Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary 1908/Scaphocephalic Scrimshaw

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fāte, fär; mē, hėr; mīne; mōte; mūte; mōōn; then.


Scaphocephalic, skaf-ō-se-fal′ik, adj. boat-shaped, a term applied to a certain kind of deformed skull. [Gr. skaphē, a boat, kephalē, a head.]

Scaphoid, skaf′oid, adj. boat-like in form, noting two bones, one in the wrist and the other in the foot. [Gr. skaphē, a boat, eidos, form.]

Scaphopod, skaf′ō-pod, adj. having the foot fitted for burrowing, as a mollusc. [Gr. skaphē, a boat, pous, podos, a foot.]

Scapinade, skap-i-nād′, n. a process of trickery—from the name of the tricky valet in Molière's comedy, Les Fourberies de Scapin.

Scap-net, skap′-net, n. a net for catching minnows, &c. [Same as scoop-net.]

Scapolite, skap′ō-līt, n. a silicate of alumina and lime, occurring in long rod-like crystals. [Gr. skapos, a rod, lithos, a stone.]

Scapple, skap′l, v.t. to work without finishing, as stone before leaving the quarry. [Scabble.]

Scapula, skap′ū-la, n. the shoulder-blade.—adj. Scap′ūlar, pertaining to the shoulder.—n. a bandage for the shoulder-blade: (ornith.) the shoulder feathers: a long strip of cloth worn by some orders: two little pieces of cloth tied together by strings passing over the shoulders, worn by lay persons in token of devotion: a short cloak with a hood, a monastic working dress.—adj. Scap′ūlary, in form like a scapular.—n. a scapular.—adj. Scap′ūlated, having the scapular feathers notable in size or colour, as the scapulated crow.—n. Scap′ūlimancy. divination by means of shoulder-blades.—adj. Scapuliman′tic. [L. scapulæ, the shoulder-blades, prob. cog. with scapus, a shaft.]

Scapus, skā′pus, n. (archit.) the shaft of a column: (ornith.) the scape of a feather: a genus of Cœlenterates:—pl. Scā′pi (ī). [L., a shaft.]

Scar, skär, n. the mark left by a wound or sore: any mark or blemish: a cicatrice: (fig.) any mark resulting from injury, material or moral: (bot.) a mark on a stem after the fall of a leaf: in shells, an impression left by the insertion of a muscle: in founding, an imperfect place in a casting: a disfigurement.—v.t. to mark with a scar.—v.i. to become scarred:—pr.p. scar′ring; pa.t. and pa.p. scarred.—adjs. Scar′less, without scars: unwounded; Scarred. [O. Fr. escare—L. eschara—Gr. eschara, a scar produced by burning.]

Scar, skär, n. a precipitous bank or rock: a bare rocky place on the side of a hill.—n. Scar′-lime′stone, a mass of calcareous rock crowded with marine fossils. [Scand., Ice. skerskera, to cut.]

Scarab, skar′ab, n. an insect with wing-sheaths, a beetle: a gem, usually emerald, cut in the form of a beetle—also Scarabæ′us, Scar′abee.—n. Scar′aboid, an imitation scarab.—adj. like a scarab. [L. scarabæus; Gr. karabos.]

Scaramouch, skar′a-mowch, n. a buffoon: a bragging, cowardly fellow. [Fr.,—It. Scaramuccia, a famous Italian zany of the 17th century.]

Scarbroite, skär′brō-īt, n. a hydrous silicate of aluminium—from Scarborough.

Scarce, skārs, adj. not plentiful: not equal to the demand: rare: not common: parsimonious: deficient: short: scanty.—adj. Scarce′-beard′ed (Shak.), having a scanty beard.—adv. Scarce′ly, Scarce (B.), hardly, barely.—ns. Scarce′ment (archit.), a plain set-off or projection in a wall; Scarce′ness; Scarc′ity, state of being scarce: deficiency: rareness: niggardliness: want: famine.—Make one's self scarce, to decamp. [O. Fr. escars (Fr. échars), niggardly—Low L. scarpsus=ex-carpsus, for L. excerptus, pa.p. of excerpēreex, out of, carpēre, to pick.]

Scard, skärd, n. a shard or fragment.

Scardafella, skär-da-fel′a, n. an American genus containing the ground-doves.

Scare, skār, v.t. to drive away by frightening: to strike with sudden terror: to startle, to affright.—n. an imaginary alarm: a sudden panic.—adj. lean, scanty.—ns. Scare′-babe, a bugbear; Scare′-bug; Scare′crow, anything set up to scare away crows or other birds: a vain cause of terror: a person meanly clad: the black tern; Scare′-fire, a fire-alarm: a conflagration. [M. E. skerrenskerre, frightened—Ice. skjarr, timid.]

Scarf, skärf, n. a light decorative piece of dress worn loosely on the shoulders or as a band about the neck: a light handkerchief for the neck: a cravat:—pl. Scarfs, Scarves (obs.).—v.t. to cover, as if with a scarf.—adj. Scarfed, decorated with pendants.—ns. Scarf′-pin, an ornamental pin worn in a scarf; Scarf′-ring, an ornamental ring through which the ends or a scarf are drawn. [A.S. scearfe, a piece; Dut. scherf, a shred.]

Scarf, skärf, v.t. to join two pieces of timber endwise, so that they may appear to be used as one: to flay the skin from a whale.—n. in carpentry, a joint whose ends are united so as to form a continuous piece.—ns. Scar′fing; Scarf′ing-machine′, a machine for shaving the ends of leather belting to a feather edge; Scarf′-joint, a joint made by overlapping two pieces of timber that will fit each other; Scarf′-loom, a figure loom for weaving fabrics. [Scand., Sw. skarf, Norw. skarv, a joint; cf. Ger. scherben, to cut small; conn. with shear, v.]

Scarf, skärf, n. the cormorant—(Scot.) Scart, Skart. [Ice. skarfr.]

Scarfskin, skärf′skin, n. the surface skin. [Scurf.]

Scaridæ, skar′i-dē, n.pl. a family of fishes including the parrot-fish.—Also Scā′rus. [Gr. skaros.]

Scarify, skar′i-fī, v.t. to scratch or slightly cut the skin, to make small cuts with a lancet, so as to draw blood: to loosen and stir together the soil: to harrow the feelings:—pa.t. and pa.p. scar′ifīed.ns. Scarificā′tion, act of scarifying; Scarificā′tor, an instrument with several lancets for scarifying or making slight incisions in the operation of cupping; Scar′ifier, one who scarifies: an instrument used for scarifying the soil, esp. a grubber with prongs. [Fr. scarifier—L. scarificāre, -ātum—Gr. skariphasthai—skariphos, an etching tool.]

Scarious, skā′ri-us, adj. (bot.) thin, dry, membranaceous: (zool.) scaly, scurfy.

Scaritid, skär′i-tid, adj. pertaining to carabid beetles of Scarites or related genera.

Scarlatina, skär-la-tē′na, n. a dangerous and highly-contagious fever, so named from the scarlet rash or eruption which accompanies it—also Scar′let-fēver.—adjs. Scarlati′nal, Scarlati′nous.

Scarlet, skär′let, n. a bright-red colour: scarlet cloth.—adj. of the colour called scarlet: dressed in scarlet.—v.t. to redden.—ns. Scar′let-ad′miral, the red-admiral, a butterfly; Scar′let-bean, the scarlet-runner; Scar′let-fē′ver, a contagious febrile disease (see Scarlatina); Scar′let-hat, a cardinal's hat; Scar′let-light′ning, the scarlet lychnis: the red valerian; Scar′let-run′ner, a bean with scarlet flowers which runs up any support; Scar′let-snake, a bright-red harmless snake of the southern states of the American Union; Scar′let-tī′ger, a British moth; Scar′let-wom′an, the woman referred to in Rev. xvii. 4, 5—Pagan Rome, Papal Rome, or a personification of the World in its anti-Christian sense. [O. Fr. escarlate (Fr. écarlate), through Low L. scarlatum—Pers. saqalāt, scarlet cloth.]

Scarmage, skär′māj, n. (Spens.) same as Skirmish.—Also Scar′moge.

Scarn-bee, skärn′-bē, n. (prov.) a dung-beetle. [Sharn.]

Scarp, skärp, n. (her.) a diminutive of the bend sinister, half its width: (obs.) a shoulder-belt. [O. Fr. escarpe, escharpe: cf. Scarf (1).]

Scarp, skärp, n. (fort.) any steep slope (same as Escarp).—v.t. to cut down a slope so as to render it impassable.—adj. Scarped. [O. Fr. escarpe—It. scarpa—Old High Ger. scharf; cf. Sharp.]

Scarpines, skär′pinz, n.pl. an instrument of torture resembling the boot. [Fr. escarpins, shoes.]

Scarred, skärd, adj. marked by scars.—n. Scar′ring, a scar: a mark.—adj. Scar′ry, bearing or pertaining to scars: having scars.

Scart, skärt, v.t. (Scot.) to scratch: to scrape.—n. a slight wound: a dash or stroke: a niggard: a poor-looking creature.—adj. Scart′-free.

Scarus, skā′rus, n. a genus of fishes including the parrot-wrasses. [Scaridæ.]

Scary, skār′i, adj. causing fright: timid: fluttered.

Scat, Scatt, skat, n. a tax in the Shetland Islands.—ns. Scat′hold, open ground for pasture; Scat′land, land which paid duty for rights of pasture and peat. [A.S. sceat, a coin; Dut. schat, Ger. schatz.]

Scat, skat, interj. be off!—v.t. to scare away.

Scat, skat, n. (prov.) a brisk shower of rain.—adj. Scat′ty, showery. [Prob. conn. with scud.]

Scatch, skach, n. a bit for bridles. [Fr. escache.]

Scatches, skach′ez, n.pl. stilts used for walking in dirty places. [O. Fr. eschace—Old Flem. schætse, a high shoe; Dut. schaats, pl. schaatsen, skates.]

Scate. Same as Skate, a fish.

Scath, Scathe, skāth, n. damage, injury: waste.—v.t. to injure.—adj. Scathe′ful, destructive.—n. Scathe′fulness, disadvantage: destructiveness.—adj. Scā′thing, damaging; blasting: scorching.—adv. Scā′thingly.—adjs. Scāth′less, without injury; Scā′thy (Scot.), mischievous: dangerous. [A.S. sceathu; Ger. schade, injury.]

Scatology, skā-tol′ō-ji, n. the knowledge of fossil excrement or coprolites: knowledge of the usages of primitive peoples about excrements, human and other.—adj. Scatolog′ical.—ns. Scat′omancy, Scatos′copy, divination of disease by inspection of excrement; Scatoph′aga, the dung-flies.—n.pl. Scatophag′idæ, a family of acanthopterygian fishes.—adj. Scatoph′agous, feeding on excrement. [Gr. skōr, skatos, dung, logia—legein, to speak; manteia, divination; skopein, to view; phagein, to eat.]

Scatter, skat′ėr, v.t. to disperse in all directions: to throw loosely about: to strew: to sprinkle: to dispel: to put to flight: to drop: to throw shot too loosely.—v.i. to be dispersed or dissipated.—n. Scatt′erbrain, a thoughtless, giddy person.—adjs. Scatt′er-brained, giddy; Scatt′ered, widely separated: wandering: distracted: irregular.—ns. Scatt′erer, one who or that which scatters; Scatt′er-good, a spendthrift; Scatt′er-gun, a shot-gun; Scatt′ering, something scattered: dispersion: that which has been scattered: the irregular reflection of light from a surface not perfectly smooth.—adj. dispersing: rare, sporadic: diversified.—adv. Scatt′eringly, in a dispersed manner: here and there.—ns. Scatt′erling (Spens.), one who has no fixed abode: a vagabond; Scatt′ermouch, any Latin or Levantine, in Pacific slang.—adj. Scatt′ery, dispersed: sparse: few and far between. [A.S. scateran, scaterian; cf. Shatter.]

Scaturient, skā-tū′ri-ent, adj. gushing like water from a fountain. [L. scaturīre, to gush out.]

Scaud, skäd, v.t. (Scot.) to scald: to scold.

Scaup, skawp, n. a sea-duck of genus Aythya, of northern regions, related to the pochard. [Ice. skálp—in skálp-hæna.]

Scauper, skaw′pėr, n. a tool with semicircular face, used by engravers. [Prob. scalper.]

Scaur, skär, a Scotch form of scare.

Scaur, skawr, n. a precipitous bank or rock.—Also Scar. [Scar.]

Scaury, skä′ri, n. a young gull in Shetland. [Scand., Sw. skiura.]

Scavage, skav′āj, n. a duty or toll anciently exacted by mayors, &c., on goods exposed for sale.

Scavenger, skav′en-jėr, n. one who cleans the streets: an animal which feeds on carrion: a child employed to pick up loose cotton from the floor in a cotton-mill.—ns. Scav′agery, street-cleansing; Scav′aging.—v.t. Scav′enge, to cleanse.—ns. Scav′enger-bee′tle, a beetle which acts as a scavenger; Scav′enger-crab, any crab which feeds on decaying animal matter; Scav′engering; Scav′engerism; Scav′engery.—Scavenger's daughter, an instrument of torture by pressure with an iron hoop, invented by Sir W. Skevington, Lieutenant of the Tower under Henry VIII. [Orig. scavager, an inspector of goods for sale, and also of the streets; from scavage, duty on goods for sale—A.S. sceawian, to inspect; cf. Show.]

Scavernick, skav′ėr-nik, n. (Cornish) a hare.

Scavilones, skav′i-lōnz, n.pl. men's drawers worn in the sixteenth century under the hose.

Scazon, skā′zon, n. in ancient prosody, a metre, the rhythm of which is imperfect toward the close of the line or period. [Gr. skazōn, limping.]

Scelerate, sel′e-rāt, adj. (obs.) wicked, villainous.—n. a villain—also Scel′erat.—adjs. Scel′erous, Sceles′tic. [O. Fr.—L. sceleratusscelus, crime.]

Scelides, sel′i-dēz, n.pl. the posterior limbs of a mammal.—n. Scel′idosaur, a dinosaur of the genus Scelidosaurus.—adjs. Scelidosau′rian; Scelidosau′roid.—n.pl. Scelidosau′ridæ, a family of mailed dinosaurs.—ns. Scelidosau′rus, the typical genus of Scelidosauridæ; Scelio (sē′li-ō), a genus of hymenopterous insects parasitic in the eggs of grasshoppers and locusts; Scelop′orus (U.S.), the common brown fence-lizard. [Gr. skelis, skelidos, a leg.]

Scelp, skelp, n. long strips of iron used in forming a gun-barrel.—Also Skelp.

Scena, sē′na, n. the stage of an ancient theatre (pl. Scenæ, sē′nē): an elaborate dramatic solo (It., pron. shā′nä; pl. Sce′ne).—n. Scenario (she-nä′ri-ō), a skeleton libretto of a dramatic work. [L.]

Scend, send, n. the upward angular displacement of a vessel—opposed to Pitch, the correlative downward movement.—v.i. to heave upward. [A corr. of send, influenced by ascend.]

Scene, sēn, n. a picture of the place of an action: a large painted view: place of action, occurrence, or exhibition: the part of a play acted without change of place: (orig.) the stage of a theatre on which the actors perform: a series of landscape events connected and exhibited: a number of objects presented to the view at once: spectacle: view: any unseemly or ill-timed display of strong feeling between persons.—v.t. to exhibit: to display.—ns. Scene′-dock, the space in a theatre adjoining the stage, where scenery is stored when not in use; Scene′-man, one who manages the scenery in a theatre; Scene′-paint′er, one whose employment it is to paint scenery for theatres; Scē′nery, the painted representation on a stage: the appearance of anything presented to the eye: general aspect of a landscape; Scene′-shift′er (same as Scene-man).—adjs. Scē′nic, -al, pertaining to scenery: dramatic: theatrical.—adv. Scē′nically.—adjs. Scēnograph′ic, -al, drawn in perspective.—adv. Scēnograph′ically.—n. Scēnog′raphy, the art of perspective: representation in perspective.—Behind the scenes, at the back of the visible stage; Make a scene, to make a noisy or otherwise unwelcome exhibition of feeling. [L. scena—Gr. skēnē, a covered place, a stage.]

Scent, sent, v.t. to discern by the sense of smell: to perfume: to have some suspicion of.—v.i. to become odoriferous: to smell.—n. a perfume: odour: sense of smell: chase followed by the scent: course of pursuit: scraps of paper strewed on the ground by the pursued in the boys' game of hare and hounds.—ns. Scent′-bag, the pouch of an animal which secretes an odoriferous substance; Scent′-bott′le, a small bottle for holding perfume; Scent′-box.—adjs. Scent′ed, perfumed; Scent′ful, highly odoriferous: quick of scent: having a good nose, as a dog.—n. Scent′-gland, a glandular organ which secretes such substances as musk or castoreum.—adv. Scent′ingly, allusively: not directly.—adj. Scent′less, having no scent or smell: destructive of scent.—ns. Scent′-or′gan, a scent-gland; Scent′-vase, a vessel with a pierced cover designed to contain perfumes. [Fr. sentir—L. sentīre, to feel.]

Sceptic, -al, Skeptic, -al, skep′tik, -al, adj. pertaining to the philosophical school in ancient Greece of Pyrrho and his successors: doubting: hesitating to admit the certainty of doctrines or principles: (theol.) doubting or denying the truth of revelation.—ns. Scep′sis, Skep′sis, philosophic doubt; Scep′tic, one who is sceptical: (theol.) one who doubts or denies the existence of God or the truths of revelation.—adv. Scep′tically.—n. Scep′ticalness.—v.i. Scep′ticise, to act the sceptic.—n. Scep′ticism, that condition in which the mind is before it has arrived at conclusive opinions: doubt: the doctrine that no facts can be certainly known: agnosticism: (theol.) doubt of the existence of God or the truth of revelation. [L. scepticus—Gr. skeptikos, thoughtful, skeptesthai, to consider.]

Sceptre, sep′tėr, n. the staff or baton borne by kings as an emblem of authority: royal power.—v.t. to invest with royal power.—adjs. Scep′tral, regal; Scep′tred, bearing a sceptre: regal.—n. Scep′tredom, reign.—adjs. Scep′treless, powerless, as a sceptreless king; Scep′try, bearing a sceptre, royal. [L. sceptrum—Gr. skēptronskēptein, to lean.]

Scerne, sėrn, v.t. (obs.) to discern. [Discern.]

Sceuophylacium, skū-ō-fi-lā′shi-um, n. (Gr. Church) the repository of the sacred vessels.—n. Sceuoph′ylax, a sacristan, church treasurer. [Gr. skeuos, a vessel, phylax, a watcher.]

Schæfferia, shef-fē′ri-a, n. a genus of polypetalous plants, the yellow-wood. [Named from Schaeffer, an 18th-cent. German botanist.]

Schalenblende, shä′len-blend, n. a variety of native zinc-sulphide. [Ger., schale, shell, blende, blende.]

Schappe, shap′pe, n. a fabric woven from spun silk.

Schediasm, skē′di-azm, n. cursory writing on a loose sheet. [Gr. schediasmaschedon, near.]

Schedule, shed′ūl, n. a piece of paper containing some writing: a list, inventory, or table.—v.t. to place in a schedule or list. [O. Fr. schedule (Fr. cédule)—L. schedula, dim. of scheda, a strip of papyrus—L. scindĕre, to cleave; or from Gr. schedē, a leaf.]

Scheelite, shē′līt, n. native calcium tungstate. [From the Swedish chemist, K. W. Scheele (1742-86).]

Scheik. Same as Sheik.

Schelly, shel′i, n. a white fish.

Schelm, skelm, n. (Scot.) a rascal.—Also Schel′lum, Shelm, Skel′lum. [O. Fr. schelme—Old High Ger. scalmo, plague; cf. Ger. schelm, a rogue.]

Scheltopusik, shel′to-pū-sik, n. a Russian lizard.

Schema, skē′ma, n. the image of the thing with which the imagination aids the understanding in its procedure: scheme, plan, outline generally: a diagrammatic outline or synopsis of anything: (Gr. Church) the monastic habit.—adj. Schemat′ic.—v.t. Schē′matise, to arrange in outline.—v.i. to make a plan in outline.—ns. Schē′matism, form or outline of a thing: (astrol.) the combination of the heavenly bodies; Schē′matist, a projector.

Scheme, skēm, n. plan: something contrived to be done: purpose: plot: a combination of things by design: a specific organisation for some end: an illustrative diagram: a system: a statement in tabular form: a representation of the aspect of the heavenly bodies at a given time.—v.t. to plan: to contrive.—v.i. to form a plan.—n. Scheme′-arch, an arch less than a semicircle.—adj. Scheme′ful.—n. Schē′mer.—adj. Schē′ming, given to forming schemes: intriguing.—adv. Schē′mingly, by scheming.—n. Schē′mist, a schemer: an astrologer.—adj. Schē′my, cunning: intriguing. [L. schema—Gr. schēma, form—echein, schēsein, to hold.]

Schepen, skā′pen, n. a Dutch magistrate. [Dut.]

Scheroma, ske-rō′ma, n. inflammation of the eye without discharge. [Gr. xēros, dry.]

Scherzo, sker′tsō, n. (mus.) a passage or movement of a lively character, forming part of a musical composition of some length, as a symphony, quartette, or sonata.—adj. Scherzan′do, playful. [It. scherzo, a jest, scherzare, to play—Teut.; Mid. High Ger. scherz (Ger. scherz, Dut. scherts), jest.]

Schesis, skē′sis, n. habitude.—adj. Schet′ic, constitutional: habitual. [Gr.,—echein, to have.]

Schiavone, ski-a-vō′ne, n. a backed, hilted broadsword of the 17th century. [It., the Doge's bodyguard, the Schiavoni or Slavs being armed with it.]

Schiedam, skē-dam′, n. Hollands gin, named from the town near Rotterdam where it is chiefly made.

Schiller, shil′ėr, n. the peculiar bronze-like lustre observed in certain minerals, as hypersthene, &c., due to internal reflection.—ns. Schillerisā′tion, the process by which microscopic crystals have been developed in other minerals so as to give a submetallic sheen by internal reflection; Schill′erite, or Schill′er-spar rock, enstatite schillerised. [Ger.]

Schindylesis, skin-di-lē′sis, n. an articulation formed by the fitting of one bone into a groove in another, as in the sphenoid bone and vomer.—adj. Schindylet′ic. [Gr.,—schindylein; to cleave, schizein, to cleave.]

Schinus, skī′nus, n. a genus of South American trees, of order Anacardiaceæ, the leaves yielding abundantly a fragrant, resinous, or turpentine-like fluid. [Gr. schinos, the mastic-tree.]

Schipperke, ship′pėr-ke, n. a breed of dogs of the same group as the Eskimo and Pomeranian dog, but with almost no tail, favourites of the Belgian bargees. [Flem., 'little skipper.']

S-chisel, es-chiz′el, n. a cutting tool in well-boring.

Schisiophone, skiz′i-ō-fōn, n. an induction balance for detecting flaws in iron rails. [Gr. schisis, a cleaving, phōnē, sound.]

Schism, sizm, n. a separation in a church, from diversity of opinion or discipline, breach of unity without justifiable cause, also the tendency towards such.—ns. Schis′ma (mus.), the difference between a pure and an equally tempered fifth; Schismat′ic, one who separates from a church on account of difference of opinion.—adjs. Schismat′ic, -al, tending to, or of the nature of, schism.—adv. Schismat′ically.—n. Schismat′icalness.—v.i. Schis′matise, to practise schism: to make a breach in the communion of the church:—pr.p. schis′matīsing; pa.p. schis′matīsed.Great, or Greek, schism, the separation of the Greek Church from the Latin, finally completed in 1054; Western schism, the division in the Western Church on the appointment by the Romans of Urban VI. to the papal chair in 1378, while the French cardinals elected Clement VII.—healed on the election of Martin V. by the Council of Constance in 1417. [L. schisma—Gr. schizein, to split.]

Schist, shist, n. a term properly applied to crystalline rocks with a foliated structure, as mica-schist, hornblende-schist, &c.—indurated clay-rocks with a fissile structure are sometimes erroneously described as schists.—adjs. Schistā′ceous, slate-gray; Schist′ic, Schist′ous, Schist′ose, like schist: slaty.—n. Schistos′ity, quality of being schistose. [Fr. schiste—Gr. schistosschizein, to split.]

Schizæa, skī-zē′a, n. a genus of ferns, with sporangia ovate, sessile, and arranged in spikes or panicles. [Gr. schizein, to split.]

Schizocarp, skiz′ō-kärp, n. a dry fruit which splits at maturity into several closed one-seeded portions.—adj. Schizocar′pous. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, karpos, fruit.]

Schizocephaly, skiz-ō-sef′a-li, n. the practice of preserving the heads of warriors among Maoris, &c. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, kephalē, the head.]

Schizocœle, skiz′ō-sēl, n. a term applied to the perivisceral cavity of the Invertebrata, when formed by a splitting of the mesoblast.—adj. Schizocœ′lous. [Gr, schizein, to cleave, koilia, a hollow.]

Schizodon, skiz′ō-don, n. a genus of South American octodont rodents. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, odous, odontos, a tooth.]

Schizogenesis, skiz-ō-jen′e-sis n. reproduction by fission.—adjs. Schizogen′ic, Schizogenet′ic.—n. Schizog′ony. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, genesis, production.]

Schizognathous, skī-zog′nā-thus, adj. having the maxillo-palatine bones separate from each other and from the vomer, as in the gulls, plovers, &c.—n.pl. Schizog′nāthæ, a subdivision of the carinate birds.—n. Schizog′nāthism. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, gnathos, the jaw.]

Schizomycetes, skiz-ō-mī-sē′tēz, n. a botanical term for Bacteria, in reference to their commonest mode of reproduction—by transverse division. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, mykēs (pl. mykētes), a mushroom.]

Schizonemertea, skiz-ō-nē-mer′tē-a, n.pl. the sea-worms which have the head fissured.—adjs. Schizonemer′tean, Schizonemer′tine.

Schizoneura, skiz-ō-nū′ra, n. a genus of plant lice. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, neuron, a nerve.]

Scizophora, skī-zof′ō-ra, n.pl. a division of dipterous insects. [Gr. schizein, cleave, pherein, bear.]

Schizopoda, skī-zop′ō-da, n.pl. a group of crustaceans, having the feet cleft or double, including the opossum-shrimps and their allies.—adj. and n. Schiz′opod. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, pous, podos, the foot.]

Schizorhinal, skiz-ō-rī′nal, adj. having the nasal bones separate: having the anterior nostrils prolonged in the form of a slit. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, rhis, rhinos, the nose.]

Schizothecal, skiz-ō-thē′kal, adj. having the tarsal envelope divided, as by scutella—opp. to Holothecal. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, thēkē, a case.]

Schizotrochous, skī-zot′rō-kus, adj. with a divided disc, as a rotifer.—n.pl. Schizot′rocha. [Gr. schizein, to cleave, trochos, a wheel.]

Schläger, shlā′gėr, n. the modern duelling-sword of German university students. [Ger.,—schlagen, to beat.]

Schegalia, shle-gā′li-a, n. a genus of birds of Paradise. [Named from the Dutch ornithologist Hermann Schlegel (1805-84).]

Schlich, shlik, n. the finer portions of crushed ore, separated by water. [Ger.]

Schmelze, schmel′tse, n. glass used in decorative work. [Ger. schmelz, enamel.]

Schnapps, Schnaps, shnaps, n. Holland gin, Hollands. [Ger. schnapps, a dram.]

Schneiderian, shnī-dē′ri-an, adj. pertaining to the mucous membrane of the nose—first described by the German anatomist C. V. Schneider (1614-80).

Schœnus, skē′nus, n. a genus of monocotyledonous plants of the sedge family. [Gr. schoinos, a rush.]

Scholar, skol′ar, n. a pupil: a disciple: a student: one who has received a learned education: a man of learning: a savant: in the English universities, an undergraduate partly supported from the revenues of a college.—ns. Schol′arch, the head of a school of philosophy; Schol′arism, the affectation of scholarship.—adjs. Schol′ar-like, Schol′arly, like or becoming a scholar.—n. Schol′arship, the character of a scholar: learning: maintenance for a scholar, a benefaction, the annual proceeds of a bequest permanently invested for this purpose.—adj. Scholas′tic, pertaining to a scholar or to schools: scholar-like: pertaining to the schoolmen: excessively subtle: pedantic.—n. one who adheres to the method or subtleties of the schools of the middle ages.—adv. Scholas′tically, in a scholastic manner: according to the methods of the schools of philosophy.—n. Scholas′ticism, the aims, methods, and products of thought which constituted the main endeavour of the intellectual life of the middle ages: the method or subtleties of the schools of philosophy: the collected body of doctrines of the schoolmen. [Low L. scholaris—L. schola.]

Scholiast, skō′li-ast, n. one of a class of ancient grammarians, mostly anonymous, who wrote short notes on the margins of the MSS. of ancient Greek and Roman classics, a writer of scholia: an annotator: a commentator.—adj. Scholias′tic, pertaining to a scholiast or to scholia.—ns. Schō′lion, Schō′lium, one of the marginal notes of the old critics on the ancient classics: (math.) an explanation tion added to a problem:—pl. Schō′lia, Schō′liums. [Gr. scholiastēsscholion, a scholium.]

School, skōōl, n. a place for instruction: an institution of learning, esp. for children: the pupils of a school: exercises for instruction: the disciples of a particular teacher, or those who hold a common doctrine: a large number of fish migrating together, a shoal: a system of training: any means of knowledge, esp. (mus.) a treatise teaching some particular branch of the art: a large hall in English universities, where the examinations for degrees, &c., are held—hence, one of these examinations (gen. pl.) also the group of studies taken by a man competing for honours in these: a single department of a university: (pl.) the body of masters and students in a college.—v.t. to educate in a school: to instruct: to admonish, to discipline.—adj. School′able, of school age.—ns. School′-board, a board of managers, elected by the ratepayers, whose duty it is to see that adequate means of education are provided for the children of a town or district; School′-boy, a boy attending a school: one learning the rudiments of a subject; School′-clerk, one versed in the learning of schools; School′-craft, learning; School′-dame, a schoolmistress.—n.pl. School′-days, the time of life during which one goes to school.—ns. School′-divine′; School′-divin′ity, scholastic or seminary theology; School′-doc′tor, a schoolman; School′ery (Spens.), something taught, precepts; School′-fell′ow, one taught at the same school: an associate at school; School′girl a girl attending school.—n.pl. School′-hours, time spent at school in acquiring instruction.—ns. School′-house, a house of discipline and instruction: a house used as a school: a schoolmaster's house; School′ing, instruction in school: tuition: the price paid for instruction: reproof, reprimand; School′-inspec′tor, an official appointed to examine schools; School′-ma'am, a schoolmistress; School′-maid, a school-girl; School′man, one of the philosophers and theologians of the second half of the middle ages; School′master, the master or teacher of a school, a pedagogue:—fem. School′mistress, a woman who teaches or who merely governs a school; School′-mate, one who attends the same school; School′-name, an abstract term, an abstraction; School′-pence, a small sum paid for school-teaching; School′-point, a point for scholastic disputation; School′-room, a room for teaching in: school accommodation; School′-ship, a vessel used for teaching practical navigation.—adj. School′-taught, taught at school or in the schools.—ns. School′-teach′er, one who teaches in a school; School′-teach′ing; School′-time, the time at which a school opens; School′-whale, one of a school of whales; Board′-school, a school under the control of a school-board.—Grammar school, High school, a school of secondary instruction, standing between the primary school and the university; National schools, those schools in Ireland which are under the commissioners of national education; Oxford school, a name given to that party which adopted the principles contained in the Tracts for the Times (cf. Tractarianism); Parochial schools, in Scotland, schools in every parish for general education; Primary school, a school for elementary instruction; Public school, an elementary or primary school: a school under the control of a school-board: an endowed classical school for providing a liberal education for such as can pay high for it—Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester, Westminster, Shrewsbury, Charterhouse, St Paul's, and Merchant Taylors′, &c.; Ragged school, a free school for destitute children's education and often maintenance, supported by voluntary efforts; Sunday school, a school held on Sunday for religious instruction; Tübingen school, a rationalistic school of theologians founded by F. C. Baur (1792-1860), which explained the origin of the Catholic Church as due to the gradual fusion of an antagonistic Judaistic and Gentile party, the various stages of fusion being capable of being traced in the extant documents.—The schoolmaster is abroad, a phrase of Brougham's implying that education and intelligence are now widely spread. [L. schola—Gr. scholē, leisure, a school.]

Chambers 1908 Schooner.png

Schooner, skōōn′ėr, n. a sharp-built, swift-sailing vessel, generally two-masted, rigged either with fore-and-aft sails on both masts, or with square top and topgallant sails on the foremast: an old form of covered emigrant-wagon: a large drinking-glass.—n. Schoon′er-smack, a sharp-bowed schooner. [Coined in New England from the prov. Eng. scoon (Scot. scon), to make a flat stone skip along the surface of water; A.S. scúnian.]

Schorl, shorl, n. black tourmaline—also Shorl.—adjs. Schorlā′ceous, Schor′lous, Schor′ly. [Ger. schörl, prob. from Sw. skör, brittle.]

Schottische, sho-tēsh′, n. a dance resembling a polka, danced by a couple: music adapted for the dance.—Also Schottish′. [Ger., 'Scottish.']

Schout, skout, n. a municipal officer in the North American Dutch colonies. [Dut.]

Schrankia, shrang′ki-a, n. a genus of leguminous plants, whose six species are all American—including the sensitive-briar. [Named from the German naturalist F. von Paula Schrank (1747-1835).]

Schuchin, skuch′in, n. an obsolete form of escutcheon.

Schweinitzia, shwī-nit′zi-a, n. a genus of gamopetalous plants of the Indian-pipe family, including the sweet pine-sap or Carolina beech-drops. [The Amer. botanist L. D. von Schweinitz (1780-1834).]

Schwenkfelder, shwengk′fel-dėr, n. a member of a religious sect, founded by Caspar von Schwenkfeld (1490-1561), still found in Pennsylvania.—Also Schwenk′feldian.

Sciadiaceæ, sī-ad-i-ā′sē-ē, n. a family of fresh-water algæ, its typical genus Sciadium.

Sciagraphy, sī-ag′ra-fi, n. the art of casting and delineating shadows as they fall in nature: (archit.) the vertical section of a building to show its interior structure: the art of dialling.—ns. Scī′agraph; Scīag′rapher.—adjs. Scīagraph′ic, -al.—adv. Scīagraph′ically. [Gr. skiagraphiaskia, a shadow, graphein, to write.]

Sciamachy, sī-am′a-ki, n. Same as Sciomachy.

Sciametry, sī-am′e-tri, n. the doctrine of eclipses. [Gr. skia, shadow, metrein, to measure.]

Sciara, sī′a-ra, n. a genus of gnats or midges. [Gr. skiaros, shady—skia, a shadow.]

Sciath, sī′ath, n. an oblong shield of wicker-work formerly used in Ireland. [Ir. sciath.]

Sciatheric, -al, sī-a-ther′ik, -al, adj. pertaining to a sundial. [Gr. skiathēronskia, shadow, theran, catch.]

Sciatica, sī-at′i-ka, n. a neuralgic affection of the great sciatic nerve.—adjs. Sciat′ic, -al, pertaining to, or affecting, the hip, ischiac.—adv. Sciat′ically. [Low L. sciatica—Gr. ischion.]

Science, sī′ens, n. knowledge systematised: truth ascertained: pursuit of knowledge or truth for its own sake: knowledge arranged under general truths and principles: that which refers to abstract principles, as distinguished from 'art:' pre-eminent skill: trade: a department of knowledge.—n. Scib′ile, something capable of being known.—adjs. Scī′enced, versed, learned; Scī′ent, knowing; Scien′tial (Milt.), producing science: skilful; Scientif′ic, -al (obs.), producing or containing science: according to, or versed in, science: used in science: systematic: accurate.—adv. Scientif′ically.—ns. Scī′entism, the view of scientists; Scī′entist, one who studies science, esp. natural science.—adjs. Scientis′tic.—adv. Scī′ently, knowingly.—n. Scient′olism, false science, superficial knowledge.—Scientific frontier, a term used by Lord Beaconsfield in 1878 in speaking of the rectification of the boundaries between India and Afghanistan, meaning a frontier capable of being occupied and defended according to the requirements of the science of strategy, in opposition to 'a hap-hazard frontier.'—Absolute science, knowledge of things in themselves; Applied science, when its laws are exemplified in dealing with concrete phenomena; Dismal science, political economy; Gay science, a medieval name for belles-lettres and poetry generally, esp. amatory poetry; Inductive science (see Induct); Liberal science, a science cultivated from love of knowledge, without view to profit; Mental science, mental philosophy, psychology; Moral science, ethics, the science of right and wrong, moral responsibility; Occult science, a name applied to the physical sciences of the middle ages, also to magic, sorcery, witchcraft, &c.; Sanitary science (see Sanitary); The exact sciences, the mathematical sciences; The science, the art of boxing; The seven liberal sciences, grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy—these were the seven Terrestrial sciences, as opposed to the seven Celestial sciences, civil law, Christian law, practical theology, devotional theology, dogmatic theology, mystic theology, and polemical theology. [Fr.,—L. scientiasciens, -entis, pr.p. of scīre, to know.]

Scil, an abbreviation of scilicet.

Scilicet, sil′i-set, adv. to wit, namely, videlicet.

Scilla, sil′a, n. a genus of liliaceous plants, as the squill. [L.,—Gr. skilla, a sea-onion.]

Scillocephalus, sil-ō-sef′a-lus, n. a person with a conical cranium.—adjs. Scilloceph′alous. [Gr. skilla, a squill, kephalē, a head.]

Scimitar, sim′i-tar, n. a short, single-edged curved sword, broadest at the point end, used by the Turks and Persians.—n. Scim′itar-pod, a strong, shrubby climber of the tropics. [O. Fr. cimeterre—Old It. cimitara—Turk.,—Pers. shimshīr (perh. 'lion's claw,' sham, a claw, shīr, sher, a lion); or perh. through Sp. cimitarra, from Basque cimeterra, something 'with a fine edge.']

Scincoid, sing′koid, n. one of a family of saurian reptiles, the typical genus of which is the Scin′cus or skink.—adjs. like a skink. [L. scincus—Gr. skingkos, a kind of lizard, eidos, form.]

Scindapsus, sin-dap′sus, n. a genus of climbing plants.

Scintilla, sin-til′a, n. a spark: a glimmer: the least particle: a trace: a genus of bivalve molluscs: a genus of lepidopterous insects.—adjs. Scin′tillant; Scin′tillante (mus.), brilliant.—v.i. Scin′tillate, to throw out sparks: to sparkle.—n. Scintillā′tion, act of throwing out sparks: shining with a twinkling light.—adj. Scintilles′cent, scintillating feebly.—n. Scintillom′eter, an instrument for measuring the intensity of scintillation of the stars. [L., a spark.]

Sciography, sī-og′ra-fi, n. Same as Sciagraphy.

Sciolism, sī′ō-lizm, n. superficial knowledge.—n. Scī′olist, one who knows anything superficially: a pretender to science.—adjs. Scīolis′tic, pertaining to, or partaking of, sciolism: pertaining to, or resembling, a sciolist; Scī′olous. [L. sciolus, dim. of scius, knowing—scīre, to know.]

Sciolto, shi-ol′tō, adj. (mus.) free, unrestrained. [It.]

Sciomachy, sī-om′a-ki, n. a battle or fighting with shadows: imaginary or futile combat.—Also Sciam′achy. [Gr. skiamachia, skiomachiaskia, shadow, machē, battle.]

Sciomancy, sī′ō-man-si, n. divination by means of the shades of the dead.

Scion, sī′on, n. a cutting or twig for grafting: a young member of a family: a descendant. [O. Fr. sion, cion—L. section-em, a cutting—secāre, to cut.]

Scioptic, sī-op′tik, adj. noting a certain optical arrangement for forming images in a darkened room, consisting of a globe with a lens fitted to a camera, and made to turn like the eye—also Sciop′tric.—ns. Sciop′ticon; Sciop′tics. [Gr. skia, shadow, optikos, pertaining to sight.]

Sciotheism, sī′ō-thē-izm, n. ancestor-worship.

Sciotheric. Same as Sciatheric (q.v.).

Scious, scī′us, adj. (obs.) knowing.

Scire facias, sī′re fā′shi-as, n. (law) a writ to enforce the execution of judgments, or to quash them.

Scirpus, sir′pus, n. a genus of monocotyledonous plants, including the bulrushes. [L., a rush.]

Scirrhus, skir′us, or sir′us, n. (med.) a hardened gland forming a tumour: a hardening, esp. that preceding cancer.—adjs. Scirr′hoid, resembling scirrhus; Scirr′hous, hardened, proceeding from scirrhus. [L.,—Gr. skirros, skiros, a tumour.]

Scirtopod, sir′tō-pod, adj. having limbs fitted for leaping.—n.pl. Scirtop′oda, an order of saltatorial rotifers. [Gr. skirtan, leap, pous, foot.]

Sciscitation, sis-i-tā′shun, n. (obs.) the act of inquiry: demand. [L.,—sciscitāri, to inquire—sciscĕre, to seek to know—scīre, to know.]

Scissel, sis′el, n. the clippings of various metals: scrap—also Sciss′il. [O. Fr. cisailleciselercisel, a chisel (q.v.). The spelling has been adapted in the interests of a fancied connection with L. scindĕre, scissum, to divide.]

Scissors, siz′orz, n.pl. a cutting instrument consisting of two blades fastened at the middle: shears.—v.i. Scise, sīz (obs.), to cut: to penetrate.—adjs. Sciss′ible, Sciss′ile, capable of being cut.—ns. Scis′sion, the act of cutting: division: splitting; Scissipar′ity, reproduction by fission.—v.t. Sciss′or, to cut with scissors.—ns. Sciss′or-bill, a skimmer; Sciss′or-tail, an American bird, the scissor-tailed fly-catcher; Sciss′or-tooth, the sectorial tooth of a carnivore which cuts against its fellow; Scissū′ra (anat.), a fissure, a cleft; Scis′sure, a cleft: a fissure: a rupture: a division; Scissurel′la, a genus of gasteropods with a shell deeply cut. [Formerly written cisors—O. Fr. cisoires, conn. with Fr. ciseaux, scissors, from Late L. cisorium, a cutting instrument—L. cædĕre, cæsum, to cut.]

Sciuridæ, sī-ū′ri-dē, n. a family of rodent mammals containing the squirrels and their allies.—adjs. Scī′ūrine, Scī′ūroid.—ns. Sciūrop′terus, one of two genera of flying squirrels; Sciū′rus, a genus of Sciuridæ, the arboreal squirrels. [Gr. skiouros.]

Sclate, sklāt, n. an obs. or prov. form of slate.

Sclave, Sclavonian, &c. See Slav, Slavonic.

Sclera, sklē′ra, n. the sclerotic coat of the eye-ball.—n. Sclē′ragogy, severe discipline.—adj. Sclē′ral.—ns. Sclēran′thus, a genus of apetalous plants, including the knawel or German knot-grass; Sclere, in sponges, a skeletal element; Sclērench′yma, the hard parts of corals or plants.—adj. Sclerenchym′atous.—ns. Sclē′ria, a genus of monocotyledonous plants, of the sedge family; Sclerī′asis, sclerodermia; Sclē′rite, any hard part of the integument of arthropods.—adj. Sclerit′ic.—n. Sclē′robase, a dense corneous mass, as in red coral.—adj. Sclerobā′sic.—ns. Sclērobrā′chia, an order of brachiopods; Sclē′roderm, hardened integument or exo-skeleton, esp. of a coral: a madrepore.—n.pl. Scleroder′mata, the scaly reptiles: the madrepores.—n. Sclēroder′mia, a chronic non-inflammatory affection of the skin, which becomes thick and rigid.—adjs. Scleroder′mic, Scleroder′mous, Sclerodermit′ic.—ns. Scleroder′mite; Sclē′rogen, the thickening matter of woody cells, as in walnut-shells, &c.—adjs. Sclerog′enous, producing sclerous tissue: mail-cheeked, as a fish; Sclē′roid, hard, scleritic.—ns. Sclērō′ma, sclerosis; Sclēromē′ninx, the dura mater; Sclērom′eter, an instrument for measuring the hardness of a mineral.—adjs. Sclērō′sal, Sclē′rosed.—ns. Sclērō′sis, a hardening: (bot.) the induration of a tissue; Sclēros′toma, a genus of nematode worms; Sclērō′tal, a bone of the eye-ball.—adj. relating to such.—adj. Sclērot′ic, hard, firm, applied esp. to the outer membrane of the eye-ball: pertaining to sclerosis: relating to ergot.—n. the outermost membrane of the eye-ball.—ns. Sclērotī′tis, inflammation of the sclerotic; Sclērō′tium, a hard, multicellular tuber-like body formed towards the end of the vegetative season by the close union of the ordinary mycelial filaments of Fungi.—adjs. Sclē′rous, hard or indurated: ossified or bony; Sclērur′ine, having stiff, hard tail-feathers, as a bird of the genus Sclerurus. [Gr. sklēros, hard.]

Scoat, skōt, v.t. to prop, to block, to scotch, as a wheel.—Also Scote. [O. Fr. ascouterascot, a branch—Teut., Old High Ger. scuz, a shoot; Ger. schuss.]

Scobby, skob′i, n. the chaffinch.—Also Scō′by.

Scobs, skobz, n. sawdust: shavings: dross of metals.—adj. Scob′iform, resembling sawdust or raspings.—n. Scobī′na, the pedicle of the spikelets of grasses. [L. scobisscabĕre, to scrape.]

Scoff, skof, v.t. to mock: to treat with scorn.—v.i. to show contempt or scorn: to deride, taunt, gibe.—n. an expression of scorn or contempt: an object of scoffing.—n. Scoff′er.—adv. Scoff′ingly, in a scoffing manner: with mockery or contempt. [Old Fris. schof; Ice. skaup, cf. Old Dut. schoppen, to scoff.]

Scoganism, skō′gan-izm, n. a scurrilous jesting. [From Scogan, the name of a famous jester.]

Scogie, skō′ji, n. (Scot.) a kitchen drudge.

Scold, skōld, v.i. to rail in a loud and violent manner: to find fault.—v.t. to chide rudely: to rebuke in words.—n. a rude, clamorous woman: a termagant.—ns. Scold′er; Scold′ing, railing: a rating; Scold′ing-stool, a cucking-stool. [Old Dut. scheldan; Ger. schelten, to brawl, to scold.]

Scolecida, skō-les′i-da, n. a class of worms consisting of the wheel-animalcules, turbellarians, trematode worms, &c.—adj. Scolec′iform.—ns. Scolecī′na, a group of annelids typified by the earth-worm—also Scoleī′na; Scol′ecīte, a hydrous silicate of aluminium and calcium.—adjs. Scolē′coid, like a scolex; Scolēcoph′agous, worm-eating, as a bird.—n. Scolecoph′agus, a genus of birds including the maggot-eaters or rusty grackles.—n.pl. Scolecophid′ia, a division of angiostomous serpents.—adj. Scolecophid′ian, worm-like, as a snake.—n. Scō′lex, the embryo of an entozoic worm. [Gr. skōlēx, a worm.]

Scolia, skō-li-a, n. a genus of fossorial hymenopterous insects. [Gr. skōlos, a prickle.]

Scoliodon, skō-lī′ō-don, n. the genus containing the oblique-toothed sharks. [Gr. skolios, oblique, odous, odontis, a tooth.]

Scolisois, skol-i-ō′sis, n. lateral curvature of the spinal column.—adj. Scoliot′ic. [Gr.,—skolios, oblique.]

Scolite, skō′līt, n. a fossil worm or its trace. [Gr. skolios, oblique.]

Scollop. Same as Scallop.

Scolopaceous, skol-ō-pā′shi-us, adj. resembling a snipe.—n.pl. Scolopac′idæ, a family of wading-birds containing snipes, &c.—adjs. Scol′opacine, Scol′opacoid.—n. Scol′opax. [L. scolopax, a snipe.]

Scolopendra, skol-ō-pen′dra, n. a genus of Myriapoda, having a long, slender, depressed body, protected by coriaceous plates, and having at least twenty-one pairs of legs: (Spens.) an imaginary fish or sea-monster.—adj. Scolopen′driform, Scolopen′drine.—n. Scolopen′drium, a genus of asplenioid ferns, generally called Hart's-tongue. [L.,—Gr. skolopendra, a milliped.]

Scolytus, skol′i-tus, n. typical genus of Scolyt′idæ, a family of bark beetles.—adj. Scol′ytoid. [Gr. skolyptein, to strip.]

Scomber, skom′bėr, n. a genus of acanthopterygian fishes typical of the family Scombridæ, to which belong mackerel, tunnies, bonitos, &c.—ns. Scomber′esox, the mackerel pikes, saury pikes, or sauries; Scomberom′orus, the Spanish mackerel and related species.—adjs. Scom′briform, Scom′brid, -al, Scom′broid. [L.,—Gr. skombros, a mackerel.]

Scomfish, skom′fish, v.t. (Scot.) to suffocate by bad air: to nauseate: to discomfit.—v.i. to be suffocated. [A corr. of obs. scomfit=discomfit.]

Scomm, skom, n. (obs.) a flout: a buffoon. [L. scomma—Gr. skōmma, a jest.]

Sconce, skons, n. a bulwark: a small fort: a protective headpiece, hence the head, the skull, brains, wits: a covered stall: a fine: a seat in an old-fashioned open chimney-place, a chimney-seat: a fragment of an icefloe.—v.t. to fortify: to tax, to fine lightly, at Oxford and Cambridge, for some irregularity. [O. Fr. esconcer, to conceal—L. abscondĕre, absconsum.]

Sconce, skons, n. the part of a candlestick for the candle: a hanging candlestick with a mirror to reflect the light: a lantern. [O. Fr. esconse—Low L. absconsa, a dark-lantern—abscondĕre, to hide.]

Sconcheon. Same as Squinch.

Scone, skōn, n. (Scot.) a soft cake fired on a griddle. [Perh. Gael. sgonn, a shapeless mass.]

Scoon, skōōn, v.t. to skim along like a vessel: (Scot.) to skip flat stones on the surface of water. [Scun.]

Scoop, skōōp, v.t. to lift up, as water, with something hollow: to empty with a ladle: to make hollow: to dig out: to dredge for grain: to get before a rival newspaper in publishing some important piece of news.—n. anything hollow for scooping: a large hollow shovel or ladle: a banker's shovel: a coal-scuttle: a haul of money made in speculation: a place hollowed out: a sweeping stroke: (Scot.) the peak of a cap: the act of beating another newspaper in publishing some news.—ns. Scoop′er, an engraver's tool; Scoop′ing, the action of the right whale in feeding; Scoop′-net, a hand-net; Scoop′-wheel, a wheel having buckets attached to its circumference, used for raising water. [Prob. Scand., Sw. skopa, a scoop; or Old Dut. schœpe, a shovel, Ger. schüppe, a shovel.]

Scoot, skōōt, v.i. to make off with celerity.—v.t. (Scot.) to squirt.—n. a sudden flow of water: a squirt. [A variant of shoot.]

Scopa, skō′pa, n. (entom.) a mass of stiff hairs like a brush.—n. Scopā′ria, a genus of pyralid moths: a genus of gamopetalous plants—the West Indian sweet bromweed.—adjs. Scopā′rious, scopiform; Scō′pate, covered with stiff hairs; Scōpif′erous, brushy; Scō′piform, broom-shaped.—ns. Scop′ula (entom.), a small brush-like organ; Scopulā′ria, in a sponge, the besom-shaped spicule.—adjs. Scop′ūlate, broom-shaped; Scop′ūliform, scopiform; Scop′ūliped, Scō′piped, having brushy feet, as solitary bees. [L. scopa, twigs.]

Scope, skōp, n. that which one sees, space as far as one can see: room or opportunity for free outlook: space for action: the end before the mind: intention: length of cable at which a vessel rides at liberty: a target.—adjs. Scope′ful, with a wide prospect; Scope′less, purposeless, useless. [It. scopo—Gr. skoposskopein, to view.]

Scope, skōp, n. (obs.) a bundle, as of twigs. [L. scopa, twigs.]

Scopelidæ, skō-pel′i-dē, n.pl. a family of deep-water teleostean fishes, the typical genus Scop′elus. [Gr. skopelos, a rock.]

Scopidæ, skop′i-dē, n.pl. an African family of wading-birds, as the shadow-birds, the typical genus Scō′pus.

Scopious, skō′pi-us, adj. (obs.) spacious.

Scopperil, skop′e-ril, n. a top: teetotum: the bone-foundation of a button. [Ice. skoppa, to spin.]

Scops, skops, n. the screech-owl. [Gr. skōps.]

Scoptic, skop′tik, adj. mocking: jesting. [Scomm.]

Scopulous, skop′ū-lus, adj. full of rocks. [L. scopulus—Gr. skopelos, a high rock.]

Scorbutic, -al, skor-bū′tik, -al, adj. pertaining to, resembling, or diseased with scurvy. [Low L. scorbutus, scurvy, prob. from Old Low Ger. schorbock, scurvy, Old Dut. scheurbuyck, scurvy. Prob. orig. meaning 'rupture of the belly,' for Old Dut. scheuren, to tear, buyck (mod. Dut. buik), the belly.]

Scorch, skorch, v.t. to burn slightly: to roast highly: to affect painfully with heat: to singe: to attack with virulence.—v.i. to be burned on the surface: to be dried up: (slang) to ride a bicycle furiously on a public highway.—ns. Scorched′-car′pet, -wing, British geometrid moths; Scorch′er, anything that scorches, a very caustic rebuke, criticism, &c.: one who rides a bicycle furiously on a road; Scorch′ing.—p.adj. burning superficially: bitterly sarcastic, scathing.—adv. Scorch′ingly.—n. Scorch′ingness. [O. Fr. escorcher, from Low L. excorticare—L. ex, off, cortex, corticis, bark; or prob. Scand., Norw. skrekka, to shrink.]

Scordato, skōr-dä′tō, adj. (mus.) put out of tune.—n. Scordatū′ra, in stringed musical instruments, an intentional departure from the normal tuning. [It.]

Score, skōr, n. a mark or notch for keeping count: a line drawn: the number twenty, once represented by a larger notch: a reckoning: a debt: the register of the various points of play in a game: account: reason: the original draught of a musical composition with all the parts, or its transcript.—v.t. to mark with notches or lines: to furrow: to set down: to charge: to engrave: to braid: to note: to enter: to make points, &c., in certain games.—v.i. to keep, or to run up, a score: to succeed in making points, &c., in a game.—ns. Scōr′er, one who keeps the marks in a game; Scōr′ing, the act of one who, or that which, scores: a deep groove made by glacial action: the act of repeatedly bringing a racer and his rider to the starting-point, so as to get a fair start.—Go off at score, to make a spirited start; Pay off old scores, to repay old grudges; Run up a score, to run up a debt. [A.S. scorsceran (pa.p. scoren), to shear.]

Scoria, skō′ri-a, n. dross or slag left from metal or ores after being under fire: a genus of geometrid moths:—pl. Scō′riæ, volcanic ashes.—adjs. Scō′riac, Scoriā′ceous.—ns. Scorificā′tion, the act or operation of reducing a body to scoria: a method of assaying by fusing the ore with metallic lead and borax in a scorifier; Scor′ifīer, a flat dish used in such a form of assaying.—adj. Scō′riform, like scoria.—v.t. Scō′rify, to reduce to slag.—adj. Scō′rious. [L.,—Gr. skōria.]

Scorn, skorn, n. disdain caused by a mean opinion of anything: extreme contempt: object of contempt.—v.t. to hold in extreme contempt: to disdain: to make a mock of.—v.i. to scoff: to jeer.—n. Scor′ner, one who scorns: (B.) one who scoffs at religion: a scoffer.—adj. Scorn′ful, full of scorn: contemptuous: disdainful.—adv. Scorn′fully.—ns. Scorn′fulness; Scor′ning.—Laugh to scorn (B.), to deride; Think scorn, to disdain or despise. [O. Fr. escarn, mockery—Old High Ger. skern, mockery.]

Scorodite, skor′ō-dīt, n. a hydrous arseniate of iron.—Also Skor′odite. [Gr. skorodon, skordon, garlic.]

Scorpæna, skor-pē′na, n. a genus of fishes, the typical genus of Scorpæ′nidæ, a family including the rose-fish, the Californian rock-fish, and their allies. [L.,—Gr. skorpaina, a fish.]

Scorper, skor′pėr, n. a gouging-chisel [For scauper.]

Scorpion, skor′pi-un, n. a name applicable to any member of the family Scorpionidæ, included along with spiders, mites, &c. in the heterogeneous class Arachnida—they have an elongated body, claws like the lobster, and a poisonous sting in the tail: one of the signs of the zodiac: (B.) a whip with points like a scorpion's tail: an old military engine: any person of virulent hatred or animosity.—n. Scor′pio, a scorpion: (astron.) a constellation and the eighth sign of the zodiac.—adj. Scor′pioid, curled like the tail of a scorpion.—n. Scor′pion-bug, a large predacious water-beetle.—n.pl. Scorpiō′nes, true scorpions, a sub-order of Arachnida.—ns. Scor′pion-fish, a sea-scorpion; Scor′pion-fly, an insect having its abdomen curled like a scorpion; Scor′pion-grass, the forget-me-not: the mouse-ear; Scorpion′ida, an order of Arachnida, containing the Scorpiones or true scorpions; Scor′pion-lob′ster, a long-tailed crustacean; Scor′pion-plant, a Javan orchid with large creamy flower supposed to resemble a spider; Scor′pion-shell, a gasteropod distinguished by long, channelled spines; Scor′pion-spī′der, a whip-scorpion; Scor′pion-wort, a leguminous plant native of southern Europe; Scorpiū′rus, a genus of leguminous plants named scorpion's tail. [Fr.,—L. scorpio—Gr. skorpios.]

Scorse. Same as Scourse (2).

Scortatory, skor′ta-tō-ri, adj. pertaining to lewdness. [L. scortator, a fornicator—scortum, a whore.]

Scorza, skor′za, n. a variety of epidote. [It.]

Scorzonera, skor-zō-nē′ra, n. a genus of Old World herbs of the Aster family—Viper's Grass. [It., scorza, bark, nera, black, fem. of nero—L. niger, black.]

Scot, skot, n. a payment, esp. a customary tax—also Shot.—adj. Scot′-free, free from scot or payment: untaxed: unhurt, safe.—Scot and lot, an old legal phrase embracing all parochial assessments for the poor, the church, lighting, cleansing, and watching. [A.S. scot, sceotscéotan, to shoot.]

Scot, skot, n. a native of Scotland: one of the Scoti or Scots, a Celtic race who migrated from Ireland—the original Scotia—before the end of the 5th century.—n. Scō′tia, Scotland.—Scots Greys, a famous regiment of dragoons, established in 1683; Scots Guards, the Scottish force which served the kings of France from 1418 down to the battle of Minden (1759), nominally retained, however, down to 1830: a well-known regiment of Guards in the British army, formerly Scots Fusiliers.—Pound Scots, 1s. 8d. [A.S. Scottas, the Scots. Further ety. quite uncertain, whether Gael. sguit, a wanderer, Gr. Skythēs, a Scythian, &c.]

Scotch, skoch, adj. pertaining to Scotland, its people, language, customs, products, &c.—also Scot′tish, Scots.—n. the dialect of English spoken in Lowland Scotland: (coll.) Scotch whisky.—ns. Scotch′-hop, a child's game: hop-scotch; Scotch′man, Scots′man, a native of Scotland.—Scotch amulet, a British geometrid moth; Scotch and English, the boys' game of prisoner's base; Scotch barley, pot or hulled barley; Scotch bluebell, the harebell; Scotch bonnets, the fairy-ring mushroom; Scotch broth, broth made with pot-barley and plenty of various vegetables chopped small; Scotch cap, the wild black raspberry; Scotch catch, or snap, the peculiarity in Scotch music of the first of two tones played to the same beat being the shorter; Scotch curlies, a variety of kale; Scotch fir, or pine, the only species of pine indigenous to Britain, valuable for its timber, turpentine, tar, &c.; Scotch kale, a variety of kale; Scotch mist, a mist like fine rain; Scotch pebbles, varieties of agate and jasper; Scotch thistle, the national emblem of Scotland.

Scotch, skoch, v.t. to cut or wound slightly: to notch.—n. a notch, scratch.—n. Scotch′ing, a method of dressing stone with a pick.—Scotched-collops, or (erroneously) Scotch-collops, beef-steaks fried with onions. [Related to scutch, scratch.]

Scotch, skoch, n. a strut or drag for a wheel.—v.t. to prop or block with such.—n. Scote, a prop.—v.t. to stop or block.

Scoter, skō′tėr, n. a genus of northern sea-ducks, with bill gibbous at the base. [Prob. Ice. skotiskjóta, to shoot.]

Scotia, skō′ti-a, n. a concave moulding, as the base of a pillar. [Gr. skotia,—skotos, darkness.]

Scotice, skot′i-sē, adv. in the Scotch language or manner.—n. Scot′icism=Scotticism.

Scotism, skō′tizm, n. the metaphysical system of Johannes Duns Scotus, a native of Dunstane in Northumberland, Dun or Down in the north of Ireland, or Dunse in Berwickshire (1265 or 1274-1308), the great assailant of the method of Aquinas in seeking in speculation instead of in practice the foundation of Christian theology—his theological descendants were the Franciscans, in opposition to the Dominicans, who followed Aquinas.—n. Scō′tist, a follower of Duns Scotus.—adj. Scotis′tic.

Scotograph, skot′ō-graf, n. an instrument for writing in the dark, or for the use of the blind.—ns. Scotō′ma, a defect in the vision (obs. Scot′omy); Scot′ophis, a genus of carinated serpents of North America; Scotor′nis, a genus of African birds with very long tails; Scot′oscope, a night-glass. [Gr. skotos, darkness, graphein, to write.]

Scotticism, skot′i-sizm, n. a Scotch idiom.—v.t. Scott′icise.—n. Scottificā′tion.—v.t. Scott′ify (coll.), to give Scotch character to.

Scoundrel, skown′drel, n. a low worthless fellow: a rascal: a man without principle.—ns. Scoun′dreldom, scoundrels collectively; Scoun′drelism, baseness, rascality.—adv. Scoun′drelly. [For scunner-el, one who scunners, or who causes scunnering—A.S. scunian, to shun.]

Scoup, skowp, v.i. (Scot.) to run: to scamper. [Related to skip.]

Scour, skowr, v.t. to clean by rubbing with something rough: to cleanse from grease or dirt: to remove by rubbing: to cleanse by a current: to search thoroughly by scrubbing: to cleanse by brushing: to purge drastically.—n. the action of a strong current in a narrow channel: violent purging.—ns. Scour′age, refuse water after scouring; Scour′er, drastic cathartic; Scour′ing, in angling, the freshening of angle-worms for bait by putting them in clean sand; Scour′ing-ball, a ball composed of soap, &c., for removing stains of grease.—n.pl. Scour′ing-drops, a mixture of oil of turpentine and oil of lemon used for removing stains.—ns. Scour′ing-rush, one of the horse-tails; Scour′ing-stock, in woollen manufacture, an apparatus in which cloths are treated to remove the oil and to cleanse them in the process of manufacture. [O. Fr. escurer—L. excurāre, to take great care of.]

Scour, skowr, v.i. to run with swiftness: to scurry along.—v.t. to run quickly over.—n. Scour′er, a footpad. [O. Fr. escourre—L. excurrĕre, to run forth.]

Scourge, skurj, n. a whip made of leather thongs: an instrument of punishment: a punishment: means of punishment.—v.t. to whip severely: to punish in order to correct.—n. Scour′ger, a flagellant. [O. Fr. escorgie (Fr. écourgée)—L. (scutia) excoriata, (a whip) made of leather—corium, leather.]

Scourse, skōrs, v.i. (Spens.) to run: to hurry. [O. Fr. escourser—L. excurrĕre, excursum, to run out.]

Scourse, skōrs, v.t. to barter, exchange.—v.i. to make an exchange.—n. (Spens.) discourse.—Also Scorse, Scoss. [Prob. discourse.]

Scout, skowt, n. one sent out to bring in tidings, observe the enemy, &c.: a spy: a sneak: in cricket, a fielder: the act of watching: a bird of the auk family: a college servant at Oxford, the same as gyp in Cambridge and skip in Dublin.—v.t. to watch closely.—n. Scout′-mas′ter, an officer who has the direction of army scouts. [O. Fr. escoute—escouter (It. ascoltare)—L. auscultāre, to listen—auris, the ear.]

Scout, skowt, v.t. to sneer at: to reject with disdain.—adv. Scout′ingly, sneeringly. [Scand.,—Ice. skúta, skúti, a taunt—skjóta, to shoot.]

Scout, skowt, v.i. (Scot.) to pour forth a liquid forcibly, esp. excrement.—n. the guillemot.

Scouter, skowt′ėr, n. a workman who uses jump-drills, wedges, &c. to scale off large flakes of stone.

Scouth, skowth, n. (Scot.) room: scope, plenty.

Scouther, skow′thėr, v.t. (Scot.) to scorch: to fire hastily, as on a gridiron.

Scovan, skō′van, n. a Cornish name for a vein of tin.

Scove, skōv, v.t. to cover with clay so as to prevent the escape of heat in burning.

Scoved, skōvd, adj. (prov.) smeared or blotched.—Also Scō′vy.

Scovel, skuv′l, n. (prov.) a mop for sweeping ovens.

Scow, skow, n. a flat-bottomed boat: a ferry-boat. [Dut. schouw.]

Scowl, skowl, v.i. to wrinkle the brows in displeasure: to look sour or angry: to look gloomy.—n. the wrinkling of the brows when displeased.—p.adj. Scow′ling.—adv. Scow′lingly. [Scand., Dan. skule, to scowl; Low Ger. schulen, to look slyly.]

Scowl, skowl, n. (prov.) old workings of iron ore.

Scowther, Scouther, skow′thėr, n. (prov.) a flying shower.

Scrab, skrab, n. a crab-apple.

Scrabble, skrab′l, v.i. to scrape or make unmeaning marks, to scrawl: to scramble or crawl along with difficulty.—v.t. to gather hastily.—n. a scramble.—v.t. Scrab, to scratch, to scrape.—Scrabbed eggs, a dish of hard-boiled eggs chopped up and seasoned. [A form of scrapple, freq. of scrape.]

Scraffle, skraf′l, v.i. to scramble: to wrangle: to be industrious: to shuffle. [A form of scrabble or scramble.]

Scrag, skrag, n. anything thin or lean and rough: the bony part of the neck.—v.t. to put to death by hanging.—adjs. Scrag′ged, Scrag′gy, lean and rough: uneven, rugged.—ns. Scrag′gedness, Scrag′giness.—adv. Scrag′gily.—adjs. Scrag′gly, rough-looking; Scrag′-necked, having a long, thin neck.—n. Scrag′-whale, a finner whale, having the back scragged. [Scand., Sw. prov. shraka, a tall tree or man, shrokk, anything shrivelled—Norw. skrekka, to shrink.]

Scraich, Scraigh, skrāh, v.i. (Scot.) to scream hoarsely: to screech, to shriek.—n. Scraich. [Gael. sgreach.]

Scramb, skramb, v.t. (prov.) to scrape together with the hands. [A variant of scramp.]

Scramble, skram′bl, v.i. to struggle to seize something before others: to catch at or strive for rudely: to wriggle along on all-fours.—v.t. to throw down to be scrambled for: to advance or push.—n. act of scrambling: a struggle for office.—n. Scram′bler.—adj. Scram′bling, confused and irregular.—adv. Scram′blingly, in a scrambling manner: irregularly: unceremoniously. [Prov. Eng. scramb, to rake together with the hands, or scramp, to snatch at; nearly allied to scrabble and scrape.]

Scramp, skramp, v.t. to catch at, snatch. [Scramble.]

Scran, skran, n. broken victuals: refuse—also Skran.—n. Scran′ning, the act of begging for food.—Bad scran to you! bad fare to you! an Irish imprecation. [Prob. Ice. skran, rubbish.]

Scranch, skransh, v.t. to grind with the teeth: to crunch.—Also Scraunch, Scrunch. [Prob. Dut. schransen, to eat heartily.]

Scranky, skrank′i, adj. (Scot.) scraggy: lank.

Scrannel, skran′l, adj. (Milt.) producing a weak, screeching noise: thin: squeaking.

Scranny, skran′i, adj. (prov.) lean and thin.

Scrap, skrap, n. a small piece: a remnant: a picture suited for preservation in a scrap-book: wrought-iron clippings: an unconnected extract.—v.t. to consign to the scrap-heap.—ns. Scrap′-book, a blank book for scraps or extracts, prints, &c.; Scrap′-heap, a place where old iron is collected; Scrap′-ī′ron, old iron accumulated for reworking; Scrap′-met′al, scraps or fragments of any kind of metal, which are only of use for remelting.—adv. Scrap′pily, in fragments, desultorily.—n. Scrap′piness, fragmentariness, disconnectedness.—adj. Scrap′py.—Go to the scrap-heap, to go to ruin. [Scand., Ice. skrap, scraps—skrapa, to scrape.]

Scrap, skrap, n. (slang) a fight, scrimmage.

Scrap, skrap, n. a snare for birds.

Scrape, skrāp, v.t. to make a harsh or grating noise on: to rub with something sharp: to remove by drawing a sharp edge over: to collect by laborious effort: to save penuriously: to erase.—v.i. to grub in the ground: to rub lightly: to draw back the foot in making obeisance: to play on a stringed instrument.—n. a perplexing situation: difficulty: a shave.—adj. Scrape′-good, miserly, stingy.—ns. Scrape′-penn′y, a miser; Scrap′er, an instrument used for scraping, esp. the soles of shoes outside the door of a house: a hoe: a tool used by engravers and others: a fiddler; Scrap′ing, that which is scraped off, as the scrapings of the street: shavings, hoardings; Scrap′ing-plane, a plane used by workers in metal and wood.—Scrape acquaintance with, to get on terms of acquaintance. [Scand., Ice. skrapa, to scrape; Dut. schrapen; A.S. scearpian.]

Scrapple, skrap′l, v.i. to grub about.—n. a mixture of meat-scraps, herbs, &c. stewed, pressed in cakes, sliced and fried. [Dim. of scrap.]

Scrat, skrat, n. a devil.—Also Old Scratch, the devil. [Cf. Ger. schratt, Ice. skratti, a goblin.]

Scratch, skrach, v.t. to mark the surface with something pointed, as the nails: to tear or to dig with the claws: to write hurriedly: to erase.—v.i. to use the claws in tearing or digging: to delete a name on a voting-paper.—n. a mark or tear made by scratching: a slight wound: the line in a prize-ring up to which boxers are led—hence test, trial, as in 'to come up to the scratch:' (pl.) a disease in horses: the time of starting of a player: in billiards, a chance stroke which is successful: a kind of wig, a scratch-wig: a scrawl.—adj. taken at random, as a 'scratch crew:' without handicap, or allowance of time or distance.—ns. Scratch′-back, a kind of toy, which, when drawn over a person's back, makes a sound as if his coat was torn; Scratch′-brush, a name given to various forms of brushes; Scratch′-coat, the first coat of plaster; Scratch′er, a bird which scratches for food.—adv. Scratch′ingly.—n.pl. Scratch′ings, refuse matter strained out of fat when melted.—ns. Scratch′-weed, the goose-grass; Scratch′-wig, a wig that covers only part of the head; Scratch′-work, a kind of wall decoration.—adj. Scratch′y, ragged: scratching: of little depth.—Scratch out, to erase. [Explained by Skeat as due to the confusion of M. E. skratten, to scratch, with M. E. cracchen, to scratch: skratten standing for skarten, an extended form from Ice. sker-a, to shear; cracchen, again, stands for kratsen—Sw. kratsa, to scrape.]

Scrattle, skrat′l, v.i. (prov.) to scuttle.

Scraw, skraw, n. a turf, a sod. [Gael. scrath.]

Scrawl, skrawl, n. (U.S.) brushwood.

Scrawl, skrawl, v.t. and v.i. to scrape, mark, or write irregularly or hastily.—n. irregular or hasty writing: bad writing: a broken branch of a tree: the young of the dog-crab.—n. Scrawl′er.—adj. Scrawl′y, ill-formed. [A contr. of scrabble.]

Scrawm, skrawm, v.t. (prov.) to tear, to scratch. [Prob. Dut. schrammen, schram, a rent.]

Scrawny, skraw′ni, adj. wasted: raw-boned.—n. Scraw′niness. [Scranny.]

Scray, skrā, n. the sea-swallow. [W. ysgräell.]

Screak, skrēk, v.t. to scream: to creak.—n. a screech.

Scream, skrēm, v.i. to cry out with a shrill cry, as in fear or pain: to shriek.—n. a shrill, sudden cry, as in fear or pain: a shriek.—n. Scream′er, one who screams: a genus of South American birds about the size of the turkey, with loud, harsh cry: (U.S. slang) a bouncer.—Screaming farce, one highly ludicrous. [Scand., Ice. skræma, Sw. skrämma, to fear; cf. Screech, Shriek.]

Scree, skrē, n. débris at the base of a cliff.—Also Screes. [Ice. skritha, a landslip—skrítha, creep.]

Scree, skrē, n. (Scot.) a coarse sieve.

Screech, skrēch, v.i. to utter a harsh, shrill, and sudden cry.—n. a harsh, shrill, and sudden cry.—ns. Screech′er, the swift; Screech′-hawk, the night-jar; Screech′-mar′tin, the swift; Screech′-owl, a kind of screeching owl: the missel-thrush: the barn-owl; Screech′-thrush, the missel-thrush.—adj. Screech′y, shrill and harsh, like a screech: loud-mouthed. [M. E. scriken—Scand., Ice. shrækja, to shriek; cf. Gael. sgreach, to shriek.]

Screed, skrēd, n. a piece torn off: a shred: a long tirade: (Scot.) a strip of mortar: a rent, a tear.—v.t. to repeat glibly. [A.S. screáde, a shred.]

Screen, skrēn, n. that which shelters from danger or observation, that which protects from heat, cold, or the sun: (Scot.) a large scarf: an enclosure or partition of wood, stone, or metal work, common in churches, shutting off chapels from the nave, separating the nave from the choir, &c.: a coarse riddle for sifting coal, &c.—v.t. to shelter or conceal: to pass through a coarse riddle.—n. Screen′ing-machine′, an apparatus for sifting coal.—n.pl. Screen′ings, the refuse matter after sifting. [O. Fr. escren (Fr. écran), from Old High Ger. scranna, a court; Ger. schranne, a bench.]

Screever, skrēv′ėr, n. one who writes begging letters.—v.t. Screeve, to write such.—n. Screev′ing, the writing of begging letters: drawing with coloured chalks on the pavement for coppers.

Screw, skrōō, n. a cylinder with a spiral groove or ridge on either its outer or inner surface, used as a fastening and as a mechanical power: a screw-propeller: a turn or twist to one side: a penny packet of tobacco put up in a paper twisted at both ends: a stingy fellow, an extortioner, a skinflint: a broken-winded horse: pressure: (U.S. slang) a professor who requires students to work hard: salary, Chambers 1908 Screwbolt.png wages.—v.t. to apply a screw to: to press with a screw: to twist: to oppress by extortion: to force: to squeeze.—ns. Screw′-bolt, a bolt threaded at one end for a nut; Screw′-cut′ter, a hand-tool for cutting screws; Screw′-driv′er, an instrument for driving or turning screw-nails.—adj. Screwed (slang), tipsy, tight.—ns. Screw′-el′evator, a dentist's instrument: a surgeon's instrument for forcing open the jaws; Screw′er.—adj. Screw′ing, exacting: close.—ns. Screw′-jack (same as Jackscrew); Screw′-key, a lever for turning the nut of a screw; Screw′-machine′, a machine for making screws; Screw′-nail, a nail made in the form of a screw; Screw′-pile, a pile forced into the ground, and held there by a peculiar kind of screw at the lower extremity; Screw′-pine, a plant of the tropical genus Pandanus, or of the screw-pine family—from the screw-like arrangement of the clustered leaves; Screw′-plate, a plate of steel in which are a Chambers 1908 Screwpress.png graduated series of holes, with internal screws used in forming external screws; Screw′-pod, the screw-bean Screw′-press, a press in which the force is applied by means of a screw; Screw′-propel′ler, a screw or spiral-bladed wheel at the stern of steam-vessels for propelling them: a steamer so propelled; Screw′-rudd′er, an application of the screw for the purpose of steering; Screw′-stair, a spiral staircase: a hanging stair; Screw′-steam′er, a steamer propelled by a screw; Screw′stone, a wheelstone: a fossil screw; Screw′-thread, the spiral ridge on the cylinder of a male screw, or on the inner surface of a female screw; Screw′-valve, a stop-cock opened and shut by means of a screw instead of a spigot; Screw′-ven′tilator, a ventilating Chambers 1908 Screwwrench.png apparatus; Screw′-worm, the larva of a blow-fly; Screw′-wrench, a tool for grasping the flat sides of the heads of large screws.—adj. Screw′y, exacting: close: worthless.—A screw loose, something defective. [Earlier scrue. O. Fr. escrou, prob. L. scrobem, accus. of scrobs, a hole; or Low Ger. schruve, Dut. schroef, Ice. skrufa, Ger. schraube.]

Scribbet, skrib′et, n. a painter's pencil.

Scribble, skrib′l, v.t. to scratch or write carelessly: to fill with worthless writing.—v.i. to write carelessly: to scrawl.—n. careless writing: a scrawl.—ns. Scribb′ler, a petty author; Scribb′ling, the act of writing hastily or carelessly.—adv. Scribb′lingly.—n.pl. Scribb′lings. [A freq. of scribe.]

Scribble, skrib′l, v.t. to card roughly, as wool.—ns. Scribb′ler, a machine for doing this, or a person who tends such; Scribb′ling, the first carding of wool or cotton; Scribb′ling-machine′, a coarse form of carding-machine. [Scand., Sw. skrubbla, to card.]

Scribble-scrabble, skrib′l-skrab′l, n. an ungainly fellow. [Reduplicated from scrabble.]

Scribe, skrīb, n. a writer: a public or official writer: a clerk, amanuensis, secretary: (B.) an expounder and teacher of the Mosaic and traditional law: a pointed instrument to mark lines on wood, &c.—v.t. to write: to record: to mark.—adjs. Scrī′bable, capable of being written upon; Scribā′cious, given to writing.—n. Scribā′ciousness.—adj. Scrī′bal, pertaining to a scribe.—ns. Scrī′bing; Scrī′bing-com′pass, an instrument used in saddlery and cooper-work; Scrī′bism. [Fr.,—L. scribascribĕre, to write.]

Scrieve, skrēv, v.i. (Scot.) to glide swiftly along. [Scand., Ice. skrefaskref, a stride.]

Scriggle, skrig′l, v.i. to writhe: to wriggle.—n. a wriggling. [Prob. Ice. shrika, to slip; Ger. schrecken, Dut. schrikken, to terrify.]

Scrike, skrīk, v.i. (Spens.) to shriek.

Scrim, skrim, n. cloth used for linings.

Scrime, skrīm, v.i. to fence.—n. Scrī′mer (Shak.), a fencer. [Fr. escrimer, to fence; cf. Skirmish.]

Scrimmage, skrim′āj, n. a skirmish: a general fight: a tussle. [Prob. a corr. of skirmish.]

Scrimp, skrimp, v.t. to make too small or short: to limit or shorten: to straiten.—adj. short, scanty.—adj. Scrimp′ed, pinched.—adv. Scrimp′ly, hardly: scarcely.—n. Scrimp′ness.—adj. Scrimp′y, scanty. [A.S. scrimpan; allied to scrimman, to shrink, and scrincan, to shrivel up.]

Scrimshaw, skrim′shaw, v.t. to engrave fanciful designs on shells, whales' teeth, &c.—n. any shell or the like fancifully engraved.