Criminal Code Act 1995 (Australia)

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Criminal Code Act 1995 (Australia)

Criminal Code Act 1995[edit]

Act No. 12 of 1995 as amended

This compilation was prepared on 3 August 2005 taking into account amendments up to Act No. 100 of 2005

Section 3AA ceased to have effect and is taken to have been repealed on the day specified in subsection 2.2(2) of the Criminal Code

The text of any of those amendments not in force on that date is appended in the Notes section

The operation of amendments that have been incorporated may be affected by application provisions that are set out in the Notes section

Prepared by the Office of Legislative Drafting and Publishing, Attorney‑General’s Department, Canberra

Contents[edit]

1......... Short title see Note 1]...................................................... 1

2......... Commencement [see Note 1].................................................... 1

3......... The Criminal Code............................................................ 1

3A......... External Territories........................................................ 1

3B......... Offshore installations...................................................... 1

4......... Definitions.................................................................. 1

5......... Regulations.................................................................. 2

Schedule—The Criminal Code.............................................................. 3

Chapter 1—Codification.................................................................. 3

Division 1.............................................................................. 3

1.1......... Codification............................................................... 3

Chapter 2—General principles of criminal responsibility................................. 4

Part 2.1—Purpose and application........................................................ 4

Division 2.............................................................................. 4

2.1......... Purpose.................................................................... 4

2.2......... Application................................................................ 4

2.3......... Application of provisions relating to intoxication......................... 4

Part 2.2—The elements of an offence..................................................... 5

Division 3—General...................................................................... 5

3.1......... Elements................................................................... 5

3.2......... Establishing guilt in respect of offences.................................. 5

Division 4—Physical elements............................................................ 6

4.1......... Physical elements.......................................................... 6

4.2......... Voluntariness.............................................................. 6

4.3......... Omissions.................................................................. 7

Division 5—Fault elements............................................................... 8

5.1......... Fault elements............................................................. 8

5.2......... Intention.................................................................. 8

5.3......... Knowledge.................................................................. 8

5.4......... Recklessness............................................................... 8

5.5......... Negligence................................................................. 9

5.6......... Offences that do not specify fault elements................................ 9

Division 6—Cases where fault elements are not required.................................. 10

6.1......... Strict liability........................................................... 10

6.2......... Absolute liability......................................................... 10

Part 2.3—Circumstances in which there is no criminal responsibility..................... 11

Division 7—Circumstances involving lack of capacity..................................... 11

7.1......... Children under 10.......................................................... 11

7.2......... Children over 10 but under 14.............................................. 11

7.3......... Mental impairment.......................................................... 11

Division 8—Intoxication................................................................. 13

8.1......... Definition—self‑induced intoxication....................................... 13

8.2......... Intoxication (offences involving basic intent)............................. 13

8.3......... Intoxication (negligence as fault element)................................. 14

8.4......... Intoxication (relevance to defences)....................................... 14

8.5......... Involuntary intoxication................................................... 15

Division 9—Circumstances involving mistake or ignorance................................. 16

9.1......... Mistake or ignorance of fact (fault elements other than negligence)........ 16

9.2......... Mistake of fact (strict liability)......................................... 16

9.3......... Mistake or ignorance of statute law........................................ 17

9.4......... Mistake or ignorance of subordinate legislation............................ 17

9.5......... Claim of right............................................................. 18

Division 10—Circumstances involving external factors.................................... 19

10.1....... Intervening conduct or event................................................ 19

10.2....... Duress...................................................................... 19

10.3....... Sudden or extraordinary emergency........................................... 19

10.4....... Self‑defence................................................................ 20

10.5....... Lawful authority............................................................ 21

Part 2.4—Extensions of criminal responsibility.......................................... 22

Division 11............................................................................. 22

11.1....... Attempt..................................................................... 22

11.2....... Complicity and common purpose............................................... 23

11.3....... Innocent agency............................................................. 24

11.4....... Incitement.................................................................. 24

11.5....... Conspiracy.................................................................. 25

11.6....... References in Acts to offences.............................................. 27

Part 2.5—Corporate criminal responsibility.............................................. 28

Division 12............................................................................. 28

12.1....... General principles.......................................................... 28

12.2....... Physical elements........................................................... 28

12.3....... Fault elements other than negligence........................................ 28

12.4....... Negligence.................................................................. 30

12.5....... Mistake of fact (strict liability).......................................... 30

12.6....... Intervening conduct or event................................................ 31

Part 2.6—Proof of criminal responsibility............................................... 32

Division 13............................................................................. 32

13.1....... Legal burden of proof—prosecution........................................... 32

13.2....... Standard of proof—prosecution............................................... 32

13.3....... Evidential burden of proof—defence.......................................... 32

13.4....... Legal burden of proof—defence............................................... 33

13.5....... Standard of proof—defence................................................... 33

13.6....... Use of averments............................................................ 33

Part 2.7—Geographical jurisdiction...................................................... 34

Division 14—Standard geographical jurisdiction.......................................... 34

14.1....... Standard geographical jurisdiction.......................................... 34

Division 15—Extended geographical jurisdiction.......................................... 37

15.1....... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category A............................... 37

15.2....... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category B............................... 39

15.3....... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category C............................... 42

15.4....... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D............................... 43

Division 16—Miscellaneous............................................................... 45

16.1....... Attorney‑General’s consent required for prosecution if alleged conduct occurs wholly in a foreign country in certain circumstances 45

16.2....... When conduct taken to occur partly in Australia............................. 45

16.3....... Meaning of Australia........................................................ 46

16.4....... Result of conduct........................................................... 46

Chapter 4—The integrity and security of the international community and foreign governments 47

Division 70—Bribery of foreign public officials......................................... 47

70.1....... Definitions................................................................. 47

70.2....... Bribing a foreign public official........................................... 50

70.3....... Defence—conduct lawful in foreign public official’s country................. 51

70.4....... Defence—facilitation payments............................................... 54

70.5....... Territorial and nationality requirements.................................... 56

70.6....... Saving of other laws........................................................ 57

Division 71—Offences against United Nations and associated personnel.................... 58

71.1....... Purpose..................................................................... 58

71.2....... Murder of a UN or associated person......................................... 58

71.3....... Manslaughter of a UN or associated person................................... 58

71.4....... Intentionally causing serious harm to a UN or associated person............. 59

71.5....... Recklessly causing serious harm to a UN or associated person................ 59

71.6....... Intentionally causing harm to a UN or associated person..................... 60

71.7....... Recklessly causing harm to a UN or associated person........................ 60

71.8....... Unlawful sexual penetration................................................. 61

71.9....... Kidnapping a UN or associated person........................................ 62

71.10..... Unlawful detention of UN or associated person................................ 62

71.11..... Intentionally causing damage to UN or associated person’s property etc....... 63

71.12..... Threatening to commit other offences......................................... 64

71.13..... Aggravated offences.......................................................... 64

71.14..... Defence—activities involving serious harm.................................... 65

71.15..... Defence—medical or hygienic procedures....................................... 65

71.16..... Jurisdictional requirement................................................... 65

71.17..... Exclusion of this Division if State/Territory laws provide for corresponding offences 67

71.18..... Double jeopardy.............................................................. 67

71.19..... Saving of other laws......................................................... 67

71.20..... Bringing proceedings under this Division..................................... 67

71.21..... Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings............................. 68

71.22..... Jurisdiction of State courts preserved....................................... 68

71.23..... Definitions.................................................................. 68

Division 72—International terrorist activities using explosive or lethal devices........ 71

72.1....... Purpose..................................................................... 71

72.2....... ADF members not liable for prosecution...................................... 71

72.3....... Offences.................................................................... 71

72.4....... Jurisdictional requirement.................................................. 72

72.5....... Saving of other laws........................................................ 73

72.6....... Double jeopardy and foreign offences........................................ 73

72.7....... Bringing proceedings under this Division.................................... 74

72.8....... Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings............................ 74

72.9....... Jurisdiction of State courts preserved...................................... 75

72.10..... Definitions.................................................................. 75

Division 73—People smuggling and related offences....................................... 76

Subdivision A—People smuggling offences................................................. 76

73.1....... Offence of people smuggling................................................. 76

73.2....... Aggravated offence of people smuggling (exploitation etc.).................. 76

73.3....... Aggravated offence of people smuggling (at least 5 people).................. 77

73.4....... Jurisdictional requirement.................................................. 78

73.5....... Attorney‑General’s consent required......................................... 79

Subdivision B—Document offences related to people smuggling and unlawful entry into foreign countries 79

73.6....... Meaning of travel or identity document...................................... 79

73.7....... Meaning of false travel or identity document................................ 79

73.8....... Making, providing or possessing a false travel or identity document......... 80

73.9....... Providing or possessing a travel or identity document issued or altered dishonestly or as a result of threats 81

73.10..... Providing or possessing a travel or identity document to be used by a person who is not the rightful user 82

73.11..... Taking possession of or destroying another person’s travel or identity document 82

73.12..... Jurisdictional requirement.................................................... 83

Chapter 5—The security of the Commonwealth............................................... 84

Part 5.1—Treason......................................................................... 84

Division 80—Treason...................................................................... 84

80.1....... Treason...................................................................... 84

Part 5.2—Offences relating to espionage and similar activities........................... 87

Division 90—Preliminary.................................................................. 87

90.1....... Definitions.................................................................. 87

Division 91—Offences relating to espionage and similar activities........................ 89

91.1....... Espionage and similar activities............................................. 89

91.2....... Defence—information lawfully available....................................... 91

Division 93—Prosecutions and hearings.................................................... 92

93.1....... Institution of prosecution................................................... 92

93.2....... Hearing in camera etc........................................................ 92

Division 94—Forfeiture................................................................... 94

94.1....... Forfeiture of articles etc................................................... 94

Part 5.3—Terrorism....................................................................... 95

Division 100—Preliminary................................................................. 95

100.1..... Definitions................................................................... 95

100.2..... Referring States.............................................................. 97

100.3..... Constitutional basis for the operation of this Part........................... 98

100.4..... Application of provisions..................................................... 99

100.5..... Application of Acts Interpretation Act 1901................................... 101

100.6..... Concurrent operation intended................................................. 101

100.7..... Regulations may modify operation of this Part to deal with interaction between this Part and State and Territory laws 102

100.8..... Approval for changes to or affecting this Part................................ 103

Division 101—Terrorism................................................................... 104

101.1..... Terrorist acts................................................................ 104

101.2..... Providing or receiving training connected with terrorist acts................. 104

101.4..... Possessing things connected with terrorist acts............................... 105

101.5..... Collecting or making documents likely to facilitate terrorist acts............ 106

101.6..... Other acts done in preparation for, or planning, terrorist acts............... 107

Division 102—Terrorist organisations..................................................... 108

Subdivision A—Definitions................................................................ 108

102.1..... Definitions................................................................... 108

102.1A.. Reviews by Parliamentary Joint Committee on ASIO, ASIS and DSD.................. 115

Subdivision B—Offences................................................................... 117

102.2..... Directing the activities of a terrorist organisation.......................... 117

102.3..... Membership of a terrorist organisation........................................ 117

102.4..... Recruiting for a terrorist organisation....................................... 118

102.5..... Training a terrorist organisation or receiving training from a terrorist organisation 118

102.6..... Getting funds to or from a terrorist organisation............................. 119

102.7..... Providing support to a terrorist organisation................................. 120

102.8..... Associating with terrorist organisations...................................... 120

Subdivision C—General provisions relating to offences.................................... 123

102.9..... Extended geographical jurisdiction for offences............................... 123

102.10... Alternative verdicts........................................................... 123

Division 103—Financing terrorism......................................................... 124

103.1..... Financing terrorism........................................................... 124

Division 106—Transitional provisions..................................................... 125

106.1..... Saving—regulations made for the purposes of the definition of terrorist organisation 125

Part 5.4—Harming Australians............................................................. 126

Division 104—Harming Australians......................................................... 126

104.1..... Murder of an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia.................... 126

104.2..... Manslaughter of an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia.............. 126

104.3..... Intentionally causing serious harm to an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia 127

104.4..... Recklessly causing serious harm to an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia 127

104.5..... Saving of other laws.......................................................... 127

104.6..... Bringing proceedings under this Division...................................... 127

104.7..... Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings.............................. 128

104.8..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 128

104.9..... Meaning of causes death or harm............................................... 128

Chapter 7—The proper administration of Government........................................ 129

Part 7.1—Preliminary..................................................................... 129

Division 130—Preliminary................................................................. 129

130.1..... Definitions................................................................... 129

130.2..... When property belongs to a person............................................. 130

130.3..... Dishonesty.................................................................... 131

130.4..... Determination of dishonesty to be a matter for the trier of fact.............. 131

Part 7.2—Theft and other property offences............................................... 132

Division 131—Theft....................................................................... 132

131.1..... Theft......................................................................... 132

131.2..... Special rules about the meaning of dishonesty................................. 132

131.3..... Appropriation of property..................................................... 133

131.4..... Theft of land or things forming part of land.................................. 133

131.5..... Trust property................................................................ 133

131.6..... Obligation to deal with property in a particular way.......................... 134

131.7..... Property obtained because of fundamental mistake.............................. 134

131.8..... Property of a corporation sole................................................ 135

131.9..... Property belonging to 2 or more persons....................................... 135

131.10... Intention of permanently depriving a person of property........................ 135

131.11... General deficiency............................................................. 136

Division 132—Other property offences..................................................... 137

132.1..... Receiving..................................................................... 137

132.2..... Robbery....................................................................... 140

132.3..... Aggravated robbery............................................................ 141

132.4..... Burglary...................................................................... 142

132.5..... Aggravated burglary........................................................... 144

132.6..... Making off without payment.................................................... 145

132.7..... Going equipped for theft or a property offence................................ 145

132.8..... Dishonest taking or retention of property..................................... 147

132.9..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 148

Part 7.3—Fraudulent conduct.............................................................. 149

Division 133—Preliminary................................................................. 149

133.1..... Definitions................................................................... 149

Division 134—Obtaining property or a financial advantage by deception.................... 150

134.1..... Obtaining property by deception............................................... 150

134.2..... Obtaining a financial advantage by deception.................................. 153

134.3..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 153

Division 135—Other offences involving fraudulent conduct................................. 154

135.1..... General dishonesty............................................................ 154

135.2..... Obtaining financial advantage................................................. 155

135.4..... Conspiracy to defraud......................................................... 156

135.5..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 158

Part 7.4—False or misleading statements.................................................. 159

Division 136—False or misleading statements in applications.............................. 159

136.1..... False or misleading statements in applications................................ 159

Division 137—False or misleading information or documents................................ 162

137.1..... False or misleading information............................................... 162

137.2..... False or misleading documents................................................. 163

137.3..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 164

Part 7.5—Unwarranted demands............................................................. 165

Division 138—Preliminary................................................................. 165

138.1..... Unwarranted demand with menaces............................................... 165

138.2..... Menaces....................................................................... 165

Division 139—Unwarranted demands......................................................... 167

139.1..... Unwarranted demands of a Commonwealth public official......................... 167

139.2..... Unwarranted demands made by a Commonwealth public official.................... 167

139.3..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 168

Part 7.6—Bribery and related offences.................................................... 169

Division 140—Preliminary................................................................. 169

140.1..... Definition.................................................................... 169

140.2..... Obtaining..................................................................... 169

Division 141—Bribery..................................................................... 170

141.1..... Bribery of a Commonwealth public official..................................... 170

Division 142—Offences relating to bribery................................................ 172

142.1..... Corrupting benefits given to, or received by, a Commonwealth public official.. 172

142.2..... Abuse of public office........................................................ 173

142.3..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 174

Part 7.7—Forgery and related offences.................................................... 175

Division 143—Preliminary................................................................. 175

143.1..... Definitions................................................................... 175

143.2..... False documents............................................................... 175

143.3..... False Commonwealth documents.................................................. 176

143.4..... Inducing acceptance of false documents........................................ 178

Division 144—Forgery..................................................................... 179

144.1..... Forgery....................................................................... 179

Division 145—Offences relating to forgery................................................ 181

145.1..... Using forged document......................................................... 181

145.2..... Possession of forged document................................................. 182

145.3..... Possession, making or adaptation of devices etc. for making forgeries......... 184

145.4..... Falsification of documents etc................................................ 185

145.5..... Giving information derived from false or misleading documents................. 186

145.6..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 187

Part 7.8—Causing harm to, and impersonation and obstruction of, Commonwealth public officials 188

Division 146—Preliminary................................................................. 188

146.1..... Definitions................................................................... 188

146.2..... Causing harm.................................................................. 189

Division 147—Causing harm to Commonwealth public officials............................... 190

147.1..... Causing harm to a Commonwealth public official etc............................ 190

147.2..... Threatening to cause harm to a Commonwealth public official etc............... 191

147.3..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 194

Division 148—Impersonation of Commonwealth public officials.............................. 195

148.1..... Impersonation of an official by a non‑official................................ 195

148.2..... Impersonation of an official by another official.............................. 196

148.3..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 197

Division 149—Obstruction of Commonwealth public officials................................ 198

149.1..... Obstruction of Commonwealth public officials.................................. 198

Part 7.20—Miscellaneous.................................................................. 200

Division 261—Miscellaneous............................................................... 200

261.1..... Saving of other laws.......................................................... 200

261.2..... Contempt of court............................................................. 200

261.3..... Ancillary offences............................................................ 200

Chapter 8—Offences against humanity and related offences................................. 201

Division 268—Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court 201

Subdivision A—Introductory............................................................... 201

268.1..... Purpose of Division........................................................... 201

268.2..... Outline of offences........................................................... 201

Subdivision B—Genocide................................................................... 202

268.3..... Genocide by killing........................................................... 202

268.4..... Genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm............................. 202

268.5..... Genocide by deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction 202

268.6..... Genocide by imposing measures intended to prevent births...................... 203

268.7..... Genocide by forcibly transferring children.................................... 203

Subdivision C—Crimes against humanity.................................................... 204

268.8..... Crime against humanity—murder................................................. 204

268.9..... Crime against humanity—extermination.......................................... 204

268.10... Crime against humanity—enslavement............................................. 205

268.11... Crime against humanity—deportation or forcible transfer of population.......... 205

268.12... Crime against humanity—imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty 206

268.13... Crime against humanity—torture................................................. 206

268.14... Crime against humanity—rape.................................................... 207

268.15... Crime against humanity—sexual slavery.......................................... 208

268.16... Crime against humanity—enforced prostitution................................... 209

268.17... Crime against humanity—forced pregnancy........................................ 210

268.18... Crime against humanity—enforced sterilisation.................................. 211

268.19... Crime against humanity—sexual violence......................................... 211

268.20... Crime against humanity—persecution............................................. 213

268.21... Crime against humanity—enforced disappearance of persons....................... 213

268.22... Crime against humanity—apartheid............................................... 215

268.23... Crime against humanity—other inhumane act...................................... 215

Subdivision D—War crimes that are grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions 216

268.24... War crime—wilful killing....................................................... 216

268.25... War crime—torture.............................................................. 216

268.26... War crime—inhumane treatment................................................... 217

268.27... War crime—biological experiments............................................... 217

268.28... War crime—wilfully causing great suffering..................................... 218

268.29... War crime—destruction and appropriation of property............................ 218

268.30... War crime—compelling service in hostile forces................................. 219

268.31... War crime—denying a fair trial................................................. 219

268.32... War crime—unlawful deportation or transfer..................................... 220

268.33... War crime—unlawful confinement................................................. 220

268.34... War crime—taking hostages...................................................... 221

Subdivision E—Other serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict 221

268.35... War crime—attacking civilians.................................................. 221

268.36... War crime—attacking civilian objects........................................... 222

268.37... War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission 222

268.38... War crime—excessive incidental death, injury or damage......................... 223

268.39... War crime—attacking undefended places.......................................... 224

268.40... War crime—killing or injuring a person who is hors de combat................... 224

268.41... War crime—improper use of a flag of truce...................................... 225

268.42... War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party..... 225

268.43... War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations.... 225

268.44... War crime—improper use of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions.... 226

268.45... War crime—transfer of population............................................... 227

268.46... War crime—attacking protected objects.......................................... 227

268.47... War crime—mutilation........................................................... 227

268.48... War crime—medical or scientific experiments.................................... 228

268.49... War crime—treacherously killing or injuring.................................... 229

268.50... War crime—denying quarter...................................................... 230

268.51... War crime—destroying or seizing the enemy’s property........................... 230

268.52... War crime—depriving nationals of the adverse power of rights or actions........ 231

268.53... War crime—compelling participation in military operations...................... 231

268.54... War crime—pillaging............................................................ 232

268.55... War crime—employing poison or poisoned weapons................................. 232

268.56... War crime—employing prohibited gases, liquids, materials or devices............ 232

268.57... War crime—employing prohibited bullets......................................... 233

268.58... War crime—outrages upon personal dignity....................................... 233

268.59... War crime—rape................................................................. 234

268.60... War crime—sexual slavery....................................................... 235

268.61... War crime—enforced prostitution................................................ 236

268.62... War crime—forced pregnancy..................................................... 237

268.63... War crime—enforced sterilisation............................................... 238

268.64... War crime—sexual violence...................................................... 238

268.65... War crime—using protected persons as shields................................... 239

268.66... War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions 240

268.67... War crime—starvation as a method of warfare.................................... 241

268.68... War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children............................ 241

Subdivision F—War crimes that are serious violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and are committed in the course of an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict 242

268.69... Definition of religious personnel.............................................. 242

268.70... War crime—murder............................................................... 242

268.71... War crime—mutilation........................................................... 243

268.72... War crime—cruel treatment...................................................... 244

268.73... War crime—torture.............................................................. 245

268.74... War crime—outrages upon personal dignity....................................... 245

268.75... War crime—taking hostages...................................................... 246

268.76... War crime—sentencing or execution without due process.......................... 247

Subdivision G—War crimes that are other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict 249

268.77... War crime—attacking civilians.................................................. 249

268.78... War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions 249

268.79... War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission 250

268.80... War crime—attacking protected objects.......................................... 251

268.81... War crime—pillaging............................................................ 251

268.82... War crime—rape................................................................. 252

268.83... War crime—sexual slavery....................................................... 253

268.84... War crime—enforced prostitution................................................ 254

268.85... War crime—forced pregnancy..................................................... 255

268.86... War crime—enforced sterilisation............................................... 256

268.87... War crime—sexual violence...................................................... 256

268.88... War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children............................ 258

268.89... War crime—displacing civilians................................................. 259

268.90... War crime—treacherously killing or injuring.................................... 259

268.91... War crime—denying quarter...................................................... 260

268.92... War crime—mutilation........................................................... 260

268.93... War crime—medical or scientific experiments.................................... 261

268.94... War crime—destroying or seizing an adversary’s property........................ 262

Subdivision H—War crimes that are grave breaches of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions. 263

268.95... War crime—medical procedure.................................................... 263

268.96... War crime—removal of blood, tissue or organs for transplantation............... 263

268.97... War crime—attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces resulting in excessive loss of life or injury to civilians 264

268.98... War crime—attacking undefended places or demilitarized zones................... 265

268.99... War crime—unjustifiable delay in the repatriation of prisoners of war or civilians 265

268.100. War crime—apartheid............................................................. 266

268.101. War crime—attacking protected objects........................................... 266

Subdivision J—Crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court 267

268.102. Perjury......................................................................... 267

268.103. Falsifying evidence............................................................. 267

268.104. Destroying or concealing evidence............................................... 268

268.105. Deceiving witnesses............................................................. 268

268.106. Corrupting witnesses or interpreters............................................ 268

268.107. Threatening witnesses or interpreters........................................... 269

268.108. Preventing witnesses or interpreters............................................ 270

268.109. Preventing production of things in evidence..................................... 270

268.110. Reprisals against witnesses..................................................... 270

268.111. Reprisals against officials of the International Criminal Court................. 271

268.112. Perverting the course of justice................................................ 271

268.113. Receipt of a corrupting benefit by an official of the International Criminal Court 272

268.114. Subdivision not to apply to certain conduct..................................... 272

Subdivision K—Miscellaneous.............................................................. 273

268.115. Responsibility of commanders and other superiors................................ 273

268.116. Defence of superior orders...................................................... 274

268.117. Geographical jurisdiction....................................................... 274

268.118. Double jeopardy................................................................. 274

268.119. Offences related to exercise of jurisdiction of International Criminal Court.... 275

268.120. Saving of other laws............................................................ 275

268.121. Bringing proceedings under this Division........................................ 275

268.122. Attorney‑General’s decisions in relation to consents to be final................ 275

268.123. Legal representation............................................................ 276

268.124. Proof of application of Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions 276

Division 270—Slavery, sexual servitude and deceptive recruiting.......................... 278

270.1..... Definition of slavery......................................................... 278

270.2..... Slavery is unlawful........................................................... 278

270.3..... Slavery offences.............................................................. 278

270.4..... Definition of sexual servitude................................................ 279

270.5..... Jurisdictional requirement.................................................... 279

270.6..... Sexual servitude offences..................................................... 280

270.7..... Deceptive recruiting for sexual services...................................... 280

270.8..... Aggravated offences........................................................... 282

270.9..... Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven.......................... 282

270.12... Other laws not excluded........................................................ 282

270.13... Double jeopardy................................................................ 283

270.14... External Territories........................................................... 283

Division 271—Trafficking in persons and debt bondage..................................... 284

Subdivision A—Definitions................................................................ 284

271.1..... Definitions................................................................... 284

Subdivision B—Offences relating to trafficking in persons................................ 284

271.2..... Offence of trafficking in persons............................................. 284

271.3..... Aggravated offence of trafficking in persons.................................. 287

271.4..... Offence of trafficking in children............................................ 288

271.5..... Offence of domestic trafficking in persons.................................... 289

271.6..... Aggravated offence of domestic trafficking in persons......................... 291

271.7..... Offence of domestic trafficking in children................................... 291

Subdivision C—Offences relating to debt bondage.......................................... 292

271.8..... Offence of debt bondage....................................................... 292

271.9..... Offence of aggravated debt bondage............................................ 293

Subdivision D—General provisions relating to offences under this Division................ 293

271.10... Jurisdictional requirement for offences other than offences related to domestic trafficking in persons 293

271.11... Jurisdictional requirement for offences related to domestic trafficking in persons 293

271.12... Other laws not excluded........................................................ 294

271.13... Double jeopardy................................................................ 294

Chapter 9—Dangers to the community....................................................... 295

Part 9.4—Dangerous weapons............................................................... 295

Division 360—Cross‑border firearms trafficking........................................... 295

360.1..... Disposal and acquisition of a firearm......................................... 295

360.2..... Cross‑border offence of disposal or acquisition of a firearm.................. 295

360.3..... Taking or sending a firearm across borders.................................... 296

360.4..... Concurrent operation intended................................................. 297

Part 9.6—Contamination of goods.......................................................... 298

380.1..... Definitions................................................................... 298

380.2..... Contaminating goods........................................................... 298

380.3..... Threatening to contaminate goods.............................................. 300

380.4..... Making false statements about contamination of goods.......................... 302

380.5..... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D................................. 304

Chapter 10—National infrastructure....................................................... 305

Part 10.2—Money laundering............................................................... 305

Division 400—Money laundering............................................................ 305

400.1..... Definitions................................................................... 305

400.2..... Meaning of dealing with money or other property............................... 306

400.3..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000,000 or more.. 307

400.4..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $100,000 or more.... 309

400.5..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $50,000 or more..... 310

400.6..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $10,000 or more..... 311

400.7..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000 or more...... 312

400.8..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property of any value.............. 313

400.9..... Possession etc. of property reasonably suspected of being proceeds of crime etc. 314

400.10... Mistake of fact as to the value of money or property........................... 316

400.11... Proof of certain matters relating to kinds of offences not required............ 317

400.12... Combining several contraventions in a single charge............................ 317

400.13... Proof of other offences is not required........................................ 317

400.14... Alternative verdicts........................................................... 318

400.15... Geographical jurisdiction...................................................... 318

400.16... Saving of other laws........................................................... 318

Part 10.5—Postal services................................................................ 319

Division 470—Preliminary................................................................. 319

470.1..... Definitions................................................................... 319

470.2..... Dishonesty.................................................................... 321

470.3..... Determination of dishonesty to be a matter for the trier of fact.............. 321

Division 471—Postal offences............................................................. 322

471.1..... Theft of mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages........................ 322

471.2..... Receiving stolen mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages................ 323

471.3..... Taking or concealing of mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages......... 325

471.4..... Dishonest removal of postage stamps or postmarks.............................. 325

471.5..... Dishonest use of previously used, defaced or obliterated stamps............... 325

471.6..... Damaging or destroying mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages.......... 326

471.7..... Tampering with mail‑receptacles............................................... 326

471.8..... Dishonestly obtaining delivery of articles.................................... 327

471.9..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 327

471.10... Hoaxes—explosives and dangerous substances..................................... 327

471.11... Using a postal or similar service to make a threat............................. 328

471.12... Using a postal or similar service to menace, harass or cause offence........... 328

471.13... Causing a dangerous article to be carried by a postal or similar service....... 329

471.14... Geographical jurisdiction...................................................... 330

471.15... Causing an explosive, or a dangerous or harmful substance, to be carried by post 330

Division 472—Miscellaneous............................................................... 331

472.1..... Saving of other laws.......................................................... 331

472.2..... Interpretation of other laws.................................................. 331

Part 10.6—Telecommunications Services.................................................... 332

Division 473—Preliminary................................................................. 332

473.1..... Definitions................................................................... 332

473.2..... Possession or control of data or material in the form of data................. 339

473.3..... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or material in the form of data........ 339

473.4..... Determining whether material is offensive..................................... 339

Division 474—Telecommunications offences................................................. 340

Subdivision A—Dishonesty with respect to carriage services............................... 340

474.1..... Dishonesty.................................................................... 340

474.2..... General dishonesty with respect to a carriage service provider................ 340

Subdivision B—Interference with telecommunications....................................... 341

474.3..... Person acting for a carrier or carriage service provider...................... 341

474.4..... Interception devices.......................................................... 341

474.5..... Wrongful delivery of communications........................................... 342

474.6..... Interference with facilities.................................................. 342

474.7..... Modification etc. of a telecommunications device identifier................... 344

474.8..... Possession or control of data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier 345

474.9..... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier 346

474.10... Copying subscription‑specific secure data...................................... 347

474.11... Possession or control of data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier 349

474.12... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier 350

Subdivision C—Offences related to use of telecommunications.............................. 351

474.13... Use of a carriage service...................................................... 351

474.14... Using a telecommunications network with intention to commit a serious offence.. 352

474.15... Using a carriage service to make a threat...................................... 353

474.16... Using a carriage service for a hoax threat..................................... 353

474.17... Using a carriage service to menace, harass or cause offence.................... 354

474.18... Improper use of emergency call service......................................... 354

474.19... Using a carriage service for child pornography material........................ 355

474.20... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child pornography material for use through a carriage service 356

474.21... Defences in respect of child pornography material.............................. 356

474.22... Using a carriage service for child abuse material.............................. 358

474.23... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child abuse material for use through a carriage service 358

474.24... Defences in respect of child abuse material.................................... 359

474.25... Obligations of Internet service providers and Internet content hosts........... 361

474.26... Using a carriage service to procure persons under 16 years of age.............. 361

474.27... Using a carriage service to “groom” persons under 16 years of age.............. 362

474.28... Provisions relating to offences against sections 474.26 and 474.27............. 364

474.29... Defences to offences against section 474.26 or 474.27.......................... 366

474.30... Defences for NRS employees and emergency call persons.......................... 366

Division 475—Miscellaneous............................................................... 367

475.1..... Saving of other laws.......................................................... 367

475.2..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 367

Part 10.7—Computer offences.............................................................. 368

Division 476—Preliminary................................................................. 368

476.1..... Definitions................................................................... 368

476.2..... Meaning of unauthorised access, modification or impairment.................... 369

476.3..... Geographical jurisdiction..................................................... 370

476.4..... Saving of other laws.......................................................... 370

476.5..... Liability for certain acts.................................................... 370

Division 477—Serious computer offences................................................... 373

477.1..... Unauthorised access, modification or impairment with intent to commit a serious offence 373

477.2..... Unauthorised modification of data to cause impairment......................... 374

477.3..... Unauthorised impairment of electronic communication........................... 376

Division 478—Other computer offences..................................................... 377

478.1..... Unauthorised access to, or modification of, restricted data................... 377

478.2..... Unauthorised impairment of data held on a computer disk etc................... 377

478.3..... Possession or control of data with intent to commit a computer offence........ 378

478.4..... Producing, supplying or obtaining data with intent to commit a computer offence 379

Part 10.8—Financial information offences................................................. 380

480.1..... Definitions................................................................... 380

480.2..... Dishonesty.................................................................... 381

480.3..... Constitutional application of this Part....................................... 381

480.4..... Dishonestly obtaining or dealing in personal financial information............ 381

480.5..... Possession or control of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information 381

480.6..... Importation of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information 382

Dictionary............................................................................... 383

Notes.................................................................................... 397



An Act relating to the criminal law

1 Short title [see Note 1]

This Act may be cited as the Criminal Code Act 1995.

2 Commencement [see Note 1]

(1) Subject to subsection (2), this Act commences on a day to be fixed by Proclamation.

(2) If this Act does not commence under subsection (1) within the period of 5 years beginning on the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent, it commences on the first day after the end of that period.

3 The Criminal Code

(1) The Schedule has effect as a law of the Commonwealth.

(2) The Schedule may be cited as the Criminal Code.

3A External Territories

The Criminal Code extends to every external Territory.

3B Offshore installations

Unless the contrary intention appears, an installation (within the meaning of the Customs Act 1901) that is deemed by section 5C of the Customs Act 1901 to be part of Australia is also taken to be part of Australia for the purposes of the Criminal Code.

4 Definitions

(1) Expressions used in the Code (or in a particular provision of the Code) that are defined in the Dictionary at the end of the Code have the meanings given to them in the Dictionary.

(2) Definitions in the Code of expressions used in the Code apply to its construction except insofar as the context or subject matter otherwise indicates or requires.

5 Regulations

The Governor‑General may make regulations prescribing matters

(a) required or permitted by this Act to be prescribed; or

(b) necessary or convenient to be prescribed for carrying out or giving effect to this Act.

Schedule—The Criminal Code[edit]

Section 3

Dictionary[edit]

aggravated burglary means an offence against section 132.5.

aggravated robbery means an offence against section 132.3.

ancillary offence means:

(a) an offence against section 11.1, 11.4 or 11.5; or
(b) an offence against a law of the Commonwealth, to the extent to which the offence arises out of the operation of section 11.2 or 11.3.

attack directed against a civilian population means a course of conduct involving the multiple commission of any one or more proscribed inhumane acts against any civilian population pursuant to, or in furtherance of, a state or organisational policy to engage in that course of conduct.

Australia, when used in a geographical sense, includes the external Territories.

Australian aircraft means:

(a) an aircraft registered, or required to be registered, under the Civil Aviation Regulations as an Australian aircraft; or
(b) an aircraft (other than a defence aircraft) that is owned by, or in the possession or control of, a Commonwealth entity; or
(c) a defence aircraft.

Australian ship means:

(a) a ship registered, or required to be registered, under the Shipping Registration Act 1981; or
(b) an unregistered ship that has Australian nationality; or
(c) a defence ship.

benefit includes any advantage and is not limited to property.

burglary means an offence against section 132.4.

carriage service has the same meaning as in the Telecommunications Act 1997.

Commonwealth authority means a body established by or under a law of the Commonwealth, but does not include:

(a) a body established by or under:
(i) the Aboriginal Councils and Associations Act 1976; or
(ii) the Australian Capital Territory (Self‑Government) Act 1988; or
(iii) the Corporations Act 2001; or
(iv) the Norfolk Island Act 1979; or
(v) the Northern Territory (Self‑Government) Act 1978; or
(vi) Part 2 of Chapter 2 of Schedule 1B to the Workplace Relations Act 1996; or
(b) a body specified in the regulations.

Commonwealth contract means a contract, to which a Commonwealth entity is a party, under which services are to be, or were to be, provided to a Commonwealth entity.

Commonwealth entity means:

(a) the Commonwealth; or
(b) a Commonwealth authority.

Commonwealth judicial officer means:

(a) a Justice of the High Court; or
(b) a judge or justice of a court created by the Parliament (other than the Federal Magistrates Court); or
(c) a Federal Magistrate; or
(d) a registrar or other officer of the High Court; or
(e) a judicial registrar, registrar or other officer of a court created by the Parliament; or
(f) a judge, justice, magistrate or other judicial officer of a court of a State or Territory who acts in the exercise of federal jurisdiction; or
(g) a judicial registrar, registrar or other officer of a court of a State or Territory who exercises powers, or performs functions, incidental to the exercise of federal jurisdiction; or
(h) a judge, justice, magistrate or other judicial officer of a court of a State or Territory who acts in the exercise of jurisdiction under a law in force in a Territory (other than the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory or the Territory of Norfolk Island); or
(i) a judicial registrar, registrar or other officer of a court of a State or Territory who exercises powers, or performs functions, incidental to the exercise of jurisdiction under a law in force in a Territory (other than the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory or the Territory of Norfolk Island).

Commonwealth public official means:

(a) the Governor‑General; or
(b) a person appointed to administer the Government of the Commonwealth under section 4 of the Constitution; or
(c) a Minister; or
(d) a Parliamentary Secretary; or
(e) a member of either House of the Parliament; or
(f) an individual who holds an appointment under section 67 of the Constitution; or
(g) the Administrator, an Acting Administrator, or a Deputy Administrator, of the Northern Territory; or
(h) the Administrator, an Acting Administrator, or a Deputy Administrator, of Norfolk Island; or
(i) a Commonwealth judicial officer; or
(j) an APS employee; or
k) an individual employed by the Commonwealth otherwise than under the Public Service Act 1999; or
(l) a member of the Australian Defence Force; or
(m) a member or special member of the Australian Federal Police; or
(n) an individual who holds or performs the duties of an office established by or under a law of the Commonwealth, other than:
(i) the Aboriginal Councils and Associations Act 1976; or
(ii) the Australian Capital Territory (Self‑Government) Act 1988; or
(iii) the Corporations Act 2001; or
(iv) the Norfolk Island Act 1979; or
(v) the Northern Territory (Self‑Government) Act 1978; or
(vi) Part 2 of Chapter 2 of Schedule 1B to the Workplace Relations Act 1996; or
(o) an officer or employee of a Commonwealth authority; or
(p) an individual who is a contracted service provider for a Commonwealth contract; or
(q) an individual who is an officer or employee of a contracted service provider for a Commonwealth contract and who provides services for the purposes (whether direct or indirect) of the Commonwealth contract; or
(r) an individual who exercises powers, or performs functions, conferred on the person by or under a law of the Commonwealth, other than:
(i) the Aboriginal Councils and Associations Act 1976; or
(ii) the Australian Capital Territory (Self‑Government) Act 1988; or
(iii) the Corporations Act 2001; or
(iv) the Norfolk Island Act 1979; or
(v) the Northern Territory (Self‑Government) Act 1978; or
(vi) Part 2 of Chapter 2 of Schedule 1B to the Workplace Relations Act 1996; or
(vii) a provision specified in the regulations; or
(s) an individual who exercises powers, or performs functions, conferred on the person under a law in force in the Territory of Christmas Island or the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (whether the law is a law of the Commonwealth or a law of the Territory concerned); or
(t) the Registrar, or a Deputy Registrar, of Aboriginal Corporations.

communication includes any communication:

(a) whether between persons and persons, things and things or persons and things; and
(b) whether the communication is:
(i) in the form of text; or
(ii) in the form of speech, music or other sounds; or
(iii) in the form of visual images (still or moving); or
(iv) in the form of signals; or
(v) in the form of data; or
(vi) in any other form; or
(vii) in any combination of forms.

conduct is defined in subsection 4.1(2).

constitutional corporation means a corporation to which paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution applies.

contracted service provider, for a Commonwealth contract, means:

(a) a person who is a party to the Commonwealth contract and who is responsible for the provision of services to a Commonwealth entity under the Commonwealth contract; or
(b) a subcontractor for the Commonwealth contract.

Covenant means the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, a copy of the English text of which is set out in Schedule 2 to the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986.

crime against humanity means an offence under Subdivision C of Division 268.

crime against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court means an offence under Subdivision J of Division 268.

data includes:

(a) information in any form; or
(b) any program (or part of a program).

data held in a computer includes:

(a) data held in any removable data storage device for the time being held in a computer; or
(b) data held in a data storage device on a computer network of which the computer forms a part.

data storage device means a thing (for example, a disk or file server) containing, or designed to contain, data for use by a computer.

death means:

(a) the irreversible cessation of all function of a person’s brain (including the brain stem); or
(b) the irreversible cessation of circulation of blood in a person’s body.

debt bondage means the status or condition that arises from a pledge by a person:

(a) of his or her personal services; or
(b) of the personal services of another person under his or her control;

as security for a debt owed, or claimed to be owed, (including any debt incurred, or claimed to be incurred, after the pledge is given), by that person if:

(ba) the debt owed or claimed to be owed is manifestly excessive; or
(c) the reasonable value of those services is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or purported debt; or
(d) the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined.

defence aircraft means an aircraft of any part of the Australian Defence Force, and includes an aircraft that is being commanded or piloted by a member of that Force in the course of his or her duties as such a member.

defence ship means a ship of any part of the Australian Defence Force, and includes a ship that is being operated or commanded by a member of that Force in the course of his or her duties as such a member.

detaining a person includes causing the person to remain where he or she is.

detriment includes any disadvantage and is not limited to personal injury or to loss of or damage to property.

distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions means the emblems, identity cards, signs, signals, insignia or uniforms to which subsection 15(1) of the Geneva Conventions Act 1957 applies.

electronic communication means a communication by means of guided or unguided electromagnetic energy or both.

employee includes a servant.

engage in conduct is defined in subsection 4.1(2).

evidence includes anything that may be used as evidence.

evidential burden is defined in subsection 13.3(6).

exploitation, of one person (the victim) by another person (the exploiter), occurs if:

(a) the exploiter’s conduct causes the victim to enter into slavery, forced labour or sexual servitude; or
(b) the exploiter’s conduct causes an organ of the victim to be removed and:
(i) the removal is contrary to the law of the State or Territory where it is carried out; or
(ii) neither the victim nor the victim’s legal guardian consented to the removal and it does not meet a medical or therapeutic need of the victim.

First Geneva Convention means the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, adopted at Geneva on 12 August 1949, a copy of the English text of which (not including the annexes) is set out in Schedule 1 to the Geneva Conventions Act 1957.

forced labour is defined in section 73.2.

foreign country includes:

(a) a colony or overseas territory; and
(b) a territory outside Australia, where a foreign country is to any extent responsible for the international relations of the territory; and
(c) a territory outside Australia that is to some extent self‑governing, but that is not recognised as an independent sovereign state by Australia.

Fourth Geneva Convention means the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, adopted at Geneva on 12 August 1949, a copy of the English text of which (not including the annexes) is set out in Schedule 4 to the Geneva Conventions Act 1957.

Geneva Conventions means the First Geneva Convention, the Second Geneva Convention, the Third Geneva Convention and the Fourth Geneva Convention.

genocide means an offence under Subdivision B of Division 268.

Hague Declaration means the Hague Declarations Concerning the Prohibition of Using Bullets which Expand or Flatten Easily in the Human Body, adopted at the Hague on 29 July 1899.

harm means physical harm or harm to a person’s mental health, whether temporary or permanent. However, it does not include being subjected to any force or impact that is within the limits of what is acceptable as incidental to social interaction or to life in the community.

harm to a person’s mental health includes significant psychological harm, but does not include mere ordinary emotional reactions such as those of only distress, grief, fear or anger.

hors de combat: a person is hors de combat if:

(a) the person is in the power of an adverse party; and
(b) the person:
(i) clearly expresses an intention to surrender; or
(ii) has been rendered unconscious or is otherwise incapacitated by wounds or sickness and is therefore incapable of defending himself or herself; and
(c) the person abstains from any hostile act and does not attempt to escape.

ICC Statute means the Statute of the International Criminal Court done at Rome on 17 July 1998, a copy of the English text of which is set out in Schedule 1 to the International Criminal Court Act 2002.

identity document includes any kind of document that may be used to establish the identity of a person in a country under the law or procedures of that country.

intention has the meaning given in section 5.2.

international armed conflict includes a military occupation.

International Criminal Court means the International Criminal Court established under the ICC Statute.

interpreter includes a person who interprets signs or other things made or done by a person who cannot speak adequately for the purpose of giving evidence in a proceeding before the International Criminal Court.

knowledge has the meaning given in section 5.3.

law means a law of the Commonwealth, and includes this Code.

legal burden is defined in subsection 13.1(3).

negligence has the meaning given in section 5.5.

offence means an offence against a law of the Commonwealth.

person includes a Commonwealth authority that is not a body corporate, and another has a corresponding meaning.

Note: This definition supplements paragraph 22(1)(a) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901. That paragraph provides that person includes a body politic or corporate as well as an individual.

personal service means any labour or service, including a sexual service, provided by a person.

physical harm includes unconsciousness, pain, disfigurement, infection with a disease and any physical contact with a person that the person might reasonably object to in the circumstances (whether or not the person was aware of it at the time).

primary offence means an offence against a law of the Commonwealth, other than an ancillary offence.

proscribed inhumane act means any of the following acts:

(a) an act that is described in paragraph 268.8(a);
(b) an act that is described in paragraph 268.9(1)(a) and is committed as mentioned in paragraph 268.9(1)(b);
(c) an act that is described in paragraph 268.10(1)(a);
(d) an act that is described in paragraph 268.11(1)(a) and to which paragraph 268.11(1)(b) applies;
(e) an act that is described in paragraph 268.12(1)(a) and to which paragraph 268.12(1)(b) applies;
(f) an act that is described in paragraph 268.13(a) and to which paragraph 268.13(b) applies;
(g) an act that is described in paragraph 268.14(1)(a) or (2)(a);
(h) an act that is described in paragraph 268.15(1)(a);
(i) an act that is described in paragraph 268.16(1)(a) and to which paragraph 268.16(1)(b) applies;
(j) an act that is described in paragraph 268.17(1)(a) and to which paragraph 268.17(1)(b) applies;
(k) an act that is described in paragraphs 268.18(1)(a) and (b) and to which paragraph 268.18(1)(c) applies;
(l) an act that is described in paragraph 268.19(1)(a) and is of the gravity mentioned in paragraph 268.19(1)(b);
(m) an act that is described in paragraph 268.20(1)(a) and is committed as mentioned in paragraphs 268.20(1)(c), (d) and (e);
(n) an act that is described in paragraph 268.21(1)(a) and to which paragraphs 268.21(1)(b) and (c) apply;
(o) an act that is described in paragraph 268.21(2)(c) and is committed as mentioned in paragraph 268.21(2)(d);
(p) an act that is described in paragraph 268.22(a) and is committed as mentioned in paragraph 268.22(b);
(q) an act that is described in paragraph 268.23(a) and to which paragraph 268.23(b) applies.

Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions means the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), done at Geneva on 10 June 1977, a copy of the English text of which is set out in Schedule 5 to the Geneva Conventions Act 1957.

Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions means the Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, relating to the Protection of Victims of Non‑International Armed Conflicts done at Geneva on 10 June 1977.

Protocols to the Geneva Conventions means Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions and Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions.

public official includes:

(a) a Commonwealth public official; and
(b) an officer or employee of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; and
(c) an individual who performs work for the Commonwealth, or for a State or Territory, under a contract; and
(d) an individual who holds or performs the duties of an office established by a law of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; and
(e) an individual who is otherwise in the service of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory (including service as a member of a military force or police force); and
(f) a member of the executive, judiciary or magistracy of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; and
(g) a member of the legislature of the Commonwealth or of a State or Territory; and
(h) an officer or employee of:
(i) an authority of the Commonwealth; or
(ii) an authority of a State or Territory.

receiving means an offence against section 132.1.

recklessness has the meaning given in section 5.4.

resident of Australia means an individual who is a resident of Australia.

robbery means an offence against section 132.2.

Second Geneva Convention means the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, adopted at Geneva on 12 August 1949, a copy of the English text of which (not including the annexes) is set out in Schedule 2 to the Geneva Conventions Act 1957.

serious harm means harm (including the cumulative effect of any harm):

(a) that endangers, or is likely to endanger, a person’s life; or
(b) that is or is likely to be significant and longstanding.

services provided to a Commonwealth entity includes services that consist of the provision of services to other persons in connection with the performance of the Commonwealth entity’s functions.

sexually penetrate is defined in section 71.8.

sexual service means the commercial use or display of the body of the person providing the service for the sexual gratification of others.

sexual servitude has the meaning given by section 270.4.

slavery has the meaning given by section 270.1.

special liability provision means:

(a) a provision that provides that absolute liability applies to one or more (but not all) of the physical elements of an offence; or
(b) a provision that provides that, in a prosecution for an offence, it is not necessary to prove that the defendant knew a particular thing; or
(c) a provision that provides that, in a prosecution for an offence, it is not necessary to prove that the defendant knew or believed a particular thing.

subcontractor, for a Commonwealth contract, means a person:

(a) who is a party to a contract (the subcontract):
(i) with a contracted service provider for the Commonwealth contract (within the meaning of paragraph (a) of the definition of contracted service provider); or
(ii) with a subcontractor for the Commonwealth contract (under a previous application of this definition); and
(b) who is responsible under the subcontract for the provision of services to a Commonwealth entity, or to a contracted service provider for the Commonwealth contract, for the purposes (whether direct or indirect) of the Commonwealth contract.

sworn statement means an oral statement made on oath or affirmation or a statement in a document verified on oath or affirmation.

taking a person includes causing the person to accompany another person and causing the person to be taken.

theft means an offence against section 131.1.

Third Geneva Convention means the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Prisoners of War, adopted at Geneva on 12 August 1949, a copy of the English text of which (not including the annexes) is set out in Schedule 3 to the Geneva Conventions Act 1957.

threat includes a threat made by any conduct, whether express or implied and whether conditional or unconditional.

travel document includes any kind of document required, under the law of a country, to enter or leave that country.

war crime means an offence under Subdivision D, E, F, G or H of Division 268.

Notes to the Criminal Code Act 1995[edit]

Note 1

The Criminal Code Act 1995 as shown in this compilation comprises Act No. 12, 1995 amended as indicated in the Tables below.

Section 3AA ceased to have effect and is taken to have been repealed on the day specified in subsection 2.2(2) of the Criminal Code.

For application, saving or transitional provisions made by the Corporations (Repeals, Consequentials and Transitionals) Act 2001, see Act No. 55, 2001.

For application, saving or transitional provisions made by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (Consequential and Transitional Provisions) Act 2005, see Act No. 45, 2005.

For all other relevant information pertaining to application, saving or transitional provisions see Table A.

Table of Acts

Act

Number

and year

Date

of Assent

Date of commencement
Application, saving or transitional provisions

Criminal Code Act 1995

12, 1995
15 Mar 1995
1 Jan 1997 (see Gazette 1996, No. S534)


Criminal Code Amendment Act 1998

12, 1998
13 Apr 1998
13 Apr 1998

Criminal Code Amendment (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Act 1999

43, 1999
17 June 1999
17 Dec 1999

Criminal Code Amendment (Slavery and Sexual Servitude) Act 1999

104, 1999
24 Aug 1999
21 Sept 1999

Criminal Code Amendment (Application) Act 2000

4, 2000
29 Feb 2000
29 Feb 2000

Criminal Code Amendment (United Nations and Associated Personnel) Act 2000

124, 2000
26 Oct 2000
1 Jan 2001 (see Gazette 2000, No. GN45)

Criminal Code Amendment (Theft, Fraud, Bribery and Related Offences) Act 2000

137, 2000
24 Nov 2000
Ss. 1–3 and Schedule 1 (items 1, 4, 6, 7, 9–11, 32): Royal Assent

Remainder: 24 May 2001 —

Law and Justice Legislation Amendment (Application of Criminal Code) Act 2001

24, 2001
6 Apr 2001
S. 4(1) and (2): (a)

Schedule 1 (item 3): 4 May 2001 (a)

S. 4(1) and (2)

Corporations (Repeals, Consequentials and Transitionals) Act 2001

55, 2001
28 June 2001
Ss. 4–14 and Schedule 3 (items 148–150): 15 July 2001 (see Gazette 2001, No. S285) (b)
Ss. 4–14

Cybercrime Act 2001

161, 2001
1 Oct 2001
21 Dec 2001 (see Gazette 2001, No. S529)
S. 4

Criminal Code Amendment (Anti‑hoax and Other Measures) Act 2002

9, 2002
4 Apr 2002

Schedule 1: 16 Oct 2001 (c) Remainder: Royal Assent —

International Criminal Court (Consequential Amendments) Act 2002

42, 2002
27 June 2002

Schedules 1–7: 26 Sept 2002 (see s. 2(1) and Gazette 2002, No. GN38) Remainder: 28 June 2002 —

Criminal Code Amendment (Suppression of Terrorist Bombings) Act 2002

58, 2002
3 July 2002

Schedule 1: 8 Sept 2002 (see Gazette 2002, No. S331) Remainder: Royal Assent —

Security Legislation Amendment (Terrorism) Act 2002

65, 2002
5 July 2002
S. 4: Royal Assent

Schedule 1 (item 2): 6 July 2002 Schedule 1 (items 4, 5): (d)

S. 4 (am. by 40, 2003, Sch. 2 [item 1])

Sch. 1 (item 5)

as amended by

Criminal Code Amendment (Terrorism) Act 2003

40, 2003
27 May 2003
(see 40, 2003 below)

Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism Act 2002

66, 2002
5 July 2002

Schedule 1 (item 1): Royal Assent Schedule 1 (item 2): 6 July 2002 Schedule 1 (item 3): (e) —

Proceeds of Crime (Consequential Amendments and Transitional Provisions) Act 2002

86, 2002
11 Oct 2002
Ss. 1–3: Royal Assent

Remainder: 1 Jan 2003 (see s. 2(1) and Gazette 2002, No. GN44) —

Criminal Code Amendment (Terrorist Organisations) Act 2002

89, 2002
23 Oct 2002
23 Oct 2002
Sch. 1 (item 3)

Criminal Code Amendment (Espionage and Related Matters) Act 2002

91, 2002
31 Oct 2002
S. 4: Royal Assent

Schedule 1 (item 5): 28 Nov 2002

S. 4

Workplace Relations Legislation Amendment (Registration and Accountability of Organisations) (Consequential Provisions) Act 2002

105, 2002
14 Nov 2002

Schedule 3 (items 38–40): 12 May 2003 —

as amended by

Workplace Relations Legislation Amendment Act 2002

127, 2002
11 Dec 2002

Schedule 3 (items 53–55): (f) —

Criminal Code Amendment (Offences Against Australians) Act 2002

106, 2002
14 Nov 2002
Ss. 1–3: Royal Assent

Remainder: 1 Oct 2002 —

Australian Crime Commission Establishment Act 2002

125, 2002
10 Dec 2002

Schedule 2 (items 31, 32): 1 Jan 2003 —

Crimes Legislation Amendment (People Smuggling, Firearms Trafficking and Other Measures) Act 2002

141, 2002
19 Dec 2002

Schedules 1, 2 and Schedule 3 (items 1–22, 24–26): 16 Jan 2003 Schedule 3 (item 23): 1 Jan 2003 (see s. 2(1) and Gazette 2002, No. GN44) Remainder: Royal Assent —

Criminal Code Amendment (Terrorism) Act 2003

40, 2003
27 May 2003

Schedules 1 and 2: 29 May 2003 (see Gazette 2003, No. S175) Remainder: Royal Assent —

Criminal Code Amendment (Hizballah) Act 2003

44, 2003
24 June 2003
Ss. 1–3: Royal Assent

Remainder: (g) —

Criminal Code Amendment (Hamas and Lashkar‑e‑Tayyiba) Act 2003

109, 2003
7 Nov 2003
5 Nov 2003

Legislative Instruments (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2003

140, 2003
17 Dec 2003
S. 4 and Schedule 1 (item 16): (h)
S. 4

Criminal Code Amendment (Terrorist Organisations) Act 2004

7, 2004
10 Mar 2004
10 Mar 2004

Anti‑terrorism Act 2004

104, 2004
30 June 2004
1 July 2004

Anti‑terrorism Act (No. 2) 2004

124, 2004
16 Aug 2004

Schedule 3: 17 Aug 2004 Remainder: Royal Assent —

Crimes Legislation Amendment (Telecommunications Offences and Other Measures) Act (No. 2) 2004

127, 2004
31 Aug 2004

Schedule 1 (items 1, 6–23, 30): 1 Mar 2005 Schedules 2–4: 28 Sept 2004

Sch. 1 (item 30) and Sch. 4 (items 2, 8)

Surveillance Devices Act 2004

152, 2004
15 Dec 2004
15 Dec 2004

Australian Passports (Transitionals and Consequentials) Act 2005

7, 2005
18 Feb 2005
Ss. 4–11 and Schedule 1: 1 July 2005 (see s. 2(1))

Remainder: Royal Assent —

Australian Communications and Media Authority (Consequential and Transitional Provisions) Act 2005

45, 2005
1 Apr 2005

Schedule 3 (items 1, 2) and Schedule 4: 1 July 2005 (see s. 2(1)) Sch. 4

Criminal Code Amendment (Suicide Related Material Offences) Act 2005

92, 2005
6 July 2005

Schedule 1: [see Note 2] Remainder: Royal Assent —

Crimes Legislation Amendment (Telecommunications Interception and Other Measures) Act 2005

95, 2005
6 July 2005

Schedule 1: 1 Mar 2005 —

Criminal Code Amendment (Trafficking in Persons Offences) Act 2005

96, 2005
6 July 2005

Schedules 1 and 2: 3 Aug 2005 Remainder: Royal Assent —

Statute Law Revision Act 2005

100, 2005
6 July 2005

Schedule 1 (item 12): (i) —

(a) The Criminal Code Act 1995 was amended by Schedule 1 (item 3) only of the Law and Justice Legislation Amendment (Application of Criminal Code) Act 2001, subsections 2(1)(a) and (2) of which provide as follows:

(1) Subject to this section, this Act commences at the later of the following times:
(a) immediately after the commencement of item 15 of Schedule 1 to the Criminal Code Amendment (Theft, Fraud, Bribery and Related Offences) Act 2000;
(2) Schedule 1 commences on the 28th day after the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent.

Item 15 commenced on 24 May 2001.

(b) The Criminal Code Act 1995 was amended by Schedule 3 (items 148–150) only of the Corporations (Repeals, Consequentials and Transitionals) Act 2001, subsection 2(3) of which provides as follows:

(3) Subject to subsections (4) to (10), Schedule 3 commences, or is taken to have commenced, at the same time as the Corporations Act 2001.

(c) Subsection 2(1) (item 2) of the Criminal Code Amendment (Anti‑hoax and Other Measures) Act 2002 provides as follows:

(1) Each provision of this Act specified in column 1 of the table commences, or is taken to have commenced, on the day or at the time specified in column 2 of the table.

Commencement information

Column 1
Column 2
Column 3
Provision(s)
Commencement


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