Constitution of the Republic of Moldova

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Constitution of the Republic of Moldova  (1994) 
Adopted on July 29, 1994
Translation by the Association for Participatory Democracy

We, the plenipotentiary representatives of the people of the Republic of Moldova, members of Parliament,

Starting from the age-old aspirations of our people to live in a sovereign country, and fulfilling those aspirations in proclaiming the independence of the Republic of Moldova,

Considering that while growing into a nation the Moldovan people has given strong evidence of historical and ethnic continuity in its statehood,

Striving to satisfy the interests of those of its citizens that, while being of a different ethnic origin, are, together with the Moldovans, forming the Moldovan people,

Judging the rule of law, the civic peace, democracy, human dignity, the rights and freedoms of man, the free development of human personality, justice and political pluralism to be supreme political values,

Being aware of our responsibility and duties towards the past, present and future generations,

Reassurting our devotion to overall human values, and our wish to live in peace and harmony with all the peoples of this world, in accordance with the unanimously acknowledged principles and norms of international law, we herewith adopt for our country this Constitution, and proclaim it to be the Supreme Law of our Society and State.

Title I. General Principles[edit]

Article 1
(1) The Republic of Moldova is a sovereign, independent, unitary and indivisible state.

(2) The form of government of the State is the republic.

(3) Governed by the rule of law, the Republic of Moldova is a democratic State in which the dignity of people, their rights and freedoms, the open development of human personality, justice and political pluralism represent supreme values, that shall be guaranteed.

Article 2
(1) National sovereignty resides with the people of the Republic of Moldova, who shall exercise it directly and through its representative bodies in the ways provided for by Constitution.

(2) No private individual, national segment of population, social grouping, political party or public organization may exercise state power on their own behalf. The usurpation of state power constitutes the gravest crime against the people.

Article 3
(1) The territory of the Republic of Moldova is inalienable.

(2) The frontiers of the country are sanctioned by an organic Law under the observance of unanimously recognized principles and norms of international law.

Article 4
(1) Constitutional provisions for human rights and freedoms shall be understood and implemented in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and with other conventions and treaties endorsed by the Republic of Moldova.

(2) Wherever disagreements appear between conventions and treaties signed by the Republic of Moldova and her own national laws, priority shall be given to international regulations.

Article 5
(1) Democracy in the Republic of Moldova is exercised under conditions of political pluralism, which is incompatible with dictatorship or totalitarianism.

(2) No ideology may be pronounced as an official ideology of the State.

Article 6
The Legislative, the Executive and the Judicial Powers are separate and cooperate in the exercise of their prerogatives in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

Article 7
The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova is the supreme law of the country. No laws or other legal acts and regulations in contradiction with the provisions of the Constitution may have any legal power.

Article 8
(1) The Republic of Moldova pledges to respect the Charter of the United Nations and the treaties to which she is a party, to observe with her relations to other states the unanimously recognized principles and norms of international law.

(2) The coming into force of an international treaty containing provisions contrary to the Constitution shall be preceded by a revision of the latter.

Article 9
(1) Property can be public or private, and it can consist of material and intellectual goods.

(2) No property may be used to encroach upon or damage the rights, liberty and dignity of people.

(3) The national economy is based on the interaction of market forces, also on free economic initiative and fair competition.

Article 10
(1) The national unity of the Republic of Moldova constitutes the foundation of the State. The Republic of Moldova is the common and indivisible motherland of all her citizens.

(2) The State recognizes and guarantees all its citizens the right to preserve, develop and express their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity.

Article 11
(1) The Republic of Moldova proclaims her permanent neutrality.

(2) The Republic of Moldova will not admit the stationing of any foreign military troops on its territory.

Article 12
(1) The Republic of Moldova has her own flag, coat of arms and anthem.

(2) The State flag of the Republic of Moldova is a tricolour. The colours are arranged vertically in the following order from the flagpole: blue, yellow, red. The coat of arms is printed on the central yellow stripe of the tricolour.

(3) Moldova's coat of arms consists of a shield divided horizontally into two parts: the upper part is red, and the lower part is blue with a superimposed auroch's head showing between its horns an eight-pointed star. On its right the auroch's head is flanked by a five-petalled rose, and on its left by a slightly rotated crescent. All heraldic elements present on the shield are of golden (yellow) colour. The shield is laid on the breast of a natural eagle holding in its beak a golden cross, in its right claw a green olive-tree branch and in its left claw a golden sceptre.

(4) Moldova's State anthem shall be established by organic law.

(5) The flag, the coat of arms and the anthem are State symbols of the Republic of Moldova, and are protected by law as such.

Article 13
(1) The national language of the Republic of Moldova is Moldovan, and its writing is based on the Latin alphabet.

(2) The Moldovan State acknowledges and protects the right to preserve, develop and use the Russian language and other languages spoken within the national territory of the country.

(3) The State will encourage and promote studies of foreign languages enjoying widespread international usage.

(4) The use of languages in the territory of the Republic of Moldova will be established by organic law.

Article 14
The city of Chisinau is the capital of the Republic of Moldova.

Title II. Fundamental Rights, Freedoms and Duties[edit]

Chapter I. General Provisions[edit]

Article 15
The Constitution in conjunction with other laws grants the citizens of the Republic of Moldova their rights and freedoms and also lays down their duties upon them.

Article 16
(1) It is the foremost duty of the State to respect and protect the human person.

(2) All citizens of the Republic of Moldova are equal before the law and the public authorities, without any discrimination as to race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, political choice, personal property or social origin.

Article 17
(1) The citizenship of the Republic of Moldova can be acquired, retained or lost only under the conditions provided for by the organic law.

(2) No one may be deprived arbitrarily of his/her citizenship or the right to change it.

Article 18
(1) The citizens of the Republic of Moldova shall enjoy the protection of their State both at home and abroad.

(2) No citizen of the Republic of Moldova can be extradited or expelled from his/her country.

Article 19
(1) Except in cases where the law has different rulings aliens and stateless persons shall enjoy the same rights and shall have the same duties as the citizens of the Republic of Moldova.

(2) Alien or stateless citizens may be extradited only in compliance with an international agreement or under conditions of reciprocity, or in consequence of a decision of a court of law.

(3) The right to asylum shall be granted and denied by rule of law in compliance with those international treaties the Republic of Moldova is a party to.

Article 20
(1) Every citizen has the right to obtain effective protection from competent courts of Jurisdiction against actions infringing on his/her legitimate rights, freedoms and interests.

(2) No law may restrict the access to justice.

Article 21
Any person accused to have committed an offense shall be presumed innocent until found guilty on legal grounds, brought forward in a public trial in the course of which all guarantees for necessary defense will have been taken.

Article 22
No one may be sentenced for actions or omissions which did not constitute an offense at the time they were committed. Also, no punishment may be given that is harsher than that applicable at the time when the offense was committed.

Article 23
(1) Every one has the right to an acknowledged legal status.

(2) The State ensures the right of everybody to know his/her rights and duties. For that purpose the State shall publish all its laws and regulations and make them accessible to everybody.

Chapter II. Fundamental Rights and Freedoms[edit]

Article 24
(1) The State guarantees everybody the right to life, and to physical and mental integrity.

(2) No one may be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment or treatment.

(3) Capital punishment is abolished. No one could be sentenced to such a punishment nor executed, except for acts committed upon war or threat of war and only in compliance with the law.

Article 25
(l) Individual freedom and personal security are declared to be inviolable.

(2) Searching, detaining in custody or arresting a person shall be permitted only if based on the authority of law.

(3) The period of detention in custody may not exceed 72 hours.

(4) Persons may be arrested only under warrant issued by a judge for a maximum time limit of 30 days. The arrested may contest the legality of the warrant and lay a complaint before a hierarchically superior court, which is bound to reply by way of a motivated decision. The time limit of detention may be extended to 12 months only by a judge or by court, in compliance with the law.

(5) The person detained in custody or arrested shall be informed without delay of the reasons for his detention or arrest, as well as of the charges made against him/her, which may take place only in the presence of a lawyer, either chosen by the defendant or appointed ex officio.

(6) If the reasons for detention in custody or arrest have ceased to exist, the release of the person concerned must follow without delay.

Article 26
(l) The right of defense is guaranteed.

(2) Everybody has the right to respond independently by appropriate legitimate means to an infringement of his/her rights and freedoms.

(3) Throughout the trial the parties have the right to be assisted by a lawyer, either chosen or appointed ex officio.

(4) Any interference with the activity of those carrying out the defense within legally established confines shall be punished by authority of law.

Article 27
(1) The right to move freely within the boundaries of one's native country is guaranteed.

(2) Every citizen of the Republic of Moldova is guaranteed the right to choose his place of residence anywhere within the national territory, to travel in and out of the country, also to emigrate at will.

Article 28
The State shall respect and protect private and family life.

Article 29
(1) The domicile is inviolable. No one may enter upon or stay on the premises of a domicile without the owner's consent.

(2) The law shall allow for derogation from the provisions of paragraph (1) under the following circumstances:

  1. For executing an arrest warrant or a decision of a court of law;
  2. For forestalling imminent danger threatening of the life, physical integrity or the property of a person;
  3. For preventing the spread of an epidemic disease.

(3) Searches and questioning in a domicile may he ordered and earned out only in accordance with the rule of law.

(4) Except for cases where an obvious offence has been committed, night searches are forbidden.

Article 30
(1) The State shall ensure the privacy of letters, telegrams, other postal dispatches, of telephone conversations and of using other legal means of communication.

(2) Exceptions to paragraph (1) are allowed when they are in the interests of the national security, economic welfare of the country, public order and preventing crime.

Article 31
(1) The freedom of conscience is guaranteed, and its manifestations should be in a spirit of tolerance and mutual respect.

(2) The freedom of religious worship is guaranteed and religious bodies are free to organize themselves according to their own statutes under the rule of law.

(3) In their mutual relationships religious cults are forbidden to use, express or incite to hatred or enmity.

(4) Religious cults are autonomous vis-a-vis the State and shall enjoy the latter's support, including that aimed at providing religious assistance in the army, in hospitals, prisons, homes for the elderly and orphanages.

Article 32
(1) All citizens are guaranteed the freedom of opinion as well as the freedom of publicly expressing their thoughts and opinions by way of word, image or any other means possible.

(2) The freedom of expression may not harm the honour, dignity or the rights of other people to have and express their own opinions or judgements.

(3) The law shall forbid and prosecute all actions aimed at denying and slandering the State or the people. Likewise shall be forbidden and prosecuted the investigations to sedition, war, aggression, ethnic, racial or religious hatred, the incitement to discrimination, territorial separatism, public violence, or other actions threatening constitutional order.

Article 33
(1) The freedom to create scientific and artistic works is guaranteed. Creative work may not be submitted to censorship.

(2) The law shall protect the rights of citizens to their intellectual property, and to the material and moral interests related to various forms of intellectual creation.

(3) The State shall support the preservation, development and propagation of national and world achievements in culture and science.

Article 34
(1) Having access to any information of public interest is everybody's right, that may not be curtailed.

(2) According with their established level of competence, public authorities shall ensure that citizens are correctly informed both on public affairs and matters of personal interest.

(3) The right of access to information may not prejudice either the measures taken to protect the citizens or the national security.

(4) The State and private media are obliged to ensure that correct information reaches public opinion.

(5) The public media shall not be submitted to censorship.

Article 35
(1) The right of access to education is put into effect through the compulsory comprehensive public school system, lyceal (public secondary school) and vocational education, as well as the higher education system, and other forms of instruction and training.

(2) The State will enforce under the law the right of each person to choose his/her language in which teaching will be effected.

(3) In all forms of educational institutions the study of the country's official language will be ensured.

(4) State public education is free.

(5) All educational institutions, including those that are not financed by the state, shall be established and function under the rule of law.

(6) Higher education institutions have the right to be autonomous.

(7) The access to lyceal, vocational and higher education is equally open to all and is based on personal merit.

(8) The State ensures under the law the freedom of religious education. The State ensures a lay education.

(9) The priority right of choosing an appropriate educational background for children lies with the parents.

Article 36
(1) The right of health security is guaranteed.

(2) The State shall provide a minimum health insurance, that is free.

(3) Organic laws will establish the structure of the national health security system and the means necessary for protecting individual physical and mental health.

Article 37
(1) Every human being has the right to live in an environment that is ecologically safe for life and health, to obtain healthy food products and harmless household appliances.

(2) The State guarantees every citizen the right of free access to truthful information regarding the state of the natural environment, the living and working conditions, and the quality of food products and household appliances.

(3) Non-disclosure or falsification of information regarding factors detrimental to human health constitute offenses punishable by law.

(4) Private individuals and legal entities shall be held responsible before the law for any damages they may cause to personal health and property due to an ecological offense.

Article 38
(1) The foundation of State power is the will of the people made known through free elections held at regular intervals and based on universal, equal, direct, and free suffrage.

(2) Except for the persons banned from voting by law, all the citizens of the Republic of Moldova having attained the age of 18 on or by the voting day inclusively have the right to vote.

(3) The right of being elected is granted to all citizens of the Republic of Moldova enjoying the right of voting.

Article 39
(1) The citizens of the Republic of Moldova have the right of participating in the administration of public affairs, either directly or through their representatives.

(2) The access to a public office or position is guaranteed by law to all citizens of the Republic of Moldova.

Article 40
All meetings, demonstrations, rallies, processions or any other assemblies are free, and they may be organized and take place only peacefully and without the use of weapons.

Article 41
(1) All citizens are free to associate in parties and other social and political organizations. These organizations contribute to the definition and expression of public political will, and under the rule of law take part in the electing process.

(2) All parties and other social/political organizations are equal before the law.

(3) The State shall ensure the protection of the rights and legitimate interests of parties and other social/political organizations.

(4) Parties and social/political organizations are declared unconstitutional if by their aims or activities they are engaged in fighting against political pluralism, the principles of the rule of law, the sovereignty and independence or territorial integrity of the Republic of Moldova.

(5) Secret associations are forbidden.

(6) The activity of parties consisting of foreign nationals is forbidden.

(7) The organic law shall establish those public offices whose holders may not join political parties.

Article 42
(1) Any employee has the right to establish and join a trades-union in order to defend his/her interests.

(2) Trades-unions are founded and carry on their activities in accordance with their statutes under the law. They make their contribution to the defense of employees professional, economic and social interests.

Article 43
(1) Every person has the right to freely choose his/her work, and to benefit from equitable and satisfactory working conditions, as well as to be protected against unemployment.

(2) All employees have the right of work protection. In this respect the protective measures will bear upon work security and hygiene, working conditions for women and young people, the introduction of minimum wages across the national economy, the weekly period of rest, the paid holidays, difficult working conditions, as well as other specific situations.

(3) The length of the working week shall not exceed 40 hours.

(4) The right of collective bargaining is guaranteed, and so is the legal enforceability of collective agreements.

Article 44
(1) Forced labour is prohibited.

(2) Not to be regarded as forced labour are the following:

  1. Military-like duty or the activities designed to replace it, carried out by those who under the law are exempted from compulsory military service;
  2. Work done by a convicted person under normal conditions, in custody or on conditional release;
  3. Services such as required to deal with calamities or other dangers or as considered under the law to be a part of normal obligations of civilians.

Article 45
(1) The right to strike is acknowledged. Strikes may be started only if aimed at defending the economic, social and professional interests of employees.

(2) The law will establish the conditions requested in the exercise of this right, as well as the responsibility involved in the illegal start of strikes.

Article 46
(1) The right to possess private property and the debts incurred by the State are guaranteed.

(2) No one may be expropriated except for reasons dictated by public necessity, as established by law and against just and appropriate compensation made in advance.

(3) No assets legally acquired may be confiscated. The effective presumption is that of legal acquirement.

(4) Goods destined for, used or resulted from crimes or offenses may be confiscated only as established by law.

(5) The right of private property carries with it the duty to observe the roles regarding the protection of the environment, the maintenance of good neighbourly relations and the observance of all the other duties that have to be fulfilled by owners of private property under the law.

(6) The right to inherit private property is guaranteed.

Article 47
(1) The State is obliged to take action aimed at ensuring that every person has a decent standard of living, whereby good health and welfare based on available food, clothing, shelter, medical care, and social services are secured for that person and his/her family.

(2) All citizens have the right to be insured against such adversities as: unemployment, disease, disability, widowhood, old age or other situations where, due to causes beyond one's control one loses the source or means of obtaining the necessities of life.

Article 48
(1) The family is the natural and fundamental constituent of society and as such has the right to be protected by the State and by society.

(2) The family is founded on the freely consented marriage of husband and wife, on the spouses equality of rights and on the duty of parents to ensure their children's upbringing and education.

(3) The law shall establish under which conditions a marriage may be concluded, terminated or annulled.

(4) Children have a duty to look after their parents and help them in need.

Article 49
(1) By economic and other actions the State shall support the formation and development of families, and the fulfillment of their duties.

(2) The State shall protect the motherhood, the children and the young and promote the development of the institutions required to put that protection into effect.

(3) All efforts aimed at maintaining, bringing up and educating orphaned children and those children deprived of parental care constitute the responsibility of the State and of society. The state promotes and supports charitable activities for the benefit of these children.

Article 50
(1) Mothers and children have the right of receiving special protection and care. All children, including those born out of wedlock, shall enjoy the benefits of the same social assistance.

(2) Children and young people enjoy a special form of assistance in the enforcement of their rights.

(3) The State shall grant the required allowances for children and the aid needed for the care of sick or disabled children. The law shall provide for other forms of social assistance for children and the young.

(4) Both the exploitation of minors and their misuse in activities endangering their health, moral conduct, life or normal development are forbidden.

(5) It is the duty of the public authorities to establish the conditions enabling the young people to take part freely in the social, economic, cultural and sporting life of the country.

Article 51
(1) The disabled persons shall enjoy a special form of protection from the whole of society. The State shall ensure that normal conditions exist for medical treatment and rehabilitation, education, training and social integration of disabled persons.

(2) Except for those cases that are provided for under the law nobody may be submitted to forced medical treatment.

Article 52
(1) All citizens have the right to apply to public authority by way of petitions formulated in behalf of the applicants.

(2) Legally established organizations may petition exclusively in behalf of the associations or bodies they represent.

Article 53
(1) Any person, whose rights have been trespassed upon in any way by public authority through an administrative ruling or lack of timely legal reply to an application, is entitled to obtain acknowledgement of those rights, the cancellation of the ruling and payment of damages.

(2) The State is under patrimonial liability as foreseen by the law for any prejudice or injury caused in lawsuits through errors of the police or the judiciary.

Article 54
(1) No laws suppressing or violating fundamental human rights and freedoms shall be adopted in the Republic of Moldova.

(2) The exercise of certain rights or freedoms may be restricted only under the laws which meet generally accepted principles of the international law, and only as required in cases like: the defense of national security, of territorial integrity, of economic welfare of the country, of public order, preventing mass disorders and offences, of protecting citizens rights, freedoms, and personal dignity, preventing the disclosure of confidential information or guaranteeing judiciary authority and impartiality.

(3) Provisions of paragraph (2) do not provide for the infringement of the rights stipulated in Articles 20-24.

(4) The restrictions enforced must be in proportion to the situation that caused it, and may not affect the existence of that right or liberty.

Chapter III. Fundamental Duties[edit]

Article 55
Every citizen has to exercise his/her constitutional rights and freedoms in good faith, without infringing others' rights and freedoms.

Article 56
(1)Allegiance and loyalty to the state are sacred.

(2) Citizens entrusted with the holding of public office, as well as the military, are under the responsibility to fulfil faithfully their duties towards the state, and in given situations shall also take the oath as requested by law.

Article 57
(1)It is the right and the sacred duty of every citizen to defend one's motherland.

(2) The national armed forces constitute the framework for performing military services, for national defense, guarding the borders, and maintaining public older under the law.

Article 58
(1) All citizens are under obligation to contribute by way of taxes and financial impositions to public expenditure.

(2) The system of legal taxation must ensure a just distribution of fiscal burdens over the population.

(3)All taxation other than that established by law is forbidden.

Article 59
It is the duty of every citizen to protect the natural environment, and to preserve and protect the country's historical and cultural sites and monuments.

Title III. Public Authorities[edit]

Chapter IV. Parliament[edit]

Section 1. Structure and Functioning[edit]

Article 60
(1) Parliament is the supreme representative body of the people and the sole legislative authority of the State in the Republic of Moldova.

(2) Parliament consists of 101 members.

Article 61
(1) The members of Parliament are elected by voting based on universal, equal, direct, secret and freely expressed suffrage.

(2) The organic law shall establish the way of organizing and holding elections.

(3) The election of Parliament members will be started not later than 3 months from the end of the previous mandate or from the dissolution of the previous Parliament.

Article 62
On proposal submitted by the Central Electoral Board the Constitutional Court will decide upon the validation or invalidation of a Parliament member's mandate, whenever electoral legislation has been transgressed.

Article 63
(1) The members of Parliament are elected for a 4-year term, which may be extended by organic law, and in the event of war or a national disaster.

(2) Parliament shall be convened in session by the President of the Republic of Moldova within at most 30 days from election day.

(3) The mandate of the current Parliament may be extended until the structure of the new Parliament has been completed and the latter can meet in full session. During this period no amendments may be brought to the Constitution, and no organic law may he adopted, changed or abrogated.

(4) The legislative projects and proposals contained in the agenda of the previous Parliament will be carried over onto the agenda of the new Parliament.

Article 64
(1) The structure, organization and functioning of Parliament are established by internal regulations. The Parliament approves the national budget and, with it, its own financial resources.

(2) The President of Parliament is elected by secret ballot based on the majority of votes cast by members for a term of office equal to that of Parliament. The Parliament may revoke the President at any time by secret ballot based on a two-thirds majority of votes cast by members.

(3) On consultations with parliamentary factions the President of Parliament calls for the election of Parliament's Vice-Presidents.

Article 65
(1) Parliament's sessions are public.

(2) The Parliament may decide to hold certain sessions behind closed doors.

Article 66
The following are Parliament's basic powers:

  1. To pass laws, decisions and motions;
  2. To declare the holding of referendums;
  3. To provide legislative interpretations and ensure the legislative unity of regulations throughout the country;
  4. To approve the main directions of the state's internal and external policy;
  5. To approve the state's military doctrine;
  6. To exercise parliamentary control over executive power in the ways and within the limits provided for by the Constitution;
  7. To ratify, denounce, suspend and abrogate the action of the international treaties concluded by the Republic of Moldova;
  8. To approve and control the national budget;
  9. To supervise and control the allocation of State loans, the aid of an economic or other nature granted to foreign countries, the conclusion of agreements concerning State loans or credits obtained from foreign sources;
  10. To elect and nominate State officials as foreseen by law;
  11. To approve the orders, medals and awards of the Republic of Moldova;
  12. To declare partial or general mobilization of the armed forces;
  13. To declare the states of national emergency, martial law, and war;
  14. To initiate investigations and hearings concerning any matters touching upon the interests of society;
  15. To suspend the activity of local institutions of public administration under the law;
  16. To pass bills of amnesty;
  17. To exercise other powers, as provided for by the Constitution and the Law.

Article 67
(1) Parliament meets in two ordinary sessions per year. The first parliamentary session starts in February and may not go beyond the end of July. The second parliamentary session starts in September and may not go beyond the end of December.

(2) Parliament may also meet in extraordinary or special meetings at the specific request of the President of the Republic of Moldova, of the President of Parliament or of a third of the members.

Section 2. The Status of Parliament Members[edit]

Article 68
(1) In the exercise of their power the members of Parliament are in the service of the people.

(2) Imperative mandates shall be null and void.

Article 69
(1) The members of Parliament shall enter upon the exercise of their mandate under condition of prior validation.

(2) The powers ascribed to any member of Parliament cease with the lawful assembly of the newly-elected Parliament, on resignation on the part of that member, on mandate suspension, also in cases of incompatibility or death.

Article 70
(1) The quality and rights ascribed to members of Parliament are incompatible with the holding of another remunerated position, except for didactic or scientific activity.

(2) Other possible incompatibilities shall be established by organic law.

(3) Except in cases of flagrant infringement of law members of Parliament may not be detained for questioning, put under arrest, searched or put on trial without Parliament's assent, after prior hearing of the member in question.

Article 71
Members of Parliament may not be prosecuted or tried by law for their votes or opinions expressed in the exercise of their mandate.

Section 3. Legislation and Acts of Parliament[edit]

Article 72
(1) Parliament is endowed with the powers to pass constitutional, organic and ordinary laws.

(2) Constitutional laws are aimed at revising the Constitution.

(3) The purpose of the organic laws is to direct and control:

  1. the working of the electoral system;
  2. the organization and carrying out of referendums;
  3. the organization and functioning of Parliament;
  4. the organization and functioning of Government;
  5. the organization and functioning of the Constitutional Court, the Higher Magistrates Council, the judiciary and courts of administrative judicature;
  6. the organization of local administration, of the national territory, and the general functioning of local autonomy;
  7. the organization and functioning of political parties;
  8. the manner of selecting exclusive economic zones;
  9. the legal status of private property and inheritance;
  10. the general implementation of the working relations and social protection, and the functioning of trades-unions;
  11. the general organization of the educational system;
  12. the general status of religious worship;
  13. the states of national emergency, martial law and war,
  14. the criminal offenses, the punishments requested, and the ways of executing the latter,
  15. the granting of amnesty and pardon;
  16. other provinces where the Constitution provides for the necessity of passing organic laws;
  17. other provinces where Parliament recommends the passing of organic laws.

(4) Basically, social relations are the province of ordinary law, excepting those for whose regulation constitutional and organic laws have been appointed.

Article 73
The right to initiate legislation belongs to members of Parliament, the President of the Republic of Moldova and the Government.

Article 74
(1) Organic laws shall be passed by majority vote based on at least two ballots.

(2) Ordinary laws and resolutions shall be passed by the majority of the votes cast by the members present in session.

(3) Draft laws submitted by Government, as well as legislative proposals submitted by deputies and accepted by the former, are examined by Parliament in the way and according to the priorities established by the Government, includingly urgency hearings/procedure. Other legislative proposals shall be examined as established.

(4) The laws passed shall be submitted to the President of the Republic of Moldova for promulgation.

Article 75
(1) Problems of utmost gravity or urgency confronting the Moldovan society or State shall be resolved by referendum.

(2) The decisions passed in consequence of the results produced by the republican referendum have supreme judicial power.

Article 76
Laws shall be published in the "Monitorol Oficial" of the Republic of Moldova and shall come into force either on its publication date or on the date mentioned in its original text. Unless published, the law is nonexistent.

Chapter V. The President of the Republic of Moldova[edit]

Article 77
(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova is the head of the State.

(2) The President of the Republic of Moldova represents the State and is the guarantor of national sovereignty, independence, of the unity and territorial integrity of the nation.

Article 78
(1) President of the Republic of Moldova shall be elected by the secret vote of the Parliament.

(2) Any citizen of the Republic of Moldova over 40 years of age with the right to vote that has been living in the country for at least 10 years and speaks the State language can run for the office of President of the Republic of Moldova.

(3) The candidate obtaining at least 3/5ths of the votes cast by elected deputies shall be considered elected. If no candidate obtains the required number of votes, a second ballot shall be held to choose from the two first-placed candidates, in the order of the number of votes cast for them in the first ballot.

(4) If after the second ballot no candidate obtains the required number of votes, repeat elections shall be conducted.

(5) If after repeat elections the President of the Republic of Moldova is not elected, the incumbent President shall dissolve the Parliament and establish the date of Parliamentary elections.

(6) An appropriate organic law shall determine the procedure of electing the President of the Republic of Moldova.

Article 79
(1)The Constitutional Court will validate the result of the presidential election.

(2) Within 45 days from the date when elections were completed the successful presidential candidate shall take the following oath before Parliament and the Constitutional Court: "I solemnly swear to devote all my personal strength and abilities to the advancement and prosperity of the Republic of Moldova, to always abide by the Constitution and the laws of the country, to defend democracy, tbe fundamental rights and freedoms of the Republic of Moldova if incompatible man, and the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Moldova."

Article 80
(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova takes office on the oath- taking day and his term has a duration of 4 years.

(2) The President of the Republic of Moldova exercises his mandate until the next President is sworn in.

(3) By organic law the mandate of the President of the Republic of Moldova may be prolonged in the event of war or catastrophe.

(4) The office of the President of the Republic of Moldova may be held by the same person for no more than two consecutive terms.

Article 81
(1) The office of the President of the Republic of Moldova is incompatible with holding another remunerated position.

(2) The President of the Republic of Moldova will enjoy immunity from civil action for any personal opinions expressed while in the execution of his mandate.

(3) Based on the majority of at least two thirds of the votes cast by its members, Parliament may decide to indict the President of the Republic of Moldova if the latter commits an offense. In such a case it is the Supreme Court of Justice which has the competence to sue under the rule of law, and the President will be removed from office on the very day that the court sentence convicting him has been passed as definitive.

Article 84
(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova can take part in Parliament's proceedings and debates.

(2) The President of the Republic of Moldova will address Parliament messages concerning the main issues of national interest.

Article 85
(1) In cases where an impossibility has been reached to form the Government or a situation has been encountered whereby the passing of new legislation has been deadlocked for 3 consecutive months, the President of the Republic of Moldova, on consultations with parliamentary groups, may dissolve Parliament.

(2) If within 45 days from a first presidential request for a vote of confidence to form a new government a second such request been aim rejected by Parliament, the President may dissolve the Parliament.

(3) The Parliament may be dissolved only once in the course of a year.

(4) Parliament may not be dissolved during the President's last 6 months of office, except for the case provided in paragraph (5) of Article 78, during a state of emergency, martial law, or war.

Article 86
(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova is empowered to enter official discussions, take part in negotiations, conclude in the name of the Republic of Moldova the international treaties resulting therefrom, and submit those treaties to Parliament for ratification.

(2) On specific proposals submitted to him by Government, the President of the Republic of Moldova can accredit and revoke the Republic of Moldova's diplomatic representatives, as well as approve the establishment, disestablishment, and ranking of diplomatic missions abroad.

(3) The President of the Republic of Moldova receives letters of accreditation or revocation of foreign diplomatic envoys to Moldova.

Article 87
(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.

(2) On prior approval from Parliament the President of the Republic of Moldova can declare partial or general mobilization armed forces.

(3) In the event of armed aggression against the country, the President of the Republic of Moldova takes the steps required to repel aggression, and to declare a state of war, and informs Parliament without delay on the situation. If Parliament is not in session, the President convenes by right the Parliament within 24 hours from the time when the aggression was launched.

(4) In order to ensure national security and public order the President of the Republic of Moldova can under the rule of law also take other steps.

Article 88
The President of the Republic of Moldova is also empowered to:

  1. Award medals and titles of honour;
  2. Award such supreme military ranks as provided for by the law;
  3. Find solutions to problems concerning the rights of citizenship of the Republic of Moldova and grant political asylum;
  4. Appoint public officials under the law;
  5. Grant individual pardon or amnesty;
  6. Request the citizens of the Republic of Moldova to express their will by way of referendum on matters of national interest;
  7. Award diplomatic ranks;
  8. Award higher ranks to officials holding positions with Magistrates' Courts and Civil Courts, and to other civil servantsthe law;
  9. suspend those Acts of Government that run against existing legislation until a final decision has been passed by the Constitutional Court;
  10. Exercise other powers as foreseen by the law.

Article 89
(1) In the event the President of the Republic of Moldova commits serious offences infringing upon constitutional provisions he may be suspended from office by the vote of two thirds elected deputies in Parliament.

(2) The motion requesting the suspension from office may be initiated by at least one third of deputies, and it must be brought to the knowledge of the President without delay. The President may give explanations on the actions for which he is being censured before Parliament and the Constitutional Court.

Article 90
(1) The office of the President of the Republic of Moldova may become vacant in consequence of expiry of the presidential mandate of resignation from office, removal from office, definite impossibility of executing his duties, or death.

(2) The request to remove the President of the Republic of Moldova from office will be brought forward in Parliament, which will pass a decision on that request.

(3) Impossibility to exercise the mandate of the President of the Republic of Moldova for more than 60 days, shall be confirmed by the Constitutional Court within 30 days of the notification.

(4) Within 2 months from the date when the presidential office was announced as vacant elections for a new President will be held in accordance with the law.

Article 91
When the office of the President of the Republic of Moldova becomes vacant or the President has been ousted, or finds himself in the temporary impossibility of discharging his duties, the responsibility of the office shall devolve ad interim on the President of Parliament or the Prime-Minister, in that priority order.

Article 92
Should the person acting as interim President of the Republic of Moldova commit grave offenses infringing upon constitutional provisions article 89 paragraph (1) and article 91 will apply.

Article 93
(1) The President of the Republic of Moldova promulgates the laws.

(2) The President of the Republic of Moldova has the right, whenever he objects against a given law, to submit it within at most two weeks to Parliament for reexamination. Should Parliament stick to its previously passed decision, then the President must promulgate the law.

Article 94
(1) In the exercise of his powers the President of the Republic of Moldova issues decrees whose execution is compulsory throughout the entire territory of the state. These decrees shall be published in the "Monitorul Oficial" of the Republic of Moldova.

(2) Those decrees issued by the President that fall under the provisions of article 86 paragraph (2) and article 87 paragraph (?) (2), (3) and (4) must be countersigned by the Prime-Minister also.

Article 95
(1) The budget of the presidential institution shall be submitted to Parliament for approval and shall be included in the budget.

(2) The law will determine the level of compensation and the other rights the President is entitled to.

Chapter VI. The Government[edit]

Article 96
(1) It is the role of Government to carry out the domestic and foreign policy of the State and to apply general control over the work of public administration.

(2) A specific programme of activities approved by Parliament will constitute the guidelines which Government will use in the exercise of its powers.

Article 97
The Government consists of a prime-minister, a first vice-prime-minister, vice-prime-ministers, ministers and other members, as determined by organic law.

Article 98
(1) After consulting parliamentary factions, the President of the Republic of Moldova designates a candidate for the office of Prime Minister.

(2) Within 15 days from his designation, the candidate for the office of Prime-Minister will request a vote of confidence for Parliament regarding his work programme and the entire list of Government members.

(3) Parliament will debate in joint session upon both the programme and the list of Government members and will grant Government the requested vote of confidence based on a majority vote of the elected deputies.

(4) Based on the Parliament confidence vote, the President of the Republic of Moldova appoints the Government.

(5) Government enters into the execution of its powers on the very day when its members take the oath before the President Republic of Moldova.

(6) Upon Government reshuffle or vacancy of a position, the President of the Republic of Moldova revokes and appoints some members of the Government, at the proposal of the Prime Minister.

Article 99
(1) The office of government member is incompatible with the holding of another remunerated position.

(2) Other incompatibilities will be specified by organic law.

Article 100
The office of a Government member ends in cases of resignation, revocation, incompatibility or death.

Article 101
(1) The Prime-Minister leads the Government and coordinates the activity of its members, while respecting the powers delegated to them.

(2) Upon the impossibility of the Prime Minister to exercise his duties, or upon his death, the President of the Republic of Moldova shall designate another Government member as an interim Prime Minister until the formation of a new Government. Should the Prime-Minister resume his activity within the Government structure in the interim period, then the temporary character of his inability to fulfill his duties also ceases.

(3) A resignation on the part of the Prime-Minister leads to the resignation of the whole Government.

Article 102
(1) The Government issues resolutions, ordinances and prescriptions.

(2) Resolutions are issued for implementation of the laws.

(3) Ordinances are issued in compliance with Article 1062.

(4) Resolutions and ordinances issued by the Government are signed by the Prime Minister, countersigned by the ministers bearing the responsibility to enforce them and shall be published in the Official Monitor of the Republic of Moldova. Failure to publish the latter results in the annulment of the resolution or ordinance.

(5) Prescriptions are issued by the Prime Minister for organizing Government activities.

Article 103
(1) The Government is empowered to exercise its mandate up to the date that has been officially sanctioned for the holding parliamentary elections.

(2) In cases where Parliament has passed a vote of no confidence in the current Government, or the Primer Minister has been removed from office, or as provided for by paragraph (1) above, the Government shall only control the administration of the public affaire until the new Government has been sworn in.

Chapter VII. The Parliament - Government Interrelationship[edit]

Article 104
(1) The Government is responsible before Parliament, its committees and its individual members for supplying them with all information and documents that may be requested.

(2) The access of Government members to parliamentary proceedings is ensured, and their presence may be obligatory if so requested.

Article 105
(1) Both the Government as a whole and each one of its members are obliged to reply to the questions and interpellations raised by Parliament members.

(2) Parliament may pass a motion to substantiate its position vis-a-vis the issue that has caused an interpellation.

Article 106
(1) If initiated by at least a quarter of the members present in session and based on their majority vote. Parliament may carry a motion of no confidence in the Government.

(2) The initiative to carry a motion of no confidence in the Government will be examined within 3 days from the date when it was brought before Parliament.

Article 106¹
(1) Government may assume responsibility before Parliament for a certain program, general policy or draft law.

(2) Government shall be ousted, provided the motion of censure submitted within three days of presenting the program, general policy or draft law, is voted in compliance with Article 106.

(3) Unless Government is ousted in compliance with paragraph (2), the presented draft law shall be considered adopted, whereas the program or general policy shall become binding on the Government.

Article 106²
(1) For implementing Government program of activities, at its proposal Parliament may adopt a special law entitling Government to issue ordinances in the domains other than subjects of organic laws.

(2) Entitling law has to stipulated the domain and the term for issuing ordinances.

(3) Ordinances shall enter into force upon their publication, without being promulgated.

(4) Provided entitling law specifically stipulates so, ordinances shall be approved by Parliament. The draft law on approving the ordinances shall be submitted within the term set in the entitling law. Failure to observe the term results in annulment of the ordinance. Unless Parliament rejects the draft law on approving the ordinance, the later shall remain in force.

(5) After expiration of the term set for issuing ordinances, the latter may be abrogated, suspended or modified only by law.

Chapter VIII. Public Administration[edit]

Article 107
(1) Ministries constitute the state's specialized agencies. They put into practice under the law the Government's policy, decisions and orders, exercise control over their areas of competence and are answerable for their activities.

(2) In order to manage, coordinate and control the national economy, as well as other areas outside the direct responsibility of ministries, other administrative authorities may be get up in accordance with the law.

Article 108
(1) The armed forces are subordinated solely to the will of the nation, and their purpose is to safeguard the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of the country, as well as the constitutional democracy.

(2) The structure of the national defense system will be determined by organic law.

Article 109
(1) Public administration as manifested in the administrative/territorial units is based on the principles of local autonomy, of decentralization of public services, of the eligibility of local public administration authorities and of consulting the citizenry on local problems of special interest.

(2) The concept of autonomy encompasses both the organization and functioning of local public administration, as well as the management of the communities represented by that administration.

(3) The enforcement of the principles described above may not detract from the unitary character of the State.

Article 110
From the administrative point of view the territory of the Republic of Moldova is structured in districts, towns and villages. Certain towns may under the law be declared municipalities.

Article 111
(1) The places on the left bank of the Nistru river, as well as certain other places in the south of the Republic of Moldova may be granted special forms of autonomy according to special statutory provisions of organic law.

(2) The organic laws establishing special statutes for the places mentioned under paragraph (1) above may be amended if three fifths of the Parliament members support such amendments.

Article 112
(1) At village and town level the public administration authorities through which local autonomy is executed are represented by the elected local councils and mayors.

(2) The local councils and the mayors operate under the law as autonomous administrative authorities and are assigned the task of solving public affairs in villages and towns.

(3) The ways of electing local councils and mayors, as well as their powers and competence's shall be established by law.

Article 113
(1) The district council coordinates the activity of the village and town councils to achieve public service at district level.

(2) The district council will be elected and will work in accordance with the law.

(3) The interrelationships of public authorities are based on the principles of autonomy, legality and cooperation in solving common problems.

Chapter IX. Judicial Authority[edit]

Section 1. Courts of Law[edit]

Article 114
Justice shall be administered in the name of the law by courts of law only.

Article 115
(1) Justice shall be administered by the Supreme Court of Justice, the Court of Appeal and the courts of law.

(2) To hear certain categories of cases special courts may be set up under the law.

(3) It is forbidden to set up courts of exception.

(4) The structure of the courts of law, their areas of competence and the corresponding judicial procedures shall be established by organic law.

Article 116
(1) Judges sitting in the courts of law are independent, impartial and irremovable under the law.

(2) The judges sitting in the courts of law are appointed by the President of the Republic of Moldova following a proposal submitted to him by the Higher Magistrates Council. Those judges who have passed the judicature entry test are appointed in their positions at first for a 5-year term. Upon the expiration of the five year term, judges shall be appointed for a term of office, which expires with their reaching the age limit, established by law.

(3) Both the Chairpersons and Deputy Chairpersons of the courts shall be appointed for a four year term by the President following a proposal submitted by the Higher Magistrates Council.

(4) Both the Chairpersons and Deputy Chairpersons of the Supreme Court of Justice shall be appointed for a four year term by the Parliament following a proposal submitted by the Higher Magistrates Council. They must provide evidence of work experience in courts of law that is not less than 10 years long.

(5) Judges may be promoted or transferred at their own consent only.

(6) Judges may be punished as provided for under the rule of law.

(7) The office of judge is incompatible with holding any other public or private remunerated position, except in the area of teaching or scientific research.

Article 117
Legal hearings in all courts of law are public. Cases may be heard behind closed doors only as stipulated by law under compliance with all established legal procedures.

Article 118
(1) Legal cases will be heard in the Moldovan language.

(2) Those persons who do not know or are unable to speak Moldovan have the right to take knowledge of all documents and items on file and to talk to the court through an interpreter.

(3) In accordance with the law legal hearings may also be conducted in a language that is found to be acceptable by the majority of the persons participating in the hearing.

Article 119
The parties involved in a case and the state authorities may appeal against sentences pronounced in courts of law in accordance with the law.

Article 120
It is compulsory to abide by the sentences and the other final legal rulings pronounced in courts of law and to cooperate with the latter at their specific request during trials, the execution of sentences and other final rulings of justice.

Article 121
(1) The budget of the courts of law is approved by Parliament and is included in the national budget.

(2) The compensations and other rights of judges are established by law.

(3) The courts of law have control over the police forces placed at their disposal.

Section 2. The Higher Magistrates' Council[edit]

Article 122
(1) The Higher Magistrates' Council is composed of judges and accredited university professors whose mandate is valid for 4 years.

(2) The following belong by right to the Higher Magistrates' Court the President of the Supreme Court of Justice, the Minister of Justice, and the Prosecutor General.

Article 123
(1) The Higher Magistrates Council in accordance with regulations established in the organization of the judiciary performs the appointments, transfers, promotions of judges, as well as the disciplinary actions against them.

(2) The organization and operation of the Higher Magistrates Council shall be established via an organic law.

Section 3. The Public Prosecution Office[edit]

Article 124
(1) The Prosecution represents general interests of the society, defends legal order, the rights and freedoms of citizens, conducts and institutes proceedings, represents prosecution in courts in compliance with the law.

(2) The public prosecution system is composed of the General Prosecution Office, territorial prosecution offices and specialized prosecution offices.

(3) The structure, powers and activities of the prosecution offices are established by law.

Article 125
(1) The Prosecutor General is appointed by Parliament following a proposal submitted to the latter by its President.

(2) The other public prosecutors are subordinated to the Prosecutor General, and appointed by him.

(3) The public prosecutors receive their mandate for a period of 5 years.

(4) The office of public prosecutor is incompatible with holding any other remunerated position, be it public or private, except in teaching or scientific research.

(5) In exercising their powers public prosecutors may submit before the law only.

Title IV. National Economy and Public Finance[edit]

Article 126
(1) The economy of the Republic of Moldova is a socially-orientated market economy based on the coexistence of freely competing private and public properties.

(2) The State must ensure:

  1. the regulation of economic activity, and the administration of the public property belonging to the State under the law;
  2. the freedom of trading and of entrepreneurial activity, the protection of loyal competition, the setting up of an appropriate framework for developing all factors capable of stimulating production;
  3. the protection of the national interests involved in economic, financial and currency exchange activities;
  4. the promotion of national scientific research;
  5. the national exploitation of the soil and of other natural resources, in harmony with the national interests;
  6. the restoration and protection of the environment, and the maintenance of ecological balance;
  7. the increase in the number of the people employed, the establishment of conditions adequate for improving the quality of life;
  8. the inviolability of investments made by physical and juridical entities, including those from abroad.

Article 127
(1) The State protects property.

(2) The State guarantees everybody the right to possess property in any such form as requested by the owner, as long as that form of property does not conflict with the interests of society.

(3) Public property belongs to the State or to the administrative/territorial units.

(4) All underground resources, the air space, the waters and forests used for the benefit of the public at large, the natural resources of given economic regions and of the continental shelf, the communication ways, as well as other assets stipulated by law, constitute the exclusive province of public property.

Article 128
(1) In the Republic of Moldova the property of other states, of international organizations, of foreign citizens and of stateless persons is protected by law.

(2) The law determines the manner and conditions under which the right of property can be exercised by physical and juridical entities of foreign extraction, and by stateless persons throughout the territory of the Republic of Moldova.

Article 129
(1) Parliament approves the main directions of external economic activities, the principles guiding the utilization of foreign loans and credits.

(2) The Government ensures the protection of national interests involved in external economic activities, and depending on the demands of national interest ensures either a free-trade policy or a protectionist one.

Article 130
(1) The law specifies the formation, administration, utilization and control of the State's financial resources, of the administrative/territorial units, and of public institutions.

(2) The national currency of the Republic of Moldova is the Moldovan leu (pl. lei).

(3) The National Bank of the Republic of Moldova has the exclusive right of mintage. The minting of a money issue can be effected by act of Parliament only.

Article 131
(1) The national public budget is made up of the national budget, the national social security budget, and the local budgets of districts, towns and villages.

(2) The government issues an annual draft of the national budget, and of the social security budget, which it submits separately to Parliament for approval. Supplementary budgets formed in addition to the national budget shall also be submitted to Parliament for approval.

(3) If the national budget and the national social security budget have not been approved by at least 3 days before expiry of the current budget exercise, both the national and the national social security budgets continue to apply until the new budgets have been approved.

(4) Any legislation or amendment increasing or reducing budget incomes or loans, as well as increasing or reducing budgetary expenses, may be adopted only after Government approval.

(5) The budgets of districts, towns and villages shall be issued, approved and executed in accordance with the law.

(6) No budget expenditure may be approved without prior identification of a corresponding source of funding for it.

Article 132
(1) All taxes, duties, and other revenue of the national budget, including the national social security budget, also the district, town and village budgets shall be established under the law by the representative agencies, as required.

(2) Any other types of taxation are forbidden.

Article 133
(1) The Court of Audit controls the ways of creating, administering and utilizing public financial resources.

(2) The Court of Audit is composed of 7 members.

(3) The President of the Court of Audit is appointed for a 5-year term by Parliament on proposal submitted by the President of Parliament.

(4) The Court of Audit submits annually to Parliament a report on the administration and utilization of public financial resources.

(5) The Court of Audits other powers, as well as its structure and functioning, will be established by organic law.

Title V. Constitutional Court[edit]

Article 134
(1) The Constitutional court is the sole authority of constitutional judicature in the Republic of Moldova.

(2) The Constitutional Court is independent of any other public authority and obeys only the Constitution.

(3) The Constitutional Court guarantees the supremacy of the Constitution, enforces the practical implementation of the principle residing the separation of the State powers into the legislative, executive and judicial powers, and guarantees the responsibility of State towards the citizen, and also of the citizen towards the state.

Article 135
(1) The Constitutional Court:

  1. enforces on notification constitutionality control over laws, ordinances of Parliament, Presidential decrees, decisions and orders of Government, as well as international treaties endorsed by the Republic of Moldova;
  2. explains and clarifies the Constitution;
  3. formulates its position on initiatives aiming at revising the Constitution;
  4. confirms the results of republican referendums;
  5. confirms the results of parliamentary and presidential elections in the Republic of Moldova;
  6. ascertains the circumstances justifying the dissolution of Parliament, the suspension from office of the President of the Republic of Moldova or the interim office of the President of the Republic of Moldova, as well as impossibility of the President of the Republic of Moldova to exercise his duties for more than 60 days;
  7. solves exceptional cases of non-constitutionality of judicial acts, as signalled by the Supreme Court of Justice;
  8. decides over matters dealing with the constitutionality of parties.

(2) The Constitutional Court carries out its activities on initiatives started by the legal entities mentioned in the law regarding the Constitutional Court.

Article 136
(1) The Constitutional Court is composed of 6 judges, who are appointed for a 6-year mandate.

(2) The Parliament, the Government and the Higher Magistrates Council appoint 2 judges each.

(3) The judges of the Constitutional Court elect its president by secret ballot.

Article 137
For the duration of their mandate the judges of the Constitutional Court are irremovable, independent, and obey only the Constitution.

Article 138
The judges of the Constitutional Court must possess outstanding judicial knowledge, high professional competence and long time (at least 15 years) experience in judicature positions, in law education or scientific research.

Article 139
The office of Constitutional Court judge is incompatible with holding any other remunerated public or private position, except in education and research.

Article 140
(1) Laws and other regulations or parts thereof become null and void from the moment that the Constitutional Court passes the appropriate decisions to that effect.

(2) The decisions of the Constitutional Court are final and cannot be appealed against.

Title VI. Revising the Constitution[edit]

Article 141
(1) A revision of the Constitution may be initiated by:

  1. a number of at least 200,000 voting citizens of the Republic of Moldova. The citizens initiating a revision of the Constitution must cover with the number of their listed residencies at least a half of the nation's second level administrative-territorial units, and in their turn each of those districts and municipalities must be represented by at least 20,000 registered signers in support of the said initiative;
  2. no less than a third of the members of Parliament;
  3. the Government.

(2) Constitutional law projects shall be submitted to Parliament on condition that the Constitutional Court issues the appropriate recommendation supported by at least 4 judges.

Article 142
(1) The provisions regarding the sovereignty, independence and unity of the state, as well as those regarding the permanent neutrality of the State may be revised only by referendum based on a majority vote of registered voting citizens.

(2) No revision shall be allowed if it is results in the suppression of the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens, or of the guarantees of those rights and freedoms.

(3) The Constitution may not be revised under a state of national emergency, martial law or war.

Article 143
(1) Parliament has the right to pass a law for revising the Constitution after no less than 6 months from the date when the revising initiative was submitted. This law has to be passed on a two-thirds majority.

(2) If within one year from the date when the revising initiative was submitted Parliament has not passed the appropriate constitutional law, the initiative shall be considered null and void.

Title VII. Final and Transitory Provisions[edit]

Article I
(1) This Constitution shall be endorsed by Parliament and the President of the Republic of Moldova shall promulgate it within 3 days from that endorsement.

(2) The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova comes into force on 27th August 1994. On that same date the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova of 15th April 1978, including all its subsequent revisions and amendments, shall be abrogated in its entirety.

Article II
(1) The laws and other regulations retain their force only to the extent to which they do not transgress on the Constitution.

(2) Within one year from the coming into force of the present Constitution the permanent parliamentary committees, and the Government shall examine the compliance of legislation with the Constitution, and submit adequate proposals in that respect to Parliament.

Article III
(1) All state institutions in existence as of the date marking the coming into force of this Constitution retain their functionality until new institutions will be established.

(2) Parliament is made up of 104 members elected by freely expressed, universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage within the framework of political and party pluralism in accordance with the law passed on 14th October 1993. As such, Parliament remains in operation until its mandate expires, except in those cases provided for by this Constitution.

(3) The President of the Republic of Moldova is elected by freely expressed, universal, equal, direct and secret suffrage within the framework of political and party pluralism for a 5-year term, as provided for by the law of the 18th September 1991 concerning presidential elections in the Republic of Moldova. As such, the President remains in office until his mandate expires, except in those cases provided for by this Constitution.

(4) Government is invested by Parliament, and retains its powers until the expiry of its mandate, except in those cases provided for by the Constitution.

(5) Local authorities of state power and national administration remain in operation until the expiration of their mandate, except in those cases provided for by this Constitution.

(6) Judges who on the coming into force of this Constitution have been employed in courts of justice for not less than 15 years come under the protection of the principle of irremovability in accordance with article 116 paragraph (1) by presidential decree, on proposal submitted by the Minister of Justice and the President of the Supreme Court of Justice.

(7) Within 2 years from the coming into force of this Constitution, the system of the courts of jurisdiction will be reorganized by law in accordance with article 115.

Article IV
The provisions of article 25 paragraph (4) regarding the terms of detention in custody, will have no bearing until 1st January 1995 on those persons who have committed major offenses under article 7 paragraph (1) of Criminal Law.

Article V
(1) Within 6 months from the coming into force of this Constitution a Constitutional Court and a Court of Audit shall be established.

(2) For the first formation of the Constitutional Court the judges representing the Higher Magistrates' Council are appointed by the general assembly of the people's judges and the members of the Supreme Court of Justice.

Article VI
Until the establishment of the Constitutional court all cases stipulated under article 135 of this Constitution may be solved on Parliament's initiative by the Supreme Court of Justice.

Article VII
(1) The law of 1st September 1989 regarding the use of languages spoken throughout the territory of the Republic of Moldova stays in force to the extent that it does not trespass on this Constitution.

(2) The above-named law may be amended over the 7 years ensuing from the date when this Constitution has come into force, if it has been passed by a two-thirds majority.

Article VIII Title VII, Final and Transitory Provisions is considered to be an integral part of this Constitution and has the purpose of solving those problems that are linked with its coming into force.