Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic

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Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic  (2000) 
Adopted by referendum on December 24, 1995
Signed into law by the President of the PMR on January 17, 1996
Amended on June 30, 2000
Translation by the Supreme Council of the PMR

We the multinational People of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic,

  • united by the common fortune on our land;
  • asserting human rights and liberties and promoting free development of person;
  • proceeding from the responsibility for our Motherland before the present and next generations;
  • confirming our adherence to values common to all mankind, striving for life in peace and harmony with all peoples according to generally recognized principles and rules of international law;
  • establishing the constitutional state, which would ensure supremacy of law as an expression of will of the people;
  • honoring the memory of our ancestors, who have passed us love and respect for our Motherland;
  • promoting general welfare and prosperity of Pridnestrovie,

do ordain and establish the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

SECTION I. FUNDAMENTALS OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM[edit]

ARTICLE 1
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is a sovereign, independent, democratic, constitutional state. Sovereignty and Power herein granted shall be vested in the people of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

The people shall exercise its power directly or through Government and local government.

The referendum and free elections shall be the supreme direct manifestation of the power of the people.

No person may usurp power in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. Seizure of power and appropriation of power shall be prosecuted as the gravest crime against the nation.

ARTICLE 2
The Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be the supreme Law of the Land. State power bodies, local government, public officers, public associations and citizens shall be bound to observe the Constitution and Laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

ARTICLE 3
Citizenship of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be granted and revoked in accordance with the constitutional law, and shall be equal for all citizens irrespective of the grounds for acquisition.

A citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic cannot be deprived of his citizenship or of the right to renounce it. A citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic may have a citizenship of another state, i.e. - double citizenship.

Unless otherwise provided by law, foreign citizens and stateless persons shall enjoy rights and liberties exercised by citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

ARTICLE 4
Private, state, municipal and other forms of ownership shall be recognized and shall enjoy equal protection in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

ARTICLE 5
Soil, entrails of the earth, waters, forests, airspace as well as other natural resources shall be exclusive ownership of the state. Land may be in the lifelong use of citizens with the right of succession, with their maximum size and the procedure for the use of land stipulated by law.

ARTICLE 6
The state power in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be exercised on the basis of its division into legislative, executive and judicial power. The bodies of legislative, executive and judicial power shall be independent.


ARTICLE 7
The local government which shall consist of Councils of People's Deputies and territorial public self-government, which directly, or through their elected bodies, shall operate independently and make decisions on social, economic, political, and cultural issues of local importance, proceeding from the state interests and interests of the population of their respective administrative territorial units shall be recognized and guaranteed in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

ARTICLE 8
The state, institutions and public officers shall operate in the conditions of democratic plurality of political institutions and opinions.

The state shall regulate relations between social, national and other communities under principles of equality and respect for their rights and interests.

No activity of public formations, their bodies and representatives aimed at forcible alteration of the fundamentals of constitutional governance and undermining of the security of the state, formation of armed units, incitement of social, racial, national and religious strife shall be allowed.

ARTICLE 9
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is a secular state. No religion may be established as state-sponsored or mandatory religion.

Religious associations shall be independent from the state and shall be equal before law.

ARTICLE 10
Foreign policy of the Republic shall be pursued under the principles of sovereign equality of states, non-use of force, peaceful settlement of disputes, non-interference in internal affairs of other states.

Universally recognized principles and rules of international law as well as international treaties of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be the basis of relations with other states and a component of the legal system.

ARTICLE 11
The Armed Forces shall be established to defend sovereignty and independence of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

The procedure for formation and operation of the Armed Forces shall be regulated by law.

ARTICLE 12
The Moldavian, Russian, and Ukrainian languages shall be official languages on the basis of equality.

ARTICLE 13
The national flag, State Emblem, and the national anthem shall be established by law.

The capital of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is the city of Tiraspol.

ARTICLE 14
The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic consists of: the following cities - Bendery (with villages - Varnitsa, Ghyska, Protyagailovka), Dubossary, Rybnitsa, Tiraspol; and Grigoriopol, Dubossary, Kamenka, Slobodzeya, Rybnitsa districts.

Borders and territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be specified by law.

ARTICLE 15
The provisions of the present Section of the Constitution shall be the foundations of the constitutional system of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and may not be changed except as provided for in this Constitution.

No other provision of the present Constitution may contradict the fundamental principles of the constitutional system of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

SECTION II. RIGHTS, LIBERTIES, RESPONSIBILITIES AND GUARANTEES OF PERSON AND CITIZEN[edit]

ARTICLE 16
Person, his rights and liberties shall be supreme value to the society and the state. The state shall protect rights and liberties of person and citizen.

The basic rights and liberties of the human being shall be inalienable and shall belong to everyone from birth.

ARTICLE 17
Every person regardless of sex, race, nationality, language, religion, social origin, convictions, personal and social status shall have equal rights and liberties and shall be equal before law.

Benefits and privileges may be granted only by law and should comply with the principles of social justice.

ARTICLE 18
Human and civil rights and liberties may be restricted by law only to the extent required for ensuring the security of the state, protection of public order, morality, health, rights and freedoms of other persons.

No person may enjoy benefits and privileges conflicting with law.

ARTICLE 19
Everyone shall have the right to life. The state shall protect the right to life of person from any infringement.

Capital punishment until abolition may be envisaged by a federal law as an exclusive penalty for especially grave crimes against life by court decision only.

ARTICLE 20
Everyone shall have the right to freedom and personal inviolability.

Person shall be arrested or detained only under the law.

A detainee shall have the right to examination of lawfulness of detention or arrest in court.

ARTICLE 21
No one shall be subject to torture, violence or other severe or humiliating treatment or punishment. No one may be subject to medical, scientific and other experiments without his or her free consent.

ARTICLE 22
Every person charged with a crime shall be considered not guilty until his or her guilt has been proven in conformity with the procedures stipulated by law and established by court verdict.

The defendant shall not be obliged to prove his or her innocence.

ARTICLE 23
No person shall be bound to be a witness against himself, his or her spouse and close relatives, the range of which shall be established by law.

In the administration of justice no evidence obtained in violation of the law shall have legal force.

ARTICLE 24 Everyone shall have the right to protection of one's honor and good name, to privacy, to personal and family secrets, inviolability of residence.

No person shall violate the right of the people to be secure in their houses, papers, telephone conversations, against unreasonable searches except in cases and order stipulated by law.

ARTICLE 25
Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right to free movement and to choose the residence within the republic, to leave and enter it freely.

ARTICLE 26
Maternity and childhood, family shall be under protection of state.

Care for children and their upbringing shall be the equal right and duty of parents.

Employable children aged 18 and over shall take care of disabled parents.

ARTICLE 27
Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, speech and convictions. Everyone shall have the right to seek, get, transfer, produce and disseminate information by any lawful means, except for information aimed against the existing constitutional system, or State secret. The list of information constituting the state secret shall be established by law.

Everybody shall have the right to free expression of views and convictions.

ARTICLE 28 The mass media shall not be subject to censorship.

ARTICLE 29
Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be entitled to get, keep and spread full, reliable and timely information on activities of public bodies, public associations, on political, economic, and international life, the state of environment.

State power bodies, the local government and public officers thereof shall provide access of each citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic to any documents and material directly affecting his/her rights and freedoms unless otherwise stipulated by law.

ARTICLE 30
Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to freedom of conscience, to freedom of religious worship, including the right to profess any religion, or to profess no religion. Forced dissemination of religious ideas shall be banned.

ARTICLE 31
Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right to participate in the administration of the state affairs directly or through their representatives. Citizens shall participate through self-government, holding of referenda, and democratic formation of government.

Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right to elect and to be elected to government under universal, equal, direct suffrage by ballot.

ARTICLE 32
The state shall guarantee freedom of assembly, rallies, marches, demonstrations and pickets, which do not violate law and order, as well as rights of other citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. The organization procedure shall be stipulated by law.

ARTICLE 33
Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right to join the trade unions, political parties and other associations, to participate in mass movements not prohibited by law.

ARTICLE 34
Judges, prosecutor's office personnel, personnel of interior agencies, of the state control committee, of security agencies, servicemen may not be members of political parties and other public associations pursuing political goals.

ARTICLE 35
Labor shall be free. Everyone shall have the right to make free use of his abilities for work and to choose a type of activity and occupation.

Forced labor shall be prohibited.

Everyone shall have the right to working conditions meeting the safety and hygiene requirements, to labor remuneration without any discrimination whatsoever and not lower than the statutory minimum wage, and also the right to protection against unemployment.

The right to individual and collective labor disputes with the use of means of resolution thereof established by law including the right to strike shall be recognized.

Everyone shall have the right to rest and leisure. A person under a work contract shall be guaranteed the statutory duration of the work time, days off and holidays, and paid annual vacation.

ARTICLE 36
Everyone shall have the right to freely use his or her abilities and property for entrepreneurial or any other economic activity not prohibited by the law.

ARTICLE 37
The right of private property shall be protected by law.

Everyone shall have the right to have property in his or her ownership, to possess, use and dispose of it.

No one may be deprived of property otherwise than by a court decision.

Exercising the right of property should not damage the environment, historic and cultural values, shall not infringe upon rights and statutory interests of other individuals or the state. The right of inheritance shall be guaranteed.

ARTICLE 38
Everyone shall be entitled to social security in old age, in case of disability, loss of the breadwinner, in other cases established by law.

Pensions, benefits and other kinds of social support may not be lower than as stipulated by law.

ARTICLE 39
Citizens of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be entitled to health protection, including free medical service and treatment in public health institutions.

ARTICLE 40
Everyone shall have the right to the environment safe for life and health and to compensation for the harm caused by violation of this right.

ARTICLE 41
Everybody shall have the right to education.

Citizens shall be entitled to general secondary and vocational secondary education in public educational institutions.

Everyone shall have the right to receive, free of charge and on a competitive basis, higher education in a state educational institution.

Basic general education shall be mandatory.

The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall establish federal state educational standards and support various forms of education and self-education.

ARTICLE 42
Every citizen of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right to housing. No one can be arbitrary deprived of housing.

Government shall encourage house-construction; create conditions for exercising the right to housing.

Low-income citizens and other citizens, defined by the law, who are in need of housing shall be housed free of charge or for affordable pay from government, municipal and other housing funds in conformity with the norms stipulated by the law.

ARTICLE 43
Everyone shall have the right to determine his nationality. No one may be forced to determine and indicate his or her nationality.

Insult of national dignity shall be punished as provided by law.

Everyone shall have the right to use his native language, freely choose the language of communication.

ARTICLE 44
Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of artistic, scientific and technical creative activity.

Intellectual property is protected by law.

The state shall promote cultural, scientific, and technical progress of society.

ARTICLE 45
The state shall ensure rights and liberties of citizens stipulated by the Constitution. The listing of the basic rights and liberties in the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall not be interpreted as the denial or abridgment of the other generally recognized human rights and liberties.

ARTICLE 46
Everybody shall be guaranteed judicial protection of his rights and liberties as well as the right to appeal to the court against illegal decisions and actions of state institutions, officials, and public associations.

ARTICLE 47
Exercising rights and liberties is inseparable from fulfillment of his duties before society and state by a citizen and person.

ARTICLE 48
Defense of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is a sacred duty for everybody. Law establishes universal military service.

ARTICLE 49
Everybody shall be bound to observe the Constitution and laws, as well as respect rights, liberties, honor and dignity of other people.

ARTICLE 50
Everybody shall be bound to preserve the environment.

ARTICLE 51
Everyone shall care for the preservation of the historic and cultural heritage of the people of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

ARTICLE 52
Everybody shall pay taxes and local taxes imposed by law.

SECTION III. FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION[edit]

CHAPTER 1: DEVELOPMENT OF PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM[edit]

ARTICLE 53
1. Everybody shall have the right to compensation of the harm caused by illegal act (or omission) of state power bodies, of local government, or of their officials by the state, local self-government.

2. Respect for human dignity as well as full unconditional and immediate protection of rights and liberties of person and citizen, and providing conditions for free development of citizens shall be the responsibility of state power bodies, of local government and officials.

3. Any normative legal acts affecting rights, liberties and duties of person and citizen may not be applied without being published officially for general knowledge.

ARTICLE 54
1. In conditions of a state of emergency or martial law, under the constitutional law, constitutional rights and liberties of person and citizen stipulated by Articles 4, 20, 24, 25, 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37 of this Constitution may be restricted.

In conditions of a state of economic emergency, under the constitutional law, constitutional rights and liberties of person and citizen stipulated by Articles 4, 35, 37 of this Constitution may be restricted.

Restrictions of constitutional rights and liberties of person and citizen specified in this Article may be imposed with limits and period of validity specified. Other constitutional rights and liberties of person and citizen may not be restricted.

2. State of emergency, martial law or economic emergency state throughput the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic may be declared under the circumstances and the procedure stipulated by the constitutional law.

ARTICLE 55
1. The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be a presidential republic.

2. The power of two or three branches of power may not be delegated to one institution or one person. The legislative power may not be delegated to one person. Executive organs of state power may not be empowered to issue laws; and the legislative power may not be authorized to run executive and judicial bodies and institutions.

Each of the organs of state power shall have control functions within the remit stipulated by this Constitution and law.

3. Judicial authority shall be exercised by courts, whose decisions shall be taken on behalf of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

ARTICLE 56
Under the procedure stipulated by this Constitution and legislation through establishment of institutions of state power and administration and through public officers the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic as a sovereign state shall undertake to perform the following main functions:
a) to create and preserve a favourable environment;
b) to provide public health services;
c) to establish and to ensure functioning of the system of social security and welfare as well as the system of employment of able-bodied population;
d) to promote science, culture and providing educational opportunities for the population;
e) to pursue a foreign policy;
f) to form and to ensure the functioning of the financial system of the state;
g) to ensure development of the national economy;
h) to regulate domestic and foreign commerce;
i) to provide conditions for operation of transport and communication as single systems;
j) to create conditions for functioning of the agricultural sector of the economy aimed at satisfying the needs of the population;
k) to preserve and to use natural resources rationally;
l) to create favourable conditions for industry and power engineering;
m) to ensure defense capability of the state;
n) to ensure domestic security for normal functioning of the state;
o) to exercise law-enforcement activity for security and benefit of the population;
p) to ensure operation of institutions of justice;
q) to settle other matters requiring a uniform solution and application on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic for ensuring welfare and benefit of the population.

ARTICLE 57
If an international treaty of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic establishes other rules than provided for by the legislation of the Republic, it may be ratified by the Parliament only after adoption (or concurrently with adoption) of the law introducing amendments to the legislation currently in force according to the international treaty of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, which is subject to ratification.

ARTICLE 58
Unless it leads to restriction of rights and liberties of person and citizen provided for by Section II of this Constitution and is inconsistent with the principles of the constitutional system, the exercising of certain powers of state power bodies may be delegated through passing a constitutional law in the order specified in Article 57 of this Constitution to another state or supranational institutions, to the extent, to which it will not mean for the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic a refusal from its sovereignty.

CHAPTER 2: PARLIAMENT OF THE PRIDNESTROVIAN MOLDAVIAN REPUBLIC[edit]

ARTICLE 59
1. The Supreme Council of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (hereinafter - "the Parliament") shall be the representative and the only legislative power body of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. The Parliament shall consist of 43 Members.

2. The Parliament shall be elected for a term of five years. The next elections of Members to the Parliament shall be held on the second Sunday of December of the year, in which the term of office of the outgoing Parliament expires.

The Parliament as a state power body shall be competent to act provided that not less than two-thirds of Members have been elected.

The powers of the Parliament shall begin from the moment of opening its first session and expire on the opening day of the first session of a newly-elected Parliament.

3. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall convene the Parliament for its first sitting on the 30th day, at the latest, after election of not less than two-thirds of Members of the Parliament prescribed by the Constitution. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall open the first sitting of the Parliament and shall entrust presiding over it to the oldest Member of Parliament until its Chairman (Speaker) is elected under the established procedure.

ARTICLE 60
1. Members of Parliament shall be elected by citizens of the Republic on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.

No Person shall be a Member of Parliament who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five years and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

No Member of Parliament shall be appointed President or Vice-President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, a Judge or a Prosecutor, to any civil Office or Office in the local government, a Member to other representative and elected state power bodies and local government.

Furthermore, a Member of Parliament shall work on a permanent professional basis. Members to Parliament may not hold another office of trust and profit or may not be engaged in any activities for remuneration except for teaching, research or other creative activities; may not be engaged in business, as well as may not be a member of a managing or a supervisory board of a commercial company.

Violation of this rule shall lead to suspension of office of a Member of Parliament.

Elections for members of the Parliament shall be held on the basis of a majority electoral system (of a relative majority) in constituencies established on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

The manner of holding elections shall be prescribed by law.

2. A Member of Parliament shall receive a compensation for his services and expanses for exercising his powers as a Member.

A Member of Parliament shall attend sessions of the Parliament and its working bodies.

The absence of Member of Parliament at the session of the Parliament and its working bodies without any valid reason shall entail application of punitive measures prescribed by law to a Member of Parliament.

3. A Member of Parliament may not be made answerable for an opinion expressed by him or a decision taken during his continuance in office.

A Member of Parliament shall enjoy immunity during his continuance in office. He may not be detained, arrested, searched, except for the cases of detention in flagrante delicto, may not be subject to a personal search, except for the cases provided for by laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic in order to ensure security of other people.

A question of deprivation a Member of Parliament of his immunity shall be decided by the Parliament upon presentation by the Prosecutor General of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

4. Status of a Member of Parliament shall be prescribed by the constitutional law.

ARTICLE 61
1. The Parliament shall elect its Speaker and Vice-Speaker from among its members. The Parliament shall establish standing, interim and other working bodies on matters falling within its jurisdiction. The procedure for electing the Speaker and Vice-Speaker of the Parliament, as well as the procedure for establishing and functioning of the bodies within the Parliament, shall be prescribed by Standing Orders of the Parliament.

2. The Parliament and bodies formed from among the members of the Parliament must take into account rights of the minority (1/5 of members of the Parliament has the right at any moment of decision-making to demand to take a vote by secret ballot or by roll-call before a decision on open ballot is taken) as well as the right of any Member of the Parliament to demand to give publicity to information about affirmative and dissenting votes cast by members on a question.

3. Two-thirds of members elected to the Parliament shall agree to pass the bill.

ARTICLE 62
1. The jurisdiction of the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall include legislative regulation and its controlling functions. No legislative act may be passed by the Parliament at its session without its preliminary consideration by a working body within the Parliament.

2. Through passing legislative acts the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall:
a) lay the republican taxes and duties, establish a list of local taxes and dues as well as the procedure for collecting and levying them; determine a maximum amount of the tax burden on a taxpayer; establish the limits of the state debt and the amount of a single borrowing, in case of exceeding of which this action must be coordinated with the Parliament, as well as the order or objects of its securing; take decision on the currency issue in limits exceeding the amount established by law for independent decision by the Central Bank of the state.
b) consider and approve, in the framework of a long-term budget planning, republican programmes of economic, social, and cultural development, which have a national status; pass the budget and establish measures of inter-budget regulation;
c) take decisions on the administrative and territorial division of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, including those on changing the borders of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic by mutual agreement of bordering states;
d) ratify and denounce international treaties of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic;
e) introduce changes and amendments to the Constitution under the established procedure, introduce changes and amendments to legislative acts currently in force;
f) carry out legislative regulation of other questions requiring uniform solution and application on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

3. The Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall consider under the established procedure and time constraints, and make decisions, by issuing acts of law, on:
a) approval of President's decrees on introduction of martial law or a state of emergency;
b) the matters of war and peace;
c) declaring amnesty;
d) approval of a concept of domestic and foreign policy as well as of national security of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and its military doctrine;
e) holding of a referendum or nationwide discussion on matters of state or public importance on the territory of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic;
f) appointment and dismissal of the Chief Judge of the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and the Court of Arbitration, on the nomination by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic; as well as an appointment and dismissal of two judges of the Constitutional Court;
g) appointment for the term of office provided by law and dismissal, on the nomination by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, the Prosecutor General of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and the Chairman of the Central Bank of the state;
h) interpretation of laws and legal acts of no statutory character passed by the Parliament;
i) it shall pass other acts and make other decisions not requiring regulation by law.

4. The Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall have the right, for performing its supervisory duties under established procedure and time to consider and to make decisions, based on the results of consideration, on: a) abolishing acts of local assemblies of People's Deputies (local representative organs of state power), in case of their inconsistency with the Constitution and the laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic; as well as proposing elective organs and officials of local self-government to bring their own respective legal acts in line with the laws currently in force;
b) dissolution of local assemblies of People's Deputies (local representative organs of state power) and calling new elections, if they violate the Constitution, laws, decrees of the Parliament or acts of the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic and refuse to bring their decisions in line with the legislation;
c) removal from office of high rank officials of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, and the Cabinet of Ministers, in cases and under the procedure stipulated by the Constitution and law;
d) submitting a report to the President concerning an improper performance or non-performance of duties by an official or an organ of state power or administration.

Due to its supervisory duties the Parliament shall have the right to pass other acts (make other decisions) as well as to supervise implementation of legal and other acts by organs of power and administration, and officials. Decisions on dismissal, on pre-term dissolution of local Councils of People's deputies shall be taken by not less than two-thirds of members of the Parliament prescribed by the Constitution.

To perform its supervisory duties the Parliament shall hear a report on implementation of budget, economic and other national programs requiring extra budget funds and additional legislative regulation).

ARTICLE 63
1. In the course of performing its legislative function, the Parliament shall pass constitutional laws, laws and rulings. Changes and amendments to the Constitution shall be introduced by the Parliament through issuing a constitutional law.

2. Unless otherwise provided by the Constitution and law, decrees shall be approved by a majority of votes of Members attending the sitting of the Parliament, provided there is a quorum.

3. Laws shall be considered and passed at least in two readings to be held in different sittings of the Parliament not taking place on the same day. Bills on introduction of amendments and additions to laws may be approved during one sitting, unless there is an objection against it from subjects of legislative initiative, having this bill for examination during an established period before its consideration by the Parliament.

Laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (including codes, laws on introduction of additions and amendments to the laws currently in force) shall be passed by a majority of votes of the total number of seats for Members of Parliament prescribed by the Constitution. Introduction of amendments to the Constitution, adoption of constitutional laws and introduction of amendments and additions to them shall be approved by two thirds of the total number of seats for Members of Parliament prescribed by the Constitution.

Laws may not be contrary to the Constitution of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

4. The approved bill shall take effect in a manner and time prescribed by law.

Laws are subject to promulgation. Unpublished laws shall not be applied.

5. The Parliament shall adopt legal acts of legislative character only in the form of laws, and every law, except for financial ones and those introducing amendments or additions or reforming the legislation currently in force, shall regulate only one subject. Financial laws shall regulate financial matters only.

The Parliament should not pass legal acts of special or local (and equally private) importance, if there is a law or an existing law can be applied for the case requiring legal regulation. In case of passage of a legal act of special or local action by the Parliament, the question about its competence in taking such an action shall be decided in court.

The list of constitutional laws of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be specified in this Constitution.

6. The bill shall have no force and shall not be applied if the procedure for its introduction, consideration and approval is violated.

ARTICLE 64
1. The right to initiate laws shall be vested in the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, Members of Parliament, Prosecutor General of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, as well as in district and city Councils of People's deputies of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

The right to initiate laws shall belong to the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and to the Court of Arbitration of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic on the matters within their respective jurisdiction, as well as to republican associations of trade unions as to employment, social and economic matters.

Subjects of legislative initiative shall take part in the law-making process in the Parliament at all its stages (except for voting) on equal basis and may not be therein restricted, unless otherwise directly provided by this Constitution.

2. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be entitled to introduce the regime of legislative necessity when considering most important legislative acts, requiring consideration and adoption by the Parliament in the shortest possible term. In case of introduction of this regime the Parliament must suspend consideration of other bills, except for the one introduced in the regime of legislative necessity. A bill introduced by the President under the regime of legislative necessity should be considered and passed or rejected under the established procedure during sittings of a session of the Parliament within the period agreed with the President.

ARTICLE 65
1. The enacted legislative act shall be sent to the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic for signing and promulgation under the established procedure.

The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall consider, sign and promulgate it within 14 days from the date of receiving a law.

2. If the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic within the period of 14 days from the date of receiving the law rejects it and sends it or its part for reconsideration, the Parliament shall reconsider this law or its part under the established procedure. If the law or its part is reconsidered and approved as passed earlier by at least two thirds of the total number of seats for Members of the Parliament prescribed by the Constitution, it shall be signed by the President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic within 7 days and shall be promulgated.

The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be entitled to reject and to send for reconsideration particular articles of a financial law or to propose cutting down of subsidies approved by the Parliament. Rejection and sending for reconsideration a particular article or a provision of a financial law shall not be an obstacle for its signing and enactment. The procedure of reconsideration and adoption of a law or its particular part should be similar to that specified in part 1, paragraph 2 of this Article.

3. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic may not reject and send for reconsideration constitutional laws, amendments and additions to the Constitution adopted by the Parliament under the established procedure but shall sign and promulgate them. The President of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic may not turn down decisions on dismissal of top state officials from their offices, as well as on a pre-term dissolution of local Councils of People's deputies.

ARTICLE 66
To perform its supervisory duties the Parliament of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic shall be entitled to establish appropriate bodies whose establishment and order of functioning shall be provided by law.

ARTICLE 67
1. The Parliament shall have the exclusive right to initiate the procedure of removal from office and to take a decision on removal from office of top state officials of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (President, Vice-President, Chief Judge of the Constitutional Court, Chief Judge of the Supreme Court, Chief Judge of the Court of Arbitration, Prosecutor General), and Cabinet Ministers by decision of the Supreme Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic confirming corpus delicti in their actions, and by resolution of the Constitutional Court of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic as to observance of the established procedure for bringing a charge, if as a result of consideration they are found guilty in high treason, corruption, deliberate breach of the Constitution having entailed grave consequences, as well as in other grave crimes.

2. A decision of the Parliament concerning bringing a charge and removal from office shall be considered on the initiative by more than one third of the of the total number of seats for members prescribed by the Constitution, provided there is a resolution of a special commission established by the Parliament.

A decision on removal should be considered by the Parliament within two months after charging. If a decision is not taken by the Parliament within the specified period, the charge shall be considered rejected.

3. Decision on removal from office shall be taken by at least two-thirds of the total number of seats for Members of Parliament prescribed by the Constitution. Approval of such a decision shall mean removal from office.

Chapter 3. President of the Pridnestrovian Republic. Executive Power.[edit]

Chapter 4. Local State Administration and Local Self-Government[edit]

Chapter 5. Judicial Authority[edit]

Chapter 6. The Prosecutor[edit]

Chapter 7. Defense, Security, and Law-Enforcement Activity[edit]

Chapter 8. Financial and Budget System[edit]

SECTION IV. CHANGES IN THE CONSTITUTION[edit]

SECTION V. TRANSITIONAL NORMS AND PROVISIONS[edit]