saved.—n. Salvabil′ity, the possibility or condition of being saved.—adj. Sal′vable.—n. Sal′vableness.—adv. Sal′vably. [Fr.,—L. salvāre, -ātum, to save.]
Salvation, sal-vā′shun, n. act of saving: means of preservation from any serious evil: (theol.) the saving of man from the power and penalty of sin, the conferring of eternal happiness: (B.) deliverance from enemies.—v.t. to heal, to cure: to remedy: to redeem: to gloss over.—ns. Salvā′tionism; Salvā′tionist.—Salvation Army, an organisation for the revival of evangelical religion amongst the masses, founded by William Booth about 1865, reorganised on the model of a military force in 1878; Salvation Sally, a girl belonging to the Salvation Army.
Salvatory, sal′va-tō-ri, n. (obs.) a repository: a safe.
Salve, säv, n. (B.) an ointment: anything to cure sores.—v.t. to heal, help.—ns. Salv′er, a quacksalver, a pretender; Salv′ing, healing, restoration. [A.S. sealf; Ger. salbe, Dut. zalf.]
Salve, sal′vē, v.t. (Spens.) to salute.—Salve Regina (R.C.), an antiphonal hymn to the Blessed Virgin said after Lauds and Compline, from Trinity to Advent—from its opening words. [L. salve, God save you, hail! imper. of salvēre, to be well.]
Salvelinus, sal-ve-lī′nus, n. a genus of Salmonidæ, the chars. [Prob. Latinised from Ger. salbling, a small salmon.]
Salver, sal′vėr, n. a plate on which anything is presented.—adj. Sal′ver-shaped, in the form of a salver or tray. [Sp. salva, a salver, salvar, to save—Low L. salvāre, to save.]
Salvia, sal′vi-a, n. a large genus of gamopetalous Labiate plants, including the sage.
Salvinia, sal-vin′i-a, n. a genus of heterosporous ferns—formerly called Rhizocarpeæ or Pepperworts.
Salvo, sal′vō, n. an exception: a reservation. [L., in phrase, salvo jure, one's right being safe.]
Salvo, sal′vō, n. a military or naval salute with guns: a simultaneous discharge of artillery: the combined cheers of a multitude:—pl. Salvos (sal′vōz). [It. salva, a salute—L. salve, hail!]
Sal-volatile, sal′-vo-lat′i-le. See Sal.
Salvor, sal′vor, n. one who saves a cargo from wreck, fire, &c. [See Salvage.]
Sam, sam, adv. (Spens.) together.—v.t. to collect, to curdle milk. [A.S. samnian—samen, together.]
Samara, sā-mar′a, or sam′-, n. a dry indehiscent, usually one-sided fruit, with a wing, as in the ash, elm, and maple—the last a double samara.—adjs. Sam′ariform; Sam′aroid. [L.]
Samare, sa-mär′, n. an old form of women's long-skirted jacket.
Samaritan, sa-mar′i-tan, adj. pertaining to Samaria in Palestine.—n. an inhabitant of Samaria, esp. one of the despised mixed population planted therein after the deportation of the Israelites: the language of Samaria, an archaic Hebrew, or rather Hebrew Aramaic, dialect: a charitable person—from Luke, x. 30-37.—n. Samar′itanism, charity, benevolence.—Samaritan Pentateuch, a recension of the Hebrew Pentateuch, in use amongst the Samaritans, and accepted by them as alone canonical.
Samaveda, sä-ma-vā′da, n. the name of one of the four Vedas. [Sans.]
Sambo, sam′bō, n. a negro: properly the child of a mulatto and a negro. [Sp. zambo—L. scambus, bow-legged.]
Sambucus, sam-bū′kus, n. a genus of gamopetalous trees and shrubs of the honeysuckle family—the elders. [L.]
Sambuke, sam′būk, n. an ancient musical instrument, probably a harp.—Also Sambū′ca. [Gr. sambykē—Heb. sabeka.]
Sambur, sam′bur, n. the Indian elk.—Also Sam′boo. [Hind. sambre.]
Same, sām, adv. (Spens.). Same as Sam.
Same, sām, adj. identical: of the like kind or degree: similar: mentioned before.—adj. Same′ly, unvaried.—n. Same′ness, the being the same: tedious monotony.—All the same, for all that; At the same time, still, nevertheless. [A.S. same; Goth. samana; L. similis, like, Gr. homos.]
Samia, sā′mi-a, n. a genus of bombycid moths, belonging to North America.
Samian, sā′mi-an, adj. pertaining to, or from, the island of Samos, in the Greek Archipelago.—n. (also Sā′miot, Sā′miote) a native of Samos.—Samian earth, an argillaceous astringent earth; Samian stone, a goldsmiths' polishing-stone; Samian ware, an ancient kind of pottery, brick-red or black, with lustrous glaze.
Samiel, sā′mi-el, n. the simoom. [Turk. samyeli—Ar. samm, poison, Turk. yel, wind.]
Samisen, sam′i-sen, n. a Japanese guitar.
Samite, sam′it, n. a kind of heavy silk stuff. [O. Fr. samit—Low L. examitum—Gr. hexamiton, hex, six, mitos, thread.]
Samlet, sam′let, n. a parr: a salmon of the first year. [Prob. salmon-et.]
Sammy, sam′i, v.t. to moisten skins with water.—n. a machine for doing this.
Samnite, sam′nīt, adj. and n. pertaining to an ancient Sabine people of central Italy, crushed by the Romans after a long struggle: a Roman gladiator armed with shield, sleeve on right arm, helmet, shoulder-piece, and greave.
Samoan, sa-mō′an, adj. and n. pertaining to Samoa in the Pacific.—Samoan dove, the tooth-billed pigeon.
Samolus, sam′ō-lus, n. a genus of herbaceous plants of the primrose family. [L.]
Samosatenian, sam-ō-sa-tē′ni-an, n. a follower of Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch, the Socinus of the 3d century.
Samothracian, sam-ō-thrā′si-an, adj. belonging to the island of Samothrace in the Ægean Sea.
Samovar, sam′ō-vär, n. a tea-urn used in Russia, commonly of copper, the water in it heated by charcoal in a tube extending from top to bottom. [Russ. samovarŭ, prob. Tartar.]
Samoyed, sa-mō′yed, n. one of a Ural-Altaic race between the Obi and the Yenisei.—adj. Samoyed′ic.
Samp, samp, n. Indian corn coarsely ground: a kind of hominy, also porridge made from it.
Sampan, sam′pan, n. a small boat used in China and Japan.—Also San′pan. [Chin. san, sam, three, pan, a board.]
Samphire, sam′fīr, or sam′fėr, n. an herb found chiefly on rocky cliffs near the sea, used in pickles and salads. [Corr. from Fr. Saint Pierre, Saint Peter.]
Sample, sam′pl, n. a specimen: a part to show the quality of the whole: an example.—v.t. to make up samples of: to place side by side with: to match: to test by examination.—ns. Sam′pler, one who makes up samples (in compounds, as wool-sampler); Sam′ple-room, a room where samples are shown: (slang) a grog-shop; Sam′ple-scale, an accurately balanced lever-scale for weighing ten-thousandths of a pound. [Short for esample, from O. Fr. essample—L. exemplum, example.]
Sampler, sam′plėr, n. a pattern of work: a piece of ornamental embroidery, worsted-work, &c., containing names, figures, texts, &c.—n. Sam′plary (obs.), a pattern, an example. [Formed from L. exemplar.]
Sampsuchine, samp-sōō′chēn, n. (obs.) sweet marjoram.
Samshoo, Samshu, sam′shōō, n. an ardent spirit distilled by the Chinese from rice: any kind of spirits. [Chin. san, sam, three, shao, to fire.]
Samson-post, sam′son-pōst, n. a strong upright stanchion or post for various uses on board ship.
Samurai, sam′ōō-rī, n. sing. (also pl.) a member of the military class in the old feudal system of Japan, including both daimios, or territorial nobles, and their military retainers: a military retainer, a two-sworded man. [Jap.]
Samyda, sam′i-da, n. a genus of shrubs, native to the West Indies. [Gr. sēmyda, the birch.]
Sanable, san′a-bl, adj. able to be made sane or sound: curable.—ns. Sanabil′ity, San′ableness, capability of being cured; Sanā′tion (obs.), a healing or curing.—adj. San′ative, tending, or able, to heal: healing.—ns. San′ativeness; Sanatō′rium (see Sanitary).—adj. San′atory, healing: conducive to health. [L. sanabilis—sanāre, -ātum, to heal.]
Sanbenito, san-be-nē′tō, n. a garment grotesquely decorated with flames, devils, &c., worn by the victims of the Inquisition—at an auto-de-fe—for public recantation or execution. [Sp., from its resemblance in shape to the garment of the order of St Benedict—Sp. San Benito.]
Sancho, sang′kō, n. a musical instrument like the guitar, used by negroes.
Sancho-pedro, sang′kō-pē′drō, n. a game of cards—the nine of trumps called Sancho, the five Pedro.
Sanctify, sangk′ti-fī, v.t. to make sacred or holy: to set apart to sacred use: to free from sin or evil: to consecrate: to invest with a sacred character: to make efficient as the means of holiness: to secure from violation:—pa.t. and pa.p. sanc′tifīed.—n. Sanctanim′ity, holiness of mind.—v.t. Sanctif′icāte.—n. Sanctificā′tion, act of sanctifying: state of being sanctified: that work or process of God's free grace whereby the new principle of spiritual life implanted in regeneration is developed until the whole man is renewed in the image of God: consecration.—adj. Sanc′tified, made holy: sanctimonious.—adv. Sanctifī′edly, sanctimoniously.—n. Sanc′tifier, one who sanctifies: the Holy Spirit.—adv. Sanc′tifyingly.—adj. Sanctimō′nious, having sanctity: holy, devout: affecting holiness.—adv. Sanctimō′niously.—ns. Sanctimō′niousness, Sanc′timony, affected devoutness, show of sanctity; Sanc′titude, holiness, goodness, saintliness: affected holiness; Sanc′tity, quality of being sacred or holy: purity: godliness: inviolability: a saint, any holy object.—v.t. Sanc′tuarise (Shak.), to shelter by sacred privileges, as in a sanctuary.—ns. Sanc′tūary, a sacred place: a place for the worship of God: the most sacred part of the Temple of Jerusalem: the Temple itself: the part of a church round the altar: an inviolable asylum, refuge, a consecrated place which gives protection to a criminal taking refuge there: the privilege of taking refuge in such a consecrated place; Sanc′tum, a sacred place: a private room; Sanc′tus, the ascription, 'Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts,' from Isa. vi.: a musical setting of the same.—Sanctum sanctorum, the Holy of Holies: any specially reserved retreat or room.—Odour of sanctity, the aroma of goodness. [Fr.,—L. sanctificāre, -ātum—sanctus, sacred, facĕre, to make.]
Sanction, sangk′shun, n. act of ratifying, or giving authority to: confirmation: support: a decree, a law.—v.t. to give validity to: to authorise: to countenance.—adjs. Sanc′tionable; Sanc′tionary. [Fr.,—L. sanctīre.]
Sand, sand, n. fine particles of crushed or worn rocks, used in founding: force of character: (pl.) lands covered with sand: a sandy beach: moments of time, from the use of sand in the hour-glass.—v.t. to sprinkle with sand.—ns. Sand′-bag (fort.), a canvas bag filled with sand or earth, forming a ready means of giving cover against an enemy's fire, or of tamping the charge in a mine: an engraver's leather cushion, &c.; Sand′-bag′ger, a robber who uses a sand-bag to stun his victims; Sand′-ball, a ball of soap mixed with fine sand for the toilet; Sand′-band, a guard-ring to keep sand from working into the axle-box; Sand′-bank, a bank of sand formed by tides and currents; Sand′-bath, a vessel of hot sand for heating vessels without direct exposure to the fire: a bath in which the body is covered with warm sea-sand: saburration; Sand′-bear, the Indian badger; Sand′-bed, the bed into which the iron from the blast-furnace is run; Sand′-bird, a sandpiper: a shore bird; Sand′-blast, sand driven by a blast of air or steam for cutting and engraving figures on glass or metal.—adj. Sand′-blind, afflicted with partial blindness, in which particles of sand seem to float before the eyes.—ns. Sand′-blind′ness; Sand′-blow′er, a sand bellows; Sand′-box, a box with a perforated top for sprinkling sand on writing, a contrivance formerly used by way of blotting-paper: a box with sand to prevent the wheels of a rail from slipping; Sand′-brake, a device for stopping trains automatically; Sand′-bug, a burrowing crustacean: a digger-wasp; Sand′-bur, a weed found in the plains of the western United States; Sand′-canal′, the stone canal of an echinoderm; Sand′-cherr′y, the dwarf cherry; Sand′-cock, the redshank; Sand′-crab, the lady-crab; Sand′-crack, a crack in a horse's hoof: a crack in a moulded brick before burning; Sand′-crick′et, a name applied to certain large crickets in the western United States; Sand′-dab, a kind of plaice; Sand′-dart, a British noctuid moth; Sand′-dart′er, -div′er, a small etheostomine fish of the Ohio valley; Sand′-doll′ar, a flat sea-urchin; Sand′-drift, a mound of drifted sand; Sand′-dune, a ridge of loose sand drifted by the wind.—adj. Sand′ed (Shak.), marked with yellow spots: sprinkled with sand: short-sighted.—ns. Sand′-eel, a small eel-like fish, which buries itself in the sand when the tide retires; Sand′erling, a genus of birds of the snipe family, characterised by the absence of a hind-toe, common on the coast, eating marine worms, small crustaceans, and bivalve molluscs; Sand′-fence, a barrier in a stream of stakes and iron wire; Sand′-fish, a fish of the genus Trichodon; Sand′-flag, sandstone which splits up into flagstones; Sand′-flea, the chigoe or jigger; Sand′-flood, a moving mass of desert sand; Sand′-floun′der, a common North American flounder; Sand′-fly, a small New England biting midge; Sand′-glass, a glass instrument for measuring time by the running out of sand; Sand′-grass, grass that grows by the sea-shore; Sand′-grouse, a small order of birds, quite distinct from the true grouse, having two genera, Pterocles and Syrrhaptes, with beautiful plumage, heavy body, long and pointed wings, very short legs and toes; Sand′-heat, the heat of warm sand in chemical operations; Sand′-hill, a hill of sand; Sand′-hill crane, the brown crane of North America; Sand′-hill′er, one of the poor whites living in the sandy hills of Georgia; Sand′-hop′per, a small crustacean in the order Amphipoda, often seen on the sandy sea-shore, like swarms of dancing flies, leaping up by bending the body together, and throwing it out with a sudden jerk: a sand-flea; Sand′-horn′et, a sand-wasp; Sand′iness, sandy quality, esp. as regards colour; Sand′ing, the process of testing the surface of gilding, after it has been fired, with fine sand and water: the process of burying oysters in sand.—adj. Sand′ish (obs.).—ns. Sand′-jet (see Sand′-blast); Sand′-lark, a wading-bird that runs along the sand: a sandpiper; Sand′-liz′ard, a common lizard; Sand′-lob, the common British lug or lob worm; Sand′-mar′tin, the smallest of British swallows, which builds its nest in sandy river-banks and gravel-pits; Sand′-mā′son, a common British tube-worm; Sand′-mole, a South African rodent; Sand′-mouse, the dunlin: a sandpiper; Sand′-natt′er, a sand-snake; Sand′-pā′per, paper covered with a kind of sand for smoothing and polishing; Sand′-peep, the American stint: the peetweet; Sand′-perch, the grass-bass; Sand′piper, a wading-bird of the snipe family, which frequents sandy river-banks, distinguished by its clear piping note.—n.pl. Sand′-pipes, perpendicular cylindrical hollows, tapering to a point, occurring in chalk deposits, and so called from being usually filled with sand, gravel, or clay.—ns. Sand′-pit, a place from which sand is extracted; Sand′-plov′er, a ring-necked plover; Sand′-pride, a very small species of lamprey found in the rivers of Britain; Sand′-pump, a long cylinder with valved piston for use in drilling rocks—a Sand′-sludg′er: a sand-ejector, modified from the jet-pump, used in caissons for sinking the foundations of bridges; Sand′-rat, a geomyoid rodent, esp. the camass rat; Sand′-reed, a shore grass; Sand′-reel, a windlass used in working a sand-pump; Sand′-ridge, a sand-bank; Sand′-roll, a metal roll cast in sand; Sand′-run′ner, a sandpiper; Sand′-sau′cer, a round mass of agglutinated egg-capsules of a naticoid gasteropod, found on beaches; Sand′-scoop, a dredge for scooping up sand; Sand′-screen, a sand-sifter; Sand′-screw, an amphipod which burrows in the sand; Sand′-shark, a small voracious shark; Sand′-shot, small cast-iron balls cast in sand; Sand′-shrimp, a shrimp; Sand′-skink, a European skink found in sandy places; Sand′-skip′per, a beach flea; Sand′-snake, a short-tailed boa-like serpent; Sand′-snipe, the sandpiper; Sand′-spout, a moving pillar of sand; Sand′star, a starfish: a brittle star; Sand′-stone, a rock formed of compacted and more or less indurated sand (Old Red Sandstone, a name given to a series of strata—along with the parallel but nowhere coexisting Devonian—intermediate in age between the Silurian and Carboniferous systems); Sand′-storm, a storm of wind carrying along clouds of sand; Sand′-suck′er, the rough dab; Sand′-throw′er, a tool for throwing sand on newly sized or painted surfaces; Sand′-trap, a device for separating sand from running water; Sand′-vī′per, a hog-nosed snake; Sand′-washer, an apparatus for separating sand from earthy substances; Sand′-wasp, a digger-wasp.—v.t. Sand′-weld, to weld iron with sand.—ns. Sand′-worm, a worm that lives in the sand; Sand′-wort, any plant of the genus Arenaria.—adj. Sand′y, consisting of, or covered with, sand: loose: of the colour of sand.—n. a nick-name for a Scotsman (from Alexander).—ns. Sand′y-car′pet, a geometrid moth; Sand′y-lav′erock (Scot.), a sand-lark. [A.S. sand; Dut. zand, Ger. sand, Ice. sand-r.]