Diplomacy and the Study of International Relations

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Diplomacy and the Study of International Relations
by D. P. HEATLEY
Published in 1919, Diplomacy and the Study of International Relations was written by D.P. Heatley, a lecturer in history at the University of Edinburgh, and author of Studies in British history and politics.

Contents[edit]

  • Appendix I: Extract illustrative of the function of the ambassador, the qualities of the diplomatists, and the conduct of negotations.

Detailed table of content[1][edit]

  • Diplomacy and the conduct of foreign policy
    • Right and Wrong in Politics
    • Experiences and testimonies of two historians
    • Policy
    • Standpoint in estimate of policy
    • Views on the diplomatic service
    • Educational equipment for the service
    • The diplomatist's qualities
    • The rise and development of the function of the ambassador
    • Machiavellism; diplomacy and Machiavellianism
    • The opportunity for subterfuge and finesse: national interest and the absence of the international sense
    • The effect of the telegraph on initiative and responsibility
    • Opinions regarding diplomatic morality ; and illustrations
    • Kinds of diplomacy
    • The diplomacy of courtesy
    • The weapon of irony
    • Personal illustrations of diplomacy
    • Oliver Cromwell
    • Thomas Cromwell
    • Difficulty in the conduct, and in the study, of international policy
    • Dispatches and 'extracts'
    • The chief danger in the conduct of foreign policy
    • The relation of the constitutional system to the conduct of policy: illustrations
    • Parliament, party and control in Britain: criticism from a Continental historian and publicist
    • A survey of the conduct of foreign policy in Britain under a parliamentary system; and criticisms
    • Democratic control necessarily indirect: a Duke of Albany in diplomacy: diplomacy still a means to ends
    • Supplementary Notes
A: Anti-Machiavel Literature
B: Machiavelli on the Office of an Ambassador
C: The balance of Power
D: Secret Diplomacy of Louis XV
E: Frederick the Great on Parliaments
  • The literature of international relations
    Le Guide Diplomatique
    Les Archives de l'Histoire de France
    • 3. Juristic literature: Development of International Understandings as 'Law'
      • 1.
      (a) Wheaton, History of the Law of Nations. His general conclusions
      (b) Nys, Les Origines du Droit International
      (c) Walker, A History of the Law of Nations (to the Peace of Westphalia)
      • 2. Treatises of International Law
        Those influential for each age
        Vattel: his standpoint
        Fox on Vattel
        Vattel appealed to on contraband
        Sir James Mackintosh on Vattel and his predecessors
        Martens (G. F. von): his positivism
        Importance assigned by him to treaties
        His interpretation of the balance of power
        Effect of the Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon
        Wheaton: an estimate of his Elements of International Law
        More recent writers
        Sir Robert Phillimore: the value of his Commentaries to the student of History
        His interpretation of the balance of power
        Sir Travers Twiss: his 'Juridical Review' of the results of recent wars, and his presentation of treaties
        His tribute to Grotius
        His estimate of the effects of the French Revolution
        The parts of his work of value to the student of History
        W. Hall: his attachment to facts, and historical treatment of subjects
        Causes célebres du droit des gens
        Sir Frederick Pollock on international law and the government of the Society of Nations
    • 4. Illustrations of controversial literature
      'The Sovereignty of the Sea'
      Samuel Pepys and 'our making of strangers strike to us at sea'
      Mr. S. R. Gardiner on the assertion of the sovereignty of the sea: a 'monstrous' claim
      Its considerable importance
      Gentili and Spanish claims
      Three British writers
      • 1. William Welwod
        The Sea-Law of Scotland: a book extremely rare
        An Abridgement of all Sea-Lawes: its scope
        Its chapter 'Of the Community and Propriety of the Seas'.
        An allusion to Grotius's Mare Liberum
        Continuity and identity
        Welwod's distinction: Welwod and Grotius
        Welwod's De Dominio Maris
        Seldcn and Welwod
      • 2. Selden
        The controversy a 'battle of books'; and more
        Grotius's Mare Liberum and Selden's Mare Clausum
      • 3. Boroughs: The Sovereignty of the British Seas
        The occasion of writing it.
        The occasion of publishing it
        An analysis of the work
        The riches of the British seas
        The need for asserting rights, and for learning lessons from the Hollanders
        'The most precious Jewell of his Maiesties Crowne'
    • 5. Treaties
      'Les archives des nations'
      The relation of a treaty to 'the law'
      Collections of Treaties: General, British, Originals of British Treaties
    • 6. Maps; and their historical background
      The Map of Europe by Treaty: its high value
    • 7. Supplementary reading
      • 1. (a) Machiavelli
        (b) Guicciardini
        (c) Aphorismes Civill and Militarie
        Thucydides and Tacitus
      • 2. 'Anti-Machiavel'
      • 3. (a) Life and Letters of Thomas Cromwell
        (b) Clarendon, History of the Rebellion
        (c) Oliver Cromwell's foreign policy
      • 4. Gentilis, (a) De Legationibus, and (b) De Abusu Mendacii
      • 5. (a) Vera, Le Parfait Ambassadeur (traduit de l'Espagnol par le Sieur Lancelot)
        (b) Wicquefort, L'Ambassadeur et ses Fonctions
        Translation by John Digby
        (c) Callieres, De la Manière de negocier avec les Souverains
        (d) Martens (Charles de), Le Guide Diplomatique
        Scope of the work
        (e) Satow, A Guide to Diplomatic Practice
      • 6. (a) Frederick the Great, L'Histoire de mon Temps
        When alliances may be broken
        The interest of the State and of rulers: seizing the occasion
        (b) Clausewitz, On War
        Allies and the means of defence
        Influence of the political object on the military
        War an instrument of policy
      • 7. Sorel, L'Europe et la Révolution française
      • 8. Malmesbury, Diaries and Correspondence
      • 9. Bernard, Four Lectures on Subjects connected with Diplomacy
      • 10. Holland, Studies in International Law
      • 11. Parliamentary Reports and Papers on diplomatic practice and procedure
    • 8. Literature of recent British diplomacy
      Historical Works
      The Crown, Ministers, Parliament, and the conduct of Foreign Policy
      The Letters of Queen Victoria
      Memoirs and Biographies
      Parliamentary and State Papers
    • 9. Literature of international ethics
      • 1. Citizenship of the world
      • 2. The mediaeval ideal
      • 3. Projects of Perpetual Peace
      L'Abbé de Saint-Pierre, Projet de la Paix perpétuelle
      The link in the Projects of Saint-Pierre, Rousseau, Bentham, and Kant
      Rousseau
      - The problem expressed in terms of the Social Contract
      - Rousseau and the study of international relations
      - His contribution to the promulgation of Projects of Perpetual Peace
      Bentham
      - Two 'fundamental propositions' of his 'Plan'
      - The establishment of a common tribunal
      - Colonies and trade and war
      - The international sanction
      - The place of Bentham's Plan in his scheme of thought
      Kant
      - His insistence on conditions to be satisfied
      - The essay 'Perpetual Peace', and Kant's political thought
      - The agreement of Rousseau and Kant : the supra-national disposition
      Politics and Ethics
      - Conclusions of two recent English thinkers
      The Family of Nations
      Hooker on the Law of Nations
  • Appendix I: Extract illustrative of the function of the ambassador, the qualities of the diplomatists, and the conduct of negotations.
  1. The Function of the Ambassador
    1. Vera : Définition de la Charge d'Ambassadeur
      Qui fut l'auteur de la première Ambassade
    2. Wicquefort : Of the Function of the Embassador in general
    3. Callières : Des Fonctions du Négociateur
    4. Martens (Charles de) : Des Fonctions de 1'agent diplomatique
  2. Qualities of the Diplomatist
    1. Bon Ambassadeur: Bon Orateur
    2. (a) Of the birth and learning of an Embassador
      (b) Des Connoissances nécessaires et utiles à un Négociateur
    3. General Qualities of the Diplomatist
      Du Choix des Négociateurs
      Des Qualitez et de la Conduite du Négociateur
    4. The Need for Courage and Firmness: Un homme de sang froid
      (a) En quel cas un Ambassadeur peut témoigner sa hardiesse & son courage
      (b) Of Moderation
      (c) La fermeté: un homme naturellement violent & emporté
    5. Machiavellianism and Anti-Machiavellianism: Ruse and Counter-ruse
      (a) Comment un Ambassadeur doit proceder entre l'utile & l'honneste
      De la menterie officieuse
      (b) Of Prudence and Cunning
      (c) Advice for one 'destined for the foreign line'
    6. Miscellaneous Considerations
      (a) Qu'un Ambassadeur doit estre sobre
      (b) Whether Clergymen are proper for Embassies
      (c) Si l'Ambassadeur se peut servir l'entremise des femmes pour le progrez de ses affaires
  3. . The Conduct of Negotiations
    De l'utilité des Négociations
    Observations sur les manières de négocier
    S'il est utile d'envoyer plusieurs Négociateurs en un même Pays
    Des négotiations diplomatiques
    Diplomatic Correspondence: Instructions; Letters and Dispatches; Cipher
    Of Treaties
  • Appendix II
    1. The effect of telegraphic communications upon the responsibility of diplomatic missions: Evidence of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, Sir A. Buchanan, Lord John Russell
    2. Publication of Dispatches: 'Secret Diplomacy': Evidence of Lord Wodehouse, the Earl of Clarendon, Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, Lord Cowley, Lord John Russell
    3. The Marquess Wellesley on the Spanish Supreme Central Junta
    4. Mr. Gladstone on the Treaty-making Power : the Cession of Heligoland
    5. Opinions of British Foreign Secretaries on publicity and responsibility in the conduct of foreign policy : Lord Palmerston; the Earl of Clarendon ; the Marquess of Salisbury ; Mr. A. J. Balfour
    6. The Treatment of International Questions by Parliaments in France, Germany, and the United States of America
    Democracy and the conduct of Foreign Policy
    7. The Dominions and the Control of Foreign Policy
  1. Identical to the table of content of the original publication