Edwards's Botanical Register/Appendix to the first twenty-three volumes/A sketch of the vegetation of the Swan River Colony/Myrtaceae

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Myrtaceæ.

Of this extensive order, of which the Australian forms are so numerous and very peculiar, the Colony contains a large number of species, among which the Chamælaucieæ are extremely interesting. These chiefly consist of bushes, with small heath-like leaves, and white, yellow, or purple flowers, of great brilliancy, more or less collected into heads. Although scarcely noticed in the reports of either Brown or Frazer, they form a most striking object in the vegetation. Of the genus Calytrix alone there are ten species in my collection; the three most remarkable of which are C. flavescens, Cunn., C. aurea,1 (Tab. III. B), with oval imbricated leaves and heads of the brightest yellow flowers, whose sepals end in awns, at first yellow but afterwards olive-green; and C. sapphirina,2 a most beautiful plant, with hispid


(1) Calytrix aurea (Tab. III. B); strigoso-pubescens, foliis inbricatis oblongis obtusis ciliatis, bracteis margine membranaceis mucronatis tubo calycis brevioribus, aristis petalis duplò longioribus, floribus icosandris.

(2) Calytrix sapphirina; hispido-pilosa, foliis linearibus petiolatis carinatis, caputulis sphæricis, foliis floralibus villosis, bracteis lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis margine membranaceis tubo calycis gracili brevioribus, aristis tenuissimis petalis duplò longioribus, floribus icosandris.

(3) Calytrix breviseta; glaberrima, foliis linearibus semiteretibus obtusis mucronulatis, bracteis obovatis apiculatis tubo calycis æqualibus, aristis petalis paulò brevioribus, floribus icosandris axillaribus.—Flowers pale lilac,

(4) Calytrix variabilis; glaberrima, foliis linearibus tetragonis obtusis minutè papillosis imbricatis nunc lineari-oblongis distractis subverticillatis, bracteis obovatis apiculatis calycis tubi longitudine, aristis ciliatis petalis paulò longioribus, floribus icosandris axillaribus.—Flowers lilac.

(5) Calytrix simplex; ramulis pubescentibus, foliis linearibus obtusis glabris carinatis, bracteis lanceolatis acuminatis pubescentibus calycis tubo duplò brevioribus, aristis petalis paulò longioribus, floribus icosandris axillaribus.—Flowers lilac.

(6) Calytrix glutinosa; glaberrima, foliis linearibus semiteretibus obtusis imbricatis, bracteis lanceolatis acuminatis glutinosis tubo calycis paulò brevioribus ultra medium connatis, aristis petalis duplò longioribus, floribus icosandris corymbosis.—Flowers apparently yellow, tinged with purple.



spreading heath-like leaves, and round heads of very deep violet; all the others are pretty, and worthy of cultivation, although not so strikingly beautiful as those just mentioned. Still more remarkable than these is the magnificent Chysorrhoë nitens (Tab. I.), whose yellow flowers of metallic lustre form masses of golden stars some feet in diameter; this plant, which I described some years since (Companion to Botanical Magazine, vol. ii, p. 357), is a small bush, and certainly one of the most interesting species that could be introduced; by Dr. Endlicher it is reduced to the genus Verticordia, but I think the character assigned to it in the work alluded to is sufficient to define the genus; a comparison of Tab I. and Tab. II. A. will sufficiently explain in what the difference consists between Chrysorrhoë and Verticordia. To the former of these genera there is a new species to add, not less beautiful than the original, but with obovate serrated leaves, on which account it may be called Chrysorrhoë serrata.8 The Verticordias are bushes with small, usually heathy, very fragrant, leaves, and corymbs or racemes of white, pink, or yellow flowers; several species have been already described, among which V. insignis, Endl. (Tab. II. A) is one of the commonest and prettiest; to these I have to add V. heliantha,9 a lovely plant with corymbs of large deep yellow feathery flowers; V. acerosa,10 a species resembling the last in habit, but with acerose leaves and smaller paler flowers, which change in drying to a bright deep green; and two species11 with pretty white or blush ones. Of the genus


(7) Calytrix angulata; glaberrima, ramulis angulatis, foliis linearibus obtusis carinatis patulis, bracteis obovatis obtusis ultra medium connatis calycis tubo brevioribus, aristis petalis paulò longioribus, floribus icosandris axillaribus.—Flowers yellow.

(8) Chrysorrhöe serrata; ramulis scabriusculis, foliis obovatis carnosis dorso subtriquetris ciliato-serratis, sepalis multifidis plumosis, petalis ovatis pectinatis, filamentis sterilibus petaloideis oblongis fertilibus æqualibus.

(9) Verticordia heliantha; foliis carnosis linearibus mucronatis compressis dorso convexis, corymbis laxis, bracteis connatis persistentibus muticis, sepalis multifidis plumosis, petalis multifidis glabris, filamentis sterilibus ovato-triangularibus serratis, antheris appendice bicorni auctis.

(10) Verticordia acerosa; ramulis compressis scabris, foliis acerosis acuminatis glabris superioribus floralibusque ovatis, corymbis densis, bracteis muticis deciduis, sepalis multifidis plumosis, petalis multipartitis glabris, filamentis sterilibus lanceolatis pectinatis, antheris muticis.

(11) Verticordia densiflora; foliis linearibus triquetris obtusis, corymbis capitatis multifloris, bracteis deciduis sub apice cucullatis, calycis tubo villosissimo,



Lhotskya, there are two species, one, L. acutifolia,13 with an abundance of pale axillary yellow flowers, and the other L. violacea,14 with bright lilac flowers in heads. In addition to these the Colony produces three species of a curious little genus, with inconspicuous flowers, closely related to Genetyllis, which, from the exquisite sweetness of its foliage, I propose to call Hedaroma.15 The leaves, or rather the half-ripe fruits, of those plants preserve their fragrance so well that they might be worth collecting for the use of the perfumer; and if so they would furnish a new and most agreeable article of luxury to Europe, and a small aid to the natural resources of the Colony.

Among the Myrtaceae with polyadelphous stamens there are many remarkable species. Mr. Frazer frequently men-


sepalis unguiculatis multipartitis, petalis subrotundis pubescentibus fimbriatis, filamentis brevissimis sterilibus dentiformibus integerrimis, stylo arcuato exserto apice pilis furcatis barbato.—Flowers white.

(12) Verticordia setigera; foliis linearibus concavis ciliato-denticulatis sub apice setigeris, bracteis deciduis dorso setigeris, sepalis multifidis plumosis petalis erectis cuneatis dentatis æqualibus, filamentis sterilibus setaceis a latere glandulosis fertilibus longioribus, stylo petalis breviore sub apice barbato, racemo subsecundo nunc corymboso.—Flowers delicate lilac: next V. pennigera.

(13) Lhotskya acutifolia; foliis linearibus triquetris acutis glabris, bracteis obovatis mucronatis dorso herbaceis margine membranaceis tubo calycis brevioribus, floribus axillaribus.

(14) Lhotskya violacea; foliis linearibus triquetris obtusis villosis, bracteis obovatis dorso pubescentibus margine membranaceis calycis tubo villoso æqualibus, sepalis dorso villosis, floribus capitatis.

(15) Hedaroma. Flores capitati, nudi aut bracteati. Calyx tubulosus, carnosus, 5-dentatus. Petala 5, squamæformia. Stamina 20, monadelpha, filamentis alternis petaloideis sterilibus; antheræ sphæroideæ poris posticis dehiscentes. Ovula 2, unilateralia. Stylus exsertus, barbatus aut glaber.

Hedaroma latifolium (Tab. II. B); foliis ovato-oblongis subtus glandulosis: involucrantibus latioribus coloratis, filamentis sterilibus truncatis, stylo apice barbato.—It is possible that this may be the Genetyllis citriodora, Endl. but that plant is described as having from 4 to 5 ovules, while H. latifolium has certainly only 2.

(16) Hedaroma pinifolium; foliis longo-linearibus acutis triquetris involucrantibus similibus coloratis, capitulis multifloris, sepalis rotundatis, filamentis sterilibus ovatis obtusis glandulosis, stylo apice uncinato barbato.—Flowers apparently dark purple.

(17) Hedaroma thymoides; ramis diffusis, ramulis angulatis, foliis linearibus obtusis margine revolutis involucrantibus viridibus parùm latioribus, tubo calycis elongato arcuato, petalis carinatis apice verrucoso-glandulosis, filamentis in conum connatis sterilibus dentiformibus inflexis, stylo apice glabro.



tions the beauty of the species of Melaleuca, of which there is a great variety, some of which are handsomer than any yet in our gardens. Melaleuca seriata,18 parviceps19, and trichophylla,20 are bushes, every twig of which is terminated by hemispherical heads of a brilliant pink; M. callistemonea21 has all the beauty of a red-stamened Callistemon; M. striata, Lab., and Hugelii, Endl., and viminea,22 a species near M. armillaris, have spikes of white; M. spinosa23 forms a spiny bush, with oval spreading leaves and slender spikes of yellow; and M. Radula24 is a shrub with long linear leaves, rough with tubercles, among which are scattered a few fine lilac (?) flowers, with a large capitate stigma, and stamens disunited almost to the base of their phalanges; this latter species seems to form a passage from the genus Melaleuca to that of Metrosideros. Amongst the specimens sent home by Mr.


(18) Melaleuca seriata; foliis alternis linearibus obtusis subtus glandulis 2-seriatis ramulisque glabris, capitulis densis hemisphæricis, phalangibus oligandris: unguibus petalorum longitudine, calycibus glabris, rachi lanatâ.—Flowers rich rose-colour.

(19) Melaleuca parviceps; foliis alternis teretibus subangulatis scabriusculis junioribus ramulisque pilosis, floribus densè capitatis foliis vix longioribus paucifloris, phalangibus oligandris: unguibus petalorum longitudine, calycibus rachique lanatis.—Flowers in small pink heads.

(20) Melaleuca trichophylla; ramis tomentosis, foliis alternis filiformibus arcuatis acutis pilosis, capitulis hemisphæricis, phalangibus oligandris, petalis longioribus, calyce tomentoso, rachi lanatâ.—Flowers in pink heads.

(21) Melaleuca callistemonea; foliis alternis linearibus utrinque acuminatis incurvis, floribus axillaribus glaberrimis, phalangibus polyandris: staminibus longissimis ad basin usque liberis.—Flowers apparently pale rose-colour.

(22) Melaleuca viminea; ramis virgatis glabris, foliis alternis linearibus acutis glabris distantibus apice recurvis, spicis terminalibus elongatis glabris, phalangibus oligandris: unguibus petalorum longitudine.—Flowers apparently white.

(23) Melaleuca spinosa; ramulis spinosis subpubescentibus, foliis alternis ovalibus acutis trinerviis venosis patentibus, spicis nudis terminalibus, floribus 3-bracteatis, sepalis petalisque striatis glabris, calycis tubo rachique tomentosis, phalangibus 7-andris: unguibus petalis longioribus.—Flowers yellow, in terminal spikes.

(24) Melaleuca radula; foliis oppositis elongatis linearibus canaliculatis dorso scaberrimis, floribus solitariis dissitis axillaribus et corymbosis, phalangibus polyandris ad basin fissis, stigmate dilatato capitato, ovario glabro.—Flowers large, and apparently pink.

(25) Melaleuca parviflora; foliis alternis coriaceis lineari-oblongis basi angustatis aveniis, floribus axillaribus dissitis glaberrimis, phalangibus 8-12-andris petalis paulò longioribus, stigmate simplici.—Flowers small, apparently white.



Drummond occur a few twigs of a plant with narrow lanceolate leaves, and cone-like spikes of yellow (?) flowers, which bears to Melaleuca the same relation as Beaufortia to Calothamnus; that is to say, it differs in having the fruit only three-seeded instead of many-seeded; to this plant, which is more curious than beautiful, the name of Conothamnis trinervis26 may be given. Of the splendid genus Calothamnus there are four species; of which C. sanguinea, Lab., and C. eriocarpa,28 are remarkable for the abortion of a part of their stamens, and the combination of the remainder into an irregular sheath slit on one side; C. purpurea, Endl., rivals the crimson Callistemons in appearance; while the C. lateralis27 has long terete leaves and rows of flowers, so imbedded in long lines on one side of the branches, that only the tips of the calyx and the long blood-red stamens can be seen beyond the bark in which the inflorescence takes its rise; in this case the inflorescence is so peculiar as to deserve to become the subject of special enquiry. To these forms have to be added some shrubs which constitute a group not perhaps distinct from Beaufortia,29 but distinguished from that genus, as represented by B. decussata, by their capitate inflorescence, and by having the dehiscence of their anthers lateral rather than vertical. Of these bushes, all of which are extremely


(26) Conothamnus. Calyx 5-dentatus. Petala 5. Staminum phalanges petalis oppositæ, Antheræ cum filamentis continuæ, valvulis longitudinalibus persistentibus. Ovarium 3-loculare, ovulis solitariis peltatis. Fructus ramo adnati, intus capsulam 3-locularem, 3-spermam indehiscentem fovens.—Folia opposita, plana. Flores capitato-racemosi, terminales, bracteis latis imbricatis deciduis conum referentibus statu juniori sejuncti.

Conothamnus 3-nervis. Folia scabra, lineari-lanceolata, trinervia, subvenosa. Capitulum ovatum, bracteis late ovatis pubescentibus. Phalanges 8-10-andræ. Calyx lanatus. Fructus pubescentes.

(27) Calothamnus lateralis; foliis longissimis teretibus, floribus unilateralibus immersis pentameris, phalangibus æqualibus pentandris.

(28) Calothamnus eriocarpa; ramis villosis, foliis patulis teretibus, floribus tetrameris, phalangibus 2 polyandris hinc connatis: antheris serie lineari glanduloso-punctatis, staminibus 2 abortivis sejunctis, ovario lanato.

(29) Beaufortiæ § Schizopleura. Flores capitato-racemosi, terminales. Calyx inferus, 5-dentatus. Petala 5. Staminum phalanges petalis oppositæ; antheræ verticales a latere dehiscentes, valvulis lateralibus deciduis. Ovarium 3-loculare, ovulis solitariis peltatis. Stigma simplex. Fructus sessiles, calycis dentibus persistentibus coronati, intus capsulam liberam 3-locularem, 3-spermam, papyraceam foventes.

Beaufortia (Schizopleura) Dampieri (Beaufortia Dampieri, A. Cunn.)



pretty one, B. purpurea,30 figured in this sketch (Tab. III. A), has globose heads of deep purple flowers; and another, B. macrostemon,31 has them of what seems to be a rich scarlet, with a tasselled appearance, owing to the great length of the phalanges of stamens.

Of the Myrtaceæ with distinct stamens the species of known genera are numerous, but not in general so handsome as those already mentioned. There is one species of Callistemon,32 with rich crimson stamens, which is perhaps the finest of the genus. Frazer speaks of two Metrosideros, growing on the beach, the fragrance of which exceeded any thing "he ever experienced;" and there are several Bæckeas, Leptospermums, and similar plants. Of the latter, however, the only interesting species are Agonis33 linearifolia and flexuosa, DC., bushes with knots of white flowers; Hypocalymna robusta, Endl., which has clustered flowers, the colour and size of Peach blossoms; and a Pericalymma or two, which probably will prove pretty plants. Of unpublished genera there are two, one of which, Salisia pulchella,34 has large


(30) Beaufortia (Schizopleura purpurea; (Tab. III. A) foliis rameis imbricatis lineari-lanceolatis carinatis obtusis basi 3-nerviis, floralibus cordato-ovatis trinerviis marginatis, phalangibus hexandris basi pubescentibus, capitulis globosis.

(31) Beaufortia (Schizopleura) macrostemon; foliis linearibus obtusis planis vel lanceolatis trinerviis marginatis patentibus ramulisque pilosis, phalangibus elongatis 3–4-andris basi villosis.

(32) Callistemon phœniceum; foliis lineari-lanceolatis coriaceis mucronatis basi angustatis marginatis aveniis cortâ obsoletâ, calycibus glabris.—Flowers very rich deep crimson.

(33) This name, published by DeCandolle in 1828, was altered by Dr. Brown in 1830 to Billottia, the designation given by Colla, under a mistake, to some of the species of Calothamnus. As the change is apparently altogether arbitrary, I make no scruple about restoring the nomenclature of De Candolle.

(34) Salisia. Calyx omninò superus, campanulatus, 5-dentatus. Petala 5, membranacea, colorata. Stamina 00, æqualia, annulo inserta; antheræ oblongæ, biloculares, dorsifixæ. Ovarium 6-loculare, omninò inferum; loculis polyspermis, per rimas totidem in fundo calycis elevatas sub anthesi etiam dehiscentibus; stigma subcapitatum.—Flores corymbosi aut racemosi.

Salisia pulchella. Ramuli pubescentes. Folia alterna, obovata, plana, acuta, coriacea, obsoletè trinervia, pubescentia. Flores speciosi, in racemis corymbisque laxè ordinati. Calyx hemisphæricus, 2½ lineas latus, tomentosus, dentibus ovatis acutis. Petala subrotunda, concava, amænè rosea, ciliolata, 2½ lineas longa. Stamina 6 lineas longa, et ultra, numerosa. Calycis



deep purple flowers, with long stamens, and must be a most striking object; it is probably rare, as I have only seen two or three small fragments; it is characterized by having, at the bottom of its superior hemispherical calyx, six elevated clefts, which appear as if they were the united sides of so many inflexed valves, between which there is a passage directly into the cavities where the ovules lie; I am not however sure that this is the real nature of the structure. The other has the structure of a Melaleuca, in a slight degree, but the stamens are irregularly polyadelphous, or altogether distinct, the anthers are fixed by their base and not their back, and the flowers grow singly at the ends of the branches, where they are covered with imbricated bracts. Of this genus, which may be called Eremæa35 (ερεμαιος, lonely), there are three species, of which the only pretty kind is E. fimbriata; E. pilosa is probably the plant named Metrosideros pauciflora by Endlicher.

Of Eucalypti there must be many species, but I have no materials sufficient to ascertain what they are; the barren hills on the bank of the river at Point Frazer are said to produce the magnificent Eucalyptus calophylla, but as that plant is not defined I am not sure whether I possess it or not.


tubus intus glaber, in fundo rimis 6 ovarii loculorum dehiscentibus stellatis elevatis interruptus.

(35) Eremæa. Calyx 5-dentatus, semiinferus, campanulatus. Petala 5. Stamina 00 irregulariter polyadelpha, vel omninò libera, annulo inserta; antheræ basifixæ obovatæ, v. oblongæ, rimis lateralibus (obliquè) dehiscentes. Ovarium semisuperum 2–3-loculare, polyspermum. Stigma simplex. Fructus adnatus, haud immersus, cyathiformis, glaber, intus capsulam 3-locularem loculicido-dehiscentem fovens. Semina numerosa, ascendentia, cuneata.—Folia alterna. Flores solitarii in apices ramulorum, bracteis imbricatis inclusi.

(36) Eremæa ericifolia; ramulis pubescentibus, foliis semiteretibus glabris obtusis corrugatis patulis, bracteis subrotundis glabriusculis, staminibus petalorum longitudine.—Flowers greenish white.

(37) Eremæa pilosa; ramulis pilosis, foliis semiteretibus obtusis corrugatis pilis longis fimbriatis, bracteis ovatis striatis glabriusculis, calyce tomentoso, staminibus petalis duplò longioribus.—Flowers apparently pink. (Metr. pauciflora, Endl.)

(38) Eremæa fimbriata; ramulis pubescentibus, foliis oblongis concavis obtusis imbricatis pilis longis fimbriatis subtrinerviis reticulato-rugosis, bracteis calycibusque tomentosis, staminibus petalis 3-plò longioribus.—Flowers rich purple.