Convention for a suspension of hostilities with France

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Convention for a Suspension of Hostilities with France.  (1814) 
The plenipotentiaries of the high powers who signed the treaty
A convention signed between the allied powers and the French government on the 23 April 1814 was the precursor of a more comprehensive and specific arrangement; and on 30 May 1814 a definitive treaty of peace between his Britannic majesty and his most Christian majesty Louis XVIII was signed at Paris.

The convention (as with most treaties and conventions of the day) was written in French, the lingua franca of the day. This is the official English translation as found in Hansard.

Suspension of hostilities 1814[edit]

Convention for a Suspension of Hostilities with France. — Signed at Paris, the 23d of April 1814.[1][2]

In the Name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity.—The Allied Powers, anxious to terminate the misfortunes of Europe, and to lay the foundation of its repose on a just division of power between the states of which it is composed; desirous of affording to France, (now that she is reinstated under a government whose principles offer the necessary guarantees for the maintenance of peace), proofs of their disposition to place themselves in the relations of friendship with her; and wishing at the same time that France should enjoy the blessings of peace as much as possible, even before the whole of their arrangements can be completed, have resolved to proceed, conjointly with his Royal Highness Monsieur, Son of France, Brother of the King, Lieutenant General of the Kingdom of France, to a suspension of hostilities between their respective forces, and to the re-establishment of the relations of friendship which formerly subsisted between them.

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, for himself and his Allies on the one part, and his Royal Highness Monsieur, brother of the Most Christian King, Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom of France, on the other part, have, in consequence, named plenipotentiaries to agree to an act, which, without prejudging the terms of Peace, contains stipulations for a suspension of hostilities, and which shall be succeeded, as soon as may be, by a Treaty of Peace; to wit:—His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the right hon. Robert Stewart Viscount Castlereagh, one of his Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, a Member of Parliament, Colonel of the Londonderry regiment of Militia, and his principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; and his Royal Highness Monsieur, Brother of the King, Lieutenant General of the kingdom of France, Le Sieur Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Perigord, Prince of Benevento, Grand Eagle of the Legion of Honour, Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen, of the Orders of St. Andrew, St. Alexander Newsky, and of St. Anne of Russia, of the Orders of the Black Eagle and the Red Eagle of Prussia, Senator and President of the Provisional Government; who, after the exchange of their full powers, have agreed to the following Articles:

Article I. All hostilities by land and sea are, and shall remain, suspended between the Allied Powers and France, that is to say:—for the land forces, as soon as the commanding officers of the French armies and fortified places shall have signified to the allied troops opposed to them, that they have recognized the authority of the Lieutenant General of the kingdom of France; and in like manner upon the sea, as far as regards maritime places and stations, as soon as the shipping and ports of the kingdom of France, or those occupied by French forces shall have manifested the same submission.

Article II. For the purpose of effecting the re-establishment of the relations of friendship between the Allied Powers and France, and to afford to the latter beforehand, as much as possible, the enjoyment of the blessings of peace, the Allied Powers will cause their armies to evacuate the French territory, as it existed on the 1st of January 1792, upon condition that the places still in the possession of the French armies beyond those limits, shall be evacuated and delivered up to the Allies.

Art. III. The Lieutenant-General of the kingdom of France will accordingly instruct the commandants of those places to deliver them up in the following manner, viz. The places situated upon the Rhine, not comprehended within the limits of France on the 1st of January, 1792, and those between the Rhine and the said limits, in the space of ten days, to be calculated from the day of the signature of the present act; the places in Piedmont and in other parts of Italy which belonged to France, in fifteen days; those in Spain in twenty days; and all other places occupied by French troops, without exception, in such manner, as that they shall be entirely delivered up by the 1st of June next. The garrisons of such places shall depart with their arms and baggage, and with the private property of the military, and of the civil agents of every description. They shall be allowed to take with them field artillery in the proportion of three pieces to each one thousand men, the sick and wounded therein comprised.

The property of the fortresses, and every thing which is not private property shall remain untouched, and shall be given over in full to the Allies without any thing being removed. In the property are comprised not only the depôts of artillery and ammunition, but also all other supplies of every description, as well as the archives, inventories, plans, maps, models, &c.

Immediately after the signature of the present Convention, commissaries on the part of the Allied Powers and of France shall be named and dispatched to the fortresses, in order to ascertain the state in which they are, and to regulate together the execution of this article.

The garrisons shall be regulated in their return to France according to the magazines upon the different lines which shall be agreed upon. The blockades of fortified places in France shall be raised immediately by the allied armies.

The French troops making a part of the army of Italy, or occupying the fortified places in that country or in the Mediterranean, shall be recalled immediately by his royal highness the Lieutenant-General of the kingdom.

Article IV. The stipulations of the preceding article shall be equally applied to maritime fortresses, the Contracting Powers reserving, however, to themselves to regulate in the Definitive Treaty of Peace, the fate of the arsenals, vessels of war, armed and unarmed, which are in those places.

Article V. The fleets and ships of France shall remain in their respective situations, vessels only charged with particular missions shall be allowed to sail, but the immediate effect of the present act in respect to the French ports, shall be the raising of all blockade by land or sea, the liberty of fishing, that of the coasting trade, particularly of that which is necessary for supplying Paris with provisions; and the re-establishment of the relations of commerce conformably to the internal regulations of each country; and the immediate effect in respect to the interior shall be the free provisioning of the cities, and the free passage of all means of military or commercial transport.

Article VI. In order to anticipate every subject of complaint and dispute which may arise respecting the captures which might be made at sea after the signature of the present Convention, it is reciprocally agreed that vessels and effects which may be taken in the Channel, and in the North Seas, after the space of twelve days, to reckon from the exchange of the ratifications of the present act, shall be restored on both sides, that the term shall be one month within the Channel and North Seas to the Canary Islands and to the Equator, and five months in every other part of the world, without any exception or other particular distinction of time, or of place.

Article VII. On both sides, the prisoners, officers and soldiers, of land or sea, or of any other description whatever, and particularly hostages, shall be immediately sent back to their respective countries, without ransom and without exchange. Commissaries shall be named reciprocally in order to carry this general liberation into effect.

Article VIII. The administration of the departments or cities actually occupied by the forces of the co-belligerents shall be given over to the magistrates named by His Royal Highness the Lieutenant-General of the kingdom of France. The Royal Authorities shall provide for the subsistence and wants of the troops to the moment when they shall evacuate the French territory, the Allied Powers wishing as an act of friendship towards France, to discontinue the military requisitions, as soon as the restoration of the legitimate authority shall have been effected. Every thing which relates to the execution of this article shall be regulated by a particular Convention.

Article IX. A mutual understanding shall take place respecting the terms of the second article, as to the routes which the troops of the Allied Powers shall follow in their march, in order to prepare the means of subsistance, and commissaries shall be named to regulate all matters of detail, and to accompany the troops till the moment of their quitting the French territory.

In testimony of which the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention, and affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done at Paris, the 23d day of April in the year of our Lord, 1814.

CASTLEREAGH,
LE PRINCE DE BENEVENTO.

ADDITIONAL ARTICLE[edit]

The term of ten days, agreed on in virtue of the stipulations of the Third Article of the Convention of this day for the evacuation of the fortified places upon the Rhine, and between that river and the ancient frontiers of France, is extended to the fortified places and military establishments of whatsoever description in the United Provinces of the United States.

The present additional article shall have the same force and validity, as if it were word for word inserted in the Convention of this day.

In testimony of which the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed it, and affixed thereto the seals of their arms.

Done in Paris, the 23rd day of April in the year of our Lord, 1814.

Castlereagh,
Le Prince de Benevento.

References[edit]

  1. The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time By Great Britain Parliament, Thomas Curson Hansard Published by s.n., 1814 627-631
  2. HC Deb 02 May 1814 vol 27 cc627-31 CONVENTION for a Suspension of Hostilities with FRANCE.—Signed at Paris the 23d of April 1814. HANSARD 1803–2005