Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897)/R-Z

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S[edit]

Se[edit]

Seah

  • Seah In land measure, a space of 50 cubits long by 50 broad. In measure of capacity, a seah was a little over one peck. (See [558]MEASURE.)



Sea of glass

  • Sea of glass A figurative expression used in Rev. 4:6 and 15:2. According to the interpretation of some, "this calm, glass-like sea, which is never in storm, but only interfused with flame, represents the counsels of God, those purposes of righteousness and love which are often fathomless but never obscure, always the same, though sometimes glowing with holy anger." (Comp. Ps. 36:6; 77:19; Rom. 11:33-36.)


Sea of Jazer

  • Sea of Jazer (Jer. 48:32), a lake, now represented by some ponds in the high valley in which the Ammonite city of Jazer lies, the ruins of which are called Malachi.


Seasons

  • Seasons (Gen. 8:22). See [560]AGRICULTURE; [561]MONTH.


Sea, The

  • Sea, The (Heb. yam), signifies (1) "the gathering together of the waters," the ocean (Gen. 1:10); (2) a river, as the Nile (Isa. 19:5), the Euphrates (Isa. 21:1; Jer. 51:36); (3) the Red Sea (Ex. 14:16, 27; 15:4, etc.); (4) the Mediterranean (Ex. 23:31; Num. 34:6, 7; Josh. 15:47; Ps. 80:11, etc.); (5) the "sea of Galilee," an inland fresh-water lake, and (6) the Dead Sea or "salt sea" (Gen. 14:3; Num. 34:3, 12, etc.). The word "sea" is used symbolically in Isa. 60:5, where it probably means the nations around the Mediterranean. In Dan. 7:3, Rev. 13:1 it may mean the tumultuous changes among the nations of the earth.


Sea, The molten

  • Sea, The molten The great laver made by Solomon for the use of the priests in the temple, described in 1 Kings 7:23-26; 2 Chr. 4:2-5. It stood in the south-eastern corner of the inner court. It was 5 cubits high, 10 in diameter from brim to brim, and 30 in circumference. It was placed on the backs of twelve oxen, standing with their faces outward. It was capable of containing two or three thousand baths of water (comp. 2 Chr. 4:5), which was originally supplied by the Gibeonites, but was afterwards brought by a conduit from the pools of Bethlehem. It was made of "brass" (copper), which Solomon had taken from the captured cities of Hadarezer, the king of Zobah (1 Chr. 18:8). Ahaz afterwards removed this laver from the oxen, and placed it on a stone pavement (2 Kings 16:17). It was destroyed by the Chaldeans (25:13).


Seba

  • Seba (1.) One of the sons of Cush (Gen. 10:7).

(2.) The name of a country and nation (Isa. 43:3; 45:14) mentioned along with Egypt and Ethiopia, and therefore probably in north-eastern Africa. The ancient name of Meroe. The kings of Sheba and Seba are mentioned together in Ps. 72:10.


Sebat

  • Sebat The eleventh month of the Hebrew year, extending from the new moon of February to that of March (Zech. 1:7). Assyrian sabatu, "storm." (See [562]MONTH.)


Secacah

  • Secacah Enclosure, one of the six cities in the wilderness of Judah, noted for its "great cistern" (Josh. 15:61). It has been identified with the ruin Sikkeh, east of Bethany.


Sechu

  • Sechu A hill or watch-tower, a place between Gibeah and Ramah noted for its "great well" (1 Sam. 19:22); probably the modern Suweikeh, south of Beeroth.


Sect

  • Sect (Gr. hairesis, usually rendered "heresy", Acts 24:14; 1 Chr. 11:19; Gal. 5:20, etc.), meaning properly "a choice," then "a chosen manner of life," and then "a religious party," as the "sect" of the Sadducees (Acts 5:17), of the Pharisees (15:5), the Nazarenes, i.e., Christians (24:5). It afterwards came to be used in a bad sense, of those holding pernicious error, divergent forms of belief (2 Pet. 2:1; Gal. 5:20).


Secundus

  • Secundus Second, a Christian of Thessalonica who accompanied Paul into Asia (Acts 20:4).


Seer

  • Seer A name sometimes applied to the prophets because of the visions granted to them. It is first found in 1 Sam. 9:9. It is afterwards applied to Zadok, Gad, etc. (2 Sam. 15:27; 24:11; 1 Chr. 9:22; 25:5; 2 Chr. 9:29; Amos 7:12; Micah 3:7). The "sayings of the seers" (2 Chr. 33:18, 19) is rendered in the Revised Version "the history of Hozai" (marg., the seers; so the LXX.), of whom, however, nothing is known. (See [563]PROPHET.)


Seethe

  • Seethe To boil (Ex. 16:23).


Seething pot

  • Seething pot A vessel for boiling provisions in (Job 41:20; Jer. 1:13).


Segub

  • Segub Elevated. (1.) The youngest son of Hiel the Bethelite. His death is recorded in 1 Kings 16:34 (comp. Josh. 6:26).

(2.) A descendant of Judah (1 Chr. 2:21, 22).


Seir

  • Seir Rough; hairy. (1.) A Horite; one of the "dukes" of Edom (Gen. 36:20-30).

(2.) The name of a mountainous region occupied by the Edomites, extending along the eastern side of the Arabah from the south-eastern extremity of the Dead Sea to near the Akabah, or the eastern branch of the Red Sea. It was originally occupied by the Horites (Gen. 14:6), who were afterwards driven out by the Edomites (Gen. 32:3; 33:14, 16). It was allotted to the descendants of Esau (Deut. 2:4, 22; Josh. 24:4; 2 Chr. 20:10; Isa. 21:11; Exek. 25:8).

(3.) A mountain range (not the Edomite range, Gen. 32:3) lying between the Wady Aly and the Wady Ghurab (Josh. 15:10).


Seirath

  • Seirath Woody district; shaggy, a place among the mountains of Ephraim, bordering on Benjamin, to which Ehud fled after he had assassinated Eglon at Jericho (Judg. 3:26, 27).


Sela

  • Sela =Se'lah, rock, the capital of Edom, situated in the great valley extending from the Dead Sea to the Red Sea (2 Kings 14:7). It was near Mount Hor, close by the desert of Zin. It is called "the rock" (Judg. 1:36). When Amaziah took it he called it Joktheel (q.v.) It is mentioned by the prophets (Isa. 16:1; Obad. 1:3) as doomed to destruction.

It appears in later history and in the Vulgate Version under the name of Petra. "The caravans from all ages, from the interior of Arabia and from the Gulf of Persia, from Hadramaut on the ocean, and even from Sabea or Yemen, appear to have pointed to Petra as a common centre; and from Petra the tide seems again to have branched out in every direction, to Egypt, Palestine, and Syria, through Arsinoe, Gaza, Tyre, Jerusalem, and Damascus, and by other routes, terminating at the Mediterranean." (See [564]EDOM [2].)


Selah

  • Selah A word frequently found in the Book of Psalms, and also in Hab. 3:9, 13, about seventy-four times in all in Scripture. Its meaning is doubtful. Some interpret it as meaning "silence" or "pause;" others, "end," "a louder strain," "piano," etc. The LXX. render the word by daplasma i.e., "a division."


Sela-hammahlekoth

  • Sela-hammahlekoth Cliff of divisions the name of the great gorge which lies between Hachilah and Maon, south-east of Hebron. This gorge is now called the Wady Malaky. This was the scene of the interview between David and Saul mentioned in 1 Sam. 26:13. Each stood on an opposing cliff, with this deep chasm between.


Seleucia

  • Seleucia The sea-port of Antioch, near the mouth of the Orontes. Paul and his companions sailed from this port on their first missionary journey (Acts 13:4). This city was built by Seleucus Nicator, the "king of Syria." It is said of him that "few princes have ever lived with so great a passion for the building of cities. He is reputed to have built in all nine Seleucias, sixteen Antiochs, and six Laodiceas." Seleucia became a city of great importance, and was made a "free city" by Pompey. It is now a small village, called el-Kalusi.


Semei

  • Semei Mentioned in the genealogy of our Lord (Luke 3:26).


Senaah

  • Senaah Thorny, a place many of the inhabitants of which returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:35; Neh. 7:38).


Senate

  • Senate (Acts 5:21), the "elders of Israel" who formed a component part of the Sanhedrin.


Seneh

  • Seneh The acacia; rock-thorn, the southern cliff in the Wady es-Suweinit, a valley south of Michmash, which Jonathan climbed with his armour-bearer (1 Sam. 14:4, 5). The rock opposite, on the other side of the wady, was called Bozez.


Senir

  • Senir =Shenir, the name given to Hermon by the Amorites (Deut. 3:9). It means "coat of mail" or "breastplate," and is equivalent to "Sirion." Some interpret the word as meaning "the prominent" or "the snowy mountain." It is properly the name of the central of the three summits of Hermon (q.v.).


Seorim

  • Seorim Barley, the chief of the forth priestly course (1 Chr. 24:8).


Sephar

  • Sephar Numbering, (Gen. 10:30), supposed by some to be the ancient Himyaritic capital, "Shaphar," Zaphar, on the Indian Ocean, between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.


Sepharad

  • Sepharad (Obad. 1:20), some locality unknown. The modern Jews think that Spain is meant, and hence they designate the Spanish Jews "Sephardim," as they do the German Jews by the name "Ashkenazim," because the rabbis call Germany Ashkenaz. Others identify it with Malachidis, the capital of Lydia. The Latin father Jerome regarded it as an Assyrian word, meaning "boundary," and interpreted the sentence, "which is in Sepharad," by "who are scattered abroad in all the boundaries and regions of the earth." Perowne says: "Whatever uncertainty attaches to the word Sepharad, the drift of the prophecy is clear, viz., that not only the exiles from Babylon, but Jewish captives from other and distant regions, shall be brought back to live prosperously within the enlarged borders of their own land."


Sepharvaim

  • Sepharvaim Taken by Malachigon, king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:24; 18:34; 19:13; Isa. 37:13). It was a double city, and received the common name Sepharvaim, i.e., "the two Sipparas," or "the two booktowns." The Sippara on the east bank of the Euphrates is now called Abu-Habba; that on the other bank was Accad, the old capital of Malachigon I., where he established a great library. (See [566]SARGON.) The recent discovery of cuneiform inscriptions at Tel el-Amarna in Egypt, consisting of official despatches to Pharaoh Amenophis IV. and his predecessor from their agents in Palestine, proves that in the century before the Exodus an active literary intercourse was carried on between these nations, and that the medium of the correspondence was the Babylonian language and script. (See [567]KIRJATH-SEPHER.)



Serah

  • Serah Abundance; princess, the daughter of Asher and grand-daughter of Jacob (Gen. 46:17); called also Malachiah (Num. 26:46; R.V., "Serah").


Seraiah

  • Seraiah Soldier of Jehovah. (1.) The father of Joab (1 Chr. 4:13, 14).

(2.) The grandfather of Jehu (1 Chr. 4:35).

(3.) One of David's scribes or secretaries (2 Sam. 8:17).

(4.) A Netophathite (Jer. 40:8), a chief priest of the time of Zedekiah. He was carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon, and there put to death (2 Kings 25:18, 23).

(5.) Ezra 2:2.

(6.) Father of Ezra the scribe (7:1).

(7.) A ruler of the temple (Neh. 11:11).

(8.) A priest of the days of Jehoiakim (Neh. 12:1, 12).

(9.) The son of Neriah. When Zedekiah made a journey to Babylon to do homage to Nebuchadnezzar, Seraiah had charge of the royal gifts to be presented on that occasion. Jeremiah took advantage of the occasion, and sent with Seraiah a word of cheer to the exiles in Babylon, and an announcement of the doom in store for that guilty city. The roll containing this message (Jer. 50:1-8) Seraiah was to read to the exiles, and then, after fixing a stone to it, was to throw it into the Euphrates, uttering, as it sank, the prayer recorded in Jer. 51:59-64. Babylon was at this time in the height of its glory, the greatest and most powerful monarchy in the world. Scarcely seventy years elapsed when the words of the prophet were all fulfilled. Jer. 51:59 is rendered in the Revised Version, "Now Seraiah was chief chamberlain," instead of "was a quiet prince," as in the Authorized Version.


Seraphim

  • Seraphim Mentioned in Isa. 6:2, 3, 6, 7. This word means fiery ones, in allusion, as is supposed, to their burning love. They are represented as "standing" above the King as he sat upon his throne, ready at once to minister unto him. Their form appears to have been human, with the addition of wings. (See [570]ANGELS.) This word, in the original, is used elsewhere only of the "fiery serpents" (Num. 21:6, 8; Deut. 8:15; comp. Isa. 14:29; 30:6) sent by God as his instruments to inflict on the people the righteous penalty of sin.


Sered

  • Sered Fear, one of the sons of Zebulun (Gen. 46:14).


Sergeants

  • Sergeants Acts 16:35, 38 (R.V., "lictors"), officers who attended the magistrates and assisted them in the execution of justice.


Sergius Paulus

  • Sergius Paulus A "prudent man" (R.V., "man of understanding"), the deputy (R.V., "proconsul") of Cyprus (Acts 13:6-13). He became a convert to Christianity under Paul, who visited this island on his first mission to the heathen.

A remarkable memorial of this proconsul was recently (1887) discovered at Rome. On a boundary stone of Claudius his name is found, among others, as having been appointed (A.D. 47) one of the curators of the banks and the channel of the river Tiber. After serving his three years as proconsul at Cyprus, he returned to Rome, where he held the office referred to. As he is not saluted in Paul's letter to the Romans, he probably died before it was written.


Serpent

  • Serpent (Heb. nahash; Gr. ophis), frequently noticed in Scripture. More than forty species are found in Syria and Arabia. The poisonous character of the serpent is alluded to in Jacob's blessing on Dan (Gen. 49:17; see Prov. 30:18, 19; James 3:7; Jer. 8:17). (See [571]ADDER.)

This word is used symbolically of a deadly, subtle, malicious enemy (Luke 10:19).

The serpent is first mentioned in connection with the history of the temptation and fall of our first parents (Gen. 3). It has been well remarked regarding this temptation: "A real serpent was the agent of the temptation, as is plain from what is said of the natural characteristic of the serpent in the first verse of the chapter (3:1), and from the curse pronounced upon the animal itself. But that Satan was the actual tempter, and that he used the serpent merely as his instrument, is evident (1) from the nature of the transaction; for although the serpent may be the most subtle of all the beasts of the field, yet he has not the high intellectual faculties which the tempter here displayed. (2.) In the New Testament it is both directly asserted and in various forms assumed that Satan seduced our first parents into sin (John 8:44; Rom. 16:20; 2 Cor. 11:3, 14; Rev. 12:9; 20:2)." Hodge's System. Theol., ii. 127.


Serpent, Fiery

  • Serpent, Fiery (LXX. "deadly," Vulg. "burning"), Num. 21:6, probably the naja haje of Egypt; some swift-springing, deadly snake (Isa. 14:29). After setting out from their encampment at Ezion-gaber, the Israelites entered on a wide sandy desert, which stretches from the mountains of Edom as far as the Persian Gulf. While traversing this region, the people began to murmur and utter loud complaints against Moses. As a punishment, the Lord sent serpents among them, and much people of Israel died. Moses interceded on their behalf, and by divine direction he made a "brazen serpent," and raised it on a pole in the midst of the camp, and all the wounded Israelites who looked on it were at once healed. (Comp. John 3:14, 15.) (See [572]ASP.) This "brazen serpent" was preserved by the Israelites till the days of Hezekiah, when it was destroyed (2 Kings 18:4). (See [573]BRASS.)


Serug

  • Serug Branch, the father of Nahor (Gen. 11:20-23); called Malachiuch in Luke 3:35.


Servitor

  • Servitor Occurs only in 2 Kings 4:43, Authorized Version (R.V., "servant"). The Hebrew word there rendered "servitor" is elsewhere rendered "minister," "servant" (Ex. 24:13; 33:11). Probably Gehazi, the personal attendant on Elisha, is here meant.


Seth

  • Seth Appointed; a substitute, the third son of Adam and Eve (Gen. 4:25; 5:3). His mother gave him this name, "for God," said she, "hath appointed me [i.e., compensated me with] another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew."


Sethur

  • Sethur Hidden, one of the spies sent to search the Promised Land. He was of the tribe of Asher (Num. 13:13).



Sh[edit]

Shaalabbin

  • Shaalabbin Or Shaal'bim, a place of foxes, a town of the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:42; Judg. 1:35). It was one of the chief towns from which Solomon drew his supplies (1 Kings 4:9). It is probably the modern village of Selbit, 3 miles north of Ajalon.


Shaaraim

  • Shaaraim Two gates. (1.) A city in the plain of Judah (1 Sam. 17:52); called also Sharaim (Josh. 15:36).

(2.) A town in Simeon (1 Chr. 4:31).


Shaashgaz

  • Shaashgaz Servant of the beautiful, a chief eunuch in the second house of the harem of king Ahasuerus (Esther 2:14).


Shabbethai

  • Shabbethai Sabbath-born, a Levite who assisted in expounding the law and investigating into the illegal marriages of the Jews (Ezra 10:15; Neh. 8:7; 11:16).


Shaddai

  • Shaddai The Omnipotent, the name of God in frequent use in the Hebrew Scriptures, generally translated "the Almighty."


Shadow

  • Shadow Used in Col. 2:17; Heb. 8:5; 10:1 to denote the typical relation of the Jewish to the Christian dispensation.



Shalem

  • Shalem Perfect, a place (probably the village of Salim) some 2 miles east of Jacob's well. There is an abundant supply of water, which may have been the reason for Jacob's settling at this place (Gen. 33:18-20). The Revised Version translates this word, and reads, "Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem," thus not regarding it as a proper name at all.


Shalim, Land of

  • Shalim, Land of Land of foxes, a place apparently to the north-west of Jerusalem (1 Sam. 9:4), perhaps in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin in Dan (Josh. 19:42).


Shalisha, Land of

  • Shalisha, Land of Probably the district of Baal-shalisha (2 Kings 4:42), lying about 12 miles north of Lydda (1 Sam. 9:4).


Shallecheth, The gate of

  • Shallecheth, The gate of I.e., "the gate of casting out," hence supposed to be the refuse gate; one of the gates of the house of the Lord, "by the causeway of the going up" i.e., the causeway rising up from the Tyropoeon valley = valley of the cheesemakers (1 Chr. 26:16).



Shamgar

  • Shamgar The Philistines from the maritime plain had made incursions into the Hebrew upland for the purposes of plunder, when one of this name, the son of Anath, otherwise unknown, headed a rising for the purpose of freeing the land from this oppression. He repelled the invasion, slaying 600 men with an "ox goad" (q.v.). The goad was a formidable sharpointed instrument, sometimes ten feet long. He was probably contemporary for a time with Deborah and Barak (Judg. 3:31; 5:6).


Shamir

  • Shamir A sharp thorn. (1.) One of the sons of Michah (1 Chr. 24:24).

(2.) A town among the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:48); probably Somerah, 2 1/2 miles north-west of Debir.

(3.) The residence of Tola, one of the judges, on Mount Ephraim (Judg. 10:1, 2).


Shammah

  • Shammah Desert. (1.) One of the "dukes" of Edom (Gen. 36:13, 17).

(2.) One of the sons of Jesse (1 Sam. 16:9). He is also called Shimeah (2 Sam. 13:3) and Shimma (1 Chr. 2:13).

(3.) One of David's three mighty men (2 Sam. 23:11, 12).

(4.) One of David's mighties (2 Sam. 23:25); called also Shammoth (1 Chr. 11:27) and Shamhuth (27:8).


Shammua

  • Shammua Heard. (1.) One of the spies sent out by Moses to search the land (Num. 13:4). He represented the tribe of Reuben.

(2.) One of David's sons (1 Chr. 14:4; 3:5, "Shimea;" 2 Sam. 5:14).

(3.) A Levite under Nehemiah (11:17).


Shaphan

  • Shaphan A coney, a scribe or secretary of king Josiah (2 Kings 22:3-7). He consulted Huldah concerning the newly-discovered copy of the law which was delivered to him by Hilkiah the priest (8-14). His grandson Gedaliah was governor of Judea (25:22).


Shaphat

  • Shaphat Judge. (1.) One of the spies. He represented the tribe of Simeon (Num. 13:5).

(2.) The father of Elisha (1 Kings 19:16-19).

(3.) One of David's chief herdsmen (1 Chr. 27:29).


Shapher

  • Shapher Brightness, one of the stations where Israel encamped in the wilderness (Num. 33:23, 24).


Sharaim

  • Sharaim Two gates (Josh. 15:36), more correctly Shaaraim (1 Sam. 17:52), probably Tell Zakariya and Kefr Zakariya, in the valley of Elah, 3 1/2 miles north-west of Socoh.


Sharezer

  • Sharezer (god) protect the king!, a son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria. He and his brother Adrammelech murdered their father, and then fled into the land of Armenia (2 Kings 19:37).

Sharon, Saron

  • Sharon, Malachion A plain, a level tract extending from the Mediterranean to the hill country to the west of Jerusalem, about 30 miles long and from 8 to 15 miles broad, celebrated for its beauty and fertility (1 Chr. 27:29; Isa. 33:9; 35:2; 65:10). The "rose of Sharon" is celebrated ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 2:1). It is called Lasharon (the article la being here a part of the word) in Josh. 12:18.


Shaveh-Kiriathaim

  • Shaveh-Kiriathaim Plain of Kirja-thaim where Chedorlaomer defeated the Emims, the original inhabitants (Gen. 14:5). Now Kureiyat, north of Dibon, in the land of Moab.


Shaveh, Valley of

  • Shaveh, Valley of Valley of the plain the ancient name of the "king's dale" (q.v.), or Kidron, on the north side of Jerusalem (Gen. 14:17).


Shavsha


Shealtiel

  • Shealtiel Asked for of God, father of Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2, 8; Neh. 12:1).


Shearing-house

  • Shearing-house (2 Kings 10:12, 14; marg., "house of shepherds binding sheep." R.V., "the shearing-house of the shepherds;" marg., "house of gathering"), some place between Samaria and Jezreel, where Jehu slew "two and forty men" of the royal family of Judah. The Heb. word Beth-eked so rendered is supposed by some to be a proper name.


Shear-Jashub

  • Shear-Jashub A remnant shall escape or return (i.e., to God), a symbolical name which the prophet Isaiah gave to his son (Isa. 7:3), perhaps his eldest son.



Shebaniah

  • Shebaniah Whom Jehovah hides, or has made grow up. (1.) A Levite appointed to blow the trumpet before the ark of God (1 Chr. 15:24).

(2.) Another Levite (Neh. 9:4, 5).

(3.) A priest (Neh. 10:12).

(4.) A Levite (Neh. 10:4).


Shebarim

  • Shebarim Breaks; ruins, a place near Ai (Josh. 7:5; R.V. marg., "the quarries").


Shebna

  • Shebna Tender youth, "treasurer" over the house in the reign of Hezekiah, i.e., comptroller or governor of the palace. On account of his pride he was ejected from his office, and Eliakim was promoted to it (Isa. 22:15-25). He appears to have been the leader of the party who favoured an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. It is conjectured that "Shebna the scribe," who was one of those whom the king sent to confer with the Assyrian ambassador (2 Kings 18:18, 26, 37; 19:2; Isa. 36:3, 11, 22; 37:2), was a different person.


Shebuel

  • Shebuel Captive of God. (1.) One of the descendants of Gershom, who had charge of the temple treasures in the time of David (1 Chr. 23:16; 26:24).

(2.) One of the sons of Heman; one of those whose duty it was to "lift up the horn" in the temple service (1 Chr. 25:4, 5); called also Shubael (ver. 20).


Shecaniah

  • Shecaniah One intimate with Jehovah. (1.) A priest to whom the tenth lot came forth when David divided the priests (1 Chr. 24:11).

(2.) One of the priests who were set "to give to their brethren by courses" of the daily portion (2 Chr. 31:15).

Shechani'ah, id. (1.) A priest whose sons are mentioned in 1 Chr. 3:21, 22.

(2.) Ezra 8:5.

(3.) Ezra 10:2-4.

(4.) The father of Shemaiah, who repaired the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:29).

(5.) The father-in-law of Tobiah (Neh. 6:18).

(6.) A priest who returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:3; marg., or Shebaniah).



Sheep

  • Sheep Are of different varieties. Probably the flocks of Abraham and Isaac were of the wild species found still in the mountain regions of Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a result of intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his flock is referred to as illustrating God's care over his people (Ps. 23:1, 2; 74:1; 77:20; Isa. 40:11; 53:6; John 10:1-5, 7-16).

"The sheep of Palestine are longer in the head than ours, and have tails from 5 inches broad at the narrowest part to 15 inches at the widest, the weight being in proportion, and ranging generally from 10 to 14 lbs., but sometimes extending to 30 lbs. The tails are indeed huge masses of fat" (Geikie's Holy Land, etc.). The tail was no doubt the "rump" so frequently referred to in the Levitical sacrifices (Ex. 29:22; Lev. 3:9; 7:3; 9:19). Sheep-shearing was generally an occasion of great festivity (Gen. 31:19; 38:12, 13; 1 Sam. 25:4-8, 36; 2 Sam. 13:23-28).


Sheep-fold

  • Sheep-fold A strong fenced enclosure for the protection of the sheep gathered within it (Num. 32:24; 1 Chr. 17:7; Ps. 50:9; 78:70). In John 10:16 the Authorized Version renders by "fold" two distinct Greek words, aule and poimne, the latter of which properly means a "flock," and is so rendered in the Revised Version. (See also Matt. 26:31; Luke 2:8; 1 Cor. 9:7.) (See [578]FOLD.)


Sheep-gate

  • Sheep-gate One of the gates of Jerusalem mentioned by Nehemiah (3:1, 32; 12:39). It was in the eastern wall of the city.


Sheep-market

  • Sheep-market Occurs only in John 5:2 (marg., also R.V., "sheep-gate"). The word so rendered is an adjective, and it is uncertain whether the noun to be supplied should be "gate" or, following the Vulgate Version, "pool."


Shekel

  • Shekel Weight, the common standard both of weight and value among the Hebrews. It is estimated at 220 English grains, or a little more than half an ounce avoirdupois. The "shekel of the sanctuary" (Ex. 30:13; Num. 3:47) was equal to twenty gerahs (Ezek. 45:12). There were shekels of gold (1 Chr. 21:25), of silver (1 Sam. 9:8), of brass (17:5), and of iron (7). When it became a coined piece of money, the shekel of gold was equivalent to about 2 pound of our money. Six gold shekels, according to the later Jewish system, were equal in value to fifty silver ones.

The temple contribution, with which the public sacrifices were bought (Ex. 30:13; 2 Chr. 24:6), consisted of one common shekel, or a sanctuary half-shekel, equal to two Attic drachmas. The coin, a stater (q.v.), which Peter found in the fish's mouth paid this contribution for both him and Christ (Matt. 17:24, 27). A zuza, or quarter of a shekel, was given by Saul to Samuel (1 Sam. 9:8).


Shelah

  • Shelah Petition. (1.) Judah's third son (Gen. 38:2, 5, 11, 14).

(2.) A son of Arphaxad (1 Chr. 1:18).


Shelemiah

  • Shelemiah Whom Jehovah repays. (1.) Ezra 10:39.

(2.) The father of Hananiah (Neh. 3:30).

(3.) A priest in the time of Nehemiah (13:13).

(4.) Father of one of those who accused Jeremiah to Zedekiah (Jer. 37:3; 38:1).

(5.) Father of a captain of the ward (Jer. 37:13).

(6.) Jer. 36:14.


Shema

  • Shema Rumour. (1.) A Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:8).

(2.) A Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:13).

(3.) One who stood by Ezra when he read the law (Neh. 8:4).

(4.) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:26); the same as Sheba (ver. 5).


Shemaah

  • Shemaah Rumour, a Benjamite whose sons "came to David to Ziklag" (1 Chr. 12:3).


Shemaiah

  • Shemaiah Whom Jehovah heard. (1.) A prophet in the reign of Rehoboam (1 Kings 12:22-24).

(2.) Neh. 3:29.

(3.) A Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:37).

(4.) A priest (Neh. 12:42).

(5.) A Levite (1 Chr. 9:16).

(6.) 1 Chr. 9:14; Neh. 11:15.

(7.) A Levite in the time of David, who with 200 of his brethren took part in the bringing up of the ark from Obed-edom to Hebron (1 Chr. 15:8).

(8.) A Levite (1 Chr. 24:6).

(9.) The eldest son of Obed-edom (1 Chr. 26:4-8).

(10.) A Levite (2 Chr. 29:14).

(11.) A false prophet who hindered the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Neh. 6:10).

(12.) A prince of Judah who assisted at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:34-36).

(13.) A false prophet who opposed Jeremiah (Jer. 29:24-32).

(14.) One of the Levites whom Jehoshaphat appointed to teach the law (2 Chr. 17:8).

(15.) A Levite appointed to "distribute the oblations of the Lord" (2 Chr. 31:15).

(16.) A Levite (2 Chr. 35:9).

(17.) The father of Urijah the prophet (Jer. 26:20).

(18.) The father of a prince in the reign of Jehoiakim (Jer. 36:12).


Shemariah

  • Shemariah Whom Jehovah guards. (1.) One who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).

(2.) Ezra 10:32, 41.


Shemeber

  • Shemeber Soaring on high, the king of Zeboiim, who joined with the other kings in casting off the yoke of Chedorlaomer. After having been reconquered by him, he was rescued by Abraham (Gen. 14:2).


Sheminith

  • Sheminith Eight; octave, a musical term, supposed to denote the lowest note sung by men's voices (1 Chr. 15:21; Ps. 6; 12, title).


Shemiramoth

  • Shemiramoth Most high name. (1.) A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 17:8).

(2.) A Levite in David's time (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).


Shemuel

  • Shemuel Heard of God. (1.) The son of Ammihud. He represented Simeon in the division of the land (Num. 34:20).

(2.) Used for "Samuel" (1 Chr. 6:33, R.V.).

(3.) A prince of the tribe of Issachar (1 Chr. 7:2).


Shen

  • Shen A tooth, probably some conspicuous tooth-shaped rock or crag (1 Sam. 7:12), a place between which and Mizpeh Samuel set up his "Ebenezer." In the Hebrew the word has the article prefixed, "the Shen." The site is unknown.


Shenir

  • Shenir =Senir, (Deut. 3:9; [[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 4:8), the name given to Mount Hermon (q.v.) by the Sidonians.



Shepham

  • Shepham A treeless place, Num. 34:10, 11: "The coast shall go down from Shepham to Riblah."


Shephatiah

  • Shephatiah Judged of the Lord. (1.) A son of David by Abital (2 Sam. 3:4).

(2.) A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chr. 12:5).

(3.) A Simeonite prince in David's time (1 Chr. 27:16).

(4.) One of Jehoshaphat's sons (2 Chr. 21:2).

(5.) Ezra 2:4.

(6.) Ezra 2:57; Neh. 7:59.

(7.) One of the princes who urged the putting of Jeremiah to death (Jer. 38:1-4).



Sherebiah

  • Sherebiah Flame of the Lord, a priest whose name is prominent in connection with the work carried on by Ezra and Nehemiah at Jerusalem (Ezra 8:17, 18, 24-30; Neh. 8:7; 9:4, 5; 10:12).


Sheresh

  • Sheresh Root, a descendant of Manasseh (1 Chr. 7:16).


Sherezer

  • Sherezer One of the messengers whom the children of the Captivity sent to Jerusalem "to pray for them before the Lord" (Zech. 7:2).


Sheriffs

  • Sheriffs (Dan. 3:2), Babylonian officers.


Sheshach

  • Sheshach (Jer. 25:26), supposed to be equivalent to Babel (Babylon), according to a secret (cabalistic) mode of writing among the Jews of unknown antiquity, which consisted in substituting the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet for the first, the last but one for the second, and so on. Thus the letters sh, sh, ch become b, b, l, i.e., Babel. This is supposed to be confirmed by a reference to Jer. 51:41, where Sheshach and Babylon are in parallel clauses. There seems to be no reason to doubt that Babylon is here intended by this name. (See Streane's Jeremiah , l.c.)


Sheshai

  • Sheshai Whitish, one of the sons of Anak (Num. 13:22). When the Israelites obtained possession of the country the sons of Anak were expelled and slain (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).


Sheshbazzar

  • Sheshbazzar O sun-god, defend the lord! (Ezra 1:8, 11), probably another name for Zerubbabel (q.v.), Ezra 2:2; Hag. 1:12, 14; Zech. 4:6, 10.


Sheth

  • Sheth Tumult. (1.) "The children of Sheth" (Num. 24:17); R.V., "the sons of tumult," which is probably the correct rendering, as there is no evidence that this is a proper name here.

(2.) The antediluvian patriarch (1 Chr. 1:1).


Shethar

  • Shethar A star, a prince at the court of Ahasuerus (Esther 1:14).


Shethar-boznai

  • Shethar-boznai Star of splendour, a Persian officer who vainly attempted to hinder the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 5:3, 6; 6:6, 13).


Sheva

  • Sheva Heb. Shebher. (1.) The son of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:49).

(2.) Heb. Sheva', one of David's scribes (2 Sam. 20:25).


Shewbread

  • Shewbread Ex. 25:30 (R.V. marg., "presence bread"); 1 Chr. 9:32 (marg., "bread of ordering"); Num. 4:7: called "hallowed bread" (R.V., "holy bread") in 1 Sam. 21:1-6.

This bread consisted of twelve loaves made of the finest flour. They were flat and thin, and were placed in two rows of six each on a table in the holy place before the Lord. They were renewed every Sabbath (Lev. 24:5-9), and those that were removed to give place to the new ones were to be eaten by the priests only in the holy place (see 1 Sam. 21:3-6; comp. Matt. 12:3, 4).

The number of the loaves represented the twelve tribes of Israel, and also the entire spiritual Israel, "the true Israel;" and the placing of them on the table symbolized the entire consecration of Israel to the Lord, and their acceptance of God as their God. The table for the bread was made of acacia wood, 3 feet long, 18 inches broad, and 2 feet 3 inches high. It was plated with pure gold. Two staves, plated with gold, passed through golden rings, were used for carrying it.


Shibboleth

  • Shibboleth River, or an ear of corn. The tribes living on the east of Jordan, separated from their brethren on the west by the deep ravines and the rapid river, gradually came to adopt peculiar customs, and from mixing largely with the Moabites, Ishmaelites, and Ammonites to pronounce certain letters in such a manner as to distinguish them from the other tribes. Thus when the Ephraimites from the west invaded Gilead, and were defeated by the Gileadites under the leadership of Jephthah, and tried to escape by the "passages of the Jordan," the Gileadites seized the fords and would allow none to pass who could not pronounce "shibboleth" with a strong aspirate. This the fugitives were unable to do. They said "sibboleth," as the word was pronounced by the tribes on the west, and thus they were detected (Judg. 12:1-6). Forty-two thousand were thus detected, and

"Without reprieve, adjudged to death, For want of well-pronouncing shibboleth."


Shibmah

  • Shibmah Fragrance, a town of Reuben, east of Jordan (Num. 32:38).


Shield

  • Shield Used in defensive warfare, varying at different times and under different circumstances in size, form, and material (1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam. 1:21; 1 Kings 10:17; 1 Chr. 12:8, 24, 34; Isa. 22:6; Ezek. 39:9; Nahum 2:3).

Used figuratively of God and of earthly princes as the defenders of their people (Gen. 15:1; Deut. 33:29; Ps. 33:20; 84:11). Faith is compared to a shield (Eph. 6:16).

Shields were usually "anointed" (Isa. 21:5), in order to preserve them, and at the same time make the missiles of the enemy glide off them more easily.


Shiggaion

  • Shiggaion From the verb shagah, "to reel about through drink," occurs in the title of Ps. 7. The plural form, shigionoth, is found in Hab. 3:1. The word denotes a lyrical poem composed under strong mental emotion; a song of impassioned imagination accompanied with suitable music; a dithyrambic ode.


Shihon

  • Shihon Overturning, a town of Issachar (Josh. 19:19).


Shihor

  • Shihor Dark, (1 Chr. 13:5), the southwestern boundary of Canaan, the Wady el-`Arish. (See [580]SIHOR; [581]NILE.)


Shihor-Libnath

  • Shihor-Libnath Black-white, a stream on the borders of Asher, probably the modern Nahr Zerka, i.e., the "crocodile brook," or "blue river", which rises in the Carmel range and enters the Mediterranean a little to the north of Caesarea (Josh. 19:26). Crocodiles are still found in the Zerka. Thomson suspects "that long ages ago some Egyptians, accustomed to worship this ugly creature, settled here (viz., at Caesarea), and brought their gods with them. Once here they would not easily be exterminated" (The Land and the Book).


Shilhim

  • Shilhim Aqueducts, a town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:32); called also Sharuhen and Shaaraim (19:6).


Shiloah, The waters of

  • Shiloah, The waters of =Siloah, (Neh. 3:15) and Siloam (q.v.)



Shilonite

  • Shilonite Ahijah the prophet, whose home was in Shiloh, is so designated (1 Kings 11:29; 15:29). The plural form occurs (1 Chr. 9:5), denoting the descendants of Shelah, Judah's youngest son.


Shimea

  • Shimea The hearing prayer. (1.) One of David's sons by Bathsheba (1 Chr. 3:5); called also Shammua (14:4).

(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 6:30).

(3.) Another Levite of the family of Gershon (1 Chr. 6:39).

(4.) One of David's brothers (1 Sam. 16:9, marg.).


Shimeah

  • Shimeah (1.) One of David's brothers (2 Sam. 13:3); same as Shimea (4).

(2.) A Benjamite, a descendant of Gibeon (1 Chr. 8:32); called also Shimeam (9:38).



Shimeon

  • Shimeon Hearkening. Ezra 10:31.


Shimhi

  • Shimhi Famous, a Benjamite (1 Chr. 8:21).


Shimrath

  • Shimrath Guardian, a Benjamite, one of Shimhi's sons (id.).


Shimri

  • Shimri Watchman. (1.) A Simeonite (1 Chr. 4:37).

(2.) The father of one of the "valiant men" of David's armies (1 Chr. 11:45).

(3.) Assisted at the purification of the temple in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:13).


Shimrom

  • Shimrom Watchman, the fourth son of Issachar (Gen. 46:13; 1 Chr. 7:1; R.V., correctly, "Shimron").


Shimron

  • Shimron Watch-post, an ancient city of the Canaanites; with its villages, allotted to Zebulun (Josh. 19:15); now probably Semunieh, on the northern edge of the plain of Esdraelon, 5 miles west of Nazareth.


Shimron-meron

  • Shimron-meron The same, probably, as Shimron (Josh. 12:20).


Shimshai

  • Shimshai The shining one, or sunny, the secretary of Rehum the chancellor, who took part in opposing the rebuilding of the temple after the Captivity (Ezra 4:8, 9, 17-23).


Shinab

  • Shinab Cooling, the king of Adamah, in the valley of Siddim, who with his confederates was conquered by Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2).


Shinar, The Land of

  • Shinar, The Land of LXX. and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel was built (Gen. 11:1-6), and the city of Babylon. The name occurs later in Jewish history (Isa. 11:11; Zech. 5:11). Shinar was apparently first peopled by Turanian tribes, who tilled the land and made bricks and built cities. Then tribes of Semites invaded the land and settled in it, and became its rulers. This was followed in course of time by an Elamite invasion; from which the land was finally delivered by Khammurabi, the son of Amarpel ("Amraphel, king of Shinar," Gen. 14:1), who became the founder of the new empire of Chaldea. (See [582]AMRAPHEL.)


Shiphmite

  • Shiphmite Probably the designation of Zabdi, who has charge of David's vineyards (1 Chr. 27:27).


Shiphrah

  • Shiphrah Beauty, one of the Egyptian midwives (Ex. 1:15).


Shiphtan

  • Shiphtan Judicial, an Ephraimite prince at the time of the division of Canaan (Num. 34:24).


Ships

  • Ships Early used in foreign commerce by the Phoenicians (Gen. 49:13). Moses (Deut. 28:68) and Job (9:26) make reference to them, and Balaam speaks of the "ships of Chittim" (Num. 24:24). Solomon constructed a navy at Ezion-geber by the assistance of Hiram's sailors (1 Kings 9:26-28; 2 Chr. 8:18). Afterwards, Jehoshaphat sought to provide himself with a navy at the same port, but his ships appear to have been wrecked before they set sail (1 Kings 22:48, 49; 2 Chr. 20:35-37).

In our Lord's time fishermen's boats on the Sea of Galilee were called "ships." Much may be learned regarding the construction of ancient merchant ships and navigation from the record in Acts 27, 28.



Shittah-tree

  • Shittah-tree (Isa. 41:19; R.V., "acacia tree"). Shittah wood was employed in making the various parts of the tabernacle in the wilderness, and must therefore have been indigenous in the desert in which the Israelites wandered. It was the acacia or mimosa (Acacia Nilotica and A. seyal). "The wild acacia (Mimosa Nilotica), under the name of sunt, everywhere represents the seneh, or senna, of the burning bush. A slightly different form of the tree, equally common under the name of seyal, is the ancient 'shittah,' or, as more usually expressed in the plural form, the 'shittim,' of which the tabernacle was made." Stanley's Sinai, etc. (Ex. 25:10, 13, 23, 28).


Shittim

  • Shittim Acacias, also called "Abel-shittim" (Num. 33:49), a plain or valley in the land of Moab where the Israelites were encamped after their two victories over Sihon and Og, at the close of their desert wanderings, and from which Joshua sent forth two spies (q.v.) "secretly" to "view" the land and Jericho (Josh. 2:1).


Shoa

  • Shoa Opulent, the mountain district lying to the north-east of Babylonia, anciently the land of the Guti, or Kuti, the modern Kurdistan. The plain lying between these mountains and the Tigris was called su-Edina, i.e., "the border of the plain." This name was sometimes shortened into Suti and Su, and has been regarded as = Shoa (Ezek. 23:23). Some think it denotes a place in Babylon. (See [584]PEKOD.)


Shobab

  • Shobab Apostate. (1.) One of David's sons by Bathseheba (2 Sam. 5:14).

(2.) One of the sons of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:18), the son of Hezron.


Shobach

  • Shobach Poured out, the "captain of the host of Hadarezer" when he mustered his vassals and tributaries from beyond "the river Euphrates" (2 Sam. 10:15-18); called also Shophach (1 Chr. 19:16).


Shobai

  • Shobai Captors (Ezra 2:42).


Shobal

  • Shobal Pilgrim. (1.) The second son of Seir the Horite; one of the Horite "dukes" (Gen. 36:20).

(2.) One of the sons of Caleb, and a descendant of Hur (1 Chr. 2:50, 52; 4:1, 2).


Shobi

  • Shobi Captor, son of Nahash of Rabbah, the Ammonite. He showed kindness to David when he fled from Jerusalem to Mahanaim (2 Sam. 17:27).


Shocho


Shoe

  • Shoe Of various forms, from the mere sandal (q.v.) to the complete covering of the foot. The word so rendered (A.V.) in Deut. 33:25, min'al, "a bar," is derived from a root meaning "to bolt" or "shut fast," and hence a fastness or fortress. The verse has accordingly been rendered "iron and brass shall be thy fortress," or, as in the Revised Version, "thy bars [marg., "shoes"] shall be iron and brass."


Shomer

  • Shomer Watchman. (1.) The mother of Jehozabad, who murdered Joash (2 Kings 12:21); called also Shimrith, a Moabitess (2 Chr. 24:26).

(2.) A man of Asher (1 Chr. 7:32); called also Shamer (34).


Shophan

  • Shophan Hidden, or hollow, a town east of Jordan (Num. 32:35), built by the children of Gad. This word should probably be joined with the word preceding it in this passage, Atroth-Shophan, as in the Revised Version.


Shoshannim

  • Shoshannim Lilies, the name of some musical instrument, probably like a lily in shape (Ps. 45; 69, title). Some think that an instrument of six strings is meant.


Shoshannim-Eduth

  • Shoshannim-Eduth In title of Ps. 80 (R.V. marg., "lilies, a testimony"), probably the name of the melody to which the psalm was to be sung.


Shrines, Silver

  • Shrines, Silver Little models and medallions of the temple and image of Diana of Ephesus (Acts 19:24). The manufacture of these was a very large and profitable business.


Shua

  • Shua Wealth. (1.) A Canaanite whose daughter was married to Judah (1 Chr. 2:3).

(2.) A daughter of Heber the Asherite (1 Chr. 7:32).


Shuah

  • Shuah Prostration; a pit. (1.) One of Abraham's sons by Keturah (Gen. 25:2; Chr. 1:32). (2.) 1 Chr. 4:11.


Shual, The land of

  • Shual, The land of Land of the fox, a district in the tribe of Benjamin (1 Sam. 13:17); possibly the same as Shalim (9:4), in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin (Josh. 19:42).


Shuhite

  • Shuhite A designation of Bildad (Job 2:11), probably because he was a descendant of Shuah.


Shulamite

  • Shulamite The same, as some think, with "Shunammite," from "Shunem:" otherwise, the import of the word is uncertain ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 6:13; R.V., "Shulammite").


Shunammite

  • Shunammite A person of Shunem (1 Kings 1:3; 2 Kings 4:12). The Syr. and Arab. read "Sulamite."


Shunem

  • Shunem Two resting-places, a little village in the tribe of Issachar, to the north of Jezreel and south of Mount Gilboa (Josh. 19:18), where the Philistines encamped when they came against Saul (1 Sam. 28:4), and where Elisha was hospitably entertained by a rich woman of the place. On the sudden death of this woman's son she hastened to Carmel, 20 miles distant across the plain, to tell Elisha, and to bring him with her to Shunem. There, in the "prophet's chamber," the dead child lay; and Elisha entering it, shut the door and prayed earnestly: and the boy was restored to life (2 Kings 4:8-37). This woman afterwards retired during the famine to the low land of the Philistines; and on returning a few years afterwards, found her house and fields in the possession of a stranger. She appealed to the king at Samaria, and had them in a somewhat remarkable manner restored to her (comp. 2 Kings 8:1-6).


Shur

  • Shur An enclosure; a wall, a part, probably, of the Arabian desert, on the north-eastern border of Egypt, giving its name to a wilderness extending from Egypt toward Philistia (Gen. 16:7; 20:1; 25:18; Ex. 15:22). The name was probably given to it from the wall (or shur) which the Egyptians built to defend their frontier on the north-east from the desert tribes. This wall or line of fortifications extended from Pelusium to Heliopolis.


Shushan

  • Shushan A lily, the Susa of Greek and Roman writers, once the capital of Elam. It lay in the uplands of Susiana, on the east of the Tigris, about 150 miles to the north of the head of the Persian Gulf. It is the modern Shush, on the northwest of Shuster. Once a magnificent city, it is now an immense mass of ruins. Here Daniel saw one of his visions (Dan. 8); and here also Nehemiah (Neh. 1) began his public life. Most of the events recorded in the Book of Esther took place here. Modern explorers have brought to light numerous relics, and the ground-plan of the splendid palace of Shushan, one of the residences of the great king, together with numerous specimens of ancient art, which illustrate the statements of Scripture regarding it (Dan. 8:2). The great hall of this palace (Esther 1) "consisted of several magnificent groups of columns, together with a frontage of 343 feet 9 inches, and a depth of 244 feet. These groups were arranged into a central phalanx of thirty-six columns (six rows of six each), flanked on the west, north, and east by an equal number, disposed in double rows of six each, and distant from them 64 feet 2 inches." The inscriptions on the ruins represent that the palace was founded by Darius and completed by Artaxerxes.


Shushan-Eduth

  • Shushan-Eduth Lily of the testimony, the title of Ps. 60. (See [586]SHOSHANNIM.)


Sibbecai

  • Sibbecai The Lord sustains, one of David's heroes (1 Chr. 11:29), general of the eighth division of the army (27:11). He slew the giant Saph in the battle of Gob (2 Sam. 21:18; R.V., "Sibbechai"). Called also Mebunnai (23:27).


Sibmah

  • Sibmah Coolness; fragrance, a town in Reuben, in the territory of Moab, on the east of Jordan (Josh. 13:19); called also Shebam and Shibmah (Num. 32:3, 38). It was famous for its vines (Isa. 16:9; Jer. 48:32). It has been identified with the ruin of Sumieh, where there are rock-cut wine-presses. This fact explains the words of the prophets referred to above. It was about 5 miles east of Heshbon.


Sichem

  • Sichem =She'chem, (q.v.), Gen. 12:6.


Sickle

  • Sickle Of the Egyptians resembled that in modern use. The ears of corn were cut with it near the top of the straw. There was also a sickle used for warlike purposes, more correctly, however, called a pruning-hook (Deut. 16:9; Jer. 50:16, marg., "scythe;" Joel 3:13; Mark 4:29).


Siddim, Vale of

  • Siddim, Vale of Valley of the broad plains, "which is the salt sea" (Gen. 14:3, 8, 10), between Engedi and the cities of the plain, at the south end of the Dead Sea. It was "full of slime-pits" (R.V., "bitumen pits"). Here Chedorlaomer and the confederate kings overthrew the kings of Sodom and the cities of the plain. God afterwards, on account of their wickedness, "overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities;" and the smoke of their destruction "went up as the smoke of a furnace" (19:24-28), and was visible from Mamre, where Abraham dwelt.

Some, however, contend that the "cities of the plain" were somewhere at the north of the Dead Sea. (See [587]SODOM.)


Sidon

  • Sidon Fishing; fishery, Gen. 10:15, 19 (A.V. marg., Tzidon; R.V., Zidon); Matt. 11:21, 22; Luke 6:17. (See [588]ZIDON.)


Signet

  • Signet A seal used to attest documents (Dan. 6:8-10, 12). In 6:17, this word properly denotes a ring. The impression of a signet ring on fine clay has recently been discovered among the ruins at Nineveh. It bears the name and title of an Egyptian king. Two actual signet rings of ancient Egyptian monarchs (Cheops and Horus) have also been discovered.

When digging a shaft close to the south wall of the temple area, the engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund, at a depth of 12 feet below the surface, came upon a pavement of polished stones, formerly one of the streets of the city. Under this pavement they found a stratum of 16 feet of concrete, and among this concrete, 10 feet down, they found a signet stone bearing the inscription, in Old Hebrew characters, "Haggai, son of Shebaniah." It has been asked, Might not this be the actual seal of Haggai the prophet? We know that he was in Jerusalem after the Captivity; and it is somewhat singular that he alone of all the minor prophets makes mention of a signet (Hag. 2:23). (See [589]SEAL.)


Sihon

  • Sihon Striking down. The whole country on the east of Jordan, from the Arnon to the Jabbok, was possessed by the Amorites, whose king, Sihon, refused to permit the Israelites to pass through his territory, and put his army in array against them. The Israelites went forth against him to battle, and gained a complete victory. The Amorites were defeated; Sihon, his sons, and all his people were smitten with the sword, his walled towns were captured, and the entire country of the Amorites was taken possession of by the Israelites (Num. 21:21-30; Deut. 2:24-37).

The country from the Jabbok to Hermon was at this time ruled by Og, the last of the Rephaim. He also tried to prevent the progress of the Israelites, but was utterly routed, and all his cities and territory fell into the hands of the Israelites (comp. Num. 21:33-35; Deut. 3:1-14; Ps. 135: 10-12; 136:17-22).

These two victories gave the Israelites possession of the country on the east of Jordan, from the Arnon to the foot of Hermon. The kingdom of Sihon embraced about 1,500 square miles, while that of Og was more than 3,000 square miles.


Sihor

  • Sihor (correctly Shi'hor) black; dark the name given to the river Nile in Isa. 23:3; Jer. 2:18. In Josh. 13:3 it is probably "the river of Egypt", i.e., the Wady el-Arish (1 Chr. 13:5), which flows "before Egypt", i.e., in a north-easterly direction from Egypt, and enters the sea about 50 miles south-west of Gaza.


Silas

  • Silas Wood, a prominent member of the church at Jerusalem; also called Silvanus. He and Judas, surnamed Barsabas, were chosen by the church there to accompany Paul and Barnabas on their return to Antioch from the council of the apostles and elders (Acts 15:22), as bearers of the decree adopted by the council. He assisted Paul there in his evangelistic labours, and was also chosen by him to be his companion on his second missionary tour (Acts 16:19-24). He is referred to in the epistles under the name of Silvanus (2 Cor. 1:19; 1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1; 1 Pet. 5:12). There is no record of the time or place of his death.


Silk

  • Silk Heb. demeshek, "damask," silk cloth manufactured at Damascus, Amos 3:12. A.V., "in the corner of a bed, and in Damascus in a couch;" R.V., "in the corner of a couch, and on the silken cushions of a bed" (marg., "in Damascus on a bed").

Heb. meshi, (Ezek. 16:10, 13, rendered "silk"). In Gen. 41:42 (marg. A.V.), Prov. 31:22 (R.V., "fine linen"), the word "silk" ought to be "fine linen."

Silk was common in New Testament times (Rev. 18:12).


Silla

  • Silla A highway; a twig, only in 2 Kings 12:20. If taken as a proper name (as in the LXX. and other versions), the locality is unknown.



Silver

  • Silver Used for a great variety of purposes, as may be judged from the frequent references to it in Scripture. It first appears in commerce in Gen. 13:2; 23:15, 16. It was largely employed for making vessels for the sanctuary in the wilderness (Ex. 26:19; 27:17; Num. 7:13, 19; 10:2). There is no record of its having been found in Syria or Palestine. It was brought in large quantities by foreign merchants from abroad, from Spain and India and other countries probably.


Silverling

  • Silverling (Isa. 7:23). Literally the words are "at a thousand of silver", i.e., "pieces of silver," or shekels.




Simri

  • Simri Watchman, a Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 26:10).



Sinim, The land of

  • Sinim, The land of (Isa. 49:12), supposed by some to mean China, but more probably Phoenicia (Gen. 10:17) is intended.


Sinite

  • Sinite An inhabitant of Sin, near Arka (Gen. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15). (See [593]ARKITE.)


Sin-offering

  • Sin-offering (Heb. hattath), the law of, is given in detail in Lev. 4-6:13; 9:7-11, 22-24; 12:6-8; 15:2, 14, 25-30; 14:19, 31; Num. 6:10-14. On the day of Atonement it was made with special solemnity (Lev. 16:5, 11, 15). The blood was then carried into the holy of holies and sprinkled on the mercy-seat. Sin-offerings were also presented at the five annual festivals (Num. 28, 29), and on the occasion of the consecration of the priests (Ex. 29:10-14, 36). As each individual, even the most private member of the congregation, as well as the congregation at large, and the high priest, was obliged, on being convicted by his conscience of any particular sin, to come with a sin-offering, we see thus impressively disclosed the need in which every sinner stands of the salvation of Christ, and the necessity of making application to it as often as the guilt of sin renews itself upon his conscience. This resort of faith to the perfect sacrifice of Christ is the one way that lies open for the sinner's attainment of pardon and restoration to peace. And then in the sacrifice itself there is the reality of that incomparable worth and preciousness which were so significantly represented in the sin-offering by the sacredness of its blood and the hallowed destination of its flesh. With reference to this the blood of Christ is called emphatically "the precious blood," and the blood that "cleanseth from all sin" (1 John 1:7).


Sin, Wilderness of

  • Sin, Wilderness of Lying between Elim and sinai (Ex. 16:1; comp. Num. 33:11, 12). This was probably the narrow plain of el-Markha, which stretches along the eastern shore of the Red Sea for several miles toward the promontory of Ras Mohammed, the southern extremity of the Sinitic Peninsula. While the Israelites rested here for some days they began to murmur on account of the want of nourishment, as they had by this time consumed all the corn they had brought with them out of Egypt. God heard their murmurings, and gave them "manna" and then quails in abundance.


Sion

  • Sion Elevated. (1.) Denotes Mount Hermon in Deut. 4:48; called Sirion by the Sidonians, and by the Amorites Shenir (Deut. 3:9). (See [594]HERMON.)

(2.) The Greek form of Zion (q.v.) in Matt. 21:5; John 12:15.


Siphmoth

  • Siphmoth Fruitful places, some unknown place in the south, where David found friends when he fled from Saul (1 Sam. 30:28).


Sirah

  • Sirah Retiring, a well from which Joab's messenger brought back Abner (2 Sam. 3:26). It is now called `Ain Malachiah, and is situated about a mile from Hebron, on the road to the north.


Sirion

  • Sirion A breastplate, the Sidonian name of Hermon (q.v.), Deut. 3:9; Ps. 29:6.


Sisera

  • Sisera (Egypt. Ses-Ra, "servant of Ra"). (1.) The captain of Jabin's army (Judg. 4:2), which was routed and destroyed by the army of Barak on the plain of Esdraelon. After all was lost he fled to the settlement of Heber the Kenite in the plain of Zaanaim. Jael, Heber's wife, received him into her tent with apparent hospitality, and "gave him butter" (i.e., lebben, or curdled milk) "in a lordly dish." Having drunk the refreshing beverage, he lay down, and soon sank into the sleep of the weary. While he lay asleep Jael crept stealthily up to him, and taking in her hand one of the tent pegs, with a mallet she drove it with such force through his temples that it entered into the ground where he lay, and "at her feet he bowed, he fell; where he bowed, there he fell down dead." The part of Deborah's song (Judg. 5:24-27) referring to the death of Sisera (which is a "mere patriotic outburst," and "is no proof that purer eyes would have failed to see gross sin mingling with Jael's service to Israel") is thus rendered by Professor Roberts (Old Testament Revision):

"Extolled above women be Jael, The wife of Heber the Kenite, Extolled above women in the tent. He asked for water, she gave him milk; She brought him cream in a lordly dish. She stretched forth her hand to the nail, Her right hand to the workman's hammer, And she smote Sisera; she crushed his head, She crashed through and transfixed his temples. At her feet he curled himself, he fell, he lay still; At her feet he curled himself, he fell; And where he curled himself, there he fell dead."

(2.) The ancestor of some of the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:53; Neh. 7:55).


Sitnah

  • Sitnah Strife, the second of the two wells dug by Isaac, whose servants here contended with the Philistines (Gen. 26:21). It has been identified with the modern Shutneh, in the valley of Gerar, to the west of Rehoboth, about 20 miles south of Beersheba.


Sitting

  • Sitting The attitude generally assumed in Palestine by those who were engaged in any kind of work. "The carpenter saws, planes, and hews with his hand-adze, sitting on the ground or upon the plank he is planning. The washerwoman sits by the tub; and, in a word, no one stands when it is possible to sit. Shopkeepers always sit, and Levi sitting at the receipt of custom (Matt. 9:9) is the exact way to state the case.", Thomson, Land and Book.


Sivan

  • Sivan A Persian word (Assyr, sivanu, "bricks"), used after the Captivity as the name of the third month of the Jewish year, extending from the new moon in June to the new moon in July (Esther 8:9).


Skin, Coats made of

  • Skin, Coats made of (Gen. 3:21). Skins of rams and badgers were used as a covering for the tabernacle (Ex. 25:5; Num. 4:8-14).


Skull, The place of a

  • Skull, The place of a See [595]GOLGOTHA.


Sl[edit]

Slave

  • Slave Jer. 2:14 (A.V.), but not there found in the original. In Rev. 18:13 the word "slaves" is the rendering of a Greek word meaning "bodies." The Hebrew and Greek words for slave are usually rendered simply "servant," "bondman," or "bondservant." Slavery as it existed under the Mosaic law has no modern parallel. That law did not originate but only regulated the already existing custom of slavery (Ex. 21:20, 21, 26, 27; Lev. 25:44-46; Josh. 9:6-27). The gospel in its spirit and genius is hostile to slavery in every form, which under its influence is gradually disappearing from among men.


Slime

  • Slime (Gen. 11:3; LXX., "asphalt;" R.V. marg., "bitumen"). The vale of Siddim was full of slime pits (14:10). Jochebed daubed the "ark of bulrushes" with slime (Ex. 2:3). (See [596]PITCH.)


Sling

  • Sling With a sling and a stone David smote the Philistine giant (1 Sam. 17:40, 49). There were 700 Benjamites who were so skilled in its use that with the left hand they "could sling stones at a hair breadth, and not miss" (Judg. 20:16; 1 Chr. 12:2). It was used by the Israelites in war (2 Kings 3:25). (See [597]ARMS.)

The words in Prov. 26:8, "As he that bindeth a stone in a sling," etc. (Authorized Version), should rather, as in the Revised Version, be "As a bag of gems in a heap of stones," etc.


Smith

  • Smith The Hebrews were not permitted by the Philistines in the days of Samuel to have a smith amongst them, lest they should make them swords and spears (1 Sam. 13:19). Thus the Philistines sought to make their conquest permanent (comp. 2 Kings 24:16).


Smyrna

  • Smyrna Myrrh, an ancient city of Ionia, on the western coast of Asia Minor, about 40 miles to the north of Ephesus. It is now the chief city of Anatolia, having a mixed population of about 200,000, of whom about one-third are professed Christians. The church founded here was one of the seven addressed by our Lord (Rev. 2:8-11). The celebrated Polycarp, a pupil of the apostle John, was in the second century a prominent leader in the church of Smyrna. Here he suffered martyrdom, A.D. 155.


Snail

  • Snail (1.) Heb. homit, among the unclean creeping things (Lev. 11:30). This was probably the sand-lizard, of which there are many species in the wilderness of Judea and the Sinai peninsula.

(2.) Heb. shablul (Ps. 58:8), the snail or slug proper. Tristram explains the allusions of this passage by a reference to the heat and drought by which the moisture of the snail is evaporated. "We find," he says, "in all parts of the Holy Land myriads of snail-shells in fissures still adhering by the calcareous exudation round their orifice to the surface of the rock, but the animal of which is utterly shrivelled and wasted, 'melted away.'"


Snare

  • Snare The expression (Amos 3:5), "Shall one take up a snare from the earth?" etc. (Authorized Version), ought to be, as in the Revised Version, "Shall a snare spring up from the ground?" etc. (See [598]GIN.)


Snow

  • Snow Common in Palestine in winter (Ps. 147:16). The snow on the tops of the Lebanon range is almost always within view throughout the whole year. The word is frequently used figuratively by the sacred writers (Job 24:19; Ps. 51:7; 68:14; Isa. 1:18). It is mentioned only once in the historical books (2 Sam. 23:20). It was "carried to Tyre, Sidon, and Damascus as a luxury, and labourers sweltering in the hot harvest-fields used it for the purpose of cooling the water which they drank (Prov. 25:13; Jer. 18:14). No doubt Herod Antipas, at his feasts in Tiberias, enjoyed also from this very source the modern luxury of ice-water."


So

  • So (Nubian, Sabako), an Ethiopian king who brought Egypt under his sway. He was bribed by Hoshea to help him against the Assyrian monarch Shalmaneser (2 Kings 17:4). This was a return to the policy that had been successful in the reign of Jeroboam I.


Soap

  • Soap (Jer. 2:22; Malachi 3:2; Heb. borith), properly a vegetable alkali, obtained from the ashes of certain plants, particularly the salsola kali (saltwort), which abounds on the shores of the Dead Sea and of the Mediterranean. It does not appear that the Hebrews were acquainted with what is now called "soap," which is a compound of alkaline carbonates with oleaginous matter. The word "purely" in Isa. 1:25 (R.V., "throughly;" marg., "as with lye") is lit. "as with bor." This word means "clearness," and hence also that which makes clear, or pure, alkali. "The ancients made use of alkali mingled with oil, instead of soap (Job 9:30), and also in smelting metals, to make them melt and flow more readily and purely" (Gesenius).


Socho

  • Socho A fence; hedge, (1 Chr. 4:18; R.V., Soco)=So'choh (1 Kings 4:10; R.V., Socoh), Sho'choh (1 Sam. 17:1; R.V., Socoh), Sho'co (2 Chr. 11:7; R.V., Soco), Sho'cho (2 Chr. 28:18; R.V., Soco), a city in the plain or lowland of Judah, where the Philistines encamped when they invaded Judah after their defeat at Michmash. It lay on the northern side of the valley of Elah (Wady es-Sunt). It has been identified with the modern Khurbet Shuweikeh, about 14 miles south-west of Jerusalem. In this campaign Goliath was slain, and the Philistines were completely routed.



Sodoma

  • Sodoma (Rom. 9:29; R.V., "Sodom"), the Greek form for Sodom.


Sodomites

  • Sodomites Those who imitated the licentious wickedness of Sodom (Deut. 23:17; 1 Kings 14:24; Rom. 1:26, 27). Asa destroyed them "out of the land" (1 Kings 15:12), as did also his son Jehoshaphat (22:46).


Solemn meeting

  • Solemn meeting (Isa. 1:13), the convocation on the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:36; Num. 29:35, R.V., "solemn assembly;" marg., "closing festival"). It is the name given also to the convocation held on the seventh day of the Passover (Deut. 16:8).



Soothsayer

  • Soothsayer One who pretends to prognosticate future events. Baalam is so called (Josh. 13:22; Heb. kosem, a "diviner," as rendered 1 Sam. 6:2; rendered "prudent," Isa. 3:2). In Isa. 2:6 and Micah 5:12 (Heb. yonenim, i.e., "diviners of the clouds") the word is used of the Chaldean diviners who studied the clouds. In Dan. 2:27; 5:7 the word is the rendering of the Chaldee gazrin, i.e., "deciders" or "determiners", here applied to Chaldean astrologers, "who, by casting nativities from the place of the stars at one's birth, and by various arts of computing and divining, foretold the fortunes and destinies of individuals.", Gesenius, Lex. Heb. (See [602]SORCERER.)


Sop

  • Sop A morsel of bread (John 13:26; comp. Ruth 2:14). Our Lord took a piece of unleavened bread, and dipping it into the broth of bitter herbs at the Paschal meal, gave it to Judas. (Comp. Ruth 2:14.)


Sopater

  • Sopater The father who saves, probably the same as Sosipater, a kinsman of Paul (Rom. 16:21), a Christian of the city of Berea who accompanied Paul into Asia (Acts 20:4-6).


Sorcerer

  • Sorcerer From the Latin sortiarius, one who casts lots, or one who tells the lot of others. (See [603]DIVINATION.)

In Dan. 2:2 it is the rendering of the Hebrew mekhashphim, i.e., mutterers, men who professed to have power with evil spirits. The practice of sorcery exposed to severest punishment (Malachi 3:5; Rev. 21:8; 22:15).


Sorek

  • Sorek Choice vine, the name of a valley, i.e., a torrent-bed, now the Wady Surar, "valley of the fertile spot," which drains the western Judean hills, and flowing by Makkedah and Jabneel, falls into the sea some eight miles south of Joppa. This was the home of Deliah, whom Samson loved (Judg. 16:4).


Sosipater

  • Sosipater (See [604]SOPATER.)


Sosthenes

  • Sosthenes Safe in strength, the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who was seized and beaten by the mob in the presence of Gallio, the Roman governor, when he refused to proceed against Paul at the instigation of the Jews (Acts 18:12-17). The motives of this assault against Sosthenes are not recorded, nor is it mentioned whether it was made by Greeks or Romans. Some identify him, but without sufficient grounds, with one whom Paul calls "Sosthenes our brother," a convert to the faith (1 Cor. 1:1).


South

  • South Heb. Negeb, that arid district to the south of Palestine through which lay the caravan route from Central Palestine to Egypt (Gen. 12:9; 13:1, 3; 46:1-6). "The Negeb comprised a considerable but irregularly-shaped tract of country, its main portion stretching from the mountains and lowlands of Judah in the north to the mountains of Azazemeh in the south, and from the Dead Sea and southern Ghoron the east to the Mediterranean on the west." In Ezek. 20:46 (21:1 in Heb.) three different Hebrew words are all rendered "south." (1) "Set thy face toward the south" (Teman, the region on the right, 1 Sam. 33:24); (2) "Drop thy word toward the south" (Negeb, the region of dryness, Josh. 15:4); (3) "Prophesy against the forest of the south field" (Darom, the region of brightness, Deut. 33:23). In Job 37:9 the word "south" is literally "chamber," used here in the sense of treasury (comp. 38:22; Ps. 135:7). This verse is rendered in the Revised Version "out of the chamber of the south."


Sovereignty

  • Sovereignty Of God, his absolute right to do all things according to his own good pleasure (Dan. 4:25, 35; Rom. 9:15-23; 1 Tim. 6:15; Rev. 4:11).


Spain

  • Spain Paul expresses his intention (Rom. 15:24, 28) to visit Spain. There is, however, no evidence that he ever carried it into effect, although some think that he probably did so between his first and second imprisonment. (See [605]TARSHISH.)


Sparrow

  • Sparrow Mentioned among the offerings made by the very poor. Two sparrows were sold for a farthing (Matt. 10:29), and five for two farthings (Luke 12:6). The Hebrew word thus rendered is tsippor, which properly denotes the whole family of small birds which feed on grain (Lev. 14:4; Ps. 84:3; 102:7). The Greek word of the New Testament is strouthion (Matt. 10:29-31), which is thus correctly rendered.


Spicery

  • Spicery Heb. nechoth, identified with the Arabic naka'at, the gum tragacanth, obtained from the astralagus, of which there are about twenty species found in Palestine. The tragacanth of commerce is obtained from the A. tragacantha. "The gum exudes plentifully under the heat of the sun on the leaves, thorns, and exteremity of the twigs."


Spices

  • Spices Aromatic substances, of which several are named in Ex. 30. They were used in the sacred anointing oil (Ex. 25:6; 35:8; 1 Chr. 9:29), and in embalming the dead (2 Chr. 16:14; Luke 23:56; 24:1; John 19:39, 40). Spices were stored by Hezekiah in his treasure-house (2 Kings 20:13; Isa. 39:2).


Spider

  • Spider The trust of the hypocrite is compared to the spider's web or house (Job 8:14). It is said of the wicked by Isaiah that they "weave the spider's web" (59:5), i.e., their works and designs are, like the spider's web, vain and useless. The Hebrew word here used is 'akkabish, "a swift weaver."

In Prov. 30:28 a different Hebrew word (semamith) is used. It is rendered in the Vulgate by stellio, and in the Revised Version by "lizard." It may, however, represent the spider, of which there are, it is said, about seven hundred species in Palestine.


Spikenard

  • Spikenard (Heb. nerd), a much-valued perfume ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 1:12; 4:13, 14). It was "very precious", i.e., very costly (Mark 14:3; John 12:3, 5). It is the root of an Indian plant, the Nardostachys jatamansi, of the family of Valeriance, growing on the Himalaya mountains. It is distinguished by its having many hairy spikes shooting out from one root. It is called by the Arabs sunbul Hindi, "the Indian spike." In the New Testament this word is the rendering of the Greek nardos pistike. The margin of the Revised Version in these passages has "pistic nard," pistic being perhaps a local name. Some take it to mean genuine, and others liquid. The most probable opinion is that the word pistike designates the nard as genuine or faithfully prepared.



Sponge

  • Sponge Occurs only in the narrative of the crucifixion (Matt. 27:48; Mark 15:36; John 19:29). It is ranked as a zoophyte. It is found attached to rocks at the bottom of the sea.


Spouse

  • Spouse ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 4:8-12; Hos. 4:13, 14) may denote either husband or wife, but in the Scriptures it denotes only the latter.


Spring

  • Spring (Heb. `ain, "the bright open source, the eye of the landscape"). To be carefully distinguished from "well" (q.v.). "Springs" mentioned in Josh. 10:40 (Heb. `ashdoth) should rather be "declivities" or "slopes" (R.V.), i.e., the undulating ground lying between the lowlands (the shephelah) and the central range of hills.


Stachys

  • Stachys Spike; an ear of corn, a convert at Rome whom Paul salutes (Rom. 16:9).


Stacte

  • Stacte (Heb. nataph), one of the components of the perfume which was offered on the golden altar (Ex. 30:34; R.V. marg., "opobalsamum"). The Hebrew word is from a root meaning "to distil," and it has been by some interpreted as distilled myrrh. Others regard it as the gum of the storax tree, or rather shrub, the Styrax officinale. "The Syrians value this gum highly, and use it medicinally as an emulcent in pectoral complaints, and also in perfumery."


Stargazers

  • Stargazers (Isa. 47:13), those who pretend to tell what will occur by looking upon the stars. The Chaldean astrologers "divined by the rising and setting, the motions, aspects, colour, degree of light, etc., of the stars."


Star, Morning

  • Star, Morning A name figuratively given to Christ (Rev. 22:16; comp. 2 Pet. 1:19). When Christ promises that he will give the "morning star" to his faithful ones, he "promises that he will give to them himself, that he will give to them himself, that he will impart to them his own glory and a share in his own royal dominion; for the star is evermore the symbol of royalty (Matt. 2:2), being therefore linked with the sceptre (Num. 24:17). All the glory of the world shall end in being the glory of the Church." Trench's Comm.


Stars

  • Stars The eleven stars (Gen. 37:9); the seven (Amos 5:8); wandering (Jude 1:13); seen in the east at the birth of Christ, probably some luminous meteors miraculously formed for this specific purpose (Matt. 2:2-10); stars worshipped (Deut. 4:19; 2 Kings 17:16; 21:3; Jer. 19:13); spoken of symbolically (Num. 24:17; Rev. 1:16, 20; 12:1). (See [608]ASTROLOGERS.)


Stater

  • Stater Greek word rendered "piece of money" (Matt. 17:27, A.V.; and "shekel" in R.V.). It was equal to two didrachmas ("tribute money," 17:24), or four drachmas, and to about 2s. 6d. of our money. (See [609]SHEKEL.)


Stealing

  • Stealing See [610]THEFT.


Steel

  • Steel The "bow of steel" in (A.V.) 2 Sam. 22:35; Job 20:24; Ps. 18:34 is in the Revised Version "bow of brass" (Heb. kesheth-nehushah). In Jer. 15:12 the same word is used, and is also rendered in the Revised Version "brass." But more correctly it is copper (q.v.), as brass in the ordinary sense of the word (an alloy of copper and zinc) was not known to the ancients.


Stephanas

  • Stephanas Crown, a member of the church at Corinth, whose family were among those the apostle had baptized (1 Cor. 1:16; 16:15, 17). He has been supposed by some to have been the "jailer of Philippi" (comp. Acts 16:33). The First Epistle to the Corinthians was written from Philippi some six years after the jailer's conversion, and he was with the apostle there at that time.


Stoics

  • Stoics A sect of Greek philosophers at Athens, so called from the Greek word stoa i.e., a "porch" or "portico," where they have been called "the Pharisees of Greek paganism." The founder of the Stoics was Zeno, who flourished about B.C. 300. He taught his disciples that a man's happiness consisted in bringing himself into harmony with the course of the universe. They were trained to bear evils with indifference, and so to be independent of externals. Materialism, pantheism, fatalism, and pride were the leading features of this philosophy.


Stomacher

  • Stomacher (Isa. 3:24), an article of female attire, probably some sort of girdle around the breast.


Stone

  • Stone Stones were commonly used for buildings, also as memorials of important events (Gen. 28:18; Josh. 24:26, 27; 1 Sam. 7:12, etc.). They were gathered out of cultivated fields (Isa. 5:2; comp. 2 Kings 3:19). This word is also used figuratively of believers (1 Pet. 2:4, 5), and of the Messiah (Ps. 118:22; Isa. 28:16; Matt. 21:42; Acts 4:11, etc.). In Dan. 2:45 it refers also to the Messiah. He is there described as "cut out of the mountain." (See [611]ROCK.)

A "heart of stone" denotes great insensibility (1 Sam. 25:37).

Stones were set up to commemorate remarkable events, as by Jacob at Bethel (Gen. 28:18), at Padan-aram (35:4), and on the occasion of parting with Laban (31:45-47); by Joshua at the place on the banks of the Jordan where the people first "lodged" after crossing the river (Josh. 6:8), and also in "the midst of Jordan," where he erected another set of twelve stones (4:1-9); and by Samuel at "Ebenezer" (1 Sam. 7:12).


Stones, Precious

  • Stones, Precious Frequently referred to (1 Kings 10:2; 2 Chr. 3:6; 9:10; Rev. 18:16; 21:19). There are about twenty different names of such stones in the Bible. They are figuratively introduced to denote value, beauty, durability ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 5:14; Isa 54:11, 12; Lam. 4:7).


Stoning

  • Stoning A form of punishment (Lev. 20:2; 24:14; Deut. 13:10; 17:5; 22:21) prescribed for certain offences. Of Achan (Josh. 7:25), Naboth (1 Kings 21), Stephen (Acts 7:59), Paul (Acts 14:19; 2 Cor. 11:25).


Stork

  • Stork Heb. hasidah, meaning "kindness," indicating thus the character of the bird, which is noted for its affection for its young. It is in the list of birds forbidden to be eaten by the Levitical law (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18). It is like the crane, but larger in size. Two species are found in Palestine, the white, which are dispersed in pairs over the whole country; and the black, which live in marshy places and in great flocks. They migrate to Palestine periodically (about the 22nd of March). Jeremiah alludes to this (Jer. 8:7). At the appointed time they return with unerring sagacity to their old haunts, and re-occupy their old nests. "There is a well-authenticated account of the devotion of a stork which, at the burning of the town of Delft, after repeated and unsuccessful attempts to carry off her young, chose rather to remain and perish with them than leave them to their fate. Well might the Romans call it the pia avis!"

In Job 39:13 (A.V.), instead of the expression "or wings and feathers unto the ostrich" (marg., "the feathers of the stork and ostrich"), the Revised Version has "are her pinions and feathers kindly" (marg., instead of "kindly," reads "like the stork's"). The object of this somewhat obscure verse seems to be to point out a contrast between the stork, as distinguished for her affection for her young, and the ostrich, as distinguished for her indifference.

Zechariah (5:9) alludes to the beauty and power of the stork's wings.


Strain at

  • Strain at Simply a misprint for "strain out" (Matt. 23:24).


Stranger

  • Stranger This word generally denotes a person from a foreign land residing in Palestine. Such persons enjoyed many privileges in common with the Jews, but still were separate from them. The relation of the Jews to strangers was regulated by special laws (Deut. 23:3; 24:14-21; 25:5; 26:10-13). A special signification is also sometimes attached to this word. In Gen. 23:4 it denotes one resident in a foreign land; Ex. 23:9, one who is not a Jew; Num. 3:10, one who is not of the family of Aaron; Ps. 69:8, an alien or an unknown person. The Jews were allowed to purchase strangers as slaves (Lev. 25:44, 45), and to take usury from them (Deut. 23:20).


Straw

  • Straw Used in brick-making (Ex. 5:7-18). Used figuratively in Job 41:27; Isa. 11:7; 25:10; 65:25.


Stream of Egypt

  • Stream of Egypt (Isa. 27:12), the Wady el-`Arish, called also "the river of Egypt," R.V., "brook of Egypt" (Num. 34:5; Josh. 15:4; 2 Kings 24:7). It is the natural boundary of Egypt. Occasionally in winter, when heavy rains have fallen among the mountains inland, it becomes a turbulent rushing torrent. The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine is about midway between el-`Arish and Gaza.


Street

  • Street The street called "Straight" at Damascus (Acts 9:11) is "a long broad street, running from east to west, about a mile in length, and forming the principal thoroughfare in the city." In Oriental towns streets are usually narrow and irregular and filthy (Ps. 18:42; Isa. 10:6). "It is remarkable," says Porter, "that all the important cities of Palestine and Syria Samaria, Caesarea, Gerasa, Bozrah, Damascus, Palmyra, had their `straight streets' running through the centre of the city, and lined with stately rows of columns. The most perfect now remaining are those of Palmyra and Gerasa, where long ranges of the columns still stand.", Through Samaria, etc.


Stripes

  • Stripes As a punishment were not to exceed forty (Deut. 25:1-3), and hence arose the custom of limiting them to thirty-nine (2 Cor. 11:24). Paul claimed the privilege of a Roman citizen in regard to the infliction of stripes (Acts 16:37, 38; 22:25-29). Our Lord was beaten with stripes (Matt. 27:26).


Subscriptions

  • Subscriptions The subscriptions to Paul's epistles are no part of the original. In their present form they are ascribed to Euthalius, a bishop of the fifth century. Some of them are obviously incorrect.


Suburbs

  • Suburbs The immediate vicinity of a city or town (Num. 35:3, 7; Ezek. 45:2). In 2 Kings 23:11 the Hebrew word there used (parvarim) occurs nowhere else. The Revised Version renders it "precincts." The singular form of this Hebrew word (parvar) is supposed by some to be the same as Parbar (q.v.), which occurs twice in 1 Chr. 26:18.



Succoth-benoth

  • Succoth-benoth Tents of daughters, supposed to be the name of a Babylonian deity, the goddess Zir-banit, the wife of Merodach, worshipped by the colonists in Samaria (2 Kings 17:30).


Sukkiims

  • Sukkiims Dwellers in tents, (Vulg. and LXX., "troglodites;" i.e., cave-dwellers in the hills along the Red Sea). Shiskak's army, with which he marched against Jerusalem, was composed partly of this tribe (2 Chr. 12:3).


Sun

  • Sun (Heb. shemesh), first mentioned along with the moon as the two great luminaries of heaven (Gen. 1:14-18). By their motions and influence they were intended to mark and divide times and seasons. The worship of the sun was one of the oldest forms of false religion (Job 31:26, 27), and was common among the Egyptians and Chaldeans and other pagan nations. The Jews were warned against this form of idolatry (Deut. 4:19; 17:3; comp. 2 Kings 23:11; Jer. 19:13).


Suph

  • Suph (Deut. 1:1, R.V.; marg., "some ancient versions have the Red Sea," as in the A.V.). Some identify it with Suphah (Num. 21:14, marg., A.V.) as probably the name of a place. Others identify it with es-Sufah = Maaleh-acrabbim (Josh. 15:3), and others again with Zuph (1 Sam. 9:5). It is most probable, however, that, in accordance with the ancient versions, this word is to be regarded as simply an abbreviation of Yam-suph, i.e., the "Red Sea."


Suphah

  • Suphah (Num. 21:14, marg.; also R.V.), a place at the south-eastern corner of the Dead Sea, the Ghor es-Safieh. This name is found in an ode quoted from the "Book of the Wars of the Lord," probably a collection of odes commemorating the triumphs of God's people (comp. 21:14, 17, 18, 27-30).


Supper

  • Supper The principal meal of the day among the Jews. It was partaken of in the early part of the evening (Mark 6:21; John 12:2; 1 Cor. 11:21). (See LORD'S [612]SUPPER.)


Surety

  • Surety One who becomes responsible for another. Christ is the surety of the better covenant (Heb. 7:22). In him we have the assurance that all its provisions will be fully and faithfully carried out. Solomon warns against incautiously becoming security for another (Prov. 6:1-5; 11:15; 17:18; 20:16).


Susanchites

  • Susanchites The inhabitants of Shushan, who joined the other adversaries of the Jews in the attempt to prevent the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:9).


Susanna

  • Susanna Lily, with other pious women, ministered to Jesus (Luke 8:3).


Susi

  • Susi The father of Gaddi, who was one of the twelve spies (Num. 13:11).


Swallow

  • Swallow (1.) Heb. sis (Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7), the Arabic for the swift, which "is a regular migrant, returning in myriads every spring, and so suddenly that while one day not a swift can be seen in the country, on the next they have overspread the whole land, and fill the air with their shrill cry." The swift (cypselus) is ordinarily classed with the swallow, which it resembles in its flight, habits, and migration.

(2.) Heb. deror, i.e., "the bird of freedom" (Ps. 84:3; Prov. 26:2), properly rendered swallow, distinguished for its swiftness of flight, its love of freedom, and the impossibility of retaining it in captivity. In Isa. 38:14 and Jer. 8:7 the word thus rendered (`augr) properly means "crane" (as in the R.V.).


Swan

  • Swan Mentioned in the list of unclean birds (Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:16), is sometimes met with in the Jordan and the Sea of Galilee.


Swelling

  • Swelling Of Jordan (Jer. 12:5), literally the "pride" of Jordan (as in R.V.), i.e., the luxuriant thickets of tamarisks, poplars, reeds, etc., which were the lair of lions and other beasts of prey. The reference is not to the overflowing of the river banks. (Comp. 49:19; 50:44; Zech. 11:3).


Swine

  • Swine (Heb. hazir), regarded as the most unclean and the most abhorred of all animals (Lev. 11:7; Isa. 65:4; 66:3, 17; Luke 15:15, 16). A herd of swine were drowned in the Sea of Galilee (Luke 8:32, 33). Spoken of figuratively in Matt. 7:6 (see Prov. 11:22). It is frequently mentioned as a wild animal, and is evidently the wild boar (Arab. khanzir), which is common among the marshes of the Jordan valley (Ps. 80:13).


Sword

  • Sword Of the Hebrew was pointed, sometimes two-edged, was worn in a sheath, and suspended from the girdle (Ex. 32:27; 1 Sam. 31:4; 1 Chr. 21:27; Ps. 149:6: Prov. 5:4; Ezek. 16:40; 21:3-5).

It is a symbol of divine chastisement (Deut. 32:25; Ps. 7:12; 78:62), and of a slanderous tongue (Ps. 57:4; 64:3; Prov. 12:18). The word of God is likened also to a sword (Heb. 4:12; Eph. 6:17; Rev. 1:16). Gideon's watchword was, "The sword of the Lord" (Judg. 7:20).


Sycamine tree

  • Sycamine tree Mentioned only in Luke 17:6. It is rendered by Luther "mulberry tree" (q.v.), which is most probably the correct rendering. It is found of two species, the black mulberry (Morus nigra) and the white mulberry (Mourea), which are common in Palestine. The silk-worm feeds on their leaves. The rearing of them is one of the chief industries of the peasantry of Lebanon and of other parts of the land. It is of the order of the fig-tree. Some contend, however, that this name denotes the sycamore-fig of Luke 19:4.


Sycamore

  • Sycamore More properly sycomore (Heb. shikmoth and shikmim, Gr. sycomoros), a tree which in its general character resembles the fig-tree, while its leaves resemble those of the mulberry; hence it is called the fig-mulberry (Ficus sycomorus). At Jericho, Zacchaeus climbed a sycomore-tree to see Jesus as he passed by (Luke 19:4). This tree was easily destroyed by frost (Ps. 78:47), and therefore it is found mostly in the "vale" (1 Kings 10:27; 2 Chr. 1:15: in both passages the R.V. has properly "lowland"), i.e., the "low country," the shephelah, where the climate is mild. Amos (7:14) refers to its fruit, which is of an inferior character; so also probably Jeremiah (24:2). It is to be distinguished from our sycamore (the Acer pseudo-platanus), which is a species of maple often called a plane-tree.


Sychar

  • Sychar Liar or drunkard (see Isa. 28:1, 7), has been from the time of the Crusaders usually identified with Sychem or Shechem (John 4:5). It has now, however, as the result of recent explorations, been identified with `Askar, a small Samaritan town on the southern base of Ebal, about a mile to the north of Jacob's well.


Sychem

  • Sychem See [613]SHECHEM.


Syene

  • Syene Opening (Ezek. 29:10; 30:6), a town of Egypt, on the borders of Ethiopia, now called Assouan, on the right bank of the Nile, notable for its quarries of beautiful red granite called "syenite." It was the frontier town of Egypt in the south, as Migdol was in the north-east.



Syntyche

  • Syntyche Fortunate; affable, a female member of the church at Philippi, whom Paul beseeches to be of one mind with Euodias (Phil. 4:2, 3).


Syracuse

  • Syracuse A city on the south-east coast of Sicily, where Paul landed and remained three days when on his way to Rome (Acts 28:12). It was distinguished for its magnitude and splendour. It is now a small town of some 13,000 inhabitants.




T[edit]

Ta[edit]

Taanach

  • Taanach A sandy place, an ancient royal city of the Canaanites, on the south-western border of the plain of Esdraelon, 4 miles south of Megiddo. Its king was conquered by Joshua (12:21). It was assigned to the Levites of the family of Kohath (17:11-18; 21:25). It is mentioned in the song of Deborah (Judg. 5:19). It is identified with the small modern village of Ta'annuk.


Taanath-shiloh

  • Taanath-shiloh Approach to Shiloh, a place on the border of Ephraim (Josh. 16:6), probably the modern T'ana, a ruin 7 miles south-east of Shechem, on the ridge east of the Mukhnah plain.


Tabbaoth

  • Tabbaoth Impressions; rings, "the children of," returned from the Captivity (Ezra 2:43).


Tabbath

  • Tabbath Famous, a town in the tribe of Ephraim (Judg. 7:22), to the south of Bethshean, near the Jordan.


Tabeal

  • Tabeal Goodness of God, the father of one whom the kings of Syria and Samaria in vain attempted to place on the throne of Ahaz (Isa. 7:6).


Tabeel

  • Tabeel A Persian governor of Samaria, who joined others in the attempt to prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Ezra 4:7).


Taberah

  • Taberah Burning, a place in the wilderness of Paran, where the "fire of the Lord" consumed the murmuring Israelites (Num. 11:3; Deut. 9:22). It was also called Kibroth-hattaavah (q.v.).


Tabering

  • Tabering Playing on a small drum or tabret. In Nahum 2:7, where alone it occurs, it means beating on the breast, as players beat on the tabret.


Tabitha

  • Tabitha (in Greek called Dorcas), gazelle, a disciple at Joppa. She was distinguished for her alms-deeds and good works. Peter, who was sent for from Lydda on the occasion of her death, prayed over the dead body, and said, "Tabitha, arise." And she opened her eyes and sat up; and Peter "gave her his hand, and raised her up; and calling the saints and widows, he presented her alive" (Acts 9:36-43).


Tables

  • Tables (Mark 7:4) means banqueting-couches or benches, on which the Jews reclined when at meals. This custom, along with the use of raised tables like ours, was introduced among the Jews after the Captivity. Before this they had, properly speaking, no table. That which served the purpose was a skin or piece of leather spread out on the carpeted floor. Sometimes a stool was placed in the middle of this skin. (See [616]ABRAHAM'S BOSOM; [617]BANQUET; [618]MEALS.)


Tablet

  • Tablet Probably a string of beads worn round the neck (Ex. 35:22; Num. 31:50). In Isa. 3:20 the Hebrew word means a perfume-box, as it is rendered in the Revised Version.


Tabor

  • Tabor A height. (1.) Now Jebel et-Tur, a cone-like prominent mountain, 11 miles west of the Sea of Galilee. It is about 1,843 feet high. The view from the summit of it is said to be singularly extensive and grand. This is alluded to in Ps. 89:12; Jer. 46:18. It was here that Barak encamped before the battle with Sisera (q.v.) Judg. 4:6-14. There is an old tradition, which, however, is unfounded, that it was the scene of the transfiguration of our Lord. (See [619]HERMON.) "The prominence and isolation of Tabor, standing, as it does, on the border-land between the northern and southern tribes, between the mountains and the central plain, made it a place of note in all ages, and evidently led the psalmist to associate it with Hermon, the one emblematic of the south, the other of the north." There are some who still hold that this was the scene of the transfiguration (q.v.).

(2.) A town of Zebulum (1 Chr. 6:77).

(3.) The "plain of Tabor" (1 Sam. 10:3) should be, as in the Revised Version, "the oak of Tabor." This was probably the Allon-bachuth of Gen. 35:8.


Tabret

  • Tabret (Heb. toph), a timbrel (q.v.) or tambourine, generally played by women (Gen. 31:27; 1 Sam. 10:5; 18:6). In Job 17:6 the word (Heb. topheth) "tabret" should be, as in the Revised Version, "an open abhorring" (marg., "one in whose face they spit;" lit., "a spitting in the face").


Tabrimon

  • Tabrimon Good is Rimmon, the father of Benhadad, king of Syria (1 Kings 15:18).


Taches

  • Taches Hooks or clasps by which the tabernacle curtains were connected (Ex. 26:6, 11, 33; 35:11).


Tachmonite

  • Tachmonite =Hach'monite, a name given to Jashobeam (2 Sam. 23:8; comp. 1 Chr. 11:11).


Tackling

  • Tackling (Isa. 33:23), the ropes attached to the mast of a ship. In Acts 27:19 this word means generally the furniture of the ship or the "gear" (27:17), all that could be removed from the ship.


Tadmor

  • Tadmor Palm, a city built by Solomon "in the wilderness" (2 Chr. 8:4). In 1 Kings 9:18, where the word occurs in the Authorized Version, the Hebrew text and the Revised Version read "Tamar," which is properly a city on the southern border of Palestine and toward the wilderness (comp. Ezek. 47:19; 48:28). In 2 Chr. 8:14 Tadmor is mentioned in connection with Hamath-zobah. It is called Palmyra by the Greeks and Romans. It stood in the great Syrian wilderness, 176 miles from Damascus and 130 from the Mediterranean and was the centre of a vast commercial traffic with Western Asia. It was also an important military station. (See [620]SOLOMON.) "Remains of ancient temples and palaces, surrounded by splendid colonnades of white marble, many of which are yet standing, and thousands of prostrate pillars, scattered over a large extent of space, attest the ancient magnificence of this city of palms, surpassing that of the renowned cities of Greece and Rome."


Tahapanes

  • Tahapanes =Tahpanhes=Tehaphnehes, (called "Daphne" by the Greeks, now Tell Defenneh), an ancient Egyptian city, on the Tanitic branch of the Nile, about 16 miles from Pelusium. The Jews from Jerusalem fled to this place after the death of Gedaliah (q.v.), and settled there for a time (Jer. 2:16; 43:7; 44:1; 46:14). A platform of brick-work, which there is every reason to believe was the pavement at the entry of Pharaoh's palace, has been discovered at this place. "Here," says the discoverer, Mr. Petrie, "the ceremony described by Jeremiah [43:8-10; "brick-kiln", i.e., pavement of brick] took place before the chiefs of the fugitives assembled on the platform, and here Nebuchadnezzar spread his royal pavilion" (R.V., "brickwork").


Tahpenes

  • Tahpenes The wife of Pharaoh, who gave her sister in marriage to Hadad the Edomite (1 Kings 11:19, 20).


Tahtim-hodshi

  • Tahtim-hodshi The land of the newly inhabited, (2 Sam. 24:6). It is conjectured that, instead of this word, the reading should be, "the Hittites of Kadesh," the Hittite capital, on the Orontes. It was apparently some region east of the Jordan and north of Gilead.


Tale

  • Tale (1.) Heb. tokhen, "a task," as weighed and measured out = tally, i.e., the number told off; the full number (Ex. 5:18; see 1 Sam. 18:27; 1 Chr. 9:28). In Ezek. 45:11 rendered "measure."

(2.) Heb. hegeh, "a thought;" "meditation" (Ps. 90:9); meaning properly "as a whisper of sadness," which is soon over, or "as a thought." The LXX. and Vulgate render it "spider;" the Authorized Version and Revised Version, "as a tale" that is told. In Job 37:2 this word is rendered "sound;" Revised Version margin, "muttering;" and in Ezek. 2:10, "mourning."


Talent

  • Talent Of silver contained 3,000 shekels (Ex. 38:25, 26), and was equal to 94 3/7 lbs. avoirdupois. The Greek talent, however, as in the LXX., was only 82 1/4 lbs. It was in the form of a circular mass, as the Hebrew name kikkar denotes. A talent of gold was double the weight of a talent of silver (2 Sam. 12:30). Parable of the talents (Matt. 18:24; 25:15).


Talitha cumi

  • Talitha cumi (Mark 5:41), a Syriac or Aramaic expression, meaning, "Little maid, arise." Peter, who was present when the miracle was wrought, recalled the actual words used by our Lord, and told them to Mark.


Talmai

  • Talmai Abounding in furrows. (1.) One of the Anakim of Hebron, who were slain by the men of Judah under Caleb (Num. 13:22; Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).

(2.) A king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after he had put Amnon to death (2 Sam. 3:3; 13:37). His daughter, Maachah, was one of David's wives, and the mother of Absalom (1 Chr. 3:2).


Talmon

  • Talmon Oppressed. (1.) A Levite porter (1 Chr. 9:17; Neh. 11:19).

(2.) One whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45); probably the same as (1).



Tamarisk

  • Tamarisk Heb. `eshel (Gen. 21:33; 1 Sam. 22:6; 31:13, in the R.V.; but in A.V., "grove," "tree"); Arab. asal. Seven species of this tree are found in Palestine. It is a "very graceful tree, with long feathery branches and tufts closely clad with the minutest of leaves, and surmounted in spring with spikes of beautiful pink blosoms, which seem to envelop the whole tree in one gauzy sheet of colour" (Tristram's Nat. Hist.).


Tammuz

  • Tammuz A corruption of Dumuzi, the Accadian sun-god (the Adonis of the Greeks), the husband of the goddess Ishtar. In the Chaldean calendar there was a month set apart in honour of this god, the month of June to July, the beginning of the summer solstice. At this festival, which lasted six days, the worshippers, with loud lamentations, bewailed the funeral of the god, they sat "weeping for Tammuz" (Ezek. 8:14).

The name, also borrowed from Chaldea, of one of the months of the Hebrew calendar.


Tanhumeth

  • Tanhumeth Consolation, a Netophathite; one of the captains who supported Gedaliah (2 Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8).


Tanis

  • Tanis (Ezek. 30:14, marg.). See [621]ZOAN.


Tappuah

  • Tappuah Apple-region. (1.) A town in the valley or lowland of Judah; formerly a royal city of the Canaanites (Josh. 12:17; 15:34). It is now called Tuffuh, about 12 miles west of Jerusalem.

(2.) A town on the border of Ephraim (Josh. 16:8). The "land" of Tappuah fell to Manasseh, but the "city" to Ephraim (17:8).

(3.) En-tappuah, the well of the apple, probably one of the springs near Yassuf (Josh. 17:7).


Tarah

  • Tarah Stopping; station, an encampment of the Hebrews in the wilderness (Num. 33:27, 28).


Tares

  • Tares The bearded darnel, mentioned only in Matt. 13:25-30. It is the Lolium temulentum, a species of rye-grass, the seeds of which are a strong soporific poison. It bears the closest resemblance to wheat till the ear appears, and only then the difference is discovered. It grows plentifully in Syria and Palestine.


Target

  • Target (1 Sam. 17:6, A.V., after the LXX. and Vulg.), a kind of small shield. The margin has "gorget," a piece of armour for the throat. The Revised Version more correctly renders the Hebrew word (kidon) by "javelin." The same Hebrew word is used in Josh. 8:18 (A.V., "spear;" R.V., "javelin"); Job 39:23 (A.V., "shield;" R.V., "javelin"); 41:29 (A.V., "spear;" R.V., "javelin").


Tarshish

  • Tarshish A Sanscrit or Aryan word, meaning "the sea coast." (1.) One of the "sons" of Javan (Gen. 10:4; 1 Chr. 1:7).

(2.) The name of a place which first comes into notice in the days of Solomon. The question as to the locality of Tarshish has given rise to not a little discussion. Some think there was a Tarshish in the East, on the Indian coast, seeing that "ships of Tarshish" sailed from Eziongeber, on the Red Sea (1 Kings 9:26; 22:48; 2 Chr. 9:21). Some, again, argue that Carthage was the place so named. There can be little doubt, however, that this is the name of a Phoenician port in Spain, between the two mouths of the Guadalquivir (the name given to the river by the Arabs, and meaning "the great wady" or water-course). It was founded by a Carthaginian colony, and was the farthest western harbour of Tyrian sailors. It was to this port Jonah's ship was about to sail from Joppa. It has well been styled "the Peru of Tyrian adventure;" it abounded in gold and silver mines.

It appears that this name also is used without reference to any locality. "Ships of Tarshish" is an expression sometimes denoting simply ships intended for a long voyage (Isa. 23:1, 14), ships of a large size (sea-going ships), whatever might be the port to which they sailed. Solomon's ships were so styled (1 Kings 10:22; 22:49).


Tarsus

  • Tarsus The chief city of Cilicia. It was distinguished for its wealth and for its schools of learning, in which it rivalled, nay, excelled even Athens and Alexandria, and hence was spoken of as "no mean city." It was the native place of the Apostle Paul (Acts 21:39). It stood on the banks of the river Cydnus, about 12 miles north of the Mediterranean. It is said to have been founded by Malachidanapalus, king of Assyria. It is now a filthy, ruinous Turkish town, called Tersous. (See [622]PAUL.)


Tartak

  • Tartak Prince of darkness, one of the gods of the Arvites, who colonized part of Samaria after the deportation of Israel by Shalmaneser (2 Kings 17:31).


Tartan

  • Tartan An Assyrian word, meaning "the commander-in-chief." (1.) One of Sennacherib's messengers to Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:17). (2.) One of Malachigon's generals (Isa. 20:1).


Tatnai

  • Tatnai Gift, a Persian governor (Heb. pehah, i.e., "satrap;" modern "pasha") "on this side the river", i.e., of the whole tract on the west of the Euphrates. This Hebrew title pehah is given to governors of provinces generally. It is given to Nehemiah (5:14) and to Zerubbabel (Hag. 1:1). It is sometimes translated "captain" (1 Kings 20:24; Dan. 3:2, 3), sometimes also "deputy" (Esther 8:9; 9:3). With others, Tatnai opposed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 5:6); but at the command of Darius, he assisted the Jews (6:1-13).


Taverns, the three

  • Taverns, The three A place on the great "Appian Way," about 11 miles from Rome, designed for the reception of travellers, as the name indicates. Here Paul, on his way to Rome, was met by a band of Roman Christians (Acts 28:15). The "Tres Tabernae was the first mansio or mutatio, that is, halting-place for relays, from Rome, or the last on the way to the city. At this point three roads run into the Via Appia, that from Tusculum, that from Alba Longa, and that from Antium; so necessarily here would be a halting-place, which took its name from the three shops there, the general store, the blacksmith's, and the refreshment-house...Tres Tabernae is translated as Three Taverns, but it more correctly means three shops" (Forbes's Footsteps of St. Paul, p. 20).


Taxes

  • Taxes First mentioned in the command (Ex. 30:11-16) that every Jew from twenty years and upward should pay an annual tax of "half a shekel for an offering to the Lord." This enactment was faithfully observed for many generations (2 Chr. 24:6; Matt. 17:24).

Afterwards, when the people had kings to reign over them, they began, as Samuel had warned them (1 Sam. 8:10-18), to pay taxes for civil purposes (1 Kings 4:7; 9:15; 12:4). Such taxes, in increased amount, were afterwards paid to the foreign princes that ruled over them.

In the New Testament the payment of taxes, imposed by lawful rulers, is enjoined as a duty (Rom. 13:1-7; 1 Pet. 2:13, 14). Mention is made of the tax (telos) on merchandise and travellers (Matt. 17:25); the annual tax (phoros) on property (Luke 20:22; 23:2); the poll-tax (kensos, "tribute," Matt. 17:25; 22:17; Mark 12:14); and the temple-tax ("tribute money" = two drachmas = half shekel, Matt. 17:24-27; comp. Ex. 30:13). (See [623]TRIBUTE.)


Taxing

  • Taxing (Luke 2:2; R.V., "enrolment"), "when Cyrenius was governor of Syria," is simply a census of the people, or an enrolment of them with a view to their taxation. The decree for the enrolment was the occasion of Joseph and Mary's going up to Bethlehem. It has been argued by some that Cyrenius (q.v.) was governor of Cilicia and Syria both at the time of our Lord's birth and some years afterwards. This decree for the taxing referred to the whole Roman world, and not to Judea alone. (See [624]CENSUS.)


Tebeth

  • Tebeth (Esther 2:16), a word probably of Persian origin, denoting the cold time of the year; used by the later Jews as denoting the tenth month of the year. Assyrian tebituv, "rain."
  • Teil tree (an old name for the lime-tree, the tilia), Isa. 6:13, the terebinth, or turpentine-tree, the Pistacia terebinthus of botanists. The Hebrew word here used (elah) is rendered oak (q.v.) in Gen. 35:4; Judg. 6:11, 19; Isa. 1:29, etc. In Isa. 61:3 it is rendered in the plural "trees;" Hos. 4:13, "elm" (R.V., "terebinth"). Hos. 4:13, "elm" (R.V., "terebinth"). In 1 Sam. 17:2, 19 it is taken as a proper name, "Elah" (R.V. marg., "terebinth").

"The terebinth of Mamre, or its lineal successor, remained from the days of Abraham till the fourth century of the Christian era, and on its site Constantine erected a Christian church, the ruins of which still remain."

This tree "is seldom seen in clumps or groves, never in forests, but stands isolated and weird-like in some bare ravine or on a hill-side where nothing else towers above the low brushwood" (Tristram).


Tekel

  • Tekel Weighed (Dan. 5:27).


Tekoa, Tekoah

  • Tekoa, Tekoah Pitching of tents; fastening down, a town of Judah, about 12 miles south of Jerusalem, and visible from the city. From this place Joab procured a "wise woman," who pretended to be in great affliction, and skilfully made her case known to David. Her address to the king was in the form of an apologue, similar to that of Nathan (2 Sam. 12:1-6). The object of Joab was, by the intervention of this woman, to induce David to bring back Absalom to Jerusalem (2 Sam. 14:2, 4, 9).

This was also the birth-place of the prophet Amos (1:1).

It is now the village of Teku'a, on the top of a hill among ruins, 5 miles south of Bethlehem, and close to Beth-haccerem ("Herod's mountain").


Tel-abib

  • Tel-abib Hill of corn, a place on the river Chebar, the residence of Ezekiel (Ezek. 3:15). The site is unknown.


Telaim

  • Telaim Young lambs, a place at which Saul gathered his army to fight against Amalek (1 Sam. 15:4); probably the same as Telem (2).


Telassar

  • Telassar Or Thelasar, (Isa. 37:12; 2 Kings 19:12), a province in the south-east of Assyria, probably in Babylonia. Some have identified it with Tel Afer, a place in Mesopotamia, some 30 miles from Sinjar.


Telem

  • Telem Oppression. (1.) A porter of the temple in the time of Ezra (10:24).

(2.) A town in the southern border of Judah (Josh. 15:24); probably the same as Telaim.


Tel-haresha

  • Tel-haresha Hill of the wood, a place in Babylon from which some captive Jews returned to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:59; Neh. 7:61).


tell tree

Tel-melah

  • Tel-melah Hill of salt, a place in Babylon from which the Jews returned (id.).


Tema

  • Tema South; desert, one of the sons of Ishmael, and father of a tribe so called (Gen. 25:15; 1 Chr. 1:30; Job 6:19; Isa. 21:14; Jer. 25:23) which settled at a place to which he gave his name, some 250 miles south-east of Edom, on the route between Damascus and Mecca, in the northern part of the Arabian peninsula, toward the Syrian desert; the modern Teyma'.


Teman

  • Teman Id. (1.) A grandson of Esau, one of the "dukes of Edom" (Gen. 36:11, 15, 42).

(2.) A place in Southern Idumea, the land of "the sons of the east," frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. It was noted for the wisdom of its inhabitants (Amos 1:12; Obad. 1:8; Jer. 49:7; Ezek. 25:13). It was divided from the hills of Paran by the low plain of Arabah (Hab. 3:3).


Temanite

  • Temanite A man of Teman, the designation of Eliphaz, one of Job’s three friends (Job 2:11; 22:1).


Temeni

  • Temeni One of the sons of Ashur, the father of Tekoa (1 Chr. 4:6).




Temptation

  • Temptation (1.) Trial; a being put to the test. Thus God "tempted [[[../Genesis|Gen.]] 22: 1; R.V., `did prove'] Abraham;" and afflictions are said to tempt, i.e., to try, men (James 1:2, 12; comp. Deut. 8:2), putting their faith and patience to the test. (2.) Ordinarily, however, the word means solicitation to that which is evil, and hence Satan is called "the tempter" (Matt. 4:3). Our Lord was in this way tempted in the wilderness. That temptation was not internal, but by a real, active, subtle being. It was not self-sought. It was submitted to as an act of obedience on his part. "Christ was led, driven. An unseen personal force bore him a certain violence is implied in the words" (Matt. 4:1-11).

The scene of the temptation of our Lord is generally supposed to have been the mountain of Quarantania (q.v.), "a high and precipitous wall of rock, 1,200 or 1,500 feet above the plain west of Jordan, near Jericho."

Temptation is common to all (Dan. 12:10; Zech. 13:9; Ps. 66:10; Luke 22:31, 40; Heb. 11:17; James 1:12; 1 Pet. 1:7; 4:12). We read of the temptation of Joseph (Gen. 39), of David (2 Sam. 24; 1 Chr. 21), of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 32:31), of Daniel (Dan. 6), etc. So long as we are in this world we are exposed to temptations, and need ever to be on our watch against them.


Tent

  • Tent (1.) Heb. `ohel (Gen. 9:21, 27). This word is used also of a dwelling or habitation (1 Kings 8:66; Isa. 16:5; Jer. 4:20), and of the temple (Ezek. 41:1). When used of the tabernacle, as in 1 Kings 1:39, it denotes the covering of goat's hair which was placed over the mishcan.

(2.) Heb. mishcan ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 1:8), used also of a dwelling (Job 18:21; Ps. 87:2), the grave (Isa. 22:16; comp. 14:18), the temple (Ps. 46:4; 84:2; 132:5), and of the tabernacle (Ex. 25:9; 26:1; 40:9; Num. 1:50, 53; 10:11). When distinguished from 'ohel, it denotes the twelve interior curtains which lay upon the framework of the tabernacle (q.v.).

(3.) Heb. kubbah (Num. 25:8), a dome-like tent devoted to the impure worship of Baal-peor.

(4.) Heb. succah (2 Sam. 11:11), a tent or booth made of green boughs or branches (see Gen. 33:17; Lev. 23:34, 42; Ps. 18:11; Jonah 4:5; Isa. 4:6; Neh. 8:15-17, where the word is variously rendered).

Jubal was "the father of such as dwell in tents" (Gen. 4:20). The patriarchs were "dwellers in tents" (Gen. 9:21, 27; 12:8; 13:12; 26:17); and during their wilderness wanderings all Israel dwelt in tents (Ex. 16:16; Deut. 33:18; Josh. 7:24). Tents have always occupied a prominent place in Eastern life (1 Sam. 17:54; 2 Kings 7:7; Ps. 120:5; [[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 1:5). Paul the apostle's occupation was that of a tent-maker (Acts 18:3); i.e., perhaps a maker of tent cloth.


Tenth deal

  • Tenth deal I.e., the tenth part of an ephah (as in the R.V.), equal to an omer or six pints. The recovered leper, to complete his purification, was required to bring a trespass, a sin, and a burnt offering, and to present a meal offering, a tenth deal or an omer of flour for each, with oil to make it into bread or cakes (Lev. 14:10, 21; comp. Ex. 16:36; 29:40).


Teraphim

  • Teraphim Givers of prosperity, idols in human shape, large or small, analogous to the images of ancestors which were revered by the Romans. In order to deceive the guards sent by Saul to seize David, Michal his wife prepared one of the household teraphim, putting on it the goat's-hair cap worn by sleepers and invalids, and laid it in a bed, covering it with a mantle. She pointed it out to the soldiers, and alleged that David was confined to his bed by a sudden illness (1 Sam. 19:13-16). Thus she gained time for David's escape. It seems strange to read of teraphim, images of ancestors, preserved for superstitious purposes, being in the house of David. Probably they had been stealthily brought by Michal from her father's house. "Perhaps," says Bishop Wordsworth, "Saul, forsaken by God and possessed by the evil spirit, had resorted to teraphim (as he afterwards resorted to witchcraft); and God overruled evil for good, and made his very teraphim (by the hand of his own daughter) to be an instrument for David's escape.", Deane's David, p. 32. Josiah attempted to suppress this form of idolatry (2 Kings 23:24). The ephod and teraphim are mentioned together in Hos. 3:4. It has been supposed by some (Cheyne's Hosea) that the "ephod" here mentioned, and also in Judg. 8:24-27, was not the part of the sacerdotal dress so called (Ex. 28:6-14), but an image of Jehovah overlaid with gold or silver (comp. Judg. 17, 18; 1 Sam. 21:9; 23:6, 9; 30:7, 8), and is thus associated with the teraphim. (See [627]THUMMIM.)


Terebinth

  • Terebinth (R.V. marg. of Deut. 11:30, etc.), the Pistacia terebinthus of botanists; a tree very common in the south and east of Palestine. (See [628]OAK.)


Teresh

  • Teresh Severe, a eunuch or chamberlain in the palace of Ahasuerus, who conspired with another to murder him. The plot was detected by Mordecai, and the conspirators were put to death (Esther 2:21; 6:2).


Tertius

  • Tertius The third, a Roman Christian whom Paul employed as his amanuensis in writing his epistle to the Romans (16:22).


Tertullus

  • Tertullus A modification of "Tertius;" a Roman advocate, whom the Jews employed to state their case against Paul in the presence of Felix (Acts 24:1-9). The charges he adduced against the apostle were, "First, that he created disturbances among the Romans throughout the empire, an offence against the Roman government (crimen majestatis). Secondly, that he was a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes; disturbed the Jews in the exercise of their religion, guaranteed by the state; introduced new gods, a thing prohibited by the Romans. And thirdly, that he attempted to profane the temple, a crime which the Jews were permitted to punish."


Testament

  • Testament Occurs twelve times in the New Testament (Heb. 9:15, etc.) as the rendering of the Gr. diatheke, which is twenty times rendered "covenant" in the Authorized Version, and always so in the Revised Version. The Vulgate translates incorrectly by testamentum, whence the names "Old" and "New Testament," by which we now designate the two sections into which the Bible is divided. (See [629]BIBLE.)


Testimony

  • Testimony (1.) Witness or evidence (2 Thess. 1:10).

(2.) The Scriptures, as the revelation of God's will (2 Kings 11:12; Ps. 19:7; 119:88; Isa. 8:16, 20).

(3.) The altar raised by the Gadites and Reubenites (Josh. 22:10).


Testimony, Tabernacle of

  • Testimony, Tabernacle of The tabernacle, the great glory of which was that it contained "the testimony", i.e., the "two tables" (Ex. 38:21). The ark in which these tables were deposited was called the "ark of the testimony" (40:3), and also simply the "testimony" (27:21; 30:6).


Tetrarch

  • Tetrarch Strictly the ruler over the fourth part of a province; but the word denotes a ruler of a province generally (Matt. 14:1; Luke 3:1, 19; 9:7; Acts 13:1). Herod and Phasael, the sons of Antipater, were the first tetrarchs in Palestine. Herod the tetrarch had the title of king (Matt. 14:9).


Th[edit]

Thahash

  • Thahash A badger, a son of Nahor, Abraham's brother (Gen. 22:24).


Tharshish

  • Tharshish (1 Kings 10:22; 22:48). See [630]TARSHISH.


The two thieves

Theatre

  • Theatre Only mentioned in Acts 19:29, 31. The ruins of this theatre at Ephesus still exist, and they show that it was a magnificent structure, capable of accommodating some 56,700 persons. It was the largest structure of the kind that ever existed. Theatres, as places of amusement, were unknown to the Jews.


Thebez

  • Thebez Brightness, a place some 11 miles north-east of Shechem, on the road to Scythopolis, the modern Tabas. Abimelech led his army against this place, because of its participation in the conspiracy of the men of Shechem; but as he drew near to the strong tower to which its inhabitants had fled for safety, and was about to set fire to it, a woman cast a fragment of millstone at him, and "all to brake his skull" i.e., "altogether brake," etc. His armourbearer thereupon "thrust him through, and he died" (Judg. 9:50-55).


Theft

  • Theft Punished by restitution, the proportions of which are noted in 2 Sam. 12:6. If the thief could not pay the fine, he was to be sold to a Hebrew master till he could pay (Ex. 22:1-4). A night-thief might be smitten till he died, and there would be no blood-guiltiness for him (22:2). A man-stealer was to be put to death (21:16). All theft is forbidden (Ex. 20:15; 21:16; Lev. 19:11; Deut. 5:19; 24:7; Ps. 50:18; Zech. 5:3; Matt. 19:18; Rom. 13:9; Eph. 4:28; 1 Pet. 4:15).


Theocracy

  • Theocracy A word first used by Josephus to denote that the Jews were under the direct government of God himself. The nation was in all things subject to the will of their invisible King. All the people were the servants of Jehovah, who ruled over their public and private affairs, communicating to them his will through the medium of the prophets. They were the subjects of a heavenly, not of an earthly, king. They were Jehovah's own subjects, ruled directly by him (comp. 1 Sam. 8:6-9).


Theudas

  • Theudas Thanksgiving, referred to by Gamaliel in his speech before the council at Jerusalem (Acts 5:36). He headed an insurrection against the Roman authority. Beyond this nothing is known of him.


Thick clay

  • Thick clay (Hab. 2:6) is correctly rendered in the Revised Version "pledges." The Chaldean power is here represented as a rapacious usurer, accumulating the wealth that belonged to others.
  • Thieves, The two (Luke 23:32, 39-43), robbers, rather brigands, probably followers of Barabbas. Our Lord's cross was placed between those of the "malefactors," to add to the ignominy of his position. According to tradition, Demas or Dismas was the name of the penitent thief hanging on the right, and Gestas of the impenitent on the left.


Thistle

  • Thistle (1.) Heb. hoah (2 Kings 14:9; Job 31:40). In Job 41:2 the Hebrew word is rendered "thorn," but in the Revised Version "hook." It is also rendered "thorn" in 2 Chr. 33:11; Prov. 26:9; [[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 2:2; "brambles" in Isa. 34:13. It is supposed to be a variety of the wild plum-tree, but by some it is regarded as the common thistle, of which there are many varieties in Palestine.

(2.) Heb. dardar, meaning "a plant growing luxuriantly" (Gen. 3:18; Hos. 10:8); Gr. tribolos, "a triple point" (Matt. 7:16; Heb. 6:8, "brier," R.V. "thistle"). This was probably the star-thistle, called by botanists Centaurea calcitropa, or "caltrops," a weed common in corn-fields. (See [631]THORNS.)


Thorn

  • Thorn (1.) Heb. hedek (Prov. 15:19), rendered "brier" in Micah 7:4. Some thorny plant, of the Solanum family, suitable for hedges. This is probably the so-called "apple of Sodom," which grows very abundantly in the Jordan valley. "It is a shrubby plant, from 3 to 5 feet high, with very branching stems, thickly clad with spines, like those of the English brier, with leaves very large and woolly on the under side, and thorny on the midriff."

(2.) Heb. kotz (Gen. 3:18; Hos. 10:8), rendered akantha by the LXX. In the New Testament this word akantha is also rendered "thorns" (Matt. 7:16; 13:7; Heb. 6:8). The word seems to denote any thorny or prickly plant (Jer. 12:13). It has been identified with the Ononis spinosa by some.

(3.) Heb. na'atzutz (Isa. 7:19; 55:13). This word has been interpreted as denoting the Zizyphus spina Christi, or the jujube-tree. It is supposed by some that the crown of thorns placed in wanton cruelty by the Roman soldiers on our Saviour's brow before his crucifixion was plaited of branches of this tree. It overruns a great part of the Jordan valley. It is sometimes called the lotus-tree. "The thorns are long and sharp and recurved, and often create a festering wound." It often grows to a great size. (See CROWN OF [632]THORNS.)

(4.) Heb. atad (Ps. 58:9) is rendered in the LXX. and Vulgate by Rhamnus, or Lycium Europoeum, a thorny shrub, which is common all over Palestine. From its resemblance to the box it is frequently called the box-thorn.


Thorn in the flesh

  • Thorn in the flesh (2 Cor. 12:7-10). Many interpretations have been given of this passage. (1.) Roman Catholic writers think that it denotes suggestions to impiety.

(2.) Luther, Calvin, and other Reformers interpret the expression as denoting temptation to unbelief.

(3.) Others suppose the expression refers to "a pain in the ear or head," epileptic fits, or, in general, to some severe physical infirmity, which was a hindrance to the apostle in his work (comp. 1 Cor. 2:3; 2 Cor. 10:10; 11:30; Gal. 4:13, 14; 6:17). With a great amount of probability, it has been alleged that his malady was defect of sight, consequent on the dazzling light which shone around him at his conversion, acute opthalmia. This would account for the statements in Gal. 4:14; 2 Cor. 10:10; also Acts 23:5, and for his generally making use of the help of an amanuensis (comp. Rom. 16:22, etc.).

(4.) Another view which has been maintained is that this "thorn" consisted in an infirmity of temper, to which he occasionally gave way, and which interfered with his success (comp. Acts 15:39; 23:2-5). If we consider the fact, "which the experience of God's saints in all ages has conclusively established, of the difficulty of subduing an infirmity of temper, as well as the pain, remorse, and humiliation such an infirmity is wont to cause to those who groan under it, we may be inclined to believe that not the least probable hypothesis concerning the `thorn' or `stake' in the flesh is that the loving heart of the apostle bewailed as his sorest trial the misfortune that, by impatience in word, he had often wounded those for whom he would willingly have given his life" (Lias's Second Cor., Introd.).


Thousands

  • Thousands (Micah 5:2), another name for "families" or "clans" (see Num. 1:16; 10:4; Josh. 22:14, 21). Several "thousands" or "families" made up a "tribe."


Threshing

  • Threshing See [633]AGRICULTURE.


Threshold

  • Threshold (1.) Heb. miphtan, probably a projecting beam at a higher point than the threshold proper (1 Sam. 5:4, 5; Ezek. 9:3; 10:4, 18; 46:2; 47:1); also rendered "door" and "door-post."

(2.) `Asuppim, pl. (Neh. 12:25), rendered correctly "storehouses" in the Revised Version. In 1 Chr. 26:15, 17 the Authorized Version retains the word as a proper name, while in the Revised Version it is translated "storehouses."


Throne

  • Throne (Heb. kiss'e), a royal chair or seat of dignity (Deut. 17:18; 2 Sam. 7:13; Ps. 45:6); an elevated seat with a canopy and hangings, which cover it. It denotes the seat of the high priest in 1 Sam. 1:9; 4:13, and of a provincial governor in Neh. 3:7 and Ps. 122:5. The throne of Solomon is described at length in 1 Kings 10:18-20.


Thummim

  • Thummim Perfection (LXX., "truth;" Vulg., "veritas"), Ex. 28:30; Deut. 33:8; Judg. 1:1; 20:18; 1 Sam. 14:3, 18; 23:9; 2 Sam. 21:1. What the "Urim and Thummim" were cannot be determined with any certainty. All we certainly know is that they were a certain divinely-given means by which God imparted, through the high priest, direction and counsel to Israel when these were needed. The method by which this was done can be only a matter of mere conjecture. They were apparently material objects, quite distinct from the breastplate, but something added to it after all the stones had been set in it, something in addition to the breastplate and its jewels. They may have been, as some suppose, two small images, like the teraphim (comp. Judg. 17:5; 18:14, 17, 20; Hos. 3:4), which were kept in the bag of the breastplate, by which, in some unknown way, the high priest could give forth his divinely imparted decision when consulted. They were probably lost at the destruction of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar. They were never seen after the return from captivity.


Thunder

  • Thunder Often referred to in Scripture (Job 40:9; Ps. 77:18; 104:7). James and John were called by our Lord "sons of thunder" (Mark 3:17). In Job 39:19, instead of "thunder," as in the Authorized Version, the Revised Version translates (ra'amah) by "quivering main" (marg., "shaking"). Thunder accompanied the giving of the law at Sinai (Ex. 19:16). It was regarded as the voice of God (Job 37:2; Ps. 18:13; 81:7; comp. John 12:29). In answer to Samuel's prayer (1 Sam. 12:17, 18), God sent thunder, and "all the people greatly feared," for at such a season (the wheat-harvest) thunder and rain were almost unknown in Palestine.


Thyatira

  • Thyatira A city of Asia Minor, on the borders of Lydia and Mysia. Its modern name is Ak-hissar, i.e., "white castle." Here was one of the seven churches (Rev. 1:11; 2:18-28). Lydia, the seller of purple, or rather of cloth dyed with this colour, was from this city (Acts 16:14). It was and still is famous for its dyeing. Among the ruins, inscriptions have been found relating to the guild of dyers in that city in ancient times.


Thyine wood

  • Thyine wood Mentioned only in Rev. 18:12 among the articles which would cease to be purchased when Babylon fell. It was called citrus, citron wood, by the Romans. It was the Callitris quadrivalvis of botanists, of the cone-bearing order of trees, and of the cypress tribe of this order. The name of this wood is derived from the Greek word thuein, "to sacrifice," and it was so called because it was burnt in sacrifices, on account of its fragrance. The wood of this tree was reckoned very valuable, and was used for making articles of furniture by the Greeks and Romans. Like the cedars of Lebanon, it is disappearing from the forests of Palestine.


Tibni

  • Tibni Building of Jehovah, the son of Ginath, a man of some position, whom a considerable number of the people chose as monarch. For the period of four years he contended for the throne with Omri (1 Kings 16:21, 22), who at length gained the mastery, and became sole monarch of Israel.


Tidal

  • Tidal (in the LXX. called "Thorgal"), styled the "king of nations" (Gen. 14:1-9). Mentioned as Tudkhula on Arioch's brick (see facing page 139). Goyyim, translated "nations," is the country called Gutium, east of Tigris and north of Elam.



Timaeus

  • Timaeus Defiled, the father of blind Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46).


Timbrel

  • Timbrel (Heb. toph), a small drum or tambourine; a tabret (q.v.). The antiquity of this musical instrument appears from the scriptural allusions to it (Gen. 31:27; Ex. 15:20; Judg. 11:34, etc.) (See [634]MUSIC.)


Timnah

  • Timnah A portion. (1.) A town of Judah (Josh. 15:10). The Philistines took possession of it in the days of Ahaz (2 Chr. 28:18). It was about 20 miles west of Jerusalem. It has been identified with Timnatha of Dan (Josh. 19:43), and also with Timnath (Judg. 14:1, 5).

(2.) A city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:57)= Tibna near Jeba'.

(3.) A "duke" or sheik of Edom (Gen. 36:40).


Timnath

  • Timnath Gen. 38:12, 14. (1.) Heb. Timnathah, which is appropriately rendered in the Revised Version, Timnah, a town in Judah.

(2.) The town where Samson sojourned, probably identical with "Timnah" (1) (Judg. 14:1-18).


Timnath-heres

  • Timnath-heres Portion of the sun, where Joshua was buried (Judg. 2:9). It was "in the mount of Ephraim, in the north side of the hill Gaash," 10 miles south-west of Shechem. The same as the following.


Timnath-serach

  • Timnath-serah Remaining portion, the city of Joshua in the hill country of Ephraim, the same as Timnath-heres (Josh. 19:50; 24:30). "Of all sites I have seen," says Lieut. Col. Conder, "none is so striking as that of Joshua's home, surrounded as it is with deep valleys and wild, rugged hills." Opposite the town is a hill, on the northern side of which there are many excavated sepulchres. Among these is the supposed tomb of Joshua, which is said to be "the most striking monument in the country." It is a "square chamber with five excavations in three of its sides, the central one forming a passage leading into a second chamber beyond. A great number of lamp-niches cover the walls of the porch, upwards of two hundred, arranged in vertical rows. A single cavity with a niche for a lamp has been thought to be the resting-place of the warrior-chief of Israel." The modern Kefr Haris, 10 miles south-west of Shechem.


Timnite

  • Timnite A man of Timnah. Samson's father-in-law is so styled (Judg. 15:6).


Timon

  • Timon Honouring, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem (Acts 6:5). Nothing further is known of him.


Timotheus

  • Timotheus The Greek form of the name of Timothy (Acts 16:1, etc.; the R.V. always "Timothy").


Timothy

  • Timothy Honouring God, a young disciple who was Paul's companion in many of his journeyings. His mother, Eunice, and his grandmother, Lois, are mentioned as eminent for their piety (2 Tim. 1:5). We know nothing of his father but that he was a Greek (Acts 16:1). He is first brought into notice at the time of Paul's second visit to Lystra (16:2), where he probably resided, and where it seems he was converted during Paul's first visit to that place (1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 3:11). The apostle having formed a high opinion of his "own son in the faith," arranged that he should become his companion (Acts 16:3), and took and circumcised him, so that he might conciliate the Jews. He was designated to the office of an evangelist (1 Tim. 4:14), and went with Paul in his journey through Phrygia, Galatia, and Mysia; also to Troas and Philippi and Berea (Acts 17:14). Thence he followed Paul to Athens, and was sent by him with Silas on a mission to Thessalonica (17:15; 1 Thess. 3:2). We next find him at Corinth (1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1) with Paul. He passes now out of sight for a few years, and is again noticed as with the apostle at Ephesus (Acts 19:22), whence he is sent on a mission into Macedonia. He accompanied Paul afterwards into Asia (20:4), where he was with him for some time. When the apostle was a prisoner at Rome, Timothy joined him (Phil. 1:1), where it appears he also suffered imprisonment (Heb. 13:23). During the apostle's second imprisonment he wrote to Timothy, asking him to rejoin him as soon as possible, and to bring with him certain things which he had left at Troas, his cloak and parchments (2 Tim. 4:13). According to tradition, after the apostle's death he settled in Ephesus as his sphere of labour, and there found a martyr's grave.



Tin

  • Tin Heb. bedil (Num. 31:22; Ezek. 22:18, 20), a metal well known in ancient times. It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon obtained their supplies of tin from the British Isles. In Ezek. 27:12 it is said to have been brought from Tarshish, which was probably a commercial emporium supplied with commodities from other places. In Isa. 1:25 the word so rendered is generally understood of lead, the alloy with which the silver had become mixed (ver. 22). The fire of the Babylonish Captivity would be the means of purging out the idolatrous alloy that had corrupted the people.


Tinkling ornaments

  • Tinkling ornaments (Isa. 3:18), anklets of silver or gold, etc., such as are still used by women in Syria and the East.


Tiphsah

  • Tiphsah Passing over; ford, one of the boundaries of Solomon's dominions (1 Kings 4:24), probably "Thapsacus, a great and wealthy town on the western bank of the Euphrates," about 100 miles north-east of Tadmor. All the land traffic between the east and the west passed through it. Menahem undertook an expedition against this city, and "smote Tiphsah and all that were therein" (2 Kings 15:16). This expedition implied a march of some 300 miles from Tirzah if by way of Tadmor, and about 400 if by way of Aleppo; and its success showed the strength of the Israelite kingdom, for it was practically a defiance to Assyria. Conder, however, identifies this place with Khurbet Tafsah, some 6 miles west of Shechem.


Tiras

  • Tiras The youngest of the sons of Japheth (Gen. 10:2; 1 Chr. 1:5).


Tires

  • Tires "To tire" the head is to adorn it (2 Kings 9:30). As a noun the word is derived from "tiara," and is the rendering of the Heb. p'er, a "turban" or an ornament for the head (Ezek. 24:17; R.V., "headtire;" 24:23). In Isa. 3:18 the word saharonim is rendered "round tires like the moon," and in Judg. 8:21, 26 "ornaments," but in both cases "crescents" in the Revised Version.


Tirhakah

  • Tirhakah The last king of Egypt of the Ethiopian (the fifteenth) dynasty. He was the brother-in-law of So (q.v.). He probably ascended the throne about B.C. 692, having been previously king of Ethiopia (2 Kings 19:9; Isa. 37:9), which with Egypt now formed one nation. He was a great warrior, and but little is known of him. The Assyrian armies under Esarhaddon, and again under Assur-bani-pal, invaded Egypt and defeated Tirhakah, who afterwards retired into Ethiopia, where he died, after reigning twenty-six years.


Tirshata

  • Tirshatha A word probably of Persian origin, meaning "severity," denoting a high civil dignity. The Persian governor of Judea is so called (Ezra 2:63; Neh. 7:65, 70). Nehemiah is called by this name in Neh. 8:9; 10:1, and the "governor" (pehah) in 5:18. Probably, therefore, tirshatha=pehah=the modern pasha.


Tirza

  • Tirza Pleasantness. (1.) An old royal city of the Canaanites, which was destroyed by Joshua (Josh. 12:24). Jeroboam chose it for his residence, and he removed to it from Shechem, which at first he made the capital of his kingdom. It remained the chief residence of the kings of Israel till Omri took Samaria (1 Kings 14:17; 15:21; 16:6, 8, etc.). Here Zimri perished amid the flames of the palace to which in his despair he had set fire (1 Kings 16:18), and here Menahem smote Shallum (2 Kings 15:14, 16). Solomon refers to its beauty ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 6:4). It has been identified with the modern mud hamlet Teiasir, 11 miles north of Shechem. Others, however, would identify it with Telluza, a village about 6 miles east of Samaria.

(2.) The youngest of Zelophehad's five daughters (Num. 26:33; Josh. 17:3).


Tishbite

  • Tishbite Elijah the prophet was thus named (1 Kings 17:1; 21:17, 28, etc.). In 1 Kings 17:1 the word rendered "inhabitants" is in the original the same as that rendered "Tishbite," hence that verse may be read as in the LXX., "Elijah the Tishbite of Tishbi in Gilead." Some interpret this word as meaning "stranger," and read the verse, "Elijah the stranger from among the strangers in Gilead." This designation is probably given to the prophet as denoting that his birthplace was Tishbi, a place in Upper Galilee (mentioned in the apocryphal book of Tobit), from which for some reason he migrated into Gilead. Josephus, the Jewish historian (Ant. 8:13, 2), however, supposes that Tishbi was some place in the land of Gilead. It has been identified by some with el-Ishtib, a some place 22 miles due south of the Sea of Galilee, among the mountains of Gilead.


Tisri

  • Tisri The first month of the civil year, and the seventh of the ecclesiastical year. See [635]ETHANIM (1 Kings 8:2). Called in the Assyrian inscriptions Tasaritu, i.e. "beginning."



Tittle

  • Tittle A point, (Matt. 5:18; Luke 16:17), the minute point or stroke added to some letters of the Hebrew alphabet to distinguish them from others which they resemble; hence, the very least point.



Tob-adonijah

  • Tob-adonijah Good is Jehovah, my Lord, a Levite sent out by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people of Judah in the law (2 Chr. 17:8).


Tobiah

  • Tobiah Pleasing to Jehovah, the "servant," the "Ammonite," who joined with those who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem after the Exile (Neh. 2:10). He was a man of great influence, which he exerted in opposition to the Jews, and "sent letters" to Nehemiah "to put him in fear" (Neh. 6:17-19). "Eliashib the priest" prepared for him during Nehemiah 's absence "a chamber in the courts of the house of God," which on his return grieved Nehemiah sore, and therefore he "cast forth all the household stuff of Tobiah out of the chamber" (13:7, 8).


Tobijah

  • Tobijah Id., a Levite sent out through Judah by Jehoshaphat to teach the people (2 Chr. 17:8).


Tob, The land of

  • Tob, The land of A district on the east of Jodan, about 13 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, to which Jephthah fled from his brethren (Judg. 11:3, 5). It was on the northern boundary of Perea, between Syria and the land of Ammon (2 Sam. 10:6, 8). Its modern name is Taiyibeh.


Tochen

  • Tochen Measured, a town of Simeon (1 Chr. 4:32).


Togarmah

  • Togarmah (1.) A son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth (Gen. 10:3).

(2.) A nation which traded in horses and mules at the fairs of Tyre (Ezek. 27:14; 38:6); probably an Armenian or a Scythian race; descendants of (1).


Tohu


Toi

  • Toi A king of Hamath, who sent "Joram his son unto King David to salute him," when he "heard that David had smitten all the host of Hadadezer" (2 Sam. 8:9, 10). Called Tou (1 Chr. 18:9, 10).


Tola

  • Tola A scarlet worm. (1.) Eldest son of Issachar (Gen. 46:13).

(2.) A judge of the tribe of Issachar who "judged" Israel twenty-three years (Judg. 10:1, 2), when he died, and was buried in Shamir. He was succeeded by Jair.


Tolad

  • Tolad Productive, a town of Simeon, in the south of Judah (1 Chr. 4:29).


Tolaites

  • Tolaites Descendants of Tola (Num. 26:23; 1 Chr. 7:1, 2).


Toll

  • Toll One of the branches of the king of Persia's revenues (Ezra 4:13; 7:24), probably a tax levied from those who used the bridges and fords and highways.


Tombs

  • Tombs Of the Hebrews were generally excavated in the solid rock, or were natural caves. Mention is made of such tombs in Judg. 8:32; 2 Sam. 2:32; 2 Kings 9:28; 23:30. They were sometimes made in gardens (2 Kings 21:26; 23:16; Matt. 27:60). They are found in great numbers in and around Jerusalem and all over the land. They were sometimes whitewashed (Matt. 23:27, 29). The body of Jesus was laid in Joseph's new rock-hewn tomb, in a garden near to Calvary. All evidence is in favour of the opinion that this tomb was somewhere near the Damascus gate, and outside the city, and cannot be identified with the so-called "holy sepulchre." The mouth of such rocky tombs was usually closed by a large stone (Heb. golal), which could only be removed by the united efforts of several men (Matt. 28:2; comp. John 11:39). (See [636]GOLGOTHA.)


Tongues, Confusion of

  • Tongues, Confusion of At Babel, the cause of the early separation of mankind and their division into nations. The descendants of Noah built a tower to prevent their dispersion; but God "confounded their language" (Gen. 11:1-8), and they were scattered over the whole earth. Till this time "the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." (See [637]SHINAR.)


Tongues, Gift of

  • Tongues, Gift of Granted on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:4), in fulfilment of a promise Christ had made to his disciples (Mark 16:17). What this gift actually was has been a subject of much discussion. Some have argued that it was merely an outward sign of the presence of the Holy Spirit among the disciples, typifying his manifold gifts, and showing that salvation was to be extended to all nations. But the words of Luke (Acts 2:9) clearly show that the various peoples in Jerusalem at the time of Pentecost did really hear themselves addressed in their own special language with which they were naturally acquainted (comp. Joel 2:28, 29).

Among the gifts of the Spirit the apostle enumerates in 1 Cor. 12:10-14:30, "divers kinds of tongues" and the "interpretation of tongues." This "gift" was a different manifestation of the Spirit from that on Pentecost, although it resembled it in many particulars. Tongues were to be "a sign to them that believe not."


Tooth

  • Tooth One of the particulars regarding which retaliatory punishment was to be inflicted (Ex. 21:24; Lev. 24:20; Deut. 19:21). "Gnashing of teeth" =rage, despair (Matt. 8:12; Acts 7:54); "cleanness of teeth" =famine (Amos 4:6); "children's teeth set on edge" =children suffering for the sins of their fathers (Ezek. 18:2).


Topaz

  • Topaz Heb. pitdah (Ezek. 28:13; Rev. 21:20), a golden yellow or "green" stone brought from Cush or Ethiopia (Job 28:19). It was the second stone in the first row in the breastplate of the high priest, and had the name of Simeon inscribed on it (Ex. 28:17). It is probably the chrysolite of the moderns.


Tophel

  • Tophel Lime, a place in the wilderness of Sinai (Deut. 1:1), now identified with Tafyleh or Tufileh, on the west side of the Edomitish mountains.


Tophet

  • Tophet =Topheth, from Heb. toph "a drum," because the cries of children here sacrificed by the priests of Moloch were drowned by the noise of such an instrument; or from taph or toph, meaning "to burn," and hence a place of burning, the name of a particular part in the valley of Hinnom. "Fire being the most destructive of all elements, is chosen by the sacred writers to symbolize the agency by which God punishes or destroys the wicked. We are not to assume from prophetical figures that material fire is the precise agent to be used. It was not the agency employed in the destruction of Sennacherib, mentioned in Isa. 30:33...Tophet properly begins where the Vale of Hinnom bends round to the east, having the cliffs of Zion on the north, and the Hill of Evil Counsel on the south. It terminates at Beer `Ayub, where it joins the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The cliffs on the southern side especially abound in ancient tombs. Here the dead carcasses of beasts and every offal and abomination were cast, and left to be either devoured by that worm that never died or consumed by that fire that was never quenched." Thus Tophet came to represent the place of punishment. (See [638]HINNOM.)


Torches

  • Torches On the night of his betrayal, when our Lord was in the garden of Gethsemane, Judas, "having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons" (John 18:1-3). Although it was the time of full moon, yet in the valley of the Kidron "there fell great, deep shadows from the declivity of the mountain and projecting rocks; there were there caverns and grottos, into which a fugitive might retreat; finally, there were probably a garden-house and tower, into whose gloom it might be necessary for a searcher to throw light around." Lange's Commentary. (Nahum 2:3, "torches," Revised Version, "steel," probably should be "scythes" for war-chariots.)


Torment

  • Torment Gr. basanos (Matt. 4:24), the "touch-stone" of justice; hence inquisition by torture, and then any disease which racks and tortures the limbs.


Tortoise

  • Tortoise (Heb. tsabh). Ranked among the unclean animals (Lev. 11:29). Land tortoises are common in Syria. The LXX. renders the word by "land crocodile." The word, however, more probably denotes a lizard, called by the modern Arabs dhabb.


Tow

  • Tow (Judg. 16:9). See [639]FLAX.


Tower of the furnaces

  • Tower of the furnaces (Neh. 3:11; 12:38), a tower at the north-western angle of the second wall of Jerusalem. It was probably so named from its contiguity to the "bakers' street" (Jer. 37:21).


Towers

  • Towers Of Babel (Gen. 11:4), Edar (Gen. 35:21), Penuel (Judg. 8:9, 17), Shechem (9:46), David ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 4:4), Lebanon (7:4), Syene (Ezek. 29:10), Hananeel (Zech. 14:10), Siloam (Luke 13:4). There were several towers in Jerusalem (2 Chr. 26:9; Ps. 48:12). They were erected for various purposes, as watch-towers in vineyard (Isa. 5:2; Matt. 21:33) and towers for defence.


Trachonitis

  • Trachonitis A rugged region, corresponds to the Heb. Argob (q.v.), the Greek name of a region on the east of Jordan (Luke 3:1); one of the five Roman provinces into which that district was divided. It was in the tetrarchy of Philip, and is now called the Lejah.


Tradition

  • Tradition Any kind of teaching, written or spoken, handed down from generation to generation. In Mark 7:3, 9, 13, Col. 2:8, this word refers to the arbitrary interpretations of the Jews. In 2 Thess. 2:15; 3:6, it is used in a good sense. Peter (1 Pet. 1:18) uses this word with reference to the degenerate Judaism of the "strangers scattered" whom he addresses (comp. Acts 15:10; Matt. 15:2-6; Gal. 1:14).


Trance

  • Trance (Gr. ekstasis, from which the word "ecstasy" is derived) denotes the state of one who is "out of himself." Such were the trances of Peter and Paul, Acts 10:10; 11:5; 22:17, ecstasies, "a preternatural, absorbed state of mind preparing for the reception of the vision", (comp. 2 Cor. 12:1-4). In Mark 5:42 and Luke 5:26 the Greek word is rendered "astonishment," "amazement" (comp. Mark 16:8; Acts 3:10).



Treasure cities

  • Treasure cities Store cities which the Israelites built for the Egyptians (Ex. 1:11). (See [640]PITHOM.) Towns in which the treasures of the kings of Judah were kept were so designated (1 Chr. 27:25).


Treasure houses

  • Treasure houses The houses or magazines built for the safe keeping of treasure and valuable articles of any kind (Ezra 5:17; 7:20; Neh. 10:38; Dan. 1:2).


Treasury

  • Treasury (Matt. 27:6; Mark 12:41; John 8:20). It does not appear that there was a separate building so called. The name was given to the thirteen brazen chests, called "trumpets," from the form of the opening into which the offerings of the temple worshippers were put. These stood in the outer "court of the women." "Nine chests were for the appointed money-tribute and for the sacrifice-tribute, i.e., money-gifts instead of the sacrifices; four chests for freewill-offerings for wood, incense, temple decoration, and burnt-offerings" (Lightfoot's Hor. Heb.).


Tree of life

  • Tree of life Stood also in the midst of the garden of Eden (Gen. 2:9; 3:22). Some writers have advanced the opinion that this tree had some secret virtue, which was fitted to preserve life. Probably the lesson conveyed was that life was to be sought by man, not in himself or in his own power, but from without, from Him who is emphatically the Life (John 1:4; 14:6). Wisdom is compared to the tree of life (Prov. 3:18). The "tree of life" spoken of in the Book of Revelation (Rev. 2:7; 22:2, 14) is an emblem of the joys of the celestial paradise.


Tree of the knowledge of good and evil

  • Tree of the knowledge of good and evil Stood in the midst of the garden of Eden, beside the tree of life (Gen. 2, 3). Adam and Eve were forbidden to take of the fruit which grew upon it. But they disobeyed the divine injunction, and so sin and death by sin entered our world and became the heritage of Adam's posterity. (See [641]ADAM.)


Trespass offering

  • Trespass offering (Heb. `asham, "debt"), the law concerning, given in Lev. 5:14-6:7; also in Num. 5:5-8. The idea of sin as a "debt" pervades this legislation. The asham, which was always a ram, was offered in cases where sins were more private. (See [642]OFFERING.)


Tribe

  • Tribe A collection of families descending from one ancestor. The "twelve tribes" of the Hebrews were the twelve collections of families which sprang from the sons of Jacob. In Matt. 24:30 the word has a wider significance. The tribes of Israel are referred to as types of the spiritual family of God (Rev. 7). (See [643]ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF; [644]JUDAH, KINGDOM OF.)


Tribulation

  • Tribulation Trouble or affiction of any kind (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 13:21; 2 Cor. 7:4). In Rom. 2:9 "tribulation and anguish" are the penal sufferings that shall overtake the wicked. In Matt. 24:21, 29, the word denotes the calamities that were to attend the destruction of Jerusalem.


Tribute

  • Tribute A tax imposed by a king on his subjects (2 Sam. 20:24; 1 Kings 4:6; Rom. 13:6). In Matt. 17:24-27 the word denotes the temple rate (the "didrachma," the "half-shekel," as rendered by the R.V.) which was required to be paid for the support of the temple by every Jew above twenty years of age (Ex. 30:12; 2 Kings 12:4; 2 Chr. 24:6, 9). It was not a civil but a religious tax.

In Matt. 22:17, Mark 12:14, Luke 20:22, the word may be interpreted as denoting the capitation tax which the Romans imposed on the Jewish people. It may, however, be legitimately regarded as denoting any tax whatever imposed by a foreign power on the people of Israel. The "tribute money" shown to our Lord (Matt. 22:19) was the denarius, bearing Caesar's superscription. It was the tax paid by every Jew to the Romans. (See [645]PENNY.)


Trinity

  • Trinity A word not found in Scripture, but used to express the doctrine of the unity of God as subsisting in three distinct Persons. This word is derived from the Gr. trias, first used by Theophilus (A.D. 168-183), or from the Lat. trinitas, first used by Tertullian (A.D. 220), to express this doctrine. The propositions involved in the doctrine are these: 1. That God is one, and that there is but one God (Deut. 6:4; 1 Kings 8:60; Isa. 44:6; Mark 12:29, 32; John 10:30). 2. That the Father is a distinct divine Person (hypostasis, subsistentia, persona, suppositum intellectuale), distinct from the Son and the Holy Spirit. 3. That Jesus Christ was truly God, and yet was a Person distinct from the Father and the Holy Spirit. 4. That the Holy Spirit is also a distinct divine Person.


Troas

  • Troas A city on the coast of Mysia, in the north-west of Asia Minor, named after ancient Troy, which was at some little distance from it (about 4 miles) to the north. Here Paul, on his second missionary journey, saw the vision of a "man of Macedonia," who appeared to him, saying, "Come over, and help us" (Acts 16:8-11). He visited this place also on other occasions, and on one of these visits he left his cloak and some books there (2 Cor. 2:12; 2 Tim. 4:13). The ruins of Troas extend over many miles, the site being now mostly covered with a forest of oak trees. The modern name of the ruins is Eski Stamboul i.e., Old Constantinople.


Trogyllium

  • Trogyllium A town on the western coast of Asia Minor, where Paul "tarried" when on his way from Assos to Miletus, on his third missionary journey (Acts 20:15).


Trophimus

  • Trophimus A foster-child, an Ephesian who accompanied Paul during a part of his third missionary journey (Acts 20:4; 21:29). He was with Paul in Jerusalem, and the Jews, supposing that the apostle had brought him with him into the temple, raised a tumult which resulted in Paul's imprisonment. (See [646]TEMPLE, HEROD'S.) In writing to Timothy, the apostle says, "Trophimus have I left at Miletum sick" (2 Tim. 4:20). This must refer to some event not noticed in the Acts.



Truth

  • Truth Used in various senses in Scripture. In Prov. 12:17, 19, it denotes that which is opposed to falsehood. In Isa. 59:14, 15, Jer. 7:28, it means fidelity or truthfulness. The doctrine of Christ is called "the truth of the gospel" (Gal. 2:5), "the truth" (2 Tim. 3:7; 4:4). Our Lord says of himself, "I am the way, and the truth" (John 14:6).


Tryphena and Tryphosa

  • Tryphena and Tryphosa Two female Christians, active workers, whom Paul salutes in his epistle to the Romans (16:12).


Tubal

  • Tubal (1.) The fifth son of Japheth (Gen. 10:2).

(2.) A nation, probably descended from the son of Japheth. It is mentioned by Isaiah (66:19), along with Javan, and by Ezekiel (27:13), along with Meshech, among the traders with Tyre, also among the confederates of Gog (Ezek. 38:2, 3; 39:1), and with Meshech among the nations which were to be destroyed (32:26). This nation was probably the Tiberini of the Greek historian Herodotus, a people of the Asiatic highland west of the Upper Euphrates, the southern range of the Caucasus, on the east of the Black Sea.


Tubal-cain

  • Tubal-cain The son of Lamech and Zillah, "an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron" (Gen. 4:22; R.V., "the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron").


Turtle, Turtle-dove

  • Turtle, Turtle-dove Its peculiar peaceful and gentle habit its often referred to in Scripture. A pair was offered in sacrifice by Mary at her purification (Luke 2:24). The pigeon and the turtle-dove were the only birds permitted to be offered in sacrifice (Lev. 1:14; 5:7; 14:22; 15:14, 29, etc.). The Latin name of this bird, turtur, is derived from its note, and is a repetition of the Hebrew name tor. Three species are found in Palestine, (1) the turtle-dove (Turtur auritus), (2) the collared turtle (T. risorius), and (3) the palm turtle (T. Senegalensis). But it is to the first of these species which the various passages of Scripture refer. It is a migratory bird (Jer. 8:7; [[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 2:11, 12). "Search the glades and valleys, even by sultry Jordan, at the end of March, and not a turtle-dove is to be seen. Return in the second week of April, and clouds of doves are feeding on the clovers of the plain. They overspread the whole face of the land." "Immediately on its arrival it pours forth from every garden, grove, and wooded hill its melancholy yet soothing ditty unceasingly from early dawn till sunset. It is from its plaintive and continuous note, doubtless, that David, pouring forth his heart's sorrow to God, compares himself to a turtle-dove" (Ps. 74:19).


Tychicus

  • Tychicus Chance, an Asiatic Christian, a "faithful minister in the Lord" (Eph. 6:21, 22), who, with Trophimus, accompanied Paul on a part of his journey from Macedonia to Jerusalem (Acts 20:4). He is alluded to also in Col. 4:7, Titus 3:12, and 2 Tim. 4:12 as having been with Paul at Rome, whence he sent him to Ephesus, probably for the purpose of building up and encouraging the church there.


Type

  • Type Occurs only once in Scripture (1 Cor. 10:11, A.V. marg.). The Greek word tupos is rendered "print" (John 20:25), "figure" (Acts 7:43; Rom. 5:14), "fashion" (Acts 7:44), "manner" (Acts 23:25), "form" (Rom. 6:17), "example" or "ensample" (1 Cor. 10:6, 11; Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 1:7; 2 Thess. 3:9; 1 Tim. 4:12). It properly means a "model" or "pattern" or "mould" into which clay or wax was pressed, that it might take the figure or exact shape of the mould. The word "type" is generally used to denote a resemblance between something present and something future, which is called the "antitype."


Tyrannus

  • Tyrannus Prince, a Greek rhetorician, in whose "school" at Ephesus Paul disputed daily for the space of two years with those who came to him (Acts 19:9). Some have supposed that he was a Jew, and that his "school" was a private synagogue.





U[edit]

Ucal

  • Ucal The name of a person to whom Agur's words are addressed (Prov. 30:1).


Ulai

  • Ulai The Eulaus of the Greeks; a river of Susiana. It was probably the eastern branch of the Choasper (Kerkhan), which divided into two branches some 20 miles above the city of Susa. Hence Daniel (8:2, 16) speaks of standing "between the banks of Ulai", i.e., between the two streams of the divided river.


Ummah

  • Ummah Vicinity, a town of Asher (Josh. 19:30).


Unction

  • Unction (1 John 2:20, 27; R.V., "anointing"). Kings, prophets, and priests were anointed, in token of receiving divine grace. All believers are, in a secondary sense, what Christ was in a primary sense, "the Lord's anointed."


Unicorn

  • Unicorn Described as an animal of great ferocity and strength (Num. 23:22, R.V., "wild ox," marg., "ox-antelope;" 24:8; Isa. 34:7, R.V., "wild oxen"), and untamable (Job 39:9). It was in reality a two-horned animal; but the exact reference of the word so rendered (reem) is doubtful. Some have supposed it to be the buffalo; others, the white antelope, called by the Arabs rim. Most probably, however, the word denotes the Bos primigenius ("primitive ox"), which is now extinct all over the world. This was the auerochs of the Germans, and the urus described by Caesar (Gal. Bel., vi. 28) as inhabiting the Hercynian forest. The word thus rendered has been found in an Assyrian inscription written over the wild ox or bison, which some also suppose to be the animal intended (comp. Deut. 33:17; Ps. 22:21; 29:6; 92:10).


Unni

  • Unni Afficted. (1.) A Levite whom David appointed to take part in bringing the ark up to Jerusalem from the house of Obed-edom by playing the psaltery on that occasion (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).

(2.) A Levite who returned with Zerubbabel from the Captivity (Neh. 12:9).


Upharsin

  • Upharsin And they divide, one of the words written by the mysterious hand on the wall of Belshazzar's palace (Dan. 5:25). It is a pure Chaldean word. "Peres" is only a simple form of the same word.


Uphaz

  • Uphaz Probably another name for Ophir (Jer. 10:9). Some, however, regard it as the name of an Indian colony in Yemen, southern Arabia; others as a place on or near the river Hyphasis (now the Ghana), the south-eastern limit of the Punjaub.




Uriel

  • Uriel God is my light. (1.) A Levite of the family of Kohath (1 Chr. 6:24).

(2.) The chief of the Kohathites at the time when the ark was brought up to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:5, 11).

(3.) The father of Michaiah, one of Rehoboam's wives, and mother of Abijah (2 Chr. 13:2).


Urijah

  • Urijah The lord is my light. (1.) A high priest in the time of Ahaz (2 Kings 16:10-16), at whose bidding he constructed an idolatrous altar like one the king had seen at Damascus, to be set up instead of the brazen altar.

(2.) One of the priests who stood at the right hand of Ezra's pulpit when he read and expounded the law (Neh. 8:4).

(3.) A prophet of Kirjath-jearim in the reign of Jehoiakim, king of Judah (Jer. 26:20-23). He fled into Egypt from the cruelty of the king, but having been brought back he was beheaded and his body "cast into the graves of the common people."


Urim

  • Urim Lights (Vulg."doctrina;" LXX. "revelation"). See [651]THUMMIM.


Usury

  • Usury The sum paid for the use of money, hence interest; not, as in the modern sense, exorbitant interest. The Jews were forbidden to exact usury (Lev. 25:36, 37), only, however, in their dealings with each other (Deut. 23:19, 20). The violation of this law was viewed as a great crime (Ps. 15:5; Prov. 28:8; Jer. 15:10). After the Return, and later, this law was much neglected (Neh. 5:7, 10).


Uz

  • Uz Fertile land. (1.) The son of Aram, and grandson of Shem (Gen. 10:23; 1 Chr. 1:17).

(2.) One of the Horite "dukes" in the land of Edom (Gen. 36:28).

(3.) The eldest son of Nahor, Abraham's brother (Gen. 22:21, R.V.).


Uzal

  • Uzal A wanderer, a descendant of Joktan (Gen. 10:27; 1 Chr. 1:21), the founder apparently of one of the Arab tribes; the name also probably of the province they occupied and of their chief city.


Uz, The land of

  • Uz, The land of Where Job lived (1:1; Jer. 25:20; Lam. 4:21), probably somewhere to the east or south-east of Palestine and north of Edom. It is mentioned in Scripture only in these three passages.


Uzza

  • Uzza Strengh, a garden in which Manasseh and Amon were buried (2 Kings 21:18, 26). It was probably near the king's palace in Jerusalem, or may have formed part of the palace grounds. Manasseh may probably have acquired it from some one of this name.


Uzzah

  • Uzzah Strength, a son of Abinadab, in whose house the men of Kirjath-jearim placed the ark when it was brought back from the land of the Philistines (1 Sam. 7:1). He with his brother Ahio drove the cart on which the ark was placed when David sought to bring it up to Jerusalem. When the oxen stumbled, Uzzah, in direct violation of the divine law (Num. 4:15), put forth his hand to steady the ark, and was immediately smitten unto death. The place where this occurred was henceforth called Perez-uzzah (1 Chr. 13:11). David on this feared to proceed further, and placed the ark in the house of Obed-edom the Gittite (2 Sam. 6:2-11; 1 Chr. 13:6-13).


Uzzen-sherah

  • Uzzen-sherah A town probably near Beth-horon. It derived its name from the daughter of Ephraim (1 Chr. 7:24).


Uzzi

  • Uzzi The Lord is my strength. (1.) The son of Bukki, and a descendant of Aaron (1 Chr. 6:5, 51; Ezra 7:4).

(2.) A grandson of Issachar (1 Chr. 7:2, 3).

(3.) A son of Bela, and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:7).

(4.) A Benjamite, a chief in the tribe (1 Chr. 9:8).

(5.) A son of Bani. He had the oversight of the Levites after the return from captivity (Neh. 11:22).

(6.) The head of the house of Jedaiah, one of "the chief of the priests" (Neh. 12:19).

(7.) A priest who assisted in the dedication of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:42).


Uzziel

  • Uzziel Strength of God. (1.) One of the sons of Kohath, and uncle of Aaron (Ex. 6:18; Lev. 10:4).

(2.) A Simeonite captain (1 Chr. 4:39-43).

(3.) A son of Bela, and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:7).

(4.) One of the sons of Heman (1 Chr. 25:4); called also Azareel (18).

(5.) A son of Jeduthan (2 Chr. 29:14).

(6.) The son of Harhaiah (Neh. 3:8).



V[edit]

Vagabond

  • Vagabond From Lat. vagabundus, "a wanderer," "a fugitive;" not used opprobriously (Gen. 4:12, R.V., "wanderer;" Ps. 109:10; Acts 19:13, R.V., "strolling").


Vajezatha

  • Vajezatha Purity; worthy of honour, one of Haman's sons, whom the Jews slew in the palace of Shushan (Esther 9:9).


Valley

  • Valley (1.) Heb. bik'ah, a "cleft" of the mountains (Deut. 8:7; 11:11; Ps. 104:8; Isa. 41:18); also a low plain bounded by mountains, as the plain of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon around the sources of the Jordan (Josh. 11:17; 12:7), and the valley of Megiddo (2 Chr. 35:22).

(2.) `Emek, "deep;" "a long, low plain" (Job 39:10, 21; Ps. 65:13; [[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 2:1), such as the plain of Esdraelon; the "valley of giants" (Josh. 15:8), usually translated "valley of Rephaim" (2 Sam. 5:18); of Elah (1 Sam. 17:2), of Berachah (2 Chr. 20:26); the king's "dale" (Gen. 14:17); of Jehoshaphat (Joel 3:2, 12), of Achor (Josh. 7:24; Isa. 65:10), Succoth (Ps. 60:6), Ajalon (Josh. 10:12), Jezreel (Hos. 1:5).

(3.) Ge, "a bursting," a "flowing together," a narrow glen or ravine, such as the valley of the children of Hinnom (2 Kings 23:10); of Eshcol (Deut. 1:24); of Sorek (Judg. 16:4), etc.

The "valley of vision" (Isa. 22:1) is usually regarded as denoting Jerusalem, which "may be so called," says Barnes (Com. on Isa.), "either (1) because there were several valleys within the city and adjacent to it, as the vale between Mount Zion and Moriah, the vale between Mount Moriah and Mount Ophel, between these and Mount Bezetha, and the valley of Jehoshaphat, the valley of the brook Kidron, etc., without the walls of the city; or (2) more probably it was called the valley in reference to its being compassed with hills rising to a considerable elevation above the city" (Ps. 125:2; comp. also Jer. 21:13, where Jerusalem is called a "valley").

(4.) Heb. nahal, a wady or water-course (Gen. 26:19; [[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 6:11).


Vashti

  • Vashti Beautiful, the queen of Ahasuerus, who was deposed from her royal dignity because she refused to obey the king when he desired her to appear in the banqueting hall of Shushan the palace (Esther 1:10-12). (See [652]ESTHER.)



Veil, vail

  • Veil, vail (1.) Heb. mitpahath (Ruth 3:15; marg., "sheet" or "apron;" R.V., "mantle"). In Isa. 3:22 this word is plural, rendered "wimples;" R.V., "shawls" i.e., wraps.

(2.) Massekah (Isa. 25:7; in Isa. 28:20 rendered "covering"). The word denotes something spread out and covering or concealing something else (comp. 2 Cor. 3:13-15).

(3.) Masveh (Ex. 34:33, 35), the veil on the face of Moses. This verse should be read, "And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face," as in the Revised Version. When Moses spoke to them he was without the veil; only when he ceased speaking he put on the veil (comp. 2 Cor. 3:13, etc.).

(4.) Paroheth (Ex. 26:31-35), the veil of the tabernacle and the temple, which hung between the holy place and the most holy (2 Chr. 3:14). In the temple a partition wall separated these two places. In it were two folding-doors, which are supposed to have been always open, the entrance being concealed by the veil which the high priest lifted when he entered into the sanctuary on the day of Atonement. This veil was rent when Christ died on the cross (Matt. 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45).

(5.) Tza'iph (Gen. 24:65). Rebekah "took a vail and covered herself." (See also 38:14, 19.) Hebrew women generally appeared in public without veils (12:14; 24:16; 29:10; 1 Sam. 1:12).

(6.) Radhidh ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 5:7, R.V. "mantle;" Isa. 3:23). The word probably denotes some kind of cloak or wrapper.

(7.) Masak, the veil which hung before the entrance to the holy place (Ex. 26:36, 37).



Villages

  • Villages (Judg. 5:7, 11). The Hebrew word thus rendered (perazon) means habitations in the open country, unwalled villages (Deut. 3:5; 1 Sam. 6:18). Others, however, following the LXX. and the Vulgate versions, render the word "rulers."

Vine

  • Vine One of the most important products of Palestine. The first mention of it is in the history of Noah (Gen. 9:20). It is afterwards frequently noticed both in the Old and New Testaments, and in the ruins of terraced vineyards there are evidences that it was extensively cultivated by the Jews. It was cultivated in Palestine before the Israelites took possession of it. The men sent out by Moses brought with them from the Valley of Eshcol a cluster of grapes so large that "they bare it between two upon a staff" (Num. 13: 23). The vineyards of En-gedi ([[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 1:14), Heshbon, Sibmah, Jazer, Elealeh (Isa. 16:8-10; Jer. 48:32, 34), and Helbon (Ezek. 27:18), as well as of Eshcol, were celebrated.

The Church is compared to a vine (Ps. 80:8), and Christ says of himself, "I am the vine" (John 15:1). In one of his parables also (Matt. 21:33) our Lord compares his Church to a vineyard which "a certain householder planted, and hedged round about," etc.

Hos. 10:1 is rendered in the Revised Version, "Israel is a luxuriant vine, which putteth forth his fruit," instead of "Israel is an empty vine, he bringeth forth fruit unto himself," of the Authorized Version.


Vinegar

  • Vinegar Heb. hometz, Gr. oxos, Fr. vin aigre; i.e., "sour wine." The Hebrew word is rendered vinegar in Ps. 69:21, a prophecy fulfilled in the history of the crucifixion (Matt. 27:34). This was the common sour wine (posea) daily made use of by the Roman soldiers. They gave it to Christ, not in derision, but from compassion, to assuage his thirst. Prov. 10:26 shows that there was also a stronger vinegar, which was not fit for drinking. The comparison, "vinegar upon nitre," probably means "vinegar upon soda" (as in the marg. of the R.V.), which then effervesces.



Vine of Sodom

  • Vine of Sodom Referred to only in Deut. 32:32. Among the many conjectures as to this tree, the most probable is that it is the `osher of the Arabs, which abounds in the region of the Dead Sea. Its fruit are the so-called "apples of Sodom," which, though beautiful to the eye, are exceedingly bitter to the taste. (See [657]EN-GEDI.) The people of Israel are referred to here by Moses as being utterly corrupt, bringing forth only bitter fruit.


Viol

  • Viol Heb. nebel (Isa. 5:12, R.V., "lute;" 14:11), a musical instrument, usually rendered "psaltery" (q.v.)


Viper

  • Viper In Job 20:16, Isa. 30:6; 59:5, the Heb. word eph'eh is thus rendered. The Hebrew word, however, probably denotes a species of poisonous serpents known by the Arabic name of `el ephah. Tristram has identified it with the sand viper, a species of small size common in sandy regions, and frequently found under stones by the shores of the Dead Sea. It is rapid in its movements, and highly poisonous. In the New Testament echidne is used (Matt. 3:7; 12:34; 23:33) for any poisonous snake. The viper mentioned in Acts 28:3 was probably the vipera aspis, or the Mediterranean viper. (See [658]ADDER.)


Virgin

  • Virgin In a prophecy concerning our Lord, Isaiah (7:14) says, "A virgin [R.V. marg., `the virgin'] shall conceive, and bear a son" (comp. Luke 1:31-35). The people of the land of Zidon are thus referred to by Isaiah (23:12), "O thou oppressed virgin, daughter of Zidon;" and of the people of Israel, Jeremiah (18:13) says, "The virgin of Israel hath done a very horrible thing."


Vision

  • Vision (Luke 1:22), a vivid apparition, not a dream (comp. Luke 24:23; Acts 26:19; 2 Cor. 12:1).


Vows

  • Vows Voluntary promises which, when once made, were to be kept if the thing vowed was right. They were made under a great variety of circumstances (Gen. 28: 18-22; Lev. 7:16; Num. 30:2-13; Deut. 23:18; Judg. 11:30, 39; 1 Sam. 1:11; Jonah 1:16; Acts 18:18; 21:23).


Vulture

  • Vulture (1.) Heb. da'ah (Lev. 11:14). In the parallel passage (Deut. 14:13) the Hebrew word used is ra'ah, rendered "glede;" LXX., "gups;" Vulg., "milvus." A species of ravenous bird, distinguished for its rapid flight. "When used without the epithet `red,' the name is commonly confined to the black kite. The habits of the bird bear out the allusion in Isa. 34:15, for it is, excepting during the winter three months, so numerous everywhere in Palestine as to be almost gregarious." (See [659]EAGLE.)

(2.) In Job 28:7 the Heb. `ayyah is thus rendered. The word denotes a clamorous and a keen-sighted bird of prey. In Lev. 11:14 and Deut. 14:13 it is rendered "kite" (q.v.).


W[edit]

Wafers

  • Wafers Thin cakes (Ex. 16:31; 29:2, 23; Lev. 2:4; 7:12; 8:26; Num. 6:15, 19) used in various offerings.


Wages

  • Wages Rate of (mention only in Matt. 20:2); to be punctually paid (Lev. 19:13; Deut. 24:14, 15); judgements threatened against the withholding of (Jer. 22:13; Malachi 3:5; comp. James 5:4); paid in money (Matt. 20:1-14); to Jacob in kind (Gen. 29:15, 20; 30:28; 31:7, 8, 41).


Wagon

  • Wagon Heb. aghalah; so rendered in Gen. 45:19, 21, 27; 46:5; Num. 7:3, 7, 8, but elsewhere rendered "cart" (1 Sam. 6:7, etc.). This vehicle was used for peaceful purposes. In Ezek. 23:24, however, it is the rendering of a different Hebrew word, and denotes a war-chariot.


Wailing-place, Jews'

  • Wailing-place, Jews' A section of the western wall of the temple area, where the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail their desolate condition (Ps. 79:1, 4, 5). The stones in this part of the wall are of great size, and were placed, as is generally believed, in the position in which they are now found in the time of Solomon. "The congregation at the wailing-place is one of the most solemn gatherings left to the Jewish Church, and as the writer gazed at the motley concourse he experienced a feeling of sorrow that the remnants of the chosen race should be heartlessly thrust outside the sacred enclosure of their fathers' holy temple by men of an alien race and an alien creed. Many of the elders, seated on the ground, with their backs against the wall, on the west side of the area, and with their faces turned toward the eternal house, read out of their well-thumbed Hebrew books passages from the prophetic writings, such as Isa. 64:9-12" (King's Recent Discoveries, etc.). The wailing-place of the Jews, viewed in its past spiritual and historic relations, is indeed "the saddest nook in this vale of tears." (See LAMENTATIONS, BOOK [660]OF.)


Wall

  • Wall Cities were surrounded by walls, as distinguished from "unwalled villages" (Ezek. 38:11; Lev. 25:29-34). They were made thick and strong (Num. 13:28; Deut. 3:5). Among the Jews walls were built of stone, some of those in the temple being of great size (1 Kings 6:7; 7:9-12; 20:30; Mark 13:1, 2). The term is used metaphorically of security and safety (Isa. 26:1; 60:18; Rev. 21:12-20). (See [661]FENCE.)


Wandering

  • Wandering Of the Israelites in the wilderness in consequence of their rebellious fears to enter the Promised Land (Num. 14:26-35). They wandered for forty years before they were permitted to cross the Jordan (Josh. 4:19; 5:6).

The record of these wanderings is given in Num. 33:1-49. Many of the stations at which they camped cannot now be identified.

Questions of an intricate nature have been discussed regarding the "Wanderings," but it is enough for us to take the sacred narrative as it stands, and rest assured that "He led them forth by the right way" (Ps. 107:1-7, 33-35). (See [662]WILDERNESS.)



Ward

  • Ward A prison (Gen. 40:3, 4); a watch-station (Isa. 21:8); a guard (Neh. 13:30).


Wars of the Lord, The Book of the

  • Wars of the Lord, The Book of the (Num. 21:14, 15), some unknown book so called (comp. Gen. 14:14-16; Ex. 17:8-16; Num. 14:40-45; 21:1-3, 21-25, 33-35; 31. The wars here recorded might be thus designated).


Washing

  • Washing (Mark 7:1-9). The Jews, like other Orientals, used their fingers when taking food, and therefore washed their hands before doing so, for the sake of cleanliness. Here the reference is to the ablutions prescribed by tradition, according to which "the disciples ought to have gone down to the side of the lake, washed their hands thoroughly, `rubbing the fist of one hand in the hollow of the other, then placed the ten finger-tips together, holding the hands up, so that any surplus water might flow down to the elbow, and thence to the ground.'" To neglect to do this had come to be regarded as a great sin, a sin equal to the breach of any of the ten commandments. Moses had commanded washings oft, but always for some definite cause; but the Jews multiplied the legal observance till they formed a large body of precepts. To such precepts about ceremonial washing Mark here refers. (See [663]ABLUTION.)


Watches

  • Watches The periods into which the time between sunset and sunrise was divided. They are so called because watchmen relieved each other at each of these periods. There are frequent references in Scripture to the duties of watchmen who were appointed to give notice of the approach of an enemy (2 Sam. 18:24-27; 2 Kings 9:17-20; Isa. 21:5-9). They were sometimes placed for this purpose on watch-towers (2 Kings 17:9; 18:8). Ministers or teachers are also spoken of under this title (Jer. 6:17; Ezek. 33:2-9; Heb. 13:17).

The watches of the night were originally three in number, (1) "the beginning of the watches" (Lam. 2:19); (2) "the middle watch" (Judg. 7:19); and (3) "the morning watch" (Ex. 14:24; 1 Sam. 11:11), which extended from two o'clock to sunrise. But in the New Testament we read of four watches, a division probably introduced by the Romans (Matt. 14:25; Mark 6:48; Luke 12:38). (See [664]DAY.)


Watchings

  • Watchings (2 Cor. 6:5), lit. "sleeplessnesses," the result of "manual labour, teaching, travelling, meditating, praying, cares, and the like" (Meyer's Com.).


Water of jealousy

  • Water of jealousy A phrase employed (not, however, in Scripture) to denote the water used in the solemn ordeal prescribed by the law of Moses (Num. 5:11-31) in cases of "jealousy."


Water of purification

  • Water of purification Used in cases of ceremonial cleansings at the consecration of the Levites (Num. 8:7). It signified, figuratively, that purifying of the heart which must characterize the servants of God.


Water of separation

  • Water of separation Used along with the ashes of a red heifer for the ceremonial cleansing of persons defiled by contact with a dead body (Num. 19).


Waterspouts

  • Waterspouts (Ps. 42:7; marg. R.V., "cataracts"). If we regard this psalm as descriptive of David's feelings when banished from Jerusalem by the revolt of Absalom, this word may denote "waterfalls," inasmuch as Mahanaim, where he abode, was near the Jabbok, and the region abounded with rapids and falls.


Wave offerings

  • Wave offerings Parts of peace-offerings were so called, because they were waved by the priests (Ex. 29:24, 26, 27; Lev. 7:20-34; 8:27; 9:21; 10:14, 15, etc.), in token of a solemn special presentation to God. They then became the property of the priests. The first-fruits, a sheaf of barley, offered at the feast of Pentecost (Lev. 23:17-20), and wheat-bread, the first-fruits of the second harvest, offered at the Passover (10-14), were wave-offerings.


Wax

  • Wax Made by melting the combs of bees. Mentioned (Ps. 22:14; 68:2; 97:5; Micah 1:4) in illustration.


Wean

  • Wean Among the Hebrews children (whom it was customary for the mothers to nurse, Ex. 2:7-9; 1 Sam. 1:23; [[../Solomon, Song of|Cant.]] 8:1) were not generally weaned till they were three or four years old.


Weasel

  • Weasel (Heb. holedh), enumerated among unclean animals (Lev. 11:29). Some think that this Hebrew word rather denotes the mole (Spalax typhlus) common in Palestine. There is no sufficient reason, however, to depart from the usual translation. The weasel tribe are common also in Palestine.


Weaving, weavers

  • Weaving, weavers Weaving was an art practised in very early times (Ex. 35:35). The Egyptians were specially skilled in it (Isa. 19:9; Ezek. 27:7), and some have regarded them as its inventors.

In the wilderness, the Hebrews practised it (Ex. 26:1, 8; 28:4, 39; Lev. 13:47). It is referred to in subsequent times as specially the women's work (2 Kings 23:7; Prov. 31:13, 24). No mention of the loom is found in Scripture, but we read of the "shuttle" (Job 7:6), "the pin" of the beam (Judg. 16:14), "the web" (13, 14), and "the beam" (1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam. 21:19). The rendering, "with pining sickness," in Isa. 38:12 (A.V.) should be, as in the Revised Version, "from the loom," or, as in the margin, "from the thrum." We read also of the "warp" and "woof" (Lev. 13:48, 49, 51-53, 58, 59), but the Revised Version margin has, instead of "warp," "woven or knitted stuff."


Week

  • Week From the beginning, time was divided into weeks, each consisting of six days of working and one of rest (Gen. 2:2, 3; 7:10; 8:10, 12; 29:28). The references to this division of days becomes afterwards more frequent (Ex. 34:22; Lev. 12:5; Num. 28:26; Deut. 16:16; 2 Chr. 8:13; Jer. 5:24; Dan. 9:24-27; 10:2, 3). It has been found to exist among almost all nations.


Weeks, Feast of

  • Weeks, Feast of See [665]PENTECOST.


Weights

  • Weights Reduced to English troy-weight, the Hebrew weights were: (1.) The gerah (Lev. 27:25; Num. 3:47), a Hebrew word, meaning a grain or kernel, and hence a small weight. It was the twentieth part of a shekel, and equal to 12 grains.

(2.) Bekah (Ex. 38:26), meaning "a half" i.e., "half a shekel," equal to 5 pennyweight.

(3.) Shekel, "a weight," only in the Old Testament, and frequently in its original form (Gen. 23:15, 16; Ex. 21:32; 30:13, 15; 38:24-29, etc.). It was equal to 10 pennyweight.

(4.) Ma'neh, "a part" or "portion" (Ezek. 45:12), equal to 60 shekels, i.e., to 2 lbs. 6 oz.

(5.) Talent of silver (2 Kings 5:22), equal to 3,000 shekels, i.e., 125 lbs.

(6.) Talent of gold (Ex. 25:39), double the preceding, i.e., 250 lbs.


Well

  • Well (Heb. beer), to be distinguished from a fountain (Heb. `ain). A "beer" was a deep shaft, bored far under the rocky surface by the art of man, which contained water which percolated through the strata in its sides. Such wells were those of Jacob and Beersheba, etc. (see Gen. 21:19, 25, 30, 31; 24:11; 26:15, 18-25, 32, etc.). In the Pentateuch this word beer, so rendered, occurs twenty-five times.


Westward

  • Westward Sea-ward, i.e., toward the Mediterranean (Deut. 3:27).


Whale

  • Whale The Hebrew word tan (plural, tannin) is so rendered in Job 7:12 (A.V.; but R.V., "sea-monster"). It is rendered by "dragons" in Deut. 32:33; Ps. 91:13; Jer. 51:34; Ps. 74:13 (marg., "whales;" and marg. of R.V., "sea-monsters"); Isa. 27:1; and "serpent" in Ex. 7:9 (R.V. marg., "any large reptile," and so in ver. 10, 12). The words of Job (7:12), uttered in bitter irony, where he asks, "Am I a sea or a whale?" simply mean, "Have I a wild, untamable nature, like the waves of the sea, which must be confined and held within bounds, that they cannot pass?" "The serpent of the sea, which was but the wild, stormy sea itself, wound itself around the land, and threatened to swallow it up...Job inquires if he must be watched and plagued like this monster, lest he throw the world into disorder" (Davidson's Job).

The whale tribe are included under the general Hebrew name tannin (Gen. 1:21; Lam. 4:3). "Even the sea-monsters [tanninim] draw out the breast." The whale brings forth its young alive, and suckles them.

It is to be noticed of the story of Jonah's being "three days and three nights in the whale's belly," as recorded in Matt. 12:40, that here the Gr. ketos means properly any kind of sea-monster of the shark or the whale tribe, and that in the book of Jonah (1:17) it is only said that "a great fish" was prepared to swallow Jonah. This fish may have been, therefore, some great shark. The white shark is known to frequent the Mediterranean Sea, and is sometimes found 30 feet in length.


Wheat

  • Wheat One of the earliest cultivated grains. It bore the Hebrew name hittah, and was extensively cultivated in Palestine. There are various species of wheat. That which Pharaoh saw in his dream was the Triticum compositum, which bears several ears upon one stalk (Gen. 41:5). The "fat of the kidneys of wheat" (Deut. 32:14), and the "finest of the wheat" (Ps. 81:16; 147:14), denote the best of the kind. It was exported from Palestine in great quantities (1 Kings 5:11; Ezek. 27:17; Acts 12:20).

Parched grains of wheat were used for food in Palestine (Ruth 2:14; 1 Sam. 17:17; 2 Sam. 17:28). The disciples, under the sanction of the Mosaic law (Deut. 23:25), plucked ears of corn, and rubbing them in their hands, ate the grain unroasted (Matt. 12:1; Mark 2:23; Luke 6:1). Before any of the wheat-harvest, however, could be eaten, the first-fruits had to be presented before the Lord (Lev. 23:14).


Wheel

  • Wheel (Heb. galgal; rendered "wheel" in Ps. 83:13, and "a rolling thing" in Isa. 17:13; R.V. in both, "whirling dust"). This word has been supposed to mean the wild artichoke, which assumes the form of a globe, and in autumn breaks away from its roots, and is rolled about by the wind in some places in great numbers.


White

  • White A symbol of purity (2 Chr. 5:12; Ps. 51:7; Isa. 1:18; Rev. 3:18; 7:14). Our Lord, at his transfiguration, appeared in raiment "white as the light" (Matt. 17:2, etc.).


Widows

  • Widows To be treated with kindness (Ex. 22:22; Deut. 14:29; 16:11, 14; 24:17, 19-21; 26:12; 27:19, etc.). In the New Testament the same tender regard for them is inculcated (Acts 6:1-6; 1 Tim. 5:3-16) and exhibited.


Wife

  • Wife The ordinance of marriage was sanctioned in Paradise (Gen. 2:24; Matt. 19:4-6). Monogamy was the original law under which man lived, but polygamy early commenced (Gen. 4:19), and continued to prevail all down through Jewish history. The law of Moses regulated but did not prohibit polygamy. A man might have a plurality of wives, but a wife could have only one husband. A wife's legal rights (Ex. 21:10) and her duties (Prov. 31:10-31; 1 Tim. 5:14) are specified. She could be divorced in special cases (Deut. 22:13-21), but could not divorce her husband. Divorce was restricted by our Lord to the single case of adultery (Matt. 19:3-9). The duties of husbands and wives in their relations to each other are distinctly set forth in the New Testament (1 Cor. 7:2-5; Eph. 5:22-33; Col. 3:18, 19; 1 Pet. 3:1-7).


Wilderness

  • Wilderness (1.) Heb. midhbar, denoting not a barren desert but a district or region suitable for pasturing sheep and cattle (Ps. 65:12; Isa. 42:11; Jer. 23:10; Joel 1:19; 2:22); an uncultivated place. This word is used of the wilderness of Beersheba (Gen. 21:14), on the southern border of Palestine; the wilderness of the Red Sea (Ex. 13:18); of Shur (15:22), a portion of the Sinaitic peninsula; of Sin (17:1), Sinai (Lev. 7:38), Moab (Deut. 2:8), Judah (Judg. 1:16), Ziph, Maon, En-gedi (1 Sam. 23:14, 24; 24:1), Jeruel and Tekoa (2 Chr. 20:16, 20), Kadesh (Ps. 29:8).

"The wilderness of the sea" (Isa. 21:1). Principal Douglas, referring to this expression, says: "A mysterious name, which must be meant to describe Babylon (see especially ver. 9), perhaps because it became the place of discipline to God's people, as the wilderness of the Red Sea had been (comp. Ezek. 20:35). Otherwise it is in contrast with the symbolic title in Isa. 22:1. Jerusalem is the "valley of vision," rich in spiritual husbandry; whereas Babylon, the rival centre of influence, is spiritually barren and as restless as the sea (comp. 57:20)." A Short Analysis of the O.T.

(2.) Jeshimon, a desert waste (Deut. 32:10; Ps. 68:7).

(3.) `Arabah, the name given to the valley from the Dead Sea to the eastern branch of the Red Sea. In Deut. 1:1; 2:8, it is rendered "plain" (R.V., "Arabah").

(4.) Tziyyah, a "dry place" (Ps. 78:17; 105:41).

(5.) Tohu, a "desolate" place, a place "waste" or "unoccupied" (Deut. 32:10; Job 12:24; comp. Gen. 1:2, "without form"). The wilderness region in the Sinaitic peninsula through which for forty years the Hebrews wandered is generally styled "the wilderness of the wanderings." This entire region is in the form of a triangle, having its base toward the north and its apex toward the south. Its extent from north to south is about 250 miles, and at its widest point it is about 150 miles broad. Throughout this vast region of some 1,500 square miles there is not a single river. The northern part of this triangular peninsula is properly the "wilderness of the wanderings" (et-Tih). The western portion of it is called the "wilderness of Shur" (Ex. 15:22), and the eastern the "wilderness of Paran."

The "wilderness of Judea" (Matt. 3:1) is a wild, barren region, lying between the Dead Sea and the Hebron Mountains. It is the "Jeshimon" mentioned in 1 Sam. 23:19.


Willows

  • Willows (1.) Heb. `arabim (Lev. 23:40; Job 40:22; Isa. 15:7; 44:3, 4; Ps. 137:1, 2). This was supposed to be the weeping willow, called by Linnaeus Salix Babylonica, from the reference in Ps. 137. This tree is frequently found "on the coast, overhanging wells and pools. There is a conspicuous tree of this species over a pond in the plain of Acre, and others on the Phoenician plain." There are several species of the salix in Palestine, but it is not indigenous to Babylonia, nor was it cultivated there. Some are of opinion that the tree intended is the tamarisk or poplar.

(2.) Heb. tzaphtzaphah (Ezek. 17:5), called by the Arabs the safsaf, the general name for the willow. This may be the Salix AEgyptica of naturalists.

Tristram thinks that by the "willow by the water-courses," the Nerium oleander, the rose-bay oleander, is meant. He says, "It fringes the Upper Jordan, dipping its wavy crown of red into the spray in the rapids under Hermon, and is nutured by the oozy marshes in the Lower Jordan nearly as far as to Jericho...On the Arnon, on the Jabbok, and the Yarmuk it forms a continuous fringe. In many of the streams of Moab it forms a complete screen, which the sun's rays can never penetrate to evaporate the precious moisture. The wild boar lies safely ensconced under its impervious cover."


Wimple

  • Wimple Isa. 3:22, (R.V., "shawls"), a wrap or veil. The same Hebrew word is rendered "vail" (R.V., "mantle") in Ruth 3:15.


Window

  • Window Properly only an opening in a house for the admission of light and air, covered with lattice-work, which might be opened or closed (2 Kings 1:2; Acts 20:9). The spies in Jericho and Paul at Damascus were let down from the windows of houses abutting on the town wall (Josh. 2:15; 2 Cor. 11:33). The clouds are metaphorically called the "windows of heaven" (Gen. 7:11; Malachi 3:10). The word thus rendered in Isa. 54:12 ought rather to be rendered "battlements" (LXX., "bulwarks;" R.V., "pinnacles"), or as Gesenius renders it, "notched battlements, i.e., suns or rays of the sun"= having a radiated appearance like the sun.


Winds

  • Winds Blowing from the four quarters of heaven (Jer. 49:36; Ezek. 37:9; Dan. 8:8; Zech. 2:6). The east wind was parching (Ezek. 17:10; 19:12), and is sometimes mentioned as simply denoting a strong wind (Job 27:21; Isa. 27:8). This wind prevails in Palestine from February to June, as the west wind (Luke 12:54) does from November to February. The south was a hot wind (Job 37:17; Luke 12:55). It swept over the Arabian peninsula. The rush of invaders is figuratively spoken of as a whirlwind (Isa. 21:1); a commotion among the nations of the world as a striving of the four winds (Dan. 7:2). The winds are subject to the divine power (Ps. 18:10; 135:7).



Winefat

  • Winefat (Mark 12:1). The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs only here in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans, into which the juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is here used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage in Matt. 21:33 the Greek word lenos is used. This properly denotes the upper one of the two vats. (See [668]WINE-PRESS.)


Wine-press

  • Wine-press Consisted of two vats or receptacles, (1) a trough (Heb. gath, Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were trodden upon and bruised (Isa. 16:10; Lam. 1:15; Joel 3:13); and (2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Neh. 13:15; Job 24:11; Isa. 63:2, 3; Hag. 2:16; Joel 2:24). Wine-presses are found in almost every part of Palestine. They are "the only sure relics we have of the old days of Israel before the Captivity. Between Hebron and Beersheba they are found on all the hill slopes; they abound in southern Judea; they are no less common in the many valleys of Carmel; and they are numerous in Galilee." The "treading of the wine-press" is emblematic of divine judgment (Isa. 63:2; Lam. 1:15; Rev. 14:19, 20).


Winnow

  • Winnow Corn was winnowed, (1.) By being thrown up by a shovel against the wind. As a rule this was done in the evening or during the night, when the west wind from the sea was blowing, which was a moderate breeze and fitted for the purpose. The north wind was too strong, and the east wind came in gusts. (2.) By the use of a fan or van, by which the chaff was blown away (Ruth 3:2; Isa. 30:24; Jer. 4:11, 12; Matt. 3:12).


Wise men

  • Wise men Mentioned in Dan. 2:12 included three classes, (1) astrologers, (2) Chaldeans, and (3) soothsayers. The word in the original (hakamim) probably means "medicine men. In Chaldea medicine was only a branch of magic. The "wise men" of Matt. 2:7, who came from the East to Jerusalem, were magi from Persia or Arabia.


Wise, wisdom

  • Wise, wisdom A moral rather than an intellectual quality. To be "foolish" is to be godless (Ps. 14:1; comp. Judg. 19:23; 2 Sam. 13:13). True wisdom is a gift from God to those who ask it (Job 28:12-28; Prov. 3:13-18; Rom. 1:22; 16:27; 1 Cor. 1:17-21; 2:6-8; James 1:5). "Wisdom" in Prov. 1:20; 8:1; 9:1-5 may be regarded not as a mere personification of the attribute of wisdom, but as a divine person, "Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God" (1 Cor. 1:24). In Matt. 11:19 it is the personified principle of wisdom that is meant.


Witch

  • Witch Occurs only in Ex. 22:18, as the rendering of mekhashshepheh, the feminine form of the word, meaning "enchantress" (R.V., "sorceress"), and in Deut. 18:10, as the rendering of mekhashshepheth, the masculine form of the word, meaning "enchanter."


Witchcraft

  • Witchcraft (1 Sam. 15:23; 2 Kings 9:22; 2 Chr. 33:6; Micah 5:12; Nahum 3:4; Gal. 5:20). In the popular sense of the word no mention is made either of witches or of witchcraft in Scripture.

The "witch of En-dor" (1 Sam. 28) was a necromancer, i.e., one who feigned to hold converse with the dead. The damsel with "a spirit of divination" (Acts 16:16) was possessed by an evil spirit, or, as the words are literally rendered, "having a spirit, a pithon." The reference is to the heathen god Apollo, who was regarded as the god of prophecy.


Witness

  • Witness More than one witness was required in criminal cases (Deut. 17:6; 19:15). They were the first to execute the sentence on the condemned (Deut. 13:9; 17:7; 1 Kings 21:13; Matt. 27:1; Acts 7:57, 58). False witnesses were liable to punishment (Deut. 19:16-21). It was also an offence to refuse to bear witness (Lev. 5:1).


Witness of the Spirit

  • Witness of the Spirit (Rom. 8:16), the consciousness of the gracious operation of the Spirit on the mind, "a certitude of the Spirit's presence and work continually asserted within us", manifested "in his comforting us, his stirring us up to prayer, his reproof of our sins, his drawing us to works of love, to bear testimony before the world," etc.


Wizard

  • Wizard A pretender to supernatural knowledge and power, "a knowing one," as the original Hebrew word signifies. Such an one was forbidden on pain of death to practise his deceptions (Lev. 19:31; 20:6, 27; 1 Sam. 28:3; Isa. 8:19; 19:3).


Wolf

  • Wolf Heb. zeeb, frequently referred to in Scripture as an emblem of treachery and cruelty. Jacob's prophecy, "Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf" (Gen. 49:27), represents the warlike character of that tribe (see Judg. 19-21). Isaiah represents the peace of Messiah's kingdom by the words, "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb" (Isa. 11:6). The habits of the wolf are described in Jer. 5:6; Hab. 1:8; Zephaniah 3:3; Ezek. 22:27; Matt. 7:15; 10:16; Acts 20:29. Wolves are still sometimes found in Palestine, and are the dread of shepherds, as of old.


Woman

  • Woman Was "taken out of man" (Gen. 2:23), and therefore the man has the preeminence. "The head of the woman is the man;" but yet honour is to be shown to the wife, "as unto the weaker vessel" (1 Cor. 11:3, 8, 9; 1 Pet. 3:7). Several women are mentioned in Scripture as having been endowed with prophetic gifts, as Miriam (Ex. 15:20), Deborah (Judg. 4:4, 5), Huldah (2 Kings 22:14), Noadiah (Neh. 6:14), Anna (Luke 2:36, 37), and the daughters of Philip the evangelist (Acts 21:8, 9). Women are forbidden to teach publicly (1 Cor. 14:34, 35; 1 Tim. 2:11, 12). Among the Hebrews it devolved upon women to prepare the meals for the household (Gen. 18:6; 2 Sam. 13:8), to attend to the work of spinning (Ex. 35:26; Prov. 31:19), and making clothes (1 Sam. 2:19; Prov. 31:21), to bring water from the well (Gen. 24:15; 1 Sam. 9:11), and to care for the flocks (Gen. 29:6; Ex. 2:16).

The word "woman," as used in Matt. 15:28, John 2:4 and 20:13, 15, implies tenderness and courtesy and not disrespect. Only where revelation is known has woman her due place of honour assigned to her.


Wood

  • Wood See [669]FOREST.


Wood-offering

  • Wood-offering (Neh. 10:34; 13:31). It would seem that in the time of Nehemiah arrangements were made, probably on account of the comparative scarcity of wood, by which certain districts were required, as chosen by lot, to furnish wood to keep the altar fire perpetually burning (Lev. 6:13).


Wool

  • Wool One of the first material used for making woven cloth (Lev. 13:47, 48, 52, 59; 19:19). The first-fruit of wool was to be offered to the priests (Deut. 18:4). The law prohibiting the wearing of a garment "of divers sorts, as of woollen and linen together" (Deut. 22:11) may, like some other laws of a similar character, have been intended to express symbolically the separateness and simplicity of God's covenant people. The wool of Damascus, famous for its whiteness, was of great repute in the Tyrian market (Ezek. 27:18).





Works, Covenant of

  • Works, Covenant of Entered into by God with Adam as the representative of the human race (comp. Gen. 9:11, 12; 17:1-21), so styled because perfect obedience was its condition, thus distinguishing it from the covenant of grace. (See COVENANT OF [672]WORKS.)


Works, Good

  • Works, Good The old objection against the doctrine of salvation by grace, that it does away with the necessity of good works, and lowers the sense of their importance (Rom. 6), although it has been answered a thousand times, is still alleged by many. They say if men are not saved by works, then works are not necessary. If the most moral of men are saved in the same way as the very chief of sinners, then good works are of no moment. And more than this, if the grace of God is most clearly displayed in the salvation of the vilest of men, then the worse men are the better.

The objection has no validity. The gospel of salvation by grace shows that good works are necessary. It is true, unchangeably true, that without holiness no man shall see the Lord. "Neither adulterers, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards" shall inherit the kingdom of God.

Works are "good" only when, (1) they spring from the principle of love to God. The moral character of an act is determined by the moral principle that prompts it. Faith and love in the heart are the essential elements of all true obedience. Hence good works only spring from a believing heart, can only be wrought by one reconciled to God (Eph. 2:10; James 2:18:22). (2.) Good works have the glory of God as their object; and (3) they have the revealed will of God as their only rule (Deut. 12:32; Rev. 22:18, 19).

Good works are an expression of gratitude in the believer's heart (John 14:15, 23; Gal. 5:6). They are the fruits of the Spirit (Titus 2:10-12), and thus spring from grace, which they illustrate and strengthen in the heart.

Good works of the most sincere believers are all imperfect, yet like their persons they are accepted through the mediation of Jesus Christ (Col. 3:17), and so are rewarded; they have no merit intrinsically, but are rewarded wholly of grace.


Worm

  • Worm (1.) Heb. sas (Isa. 51:8), denotes the caterpillar of the clothes-moth.

(2.) The manna bred worms (tola'im), but on the Sabbath there was not any worm (rimmah) therein (Ex. 16:20, 24). Here these words refer to caterpillars or larvae, which feed on corrupting matter.

These two Hebrew words appear to be interchangeable (Job 25:6; Isa. 14:11). Tola'im in some places denotes the caterpillar (Deut. 28:39; Jonah 4:7), and rimmah, the larvae, as bred from putridity (Job 17:14; 21:26; 24:20). In Micah 7:17, where it is said, "They shall move out of their holes like worms," perhaps serpents or "creeping things," or as in the Revised Version, "crawling things," are meant.

The word is used figuratively in Job 25:6; Ps. 22:6; Isa. 41:14; Mark 9:44, 46, 48; Isa. 66:24.


Wormwood

  • Wormwood Heb. la'anah, the Artemisia absinthium of botanists. It is noted for its intense bitterness (Deut. 29:18; Prov. 5:4; Jer. 9:15; Amos 5:7). It is a type of bitterness, affliction, remorse, punitive suffering. In Amos 6:12 this Hebrew word is rendered "hemlock" (R.V., "wormwood"). In the symbolical language of the Apocalypse (Rev. 8:10, 11) a star is represented as falling on the waters of the earth, causing the third part of the water to turn wormwood.

The name by which the Greeks designated it, absinthion, means "undrinkable." The absinthe of France is distilled from a species of this plant. The "southernwood" or "old man," cultivated in cottage gardens on account of its fragrance, is another species of it.


Worship

  • Worship Homage rendered to God which it is sinful (idolatry) to render to any created being (Ex. 34:14; Isa. 2:8). Such worship was refused by Peter (Acts 10:25, 26) and by an angel (Rev. 22:8, 9).


Worshipper

  • Worshipper (Gr. neocoros = temple-sweeper (Acts 19:35) of the great goddess Diana). This name neocoros appears on most of the extant Ephesian coins


Wrestle

  • Wrestle (Eph. 6:12). See [673]GAMES.


Writing

  • Writing The art of writing must have been known in the time of the early Pharaohs. Moses is commanded "to write for a memorial in a book" (Ex. 17:14) a record of the attack of Amalek. Frequent mention is afterwards made of writing (28:11, 21, 29, 36; 31:18; 32:15, 16; 34:1, 28; 39:6, 14, 30). The origin of this art is unknown, but there is reason to conclude that in the age of Moses it was well known. The inspired books of Moses are the most ancient extant writings, although there are written monuments as old as about B.C. 2000. The words expressive of "writing," "book," and "ink," are common to all the branches or dialects of the Semitic language, and hence it has been concluded that this art must have been known to the earliest Semites before they separated into their various tribes, and nations, and families.

"The Old Testament and the discoveries of Oriental archaeology alike tell us that the age of the Exodus was throughout the world of Western Asia an age of literature and books, of readers and writers, and that the cities of Palestine were stored with the contemporaneous records of past events inscribed on imperishable clay. They further tell us that the kinsfolk and neighbours of the Israelites were already acquainted with alphabetic writing, that the wanderers in the desert and the tribes of Edom were in contact with the cultured scribes and traders of Ma'in [Southern Arabia], and that the `house of bondage' from which Israel had escaped was a land where the art of writing was blazoned not only on the temples of the gods, but also on the dwellings of the rich and powerful.", Sayce. (See [674]DEBIR; [675]PHOENICIA.)

The "Book of the Dead" was a collection of prayers and formulae, by the use of which the souls of the dead were supposed to attain to rest and peace in the next world. It was composed at various periods from the earliest time to the Persian conquest. It affords an interesting glimpse into the religious life and system of belief among the ancient Egyptians. We learn from it that they believed in the existence of one Supreme Being, the immortality of the soul, judgement after death, and the resurrection of the body. It shows, too, a high state of literary activity in Egypt in the time of Moses. It refers to extensive libraries then existing. That of Ramessium, in Thebes, e.g., built by Rameses II., contained 20,000 books.

When the Hebrews entered Canaan it is evident that the art of writing was known to the original inhabitants, as appears, e.g., from the name of the city Debir having been at first Kirjath-sepher, i.e., the "city of the book," or the "book town" (Josh. 10:38; 15:15; Judg. 1:11).

The first mention of letter-writing is in the time of David (2 Sam. 11:14, 15). Letters are afterwards frequently spoken of (1 Kings 21:8, 9, 11; 2 Kings 10:1, 3, 6, 7; 19:14; 2 Chr. 21:12-15; 30:1, 6-9, etc.).