Constitution of the German Democratic Republic (1968)

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Constitution of the German Democratic Republic  (1968) 
East Germany/SED
The second constitution of the country

Constitution of the German Democratic Republic[edit]

Preamble[edit]

In continuation of the revolutionary tradition of the German working class and supported by release from fascism the people of the German Democratic Republic in agreement with the processes of the historical development of our epoch carried out and arranges its right to socialeconomic, national and national self-determination the developed socialist society. Fulfilled of the will to determine its fate freely steadfastly also far the way of socialism and communism, the peace, to go to the democracy and the people friendship the people gave itself this socialist condition to the German Democratic Republic.

Section I Bases of the socialist society and state order[edit]

Chapter 1 Political bases[edit]

Article 1

(1) The German Democratic Republic is a socialist state of the workers and farmers. It is the political organization of the workers in city and country under the guidance of the working class and its Marxist-Leninistic party. The capital of the German Democratic Republic is Berlin. The state flag of the German Democratic Republic consists of the colors black-red-golden and carries on both sides in the center the state coat of arms of the German Democratic Republic. The state coat of arms of the German Democratic Republic consists of hammer and circle, surrounded by ears of wheat, which ribbons in the lower part of a black-red-golden volume is.

Article 2

(1) All political power in the German Democratic Republic is exercised of the worker in city and country. Humans are located in the center of all efforts of the socialist society and its state. The further increase of the material and cultural life level of the people on the basis of a high rate of development of socialist production, the increase of the effectiveness, the scientific-technologic progress and the growth of the productivity is the crucial task of the developed socialist society.

(2) The firm alliance of the working class with the class of the cooperative farmers, the member of intelligence and the other layers of the people, the socialist property at means of production, the line and planning of the social development after the most advanced realizations of the science forms inviolable bases of the socialist social order.

(3) The exploitation of humans by humans is to be eliminated. What the people's hands create, is the property of the people. The socialist principle of “from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs” is carried out.

Article 3

(1) The alliance of all forces of the people finds its organized expression in the National Front of the German Democratic Republic.

(2) In the National Front of the German Democratic Republic combines the parties and mass organizations all forces of the people to common acting for the development of the socialist society. Thus they carry out a living together of all citizens in the socialist community after the principle that each responsibility for the whole carries.

Article 4

(1) All power serves well-being of the people. It secures its peaceful life, protects the socialist society and ensures the socialist way of life of the citizens, free development of humans, protects its and guarantees the rights guaranteed in the condition.

Article 5

(1) the citizens of the German Democratic Republic exercise their political power by democratically selected representative governments.

(2) the representative governments is the basis of the system of the state organs. They support themselves in their activity by active codesigning of the citizens at the preparation, execution and control of their decisions.

(3) at no time and under no circumstances can exercise others than those constitutionally planned organs national power.

Article 6 (1) the German Democratic Republic exterminated faithfully the interests of the people and the international obligations in their area the German militarism and Nazi mash. It operates socialism and the peace, the people communication and security serving foreign policy.

(2) the German Democratic Republic is always and irrevocablly with the union of the socialist Soviet republics allied. The close and fraternal alliance with it guarantees further progressing on the way to the people of the German Democratic Republic into socialism and the peace. The German Democratic Republic is an inseparable component of the socialist community of states. It contributes faithfully the principles of the socialist internationalism to its stabilization, maintains and develops the friendship, all-round co-operation and the mutual existence with all states of the socialist community.

(3) the German Democratic Republic supports the states and peoples, which fight against the imperialism and its colonial regime, for national liberty and independence, in its struggle for social progress. The German Democratic Republic occurs co-operation with all states for the implementation of the principles of the peaceful coexistence of states of different social orders and maintains on the basis of the equal rights and the mutual attention. Co-operation uses themselves 4 the German Democratic Republic in Europe, for a stable peace order in the world and for general disarmament for security and.

(5) Militaristi and revanchistische propaganda in each form, Kriegshetze and stating of faith, race and people hate is punished as crimes.

Article 7

(1)state organs as well as the protection and the use of their continental shelf ensure the The territorial integrity of the German Democratic Republic and the inviolability of their state borders including its air space and its territorial waters

(2) the German Democratic Republic organize the national defense as well as the protection of the socialist order and the peaceful living person of the citizens. The national People's Army and the other organs of the national defense protect the socialist achievements of the people from all attacks from the outside. The national People's Army maintains close fraternity in arms with the armies of the Soviet Union and other socialist states in the interest of the peace and the safety device of the socialist state.

Article 8

(1) the generally recognized, the peace and the peaceful co-operation of the peoples serving rules of international law are obligatory on the Staatsmacht and each citizen.

(2) the German Democratic Republic a conquest war will never undertake or its armed forces against the liberty of another people will use.

Chapter 2 Economic bases, science, education and culture[edit]

Article 9

(1) the national economy of the German Democratic Republic is based on the socialist property at means of production. It develops in accordance with the economic laws of socialism on the basis of socialist production conditions and the purposeful implementation of the socialist economic integration.

(2) the national economy of the German Democratic Republic serves the stabilization of the socialist order, the constantly better satisfaction of the material and cultural needs of the citizens, the development of its personality and its socialist social relations. The principle of the line and planning of the national economy as well as all social ranges apply for in the German Democratic Republic

(3). The national economy of the German Democratic Republic is socialist planned economy. The central national line and planning of the basic questions of the social development is with the sole responsibility of the local state organs and enterprises as well as the initiative of the workers connected.

(4) the definition of the currency and financial system is thing of the socialist state. Deliveries and taxes are raised on the basis from laws. 5 the external trade including the foreign trade and the validity economy is national monopoly.

Article 10

(1) the socialist property exists as totalsocial national property, as genossenschaftliches common property of workers of collectives as well as as property of social organizations of the citizens.

(2) the socialist property to protect and to mehren is obligation of the socialist state and its citizen.

Article 11

(1) the personal property of the citizens are ensured. The personal property serves the satisfaction of the material and cultural needs of the citizens.

(2) the rights of authors and inventors enjoys the protection of the socialist state.

(3) the use property as well as of author and inventor rights may not contrary-run the interests of the society.

Article 12

(1) the Bodenschätze, the mines, power stations, dams and large waters, the nature wealth of the mainland base, industrial companies, banks and insurance mechanisms, the state-owned goods, the traffic routes, means of transport of the railway, the sea navigation as well as aviation, the post office and telecommunication installations is national property. Private property to it is inadmissible. The use of the national property with the goal of the highest result for the society ensures the socialist of state.

(2) The socialist planned economy and the socialist commercial law serve that. The use and management of the national property takes place in principle via the state-owned enterprises and state institutions. Its use and management can the state by contracts genossenschaftlichen or social organizations and combinations transfer. Such a transmission has to serve the interests of the public and the increase of the social wealth.

Article 13

(1) The devices, machines, plants, buildings of the agricultural, socialist cooperatives relating to crafts and other as well as the animal existence of the agricultural production cooperatives and out genossenschaftlicher use of the soil as well as genossenschaftlicher means of production obtained result are genossenschaftliches property.

Article 14

(1) private-economical combinations for the reason of economic power are not permitted.

(2) on predominantly personal work which is based the small handicraft and different industrial concerns is active on legal basis. In the perception of their responsibility for the socialist society they are promoted by the state.

Article 15

(1) the soil of the German Democratic Republic belongs to its most precious nature wealth. It must be protected and used rationally. Land and forest-economically used soil may be extracted only with agreement from the responsible person of organs of its purpose.

(2) in the interest of the well-being being issued of the citizens provides state and society for the protection of nature. The keeping clean of waters and air as well as the protection of the planting and animal world and the landschaftlichen beauty of the homeland are to be ensured to thing of each citizen by the responsible organs and beyond that also. Article 16 Expropriations are permissible only for non-profit purposes on legal basis and against an appropriate remuneration. They may take place only if in other way the non-profit purpose desired cannot be achieved.

Article 17

(1) the German Democratic Republic promotes the science, research and education with the goal of protecting the society and the life of the citizens and enriches. The combination of the scientific-technologic revolution with the advantages of socialism serves that.

(2) with the uniform socialist education system the German Democratic Republic all citizen secures for the constantly rising social requirements appropriate high education. It enables the citizens to arrange the socialist society and participate in the developments of the socialist democracy creative. 3 everyone against the peace, which people communication, against which lives and those humans arranged abuse of the science is forbidden.

Article 18

(1) The socialist national culture belongs to the bases of the socialist society. The German Democratic Republic promotes and protects the socialist culture, those the peace, which human serves and the development of the socialist society. It fights the imperialistic Unkultur, which and the Herabwürdigung of humans serves psychological warfare. The socialist society promotes the cultureful life of the workers, maintains all human values of the national cultural heritage and the world culture and develops the socialist national culture as thing of the whole people.

(2) The promotion of the arts, the artistic interests and abilities of all workers and the spreading of artistic works and achievements are Obliegenheiten of the state and all social forces. The artistic work is based on a close connection of the culture-creative with the life of the people.

(3) Physical culture, sport and tourism as element of the socialist culture serve the all-round physical and mental development of the citizens.

Section II Citizen and communities in the socialist society[edit]

Chapter 1 Fundamental rights and basic obligations of the citizens[edit]

Article 19

(1) the German Democratic Republic guarantees the practice of its rights and its co-operation at the line of the social development to all citizens. It ensures the socialist lawfulness and right security.

(2) attention and protection that and liberty of the personality became is requirement for all national organs, all social forces and each individual citizen.

(3) Each citizen is free from exploitation, suppression and economic dependence same rights and various possibilities of developing and of unfolding unhindered its forces from free resolution for the well-being of the society and to his own use in the socialist community its abilities in its entirety. Thus it carries out liberty and became its personality. The relations of the citizens is coined/shaped by mutual attention and assistance, by the principles of socialist moral.

(4) the conditions for the acquisition and the loss of the nationality of the German Democratic Republic is determined by law.

Article 20

(1) each citizen of the German Democratic Republic has independently of its nationality, his race, his world-descriptive or religious confession, his social origin and position the the same rights and obligations. Conscience and faith liberty are ensured. All citizens are alike before the law.

(2) men and woman is equal and has same legal status within all ranges of the social, national and personal life. The promotion of the woman, particularly in the vocational qualification, is a social and national task.

(3) the youth particularly one promotes in its social and vocational development. It has all possibilities of participating in the development of the socialist social order consciously.

Article 21

(1) each citizen of the German Democratic Republic has the right, the political, economical, to along-arrange social and cultural lives of the socialist community and the socialist state comprehensive. It applies the principle “cooperates also, plans also, governs!”.

(2) It is ensured the right to participation and codesigning by the fact that the citizens all power organs democratically select, in their activity and in the line, planning and organization of the social living person participate; Account of the representative governments, their delegates, whom can demand directors/conductors of national and economical organs over their activity; with the authority of their social organizations their wanting and its demands expression to give; with their requests and suggestions the social, state and economical organs and institutions to contact can; state their will in populars vote.

(3) the implementation of this right of participation and codesigning is at the same time a high moral obligation for each citizen. The practice of social or national functions finds their acknowledgment and support of the society and the state.

Article 22

(1) each citizen of the German Democratic Republic, that on the choice day 18. years completed, is entitled to vote. 2 each citizen can be selected into the people chamber and into the local representative governments, if it on the choice day 18 years completed.

(3) the line of the elections by democratically formed electoral committees, the people discussion over the basic questions of the policy and the list and examination of the candidates by the voters is indispensable socialist choice principles.

Article 23

(1) the protection of the peace and the socialist native country and its achievements is right and honour obligation of the citizens of the German Democratic Republic. Each citizen is obligated to the service and to achievements for the defense of the German Democratic Republic according to the laws.

(2) no citizen may participate in martial actions and their preparation, which serve the suppression of a people.

(3)the German Democratic Republic can grant Citizen of other states or stateless person asylum , if it because of political, scientific or cultural activity for the defense of the peace, the democracy, which interests of the working people are pursued or because of their participation in the social and national liberation struggle.

Article 24

(1) Each citizen of the German Democratic Republic has the right to work. It has the right to a job and its free choice according to the social requirements and the personal qualification. It has the right to wages after quality and quantity of the work. Man and woman, adults and young people have the right to same wages during same work.

(2) Socially useful activity is a honorable obligation for each citizen able to work. The right to work and the obligation to the work form a unit.

(3) The right to work is ensured by the socialist property at means of production; by the socialist line and planning of the social reproduction process; by the constant and regular growth of the socialist productive forces and the productivity; by the consistent execution of the scientific-technologic revolution; by constant education and further training of the citizens and by the uniform socialist industrial law.

Article 25

(1) each citizen of the German Democratic Republic has the same right to education. The education places are open to everyone. The uniform socialist education system ensures a continuous socialist upbringing, education and a further training to each citizen.

(2) the German Democratic Republic secures Progressing the people secures to the socialist community generally more in an educated manner and harmoniously developed humans, who are filled by the spirit of the socialist Patriotismus and internationalism and a high general education and have special formation.

(3) all citizens has quite on participation in the cultural life. It attains increasing meaning under the conditions of the scientific-technologic revolution and the increase of the mental requirements. For the complete development of the socialist personality and for the increasing satisfaction of the cultural interests and needs the participation of the citizens at the cultural life, at the physical culture is promoted and at the sport by the state and the society. General ten-year upper compulsory schooling, which are terminated by the attendance of the zehnklassigen general-forming poly-technical high school in the mechanisms of the professional training or the out and further training of the workers, exists in the German Democratic Republic.

(4) All young people have the right and the obligation to learn an occupation. 5 for children and adults with psychological and physical damages exists special training and - training facilities.

(6) the solution of these tasks becomes secured by the state and all social forces in common education and educating work.