Encyclopaedia Biblica/Eschatology-Esdraelon

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Encyclopaedia Biblica
Thomas Kelly Cheyne and John Sutherland Black
see Encyclopaedia Biblica for other articles, typographic issues, links to PDF copies, and public domain status



CONTENTS. (Short Subject Index at End of Article.)


  • I. THE INDIVIDUAL ( 1-33).
    • Antique elements ( 1-21).
      • Practices relating to the dead ( 3-6).
      • Beliefs about the dead ( 7-9).
      • Sheol ( 10).
      • Soul and Body ( 12-18).
      • Spirit ( 19-20).
      • Resume ( 21).
      • Rise of individualism (Jer., Ezek. etc., Eccles., Job ; 22-27).
      • Gleams of future life ( 28).
    • The Psalms ( 29-32).
    • Result as to individual immortality ( 33).
  • II. THE NATION ( 34-38).
    • Day of Yahwe ( 34).
    • 1. Popular idea (also Nah.. Hab. ; 35-36).
    • 2. Earlier prophetic (also Is., Zeph.; 37-39).
    • 3. Exilic (Jer-, Ezek. ; 40-42).
    • 4. Universalistic (Exilic and post- exilic ; 43-44)
    • 5. Nationalistic (post-exilic ; 45-48).
  • III. SYNTHESIS (49-50).
    • Doctrine of resurrection ( 49-50).


  • Review (51).
  • Comparative eschatology ( 52).
  • Method of sketch ( 53).
  • Ecclus. and Tobit (54-55)
  • Hasidim ( 56).
  • I. SECOND CENTURY B.C. ( 57-63).
    • (a) General development ( 58).
    • (b) Writers : Dan., Eth.-Enoch 83-90, Test. xii. Patr., Judith (59-62).
    • (f) Special conceptions ( 63).
  • II. LAST CENTURY B.C. ( 64-70).
    • (a) General development ( 64).
    • (b) Writers :
      • Ethiopic Enoch 91-104 (65).
      • Eth.-Enoch 37-70 and 1 Mace. (66).
      • Psalms of Solomon ( 67).
      • Sibylline Oracles ( 68).
      • 2 Macc. ( 69).
    • (c) Special conceptions ( 70).
  • III. FIRST CENTURY A.D. ( 71-81).
    • (a) General development ( 71).
    • (b) Writers :
      • Jubilees ( 72),
      • Ass. Mos. ( 73),
      • Philo (74),
      • Slav. -Enoch ( 75),
      • Wisd. (76),
      • 4 Macc. (77),
      • Baruch and Apoc.-Bar. (78),
      • 4 Esd. ( 79),
      • Josephus ( 80).
    • (c) Special conceptions (81).


  • Introduction ( 82).
  • I. THE SEVERAL WRITERS ( 83-101).
    • Synoptic Gospels ( 83-87).
    • Apocalypse ( 88).
    • 2 Pet., Jude, James ( 89-91).
    • Hebrews ( 92).
    • Johannine ( 93).
    • Petrine ( 94-96).
    • spirits in prison, etc. ( 96).
    • Pauline ( 97-101).
      • 1 and 2 Thess. ( 98).
      • 1 Cor. (99)
      • 2 Cor., Rom. ( 100).
      • Phil., Col., Eph. ( 101).
    • Soul and Spirit ( 102).
    • Places of abode ( 103).

Bibliography ( 104-106).



1. Primitive conceptions.[edit]

In studying a great religion the inquirer naturally seeks to trace an organic connection between its central conceptions and the most remote portions of its sysstem - He expects to find a certain degree of logical coherence between all its parts. In dealing with such religions as Christianity, Mohammedanism, or Buddhism, his expectations are not disappointed. In these religions the eschatology or teaching on the final condition of man and of the world follows in the main from the funda mental doctrines. The early religion of Israel, however, must not be approached with such an expectation. There is an organic connection between its theology and that portion of its eschatology which deals with the nation as a whole ; but this connection does not extend to the eschatology concerning the individual.

The ideas about the future life which prevailed in the earliest times and were current indeed in some degree down to the second century B.C., were in many respects common to Israel and to some other Semitic nations. They were not the out come of any revelation. They were survivals. With these antique elements advancing thought was at strife centuries before it succeeded in completely expelling them and in furnishing in their stead a doctrine of the future life in harmony with its own character. Such a doctrine, though foreshadowed in the earlier literature, was not definitely taught till the fourth century B.C.

2. Ancestor worship.[edit]

The antique elements belong in all probability to the system of belief and practice known as ancestor worship. At first this phase of religion dominated to a great degree the life of the Israelite. The religion of Yahwe, however, as it developed, engaged with it in irreconcilable strife. Still, for several centuries, many of those primitive tenets and usages were left unaffected. Early Yahwism had no distinctive eschatology regarding the problem of the individual ; it concerned itself only with the nation. The individual, accordingly, was left to his hereditary beliefs, which, as we have said, were connected with ancestor worship. 1

In this system the departed were not regarded as in a full sense dead. They shared in all the vicissitudes of their posterity, and possessed superhuman powers to benefit or injure. With a view to propitiating these powers the living offered sacrifices. The vitality of the dead was thus preserved, and their honour in the next world upheld. A man made sacrifice naturally only to his own ancestors ; these with their living descendants formed one family.

1 Cp Schwally, Das Leben nach tiem Tpde, chap. 1, Der alte Glaube ; Stade, GVI \^lff.; Marti, Gtsch. d. israel. Rel.$\ 22-26, 30,40-43, 48, 103. The conclusions of thesescholars are attacked by Frey, Tod, Seelenglaube und Seelencttlt im alten Israel, 1898, but on the whole without success.

2 See Stade, GVI 1387^ ; Schwally, op. cit. 9-16.

3. Proved by mourning customs.[edit]

That such beliefs prevailed in Israel is shown by customs observed with regard to the dead. 2 The mourning usages have a religious, not merely a psychological significance. They indicate reverence for the dead and a confession of dependence upon them.

1. The mourner girt himself with sackcloth (2 S. 831 i K. 2031 Is. 824 163 22 12 Jer. 626), or laid it on his loins ((ien. 8734 Jer. 4837). This practice expresses submission to a superior; it is thus that the servants of Benhadad go forth from Aphek to Ahab(iK. 20 3 i/).

2. The mourner put off his shoes (28. 1630 Ezek. 2417). This is explained by the removal of the shoes required in approaching holy places (Ex. 35_/ Josh. 615).

3. Mourners cut off the hair (Is. 22i2 Jer. 729 Am. 8 10 MIC. 1 16 Ezek. "182731), or the beard (Jer. 41 5), or both (Is. 152 Jer. 4837) ; and made baldnesses between the eyes (Dt. Hi/I). The hair was designed as an offering to the dead (see CUTTINGS OF THE FLESH, 3, and SACRIFICE). These rites are con demned as idolatrous in Dt. 14 1./ ; but they are mentioned by the prophets of the eighth century without any consciousness of their impropriety (cp Am. 810 Mic. 1 16 Is. 152 22 12). They appear still to have been the universal custom (Jer. 41 5).

4. Mourners made cuttings in their flesh for the dead. Such incisions were regarded as making an enduring covenant with the dead (WRS Rel. Sem.ft) 322/). They were made by the priests of Baal (i K. 1828). They were forbidden by the Hebrew law (Dt. 14 i Lev. 19 28) on the same grounds as in the case of 3.

5. The covering of the head by the mourners (28. 1830 Esth. 612 Jer. 143) is probably to be regarded as a substitute for cutting off the hair ; similarly the covering of the beard re presents its removal (Ezek. 24 17). This practice expresses reverence for the dead. The same custom was observed by the worshipper in approaching God (cp the case of Elijah at Horeb), and is universal in the synagogue and the mosque at the present day.

6. The mourner offered sacrifices to the dead (Ezek. 241722 aCh. 1614 2119). They are probably implied in Is. 819 193; for when a man wished to consult the dead, he would naturally present an offering. Their object is clear from Dt. 2(314 J er - 167 (?); it was to give sustenance to the dead and to win their favour. In later times they came to be regarded as mere funeral feasts. This had not come about in the second century B.C., however ; for sacrifices to the dead appear to be commended in Ecclus. 733 ( For a dead man withhold not a gift [eirl vexpia fir) aTrofcioAuoT)? ^apti/]) and in Tob. 4 17 ( Pour out thy bread on the burial of the just ), though they are derided in Ecclus. SOisy: Ep. Jer. 3 i/ Wisd. His 193 Or. Sibyl. 8382.^ In Jubilees 2217 they are referred to as prevailing among the Gentiles.

4. By the worship of Teraphim.[edit]

The teraphim mentioned in Gen. 35 were household gods. 1 They are called strange gods, and their worship was regarded as incompatible with that of Yahwe. Their sacred character appears from their being buried under a sacred tree, the terebinth. An earlier mention is in Gen. 31 19 30-35, where Rachel steals the teraphim of her father. In Ex. 21 2-6 we have another passage attesting their worship. According to this section there was in private houses a god close to the door, to which the slave who desired enrolment in his master s family had to be brought. Originally this meant admission to the family cult with all its obliga tions and privileges (see statement of Eliezer s position below, 5). Later the teraphim, which were of human form (iS. 19 13), were regarded as images of Yahwe (cp Judg. 17s, and ISi?.^ ; see also i S. 19i3-i6) ; for it is difficult to believe that David, the champion of the religion of Yahwe, would have worshipped the tSraphim in their original character as household gods. In Hos. 84 and Zech. 102, however, they seem to retain their original character as images of ancestors (cp TERAPHIM).

In Dt. 15i2-i8 the rite of initiation mentioned in Ex. 21 is, by the omission of the term god, robbed of all its primitive religious significance, and given a wholly secular character.

5. By importance of male offspring.[edit]

It is ancestor worship that explains the importance of male offspring. The honour and wellbeing of the dead depended on the worship rendered and the sacrifices offered by their male descendants. Even in the after life, therefore, men could be punished by Yahwe by the destruction of their posterity (Ex. 20s 34? Nu. 14 18 Dt. 5g) ; for the sacrifices then ceased to be made. 2 If a man failed to have male offspring, the difficulty could be surmounted by adoption. The adopted man passed from his own clan to that of his adopted father, and thereby took upon himself all the obligations attaching to the latter. Even a slave could be so adopted (see FAMILY, 2). Eliezer is regarded as Abraham s heir in default of male issue (Gen. 15a/. ). It is to be presumed that he had already been adopted into the family cult. The right of inheritance is thus derived in principle from ancestor worship ; only the son and heir could fulfil its rites (see LAW AND JUSTICE, 18). Illegitimate sons, therefore, could not inherit (Stade, GF/l^i); their mother had not been admitted by marriage into the cult (cp Judg. 11 2).

In Nu. 3G the law has already undergone a change. A daughter is allowed to inherit if she has married a man be longing to her father s family or tribe. In Athens, on the other hand, the property descended to the next male heir ; but he was obliged to marry the daughter of the deceased (Stade, id.).

It is thus clear that the living and the dead formed one family, and the departed participated in all the vicissitudes of their living descendants. Rachel in her grave shared in the troubles of her children in northern Israel (Jer. 31 15).

1 On Stade sand Schwally s identification of the teraphim with an ancestor image (accepted by Budde on Judg. 17s, Holzinger on Gen. 31 19, Nowack on Hos. 84, etc.), see TERAPHIM.

2 On the same principle a man destroyed his enemy and all his sons with the object of depriving him of respect and worship in the lower world.

6. By levirate law and nature of clan.[edit]

The necessity of a son who should perform the family ancestor worship gave birth to the levirate law. A man must marry the childless widow of his deceased brother. Where the deceased had no brother - the duty fell on the nearest male relation. The firstborn son of such a marriage was registered as the son of the deceased, who was thus secured the respect and the sacrifices which could be rendered only by a son legitimately begotten or adopted. This law appears to be assumed as in force in Gen. 8826 ; but its significance is forgotten in Dt. 25 5-10. According to old Israelitish views, Tamar fulfilled a duty of piety towards her dead husband (Stade 1394) ; similarly Ruth. Even the daughters of Lot may have had the same end in view.

The fact that, even in David s time, the clan consti tuted a sacramentally united corporation (18.2029) points back to an earlier worship of ancestors.

7. Beliefs about the dead.[edit]

The customs just considered ( 3-6) regulate the conduct of the living. We have now to consider more directly the beliefs regarding the dead themselves, their place of abode and the nature of their existence there. These beliefs are no less essentially connected with ancestor worship ; but they had a much more extended lease of life. Long after the practices we have described had become unintelligible or sunk into complete abey ance, the beliefs flourished in the high places of Judaism ; they claimed the adherence of no small portion of the priesthood down to the destruction of the temple by Titus.

8. Importance of burial.[edit]

As in the religions of Greece and Rome, burial was held to be indispensable to the comfort of the departed - It was hardly ever withheld.

Criminals who were hanged (Dt. 21 2^) or stoned (Josh. 7 24-26), and suicides (Jos. Bell. Jud. iii. 8 5), were accorded burial ; as were even the most hostile of foes (Ezek. 39 12).

Of the calamities that could befall a man the lack of burial was one of the most grievous.

Such was the sentence of punishment pronounced on Jezebel (2 K. 9 10). It was the fate that awaited the enemies of Yahwe (Jer. 2633). Even the materialistic writer of Ecclesiastes (63), if the text is correct, regards such a misfortune as outweighing a whole lifetime of material blessings. 1

This horror at the thought of being unburied cannot be explained in the same way as in the religions of Greece and Rome, where it involved exclusion from Hades : according to Hebrew viesvs all without excep tion descended to Shfiol. It may be explained on two grounds. (i) In earlier times unless the dead had received burial no sacrifice could be offered to them. The grave, in ancestor worship, was in some measure the temple. (2) In later times, when such conceptions were forgotten, to be deprived of burial entailed a lasting dishonour and subjected the dead in Shfiol to unending reproach (Ezek. 28 10 32 21).

1 [The context is against this reference to the loss of burial. We must perhaps either strike out the entire phrase and more over he have no burial (with Ilitzig), or else the negative (with Wildoboer).]

9. In the family grave.[edit]

Not simply burial, however, but also burial in the family grave, was the desire of every Israelite. Hence the frequent statement that a man was gathered to his fathers (Gen. 15 15 Judg. 61 2io) or to his people (Gen. 4929-33 Nu. 27 13). The departed must be introduced into the society of his ancestors. In the earliest times the abode of this society was conceived to be the family grave or its immediate neighbourhood. Everyone wished to be buried with his father and mother (28. 1723 1937 [38]). Jacob and Joseph are said to have directed that their bodies should be carried back to Canaan to be buried in the family grave (Gen. 47 30 5025 Ex. 1819). This was originally in the house. It was there, e.g. , that Samuel was buried (iS. 25i); similarly Joab (i K. 34). As no family stood in isolation, however, but was closely united with others, and as these together made up the clan or tribe, and these tribes in due time were consolidated into the nation, a new conception arose ; all the graves of the tribe or nation were regarded as united in one. It was this new conception that received the designation of Sheol.

10. Origin of Sheol.[edit]

In all probability, therefore, the Hebrew Sheol was originally conceived as a combination of the graves of the clan or nation, and thus as its final abode. In due course this conception was naturally extended till it embraced the departed of all nations, and became the final abode of all mankind. It has already reached this stage in Ezek. 32 Is. 14 Job 30 23. Strictly regarded, the conceptions of an abode of the dead in the grave and of one in Shgol are mutually exclusive. Being popular notions, however, they do not admit of scientific definition, and their characteristics are treated at times as interchangeable. The family grave, with its associations of ancestor wor ship, is of course the older conception. As burial in the family grave enabled a man to join the circle of his ancestors, so burial with honour was a condition of his attaining an honourable place in Sh6ol i.e. , joining his people there. Otherwise he is thrust into the lowest and outermost parts of the pit (Ezek. 8223). When, however, Shgol is said to have distinct divisions (Prov. 727), the statement may be merely poetical.

11. Two characteristics.[edit]

Regarding the condition of the dead in Shgol (on which see below, 15-18) it will here be sufficient to point out two main characteristics. (a) In early times (and down to the fourth century BC- there was little change) Sheol was quite independent of Yahwe and outside the sphere of his rule.

Yahwe was originally the god of the tribe or nation, and his sway for long after the settlement in Canaan was conceived to extend, not to the whole upper world, much less to the lower (Sheol), but only to his own people and land. The persistence of this conception of Sheol for several centuries side by side with the monotheistic conception of Yahwe as creator and ruler of the world is, for the Western mind, hard to understand, the conceptions being mutually exclusive. It is clear, however, that Israel believed that when a man died he was removed from the jurisdiction of Yahwe (Ps. 885 [6] 31 22 [23]), and relations between them ceased (Is. 38 18).

(b) As independent of Yahwe, Sheol knew nothing of the moral distinctions that prevailed on earth.

12. 'Soul', 'blood'.[edit]

According to the OT death means an end of the earthly life, not the cessation of all existence : the person still subsists. As the nature of this continued existence depends on the OT theory of man s composite personality, it will be necessary at this point to make a study of that theory. In its most primitive form it regards man as consisting of two elements, soul (nephesh] and body (itifdr). What was thought of the body does not concern us here (see, however, 18).

Regarding the soul we may note four points.

i. The soul is identified with the blood.

As the shedding of blood caused death, the soul was conceived to be in the blood (Lev. 17 n a), or it was actually identified with it (Dt. 1223 Gen. 84^). Hence men avoided eating blood ; they offered it to God. Hence, too, blood unjustly spilt on the earth the soul cried to heaven for vengeance (Gen. 4 10).

Again, since the soul was the blood and the central seat of the blood was the heart/ the heart was regarded as the organ of thought. A man without intelligence was a heartless man (Hos. 7"); when a man thought, he was said to speak in his heart. Thought is not ascribed directly to the soul, however, though a certain limited intelligence is.

1 Though God s power is conceived from the eighth century onward (cp Am. 9 2 Job 26 6 Prov. 15 n Ps. 139 j/.) to extend to Sheol, yet SheOl maintains its primitive character. In the earlier centuries the powers that bore sway in SheOl were the ancestors of the living.

13. Feeling.[edit]

2. To the soul are attributed not only purely animal functions such as hunger (Prov. 10 3), thirst ( Prov - 2625), sexual desire (Jer. 224), but also psychical affections such as love (Is. 42i), joy ( Ps. 864). fear (Is. 15 4 ), trust (Ps. 57 1 [2]), hate (Is. 114), contempt (Ezek. 36s). 1 To it are ascribed also wish and desire (Gen. 23 8 2 K. 9 15 i Ch. 289), and likewise, but very rarely, memory (Lam. 820 Dt. 49) and knowledge (Ps. 139 14). As the seat of feeling and desire (and, in a limited degree, of in telligence) it becomes an expression for the individual conscious life. Thus my soul (-ITS:) means I," thy soul means thou, etc. (Hos. 94 Ps. 3 2 [3] 7 2 [3] 11 1). So many souls means so many persons (Gen. 46 18 Ex. 1 5). This designation of the personality by soul (nephesh] shows how meagre a conception of personality prevailed in Israel, nn ( rny spirit ) was never so used in the OT.

14. Soul departs.[edit]

3. The soul leaves the body in death (Gen. 35 18 i K. 172i 28. lg Jn. 43), not necessarily immediately, but (apparently) at least on the appearance of corruption. In certain cases, after out ward death the soul was regarded as still in some sense either in or near the body ; a dead person was called a nephesh (Lev. 1928 21 1 224 Nu. 96710 Hag. 2 13) or a dead nephesh (na B>S: ; Nu. 66 Lev. 21 n).

15. Its condition in death.[edit]

4. The soul therefore also dies. Its death, how ever, is not absolute. Moreover, we must note the prevalence in Israel of two inconsistent views - a fact (not hitherto fully brought to light)2 that has forced its recognition on the present writer in the course of the present study (a) an older view, which attributes to the departed a certain degree of knowledge and power in reference to the living and their affairs ; (b) a later view, which denies this. 3

16. Earlier view of death.[edit]

(a) According to the older view the departed possessed a certain degree of self-consciousness and the power of speech and movement (Is. 14) ; a large measure of knowledge hence their name, Q jijn , the knowing ones (Lev. 19si 20 6 Is. 193 ; cp DIVINATION, 4, iii. ) ; acquaintance with the affairs of their living descendants and a keen interest in their fortunes thus Rachel mourns from her grave for her captive children (Jer. 31 15) ; ability to forecast the future (whence they were consulted about it by the living ; i S. 28 13-20 [where observe that the dead person invoked is called Elohlm] Is. 819 294) ; whence the practice of incuba tion 4 (Is. 604). As we have already seen that the departed were believed to have the power of helping or injuring their descendants (see 2), we need only ob serve here that it follows from Is. 63 16 that Abraham and Israel were conceived as protectors (see Cheyne and Duhm, etc., in loc.).

The relations and customs of earth were reproduced in Sheol.

The prophet was distinguished by his mantle (i S. 28 14), kings by their crowns and thrones (Is. 14), the uncircumcised by his foreskin (Ezek. 32). Each nation preserved its individuality and no doubt its national garb and customs (Ezek. 32). Those slain with the sword bore for ever the tokens of a violent death (Ezek. 32 25), as likewise those who died from grief (Gen. 42 38). Indeed the departed were regarded as possessing exactly the same features as marked them at the moment of death. We can appreciate, accordingly, the terrible significance of David's departing counsel to Solomon touching Joab ; Let not his hoar head go down to Sheol in peace (i K. 26).

1 These are so essentially affections of the soul that they are hardly ever attributed to the spirit (nil) , yet see 19.

- Only Stade appears to have apprehended the fact, and that but partially as far as we may judge from his published works.

3 It follows logically from the doctrine of man s nature, unknown in pre-prophetic times, which is set forth in Gen. 2/1; see below, 16.

4 i.e., the practice of sleeping in a temple in the hope of re ceiving a communication or a visit from the god.

In many respects the view just sketched is identical with that which underlies ancestor worship. This worship had withdrawn entirely into the background before the prophetic period ; but, as we have said (7), many of its presuppositions maintained themselves in the popular belief till late in the post-exilic period. The most significant fact to observe is the comparatively large measure of life, movement, knowledge, and power attributed to the departed in Shfiol. How important this is becomes obvious when the earlier view is con trasted with the later and antagonistic view.

17. Later view of death.[edit]

(b) The later view follows logically from the account in Gen. 24^-3, according to which it was when animated by the spirit that the material form became a living soul : the life of the soul is due to the presence of the j spirit, death ensues on its removal. 1 Death, however, I even here does not imply annihilation, though it logic ally should imply it : the soul still subsists in some sense. The subsistence, however, is purely shadowy and negative : all the faculties are suspended.

Sheol, the abode of the shades, is thus almost a synonym for abaddon or destruction (Job2ti6 Prov. 15 n). In opposition to the older view that in Sheol there is a certain degree of life, movement, and remembrance, the later view teaches that it is the land of forgetfulness (Ps. 88 12), of silence (Ps. 94 17 115 17), of destruction (Job 26 6 2822); in opposition to the belief that the dead return to counsel the living, the later teaches that the dead cannot return (Job 7 9 14 12); in opposition to the belief that they are acquainted with the affairs of their living de scendants, the later teaches that they no longer know what befalls on earth (Job 14 2 1) ; in opposition to the belief in their superhuman knowledge of the future as the knowing ones the later teaches that all knowledge has forsaken them (Eccles. 9 5), that they have neither device nor knowledge nor wisdom (Eccles. 9 10). Whereas the older view permitted their being invoked as Elohlm, the later view regards them as dead ones ( D no) (Is. 26 14 Ps. 88 10 [n]). 2 See DEAD, 2.

Finally the relations of the upper world appear to be reproduced, if at all, more faintly ; the inhabitants of ShgSl, king and slave, oppressor and oppressed, good and bad, are all buried in a profound sleep (Job3 14-19). All existence seems to be at an end.

Thus we read in Ps. 39 13, O spare me, that I may recover strength, before I go hence, and be no more ; and in Job 14 7 to, There is hope of a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again but man giveth up the ghost, and where is he? 3

18. Shadowy body.[edit]

5. Though in death the soul leaves the body and departs, the departed in Sheol are never designated simply 'souls'. 4 The early Israelites were metaphysically unable to conceive the body without psychical functions, or the soul without a certain corporeity. The departed were conceived, accordingly, as possessing not only a soul but also a shadowy body. This appears in the use of the term shades (rifphdim), which was current in all ages (see REPHAIM i. ). Elohlm, the title by which in earlier times the shades were addressed, passed out of use. In later times, when such a doctrine of man s being as that underlying Gen. 2 4<J-3, became current, the epithet dead ones was employed. To designate the dead simply souls without any qualification would hardly have been possible ; according to the later view, souls in Sheol were bereft of all their natural psychical functions.

1 This view strikes at the root of the worship of ancestors. The deceased can have no vitality or power ; for the spirit is . the spring of life, and the departed are only souls that are dead i.e., souls in which every faculty is dormant. Gen. I 243-8, which did not originate till the prophetic period, is the outcome of monotheism, whether we regard it as being of Hebrew or of foreign origin. It is needless to add that, when monotheism emerged, for various reasons ancestor worship became impossible.

2 The term shades Q-N31 (used also in the Phoenician religion) was applied to the departed in both systems ; but possibly with a difference (contrast Is. Ug f. 261419 with Ps. 88 10 [n] Prov. 2 18 9 18 etc., where it is synonymous with the dead).

3 It will be observed that the currency of the later view is attested by the second Isaiah, by Ezekiel, Job, and Ecclesiastes. In these books the teaching in Gen. 2 4^-8 has reached its logical consequence. That teaching is implied in Is. 4ii 5 Ezek. 37 aff. Job 27 3 334 Eccles. 127 the spirit shall return to God who gave it (yet it is doubtful if this verse belongs to the text ; cp3 2 i).

  • We seem to find in Job 14 22 Ps. 16 10 such a use, or at all

events the preparation for it.

19. Spirit; earlier view : man a dichotomy.[edit]

The Hebrew writers speak, however, of a spirit as well as of a soul, and we must consider briefly the relation of the terms to each other. Originally they were synonyms meaning 'breath' or 'wind' The primitive conception was arrived at by observation. When the breath i.e., the nlphesh or ruah left the body, the body died. The nfyhesh or ruah was, therefore, regarded as the principle of life. As Stade has remarked (GVICQ 1419), rtia/t probably designated specially the stronger and stormier emotions : the custom of personifying the psychical affections generally as ntphesh, once introduced, led to the practice of naming the stronger expressions of this personification ruah. Thus anger is an affection of the ruah (Judg. 83, see below). So long as a man was wholly master of his powers, he possessed his ruah ; but when he became lost in amazement (i K. 10s) or despair (Josh. 2n), or when he fainted (i S. 30 12 Judg. 15 19), his ruah left him. On his reviving it returned (Gen. 4627).

In keeping with this view of the spirit (ruah) it is said to be the subject of trouble (Gen. 41 s), anguish (Job 7 n), grief (Gen. 26 35 Is. 546), contrition (Ps. 51 17 [19] Is. t>6 2), heaviness (Is. 61 3). It is the seat of energetic volition and action the haughty spirit (Prov. 16 18), the lowly spirit (2923), the impatient spirit (Prov. 1429), etc.

As its departure entails a paralysis of voluntary power (see above) the ruah expresses the impulse of the will (Ex. 35 21). The purposes of man are "... of the ruah nn niSj?D(Ezek.ll 5); the false prophets follow their own spirit rather than that of Yahwe (Ezek. 183); God tries men s spirits (Prov. 162). Rfiah seems also to express character, the result of will in Nu. 14 24, Caleb . . . had another " spirit " with him. By this development in the application of the term ruah it has become the seat of man s highest spiritual functions.

To sum up : soul and spirit are at this early stage identical in essence and origin ; the distinction is one of function.

20. Spirit; later view : man a trichotomy.[edit]

(b] This primitive view was in part superseded by a later doctrine (later from the point of view of the genesis of ideas), taught in Gen. 24^-3. *

The most complete story of the creation of man 2 represents that Yahwe Elohim formed man of earth from the ground, and blew into his nostrils breath (iitshama) of life ( c ,, n j-|Ojj) so that man became a living 'soul' (*#**), Gen- 2:7. The neshama of man a 27 is called ruah (o"n nil) in 6 17 7 15. Tnere are therefore in man three elements : * soul (nephesh), body (bdldr), and spirit or ruah (nl"l)i which last, in the later theory, is simply that which gives life to the soul. 3 This spirit of life (n"n nn) s n the lower creation as well (Gen. 6 17 7 15 22 Ps. 104 30), and by virtue of it they too become living souls."

According to the story worked up by a late priestly writer (Gen. 1 24) the brute creation is only indirectly the product of divine creation ; whereas man is so directly. Angels, however, are never, either in the canonical or in the apocryphal books, said to have souls, though occasionally the term is used in regard to God : he swears by his soul (Am. 6 8 ; cp Is. 42 1 Lev. 261130 cp below, 63). In the account of the relation of soul to body and spirit, in Gen. 2/. the spirit has become quite distinct from the soul in essence and origin. It is the divine element in man. According to the older view the difference was one of function, hardly of essence, certainly not of origin. Now 1 spirit is the life-giving power in the body. When it enters the material form the man becomes a living soul. Without ruah there is no life (Hab. 2 19). In death the soul, robbed of every vital function, descends into Shcol and practically ceases to exist. The spirit (ruti/i) never dies ; it merely leaves the body and returns to God who gave it (Ps. 1464 Eccles. 1*27). J Of this view the logical result is the scepticism of Ecclesiastes and of the Sadducees.

1 [Into the historical relation of this doctrine to the Hebrew conceptions of CREATION [q.v.] we cannot here enter at length. It cannot be denied that the statement in Gen. 2 7 is of early origin. That remains a fact, even if the narrative in Gen. 2 4^-3 has passed through more than one literary phase. Critics are of opinion, however, that the myth of creation utilized for didactic purposes in that narrative was not very widely spread among the Israelites, and that the religious ideas attached to the myth but slowly became operative in the popular mind.]

2 [On the references to creation, whether in narratives or in other forms, see CREATION ; on the question as to the early or late date of the ideas in Gen. 278 see preceding note.]

3 Cp below, 81 (i).

21. Resume.[edit]

We have found that the Israelite derived from the circle of ideas underlying ancestor worship his views as to the nature of soul" and spirit, and of Sheol and the condition of the departed there. On these questions no light was thrown for many centuries by anything distinctive of the religion of Yahwe, which had originally no eschatology of its own relating to the individual. Looking back, however, on the far-off days of the origins of the religion of Yahwe, we can see that the beliefs connected with ancestor worship were doomed to extinction by their inconsistency with that religion, though centuries had to elapse before the doom was fully accomplished.

22. No individual retribution.[edit]

The preparation for a higher doctrine of the future life was made essentially when a new value came to be set on the individual. The early Israelite was not alarmed by the prosperity of the wicked man or the calamities of the righteous: Yahwe was supposed to concern himself only with the well-being of the people as a whole, not with that of its individual members. It seemed natural and reasonable that he should visit the virtues and vices of the fathers on the children (Ex. 20s Lev. 20s Josh. 724 i 8.813), of an individual on his community or tribe (Gen. 12 17 20 18 Ex. 1229). Indeed, in postponing the punishment of the sinner till after death and allowing it to fall on his son, 2 Yahwe showed his mercy (i K. 11 12 21 29).

Towards the close of the kingdom of Judah, the popular sentiment expressed itself in the proverb, The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children s teeth are set on edge (Jer. Slag). Explicitly this denied the responsibility of the people for the overthrow of the nation a view that naturally paralysed all personal effort after righteousness and made men the victims of despair. Implicitly it expressed, not a humble sub mission to the divine judgments, but rather an arraignment of the divine method of government.

23. Jeremiah's individualism.[edit]

In opposition to this popular statement Jeremiah answered as follows : In those days they shall no more say, The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge; but eyery one shall die for his own iniquity (Jer. 31 29 f. ). At an earlier date the same prophet had delivered a divine oracle of a very different import, I will cause them to be tossed to and fro among all the kingdoms of the earth, because of Manasseh the son of Hezekiah (Jer. 154). The new departure in his teaching recorded in the later passage is to be explained by the new covenant described in Jer. 31 31-34 (see COVENANT, 6 (v. )). Jeremiah foresaw ii new relation between Yahwe and his worshippers a relation determined by two great facts : man s incapacity to reform himself, and God s repugnance to any but a spiritual worship (see JEREMIAH i. , 4).

1 Cp below, 102 (i) b note.

2 Rewards and punishments were necessarily conceived as limited to the earthly life ; for Sheol was regarded as outside Yahwe s jurisdiction.

24. Individual retribution; Ezekiel and others.[edit]

Jeremiah s idea was further developed by Ezekiel. Every soul is God s and is in direct and immediate relation to him (Ezek. 18 4). If the individual is faithful in this relation, he is unaffected by his own past (18:21-28), or by the sins or the righteousness of his fathers (18:20 14 12-20). Righteousness raises him above the sweep of the dooms that befall the sinful individual or the sinful nation. 1 Since the achievement of this righteous ness is possible for him, he possesses moral freedom, and his destiny is the shaping of his own will (1830^). There is, therefore, a strictly individual retribution, and the outward lot of the individual is exactly proportioned to his moral deserts.

This doctrine rooted itself firmly in the national consciousness. It is taught and applied in detail in those great popular handbooks, the Psalter and the Book of Proverbs. Though the righteous may have many afflictions, Yahwe delivers him out of them all ; all his bones are kept, not one of them is broken ; but evil slays the wicked ( Ps. 34 18 [19]^ , see also 37 28 etc. ). The righteous and the wicked are to be recompensed on earth ( Prov. 1 1 31). Life is the outcome of righteous ness; death, of wickedness (Prov. 221 /. 10211 19 1524/. 19i6etc.).

25. Criticism.[edit]

Such a doctrine was, naturally, a continual stumbling- block to the righteous when trouble came. Doubts as to its truth were freely expressed, notably in the Psalms. Nor was it to the sufferer alone that this difficult view was an impedi ment. The doctrine of an adequate retribution in this life blocked the way that led to a true solution of the problem of prosperity and adversity. Indeed it denied the existence of any problem to solve ; the righteous as such could not suffer. As long as this was regarded as the orthodox doctrine, the doctrine of a future life could not emerge, and progress was impossible.

It was only some of the elements in Ezekiel s teaching that were sanctioned by subsequent religious thought ; others were opposed. It is his undying merit that he asserted the independent worth of the individual ; but he fell into two errors. He taught (a) that the individual suffers not for the sins of his fathers, but for his own, and (b] that the individual s experiences are in perfect keeping with his deserts. In other words, sin and suffering, righteousness and wellbeing are, according to Ezekiel, always connected ; the outward lot of the individual is God s judgment in concrete form. 2

Now as regards a, the experience of the nation must have run counter to this statement. It was evident that the elements in a man s lot which lie out side the sphere of his volition are shaped for better or for worse in accordance with the merits or demerits of his father and people. The older view accordingly continues to be attested in Jewish literature (see Ps. 109 13 Ecclus. 2825 40 15 416, and especially Dan. Q?/., Judith7z8. Tob. 83, Ass. Mos. 85, Baruch 1 18-21 226 38, Apoc. Bar. 7734io): it is freely acknowledged that men are punished for the sins of their fathers and brethren.

Ezekiel s second error (6), that the individual s experience agrees with his deserts, is the corollary of a. It gave birth to a long controversy, of which two notable memorials have come down to us in Job and Ecclesiastes. Eccles. is much the later ; but we w ill for convenience sake deal with it first.

26. Protest of Eccles.[edit]

Against the statement (b) that the experience of the individual is in perfect keeping with his deserts, the writer of Ecclesiastes enters a decided negative. He declares, in fact, that there is no retribution at all. 3

He asserts that sometimes evil prolongs a man s days, and righteousness curtails them (7 15) ; that the destinies of the wise man and of the fool (2 14), of the righteous and the wicked (9 2) are identical ; that the wicked attain to the honour of burial, whilst this is often denied to the righteous (8:10). If any one complains of the shallowness of Ecclesiastes, 1 is not Ezekiel on the opposite side equally shallow?

1 That there is an inconsistency between Ezek. 83-6 and 21 $/. cannot, however, be denied.

2 Both a and b seemed to Kzekiel to follow logically from God s righteousness, and rightly, if there was no retribution beyond the grave.

3 The passages where judgment is threatened (3 17 11 g/> 12 14) are, according to an increasing number of critics, intrusions in the text, being at variance with the entire thought of the writer. 812 is no longer in its original form.

27. Of Job.[edit]

In the book of Job the principal elements of Ezekiel s teaching reappear. The doctrines of man s individual worth and of a strictly individual retribu tion, however, are shown to be really irre concilable (see JOB, BOOK OF, 5-8). Conscious in the highest degree of his own worth and rectitude, Job claims that God should deal with him in accordance with his deserts. Like his contemporaries his belief is (for Job and the author of the dialogues may be identified) that every event that befalls a man reflects God s disposition towards him ; misfortune betokens God s anger, prosperity his favour. This belief, how ever, is not confirmed by the fortunes of other men (21 1-15), and, with the added insight derived from a sad personal experience, Job concludes that, as the world is governed, righteousness may even be awarded the meed of wickedness. Faith, in order to be sure of its own reality, claims its attestation by the outward judgments of God, and Job s faith receives no such attestation. Still it does not entirely give way ; from the God of circumstance, of outer providence, Job appeals to the God of faith (by Job, as we have said, we mean the author).

28. Gleams of future life.[edit]

The fact that Job does not seek to solve the problem by taking into his argument the idea of a future life, shows that this idea or belief had not yet won acceptance among the religious thinkers of Israel. The main views and conclusions of Job, however, point in that direction. The emphasis laid on man s individual worth, with his consequent claims upon a righteous God claims which are during life entirely unsatisfied should lead to the conclusion that at some future time all these wrongs will be righted by the God of faith. Such a conclusion, however, is never explicitly drawn.

The poem of Job cannot be said to teach the doctrine of a future life. Still, the idea seems for a moment to have gleamed on Job s mind, and the fancy expressed in 14 13 f. became the accepted doctrine of later times. If the Hebrew text of 1925-29 is sound, perhaps there also ShSol is conceived as only an intermediate place. At any rate Job declares in this great passage that God will appear for his vindication, and that at some time after his death he will enjoy the divine vision face to face. It is not indeed stated that this vision will endure beyond the moment of Job s justification by God. Never theless the importance of the spiritual advance here made cannot be exaggerated. The soul is no longer regarded as cut off from God and shorn of all its powers by death, but as still capable of the highest spiritual activities though without the body. A belief in the continuance of this higher life is certainly in the line of many of Job s reasonings. On the other hand, if Job had not merely -wished but also been convinced that this idea was sound, would it have been possible for him to ignore such an all-important conviction throughout the rest of the book ? There are likewise textual difficulties, which recent critics have considered to justify a very radical treatment of the text.

The words rendered in RV And after my skin hath been thus destroyed, yet from my flesh shall I see God, 2 are specially doubted. RVmg. gives two alternative marginal renderings for the first part of this passage, and for from my flesh suggests the widely different rendering without my flesh, which is that generally adopted by those scholars who adhere to MT. Cp illmann ad loc., and, on the other side, JOB, 6. [Siegfried (Job, SBOT, Heb.) looks upon v. 25^ as a later gloss, in which the resurrection of the just is regarded as a possibility, contrary to the opinion put forth in the Book of Job with regard to Sheol (ib. 3 etc.). The result, however, is not satisfactory. Siegfried appeals to & ; but we have a right to suspect theological glosses in the Alexandrian Jewish version. Something different must have stood where our present v. 25 f. stands, and it is the work of the textual critic to trace its relics. See also Budde, ad loc., and Che. s criticism, Expos., 1897*1, p. 410.2?:]

In spite of this criticism it is true to say that this great poem suggests the doctrine of a future life. Later students may or may not have found it in 1413-15 1925-29 ; but in any case the rest of the book presents the antinomies of the present so forcibly that thinkers who assimilated its contents could not avoid taking up a definite attitude towards the higher theology. Some made a venture of faith, and postulated the doctrine of a future life ; others, like the writer of Ecclesiastes, made the great refusal and fell back on unbelief and materialism. We have arrived at the parting of the ways. x


2 nxnEpj -iiy nnxi

29. In the Psalms.[edit]

It remains to consider whether there is evidence of a belief in the immortality of the individual in the Psalter. It is unfortunate tnat the text of this book should be so far from accurate as (from textual criticism) it appears to be. The psalms that chiefly have to be considered are 16, 17, 49, and 73. Here we find one of the most recent critics receding from his original conclusion (in favour of the existence of the hope of immortality), on the ground that a searching textual revision is adverse to it. As regards the first two, at any rate, of the psalms just referred to, the evidence, even if we assume the trustworthiness of all that the unemended text contains, is inadequate to prove the point.

30. In Psalms. 16-17.[edit]

In Ps. 16 there is nothing that necessarily relates to an indi vidual future life. The psalm appears to express the fears and T, hopes, not of the individual, but of the community. 30. In PSS. In Ps. 17 likewise the Psalmist speaks not as an 16-17. individual (cp the plurals, w. 711), but as the mouthpiece of the Jewish people, whoare to Yahwe as the apple of the eye (? . 8) ; in fear of a foreign invader (vv. 9 13) the Psalmist prays for help. This being so, however, in stead of I shall be satisfied, when I awake, with thy likeness, we should expect some reference to God s help. In any case the context does not admit of a reference to a future life. a

30. In Psalm. 49.[edit]

In Ps. 49 the present text admits of two interpretations. In v. i4[i5]yC the speaker announces speedy destruction for the wicked but complete redemption from death 31. In Ps. 49. for himself; but who is the speaker? Does the I here denote the Psalmist as a repre sentative pious Israelite, or the righteous community? In favour of the collective meaning it is argued that those for whom the Psalmist speaks are the righteous poor who are oppressed by the wicked rich; that r . 10 [n] states that all die, alike the wise man (i.e., the righteous) and the fool ; and that when the individual is undoubtedly intended (?/. 16 [17]) he is addressed as thou. The escape from death is therefore, on this interpretation, that of the righteous community. 3 On the other hand, it seems to be in favour of a reference to immortality that, as Cheyne has pointed out, Sheol appears in v. 14 [15] as a place of punishment for the wicked rich. 4 As such it could never become the abode of the righteous. It ii reasonable therefore to expect that the speaker should somewhere state his own consciousness (as a representative pious Israelite) of exemption from this fate. This seems to give us the key to the words, Surely my soul God will set free ; for from the hand of Sheol will he take me. 6

We must, therefore, lay stress on the naturalness of our own interpretation, that there is in Ps. 49 a reference to immortality, an interpretation which is in fact that maintained, with fulness of argument, by Cheyne himself in his Origin of the Psalter.

1 On the belief in retribution in early Judaism, see especially Che. OPs. 381-452 ; Jew. Rel. Life, 229-247. For translations from the psalms, cp Wellh. s and Driver s recent works. A complete translation from a critical text of Job is still a desideratum.

2 So Smend, ZA TWSg 5 [ 88] ; Che. few. Rel. Life, 2 4 o/

3 So Smend, Schwally, and now Cheyne.

4 This is one of the results reached in OPs. by Cheyne ; who (going much beyond previous writers) regards Ps. 49 as incident ally a protest against the old Hebrew notion of Sheol, with its disregard of moral distinctions, and confirms this view by the parallelisms between Ps. 49 and chap. 102 f. of Enoch (written probably between 134 and 94 B.C.). The rich man holds that neither in life nor in death has he to fear a judgment ; but all the details of this pleasant dream the psalmist contradicts. The moral significance of the descent of the rich into Sheol is still more visible in Cheyne s attractively emended text (few. Rel. Life, 238). This conception of the penal character of Sheol is all the more credible from the reference mnde in the OT to two other places of punishment for special offenders the so-called pit (Is. 242i_/C), and a place strikingly resembling Gehenna for Jewish apostates (Is. 6624).

5 The present writer is of opinion that to the authors of Pss. 49 and 73 Sheol is the future abode of the wicked alone, heaven that of the righteous.

32. In Psalm 73.[edit]

In Ps. 73, as in Ps. 49, the wicked enjoy prosperity ; but they are speedily to meet with unexpected retribution ( l8 - 20 ). As for the righteous, their highest good and blessedness consist in communion with God. In comparison with God the whole world is to them as nothing (22-25). He is their portion. Despite deadly perils they can safely trust in him (25), and all the more assuredly that he destroys the wicked (27). A new thought, however, emerges in v. 24. God, we are told, will guide the righteous with his counsel, and afterwards take him to (or, with) glory. 1 In the latter phrase, if we may acquiesce in the received text, there must be a reference to the story of Enoch (Gen. 624), which was very popular in post- exilic times (see ENOCH, i), and the whole passage is an assertion of individual immortality (so Delitzsch, Davidson, Baethgen, and originally Cheyne), for the text would be unfairly treated if we restricted the reference to this present life. On grounds which he has not yet fully stated, but which, from the note of Wellhausen on the passage, 2 we may assume to be partly grammatical, Cheyne now regards v. 24 b as corrupt, and reads, And wilt make known to me the path of glory. 3 Assuming, however, with Konig 4 that the grammatical difficulties can be overcome, can we show that the new thought of which we have spoken is thoroughly consistent with what follows? 6 To the present writer no incongruity is visible. He would venture to rest his case on the impassioned words of v. 2512, which prove that the speaker felt assured of the continuance of his union with God not only on earth but also in heaven. For themselves the righteous make no claim to material prosperity either here or hereafter ; they look for and indeed possess something far higher. As a corollary of the truth of the justice of God, how ever, they do expect retribution for the wicked, both here (vv. 18-21 27) and (apparently) hereafter (v. 19 f. ).

33. Result as to individual immortality.[edit]

We have now done with the question of individual immortality so far as it is dealt with in the OT. In Job it emerges merely as an aspiration. Only in psalms 49 and 73 (if our interpretation is valid) does it rise to the stage of conviction. The evidence, therefore, in favour of an origin not later than 400 B.C. is far from strong. Even were it wholly wanting, however, we should be obliged, by the logical necessities of thought, to postulate the doctrine. The doctrine of an individual immortality of the righteous, and the doctrine of the Messianic kingdom are presupposed as the chief factors of the complex doctrine of the Resurrection which was developed towards the close of the fourth century or at latest early in the third century. With the evolution of this resurrection hope, however, the entire doctrine of individual immortality falls absolutely into the back ground, and is not again attested, till the growing dualism of the times leads to the disintegration of the resurrection hope into its original elements about 100 B.C. (see 64). Indeed, never in Palestinian Judaism down to the Christian era did the doctrine of a merely individual immortality appeal to any but a few isolated thinkers. The faithful looked forward to a blessed future only as members of a holy people, as citizens of a righteous kingdom that should embrace their brethren.

1 H. Schultz (A T Theol. 760) rejects these translations. With glory is that adopted by Driver (Par. Ps. 211) and formerly by Che. (Psalttts). * Psalms, SOT(Heb.) 88.

8 i.e., the glory of God and of Israel and its members in the Messianic age (Jew. Rel. Life, 240).

4 Syntax, 319 (pointed out to the writer by Prof. Cheyne).

5 Schwally (Das Leben, etc., 128 f.) denies this. For a much fuller statement of the present writer s view see his Doctrine of a Future Life, 73-77.


34. Eschatology regarding the nation.[edit]

When we turn to the eschatological ideas that concern the nation as a whole we can hardly venture to go beyond the the faicts and hopes contained in the prophecies. In the main these cluster at the outset round the familiar conception of the day of Yahwe. The day of Yahwe in itself, however, constitutes not the blessed future, but only the divine act of judgment which inaugurates it. Hence the eschatology of the nation centres in the future national blessedness introduced by the day of Yahwe.

This future was variously conceived. According to the popular conception down to the eighth century, it was merely a period of material and unbroken pros perity which the nation should enjoy through Yahwe s overthrow of Israel s national foes. This conception gave place, however, in the eighth century, to the pro phetic doctrine of the coming kingdom, for the realisa tion of which two factors, and only two, were indis pensable. This kingdom was to be a community of Israelites first and chiefly, and in the next place a community in which God s -will should be fulfilled. Whether this kingdom was constituted under monarchi cal, hierarchical, or purely theocratic forms was in itself a matter of indifference. Since the Messiah formed no organic part of the conception, he was sometimes con ceived as present at its head, sometimes as absent. How far the eighth century prophets foretold this kingdom is still an unsettled question. As regards the day of Yahwe there is no such critical difficulty. Our study of the eschatology of the nation will begin with this unquestioned element in Israel s expectations. It is with a development of some complexity that we shall have to deal a complexity most marked in exilic and post-exilic times, where, as we have seen, the individual no less than the nation began to maintain his claims to righteous treatment. Ezekiel s attempt to satisfy these claims will demand our attention afterwards. Some centuries later what he had essayed to do was achieved in a true synthesis of the eschatologies relating to the nation and to the individual respectively (see 49).

35. Day of Yahwe; popular idea.[edit]

The day of Yahwe concerns the people as a whole, not the individual. It is essentially the day on which Yahwe manifests himself in victory over his foes. Amongst the Hebrews, aspopular idea. sometimes among the Arabs, ' day ' had the definite signification of 'day ofbattle' (e.g., Is. 93[4] ' the day of Midian' ; see WRS Projhets, 397). The belief in this 'day' was olderthan any written prophecy. In the time of Amos it was a popular expectation. Unethical and nationalistic,it was adopted by the prophets and transformed into a conception of thoroughly ethical and universal significance.It assumed the following forms.

(i. ) Popular conception ; a judgment on Israel s enemies. This conception orfginated, no doubt, in the old limited view of Yahwe as merely the national god of Israel. We can distinguish two stages.

(a) In its earlier form it was held by the contem poraries of Amos (8th century B.C.). The relation of Yahwe to Israel in their minds was not ethical ; to a large extent it was national (Am. 82). Israel s duty was to worship Yahwe and Yahwe s was to protect Israel. As the Israelites were punctual in the perform ance of ceremonial duties (4s 5521/1), they not only confidently looked forward to, but also earnestly prayed for, the day of Yahwe as the time of his vindication of them against their enemies. 1 Not so, says the prophet. It is a day in which, not the claims of Israel, but the righteousness of Yahwe, will be vindicated against wrong-doing whether in Israel or in its enemies.

1 This belief that Yahwe must save his people survived, despite the prophets, till the captivity of Judah in 586 B.C.

36. Revived by Nah. Hab.[edit]

(b) The primitive conception of the day of Yahwe was revived by Nahum and Habakkuk : there was to be a judgment of Israel's enemies i. e. the Gentiles (650-600 B. C. ). It was the bitterness and resentment engendered by the sufferings of the Israelites at the hands of their oppressors that led to this revival. The grounds, however, on which the expectation of the intervention of Yahwe was based were somewhat different. Accord ing to the primitive view Yahwe was bound to intervene on behalf of his people because of the natural affinities between them. According to Nahum and Habakkuk, 1 the affinities are ethical. In fact, such was the self- righteousness generated by Josiah s reforms that neither Nahum nor Habakkuk makes any mention of Israel s sin. In this they represent their people, who felt them selves, in contrast with the wickedness of the Gentiles, relatively righteous (see Hab. 1413). Hence the im pending judgment will strike not righteous Israel, but the godless Gentiles. Here we have the beginnings of the thought that Israel is right, regarded as over against the world the beginning, for in Nahum and Habakkuk this view is applied only to a singJe nation, not, as in later times, to all Gentiles. The later usage of designat ing the Gentiles absolutely as the godless (o yy-i) and Judah as the righteous (opns) is only the legitimate fruit of Habakkuk s example. Cp Is. 26 10 Pss. 9 5 [6] 16 [i 7 ]/. 102-4 58io[n] 68 2 [ 3 ]/ 125s. In most subsequent representations of the future the destruction of the Gentiles stands as a central thought.

(ii.) Prophetic pre-exilic conception. The prophetic conception also passed through several stages.

37. Early prophetic ideas.[edit]

(a) A day of judgment directed mainly against Israel. For Amos, as we have seen, the day of Yahwe 2 is the day in which Yahwe intervenes to vindicate himself and his righteous purposes. It appears in this prophet only in its darker side ( cp 5l8 }_ other nations will feel it in proportion to their unrighteousness ; but unrighteous Israel, being specially related to Yahwe, wfll experience the severest judgments (82). Hosea is of one mind with Amos. 3 He does not use the phrase the day of Yahwe ; but he describes in awful terms the irreversible- ness of the judgment (Hos. 1812-14 [11-13]). (AMOS, i8/., HOSEA, 7 /.).

38. Later; Isa. etc.[edit]

(b) Mainly against Judah. In Isaiah 4 and Micah the day of Yahwe receives a new application ; it is directed against Judah. Not that warnings of judgment against Israel are neglected (26-2! 8 1-4 98 \_i\ff. 176-n 28 1-4). The prophet takes all the chief surrounding nations within his range ; but he does so only in relation to the judgment on his own people. Although he declares that Yahwe s purpose of breaking Assyria concerns all the nations (1425/1 ), there is no evidence to show that he arrived at the conception of a universal or world judgment. In 3 13, where there appears to be a reference to it, the text is corrupt. 5 The idea of its universality seems to be given in 2 11-21 ; but the language is poetical.

Isaiah had now and then gleams of hope, and at all times believed in a remnant, however minute. In 124-26 he even anticipates a second and happier Jewish state. Micah, on the other hand, as far as the evidence goes, was persistently hopeless. Jerusalem was to become a ruin, and the temple -hill like a height crowned with brushwood (Mic. 3 12 ; see Nowack). Cp ISAIAH i. , MICAH ii.

1 On the interpolations in these prophets, see NAHUM, HABAKKUK.

2 This day of Yahwe, in its double character as a day of punishment and a day of blessing, is also spoken of as that day (Is. 17? 302 3 285 29 18 Hos. 2i8 Mic. 24 46 Siofo] Zech. 9i6 14469), that time (Jer. 31 1 8815 50 4 Zeph. Siof. Joel 3 [4] i), the day (Ezek. 7io Mic. 3e), the time (Ezek. 7 12).

3 On the interpolated passages, see AMOS, ?,_ff~., HOSEA, 4.

4 The present article builds on the critical results of the article ISAIAH [the book] ; see also ISAIAH [the prophet]. Hence the following passages which deal with the Messianic age and the Messiah are rejected as interpolations (they are assigned to the exilic or post -exilic period by Cheyne ; generally also by Duhm, Hackmann, Marti, and Vnlz) ; Is. 2 2-4 4a-6 7 14-16 9 1-7 [823-96] 11 16s ^ 18-25 256-9 28i629 17-24 35 i-io. On the age of the conception of world -judgment, cp Che. Intr. Is., 53 246.

6 For croy read, with , ioy (see SBOT, Heb., ad loc.*).

39. Later; Zeph.[edit]

(c) Against the whole world resulting in a survival of a righteous remnant of Israel, the Messianic kingdom. In the prophets with whom we have dealt (except Nah. and Hab. ) the judgment of the Gentiles is never conceived independently of the judgment on Israel or Judah. In Zephaniah for the first time it appears to be universal. It deals with the whole earth, including the brute creation (l2/. ) : with Jerusalem (18-13); with Philistia, Ethiopia, and Assyria (2i-6) j 1 with all nations (38) ; with all the inhabitants of the earth (Ii8). There is, however, a certain incon sistency in the picture. The instruments of judgment are a mysterious people, called the guests of Yahwe (1 7 , probably the Scythians), who do not themselves come within the scope of the judgment.

The conception is thus wanting in definiteness and clearness. Zephaniah moves in the footsteps of Isaiah in the account of the impending judgment ; but whereas, in Isaiah, judgment on Israel and the nations stands in inner connection with the prophet s conception of the divine character and purposes, in Zephaniah it is with out definite aim ; 2 its various constituents appear to represent eschatological expectations already current, while its wide sweep shows the operation of the prevail ing monotheism. One point in the description is that, in order that Yahwe s anger may destroy them, the nations are to be assembled (3 2). We meet with this idea here for the first time.

Later prophets make it very prominent (Ezek. 38 f. Is. 45 20 636 6616 34 1-3 Zech. 123^C 14 zf.) ; earlier prophets are wont to mention definite and present foes (e.g., the Assyrians in Is. 17i2yC). In later prophets, the scene of this judgment on the Gentiles is Jerusalem (Zech. 14 2 12-18 ; Joel3[4]2 Is. 6615). A small righteous remnant will be left in Israel (3 11-14).

40. At the exile.[edit]

(iii. ) Exilic conception; judgment of Israel, man by man, and of the Gentiles collectively ; restoration of a new Israel in the Messianic kingdom and destruction of Gentiles. 3 The individualising of religion in Jeremiah and Ezekiel (see above, 23 f.) was the precondition of the restoration of Israel after the fall of Jerusalem. According to Ezekiel, in God s visitations only the wicked in Israel should be destroyed. When a new Israel was thus created, Yahwe would further intervene to vindicate his honour and his sole sovereignty over the world, Israel should be restored to its own land, and the Gentiles be destroyed.

A synthesis of the eschatologies of the nation and the individual was in this way attempted wholly within the sphere of this life. We are thus entering on a new period in the development of eschatological thought. Israel is already in exile or on the eve of exile ; but Yahwe s thoughts are thoughts of peace, not of evil (Jer. 29 n) : the exile will be temporary. The day of Yahwe assumes a favourable aspect almost unrecognised in pre-exilic prophecy. Israel shall be converted and brought back to its own land and an everlasting Mes sianic kingdom established. This kingdom will be ruled over by Yahwe or by his servant the Messiah, who is apparently mentioned here for the first time.

1 This idea of the destruction of the nations hostile to Judah thus appears first in the prophets of the Chaldean age ; cp Jer. 2515-24. In the earlier prophets it is the destruction of definite present or past foes that is announced. In the later it is that of the nations generally : cp the Jewish reviser s addition in Jer. 25 32./: Ezek.38yr, fifth-century passages in Is. 34 63 1-6 Zech. 12 1-3, and the much later writings Is. 6616 18-24 Zech. 14 1-3 12-15.

2 Interpolations must be carefully separated (see ZEPHANIAH, BOOK OF).

3 This is true only of Ezekiel. There is nothing in the genuine Jeremiah about the destruction of the Gentiles as a whole, and there is rjrobably in 16 19 (but not in 3 17) a genuine prophecy of the ultimate conversion of the nations. See also 42 12 15. Only the impenitent Gentiles will be destroyed (12 17). Jeremiah and Ezekiel are here fundamentally at issue. It is their agreement on other points that led to their joint treatment here.

41. In Jeremiah.[edit]

Although the judgment of Israel is not strictly individualistic in Jeremiah as it is in Ezekiel, we shall give the eschatological views of the two together ; they can hardly be considered apart ; Ezekiel s are built on Jeremiah's. In Jeremiah l the day of Yahwe is directed first and chiefly against Judah - the enemy will come upon it from the north (1 11-16); the city and temple shall be destroyed (376-io) although account is taken also of other nations (2515-24 ; cp 1 18). There is, however, a hopeful outlook ; Israel shall be restored (23 7 f. 24 5 /. ). The restoration is to be preceded by repentance (813 19-25), and accompanied by a change of heart (3133/1). Restored to its own land, Israel shall receive from Yahwe a king, a righteous Branch of the house of David, who shall deal wisely and execute judgment and justice (23s/! ). 2

42. In Ezekiel.[edit]

The individualism appearing in Jeremiah is developed in Ezekiel to an extreme degree. Judgment on Israel shall proceed individually (only on the Gentiles is it to be collective). Yahwe will give Israel a new heart (1117-21 8625-32) and restore Israel and Judah to their own land, where, in the Messianic kingdom (1722-24), they shall be ruled by the Messiah (2127), by one king, namely David 3 (3423-31 3721-28). As for the Gentiles, referred to as Gog, they shall be stirred up to march against Jerusalem and shall there be destroyed (38). On the surviving Gentiles no gleam of divine compassion shall ever light. 4 Monotheism has become a barren dogma. Particular ism and Jewish hatred of the Gentiles are allowed free scope.

43. Second Isaiah.[edit]

(iv. ) Universalistic Conception of the Kingdom (550-275 B.C.) ; redemption and earthly Messianic blessedness for Israel and thus for the Gentiles. 5 We are now to consider (a) the second Isaiah and (b) later writers.

(a) According to the second Isaiah (Is. 40-48) and his expander (Is. 49-55) there is in store for Israel not punishment but mercy.

Already she has received double for all her sins (402). Cyrus shall overthrow Babylon (4125 43 14 45-47 48nf.), and the exiles shall return (463-5432-74820-22 49s). Jerusalem shall be gloriously rebuilt (54 n f.), and its inhabitants become (like the prophetic writer, 604) disciples of the divine teacher (54 13). Never more shall it be assailed (4924-26 548-io 14-17).

Further, the salvation of Israel does not end in itself. The author of the Songs of the Servant 6 reaches the great conception of Israel as the Servant of Yahwe (423/1 49 1-6 504-952i3-53i2), through whom all nations shall come to know the true religion. In these writers the legitimate consequences of monotheism in relation to the Gentiles are accepted.

1 See JEREMIAH [Book of], and JEREMIAH [th prophet]. Interpolations must be separated, before Jeremiah can be properly understood.

2 On this passage, as well as on other late Messianic prophecies, see Che. few. Kel. Life, Lect. iii. Cp also MESSIAH.

3 The Messiah is not conceived here as an individual but as a series of successive kings ; cp 458 46 16.

  • Some scholars find in 17 23 a promise that the Gentiles will

seek refuge under the rule of the Messiah ; but 1724 shows that this interpretation is unsound. The Gentiles are symbolized, not by the birds of various wings in 17 23, but by the trees of the field (17 24). As the cedar (17 23) represents the kingdom of Israel, so the trees of the field represent the Gentile kingdoms. The only object with which the latter seem to be spared is that they may recognise the omnipotence of Yahwe.

8 See Che. Jew. ReL Life, lect. iii. and vi.

6 A like conception is probably at the base of the post-exilic Is. ll9 = Hab. 2 14 (both editorial additions?), which declare that the earth shall be filled with the true religion.

7 See ISAIAH ii., 5, and cp Che. Jew. Rel. Life, lect. iii.

44. Other later writers.[edit]

(b) A somewhat similar representation of the future appears in the post-exilic passage Mic. 4 1-3 (= Is. 22-4) and the later additions in Jer 3l 7-8; according to which all nations, laying aside wars and enmities, are to be converted and to form under Yahwe one great spiritual empire with Jerusalem as its centre. 7

The same thought 1 is set forth in the Psalms.

See 2227-31 [28-32] 867 and note the fine expressions thou confidence of all the ends of the earth 2 (65 5 [6]), and to thee doth all flesh come as to one who hears prayer (05 2 [3]). In Ps. 87 we have a noble conception which sums up in itself all the noblest thought of the past in this ilirection. Jerusalem is to be the mother city of all nations, the metropolis of an ideally Catholic Church (Che.). Whole nations shall enter the Jewish Church (874). So shall also individuals (? . 5).

Only two more passages, Is. 19 16-25 and Mai. In call for attention ; but these are beyond measure re markable. In Is. 19 16-25 (275 B.C.; Che.) the hopes of Ps. 87 reappear but are far surpassed in universality. Jerusalem, though the source of spiritual blessedness to Egypt and Assyria (Syria), is neither nationally nor spiritually paramount ; rather do these nations form a spiritual and national confederacy in which Israel holds not the first but the third place.

The widest universalism of all, however, is found in Mai. In, where in regard to the surrounding nations the prophet declares From the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same my name is great among the Gentiles ; and in every place incense is offered unto my name, and a pure offering. Here, as most critics recognise, we have a testimony to the work ing of the one divine spirit in non-Jewish religions (cp MALACHI, 3). Similar universalism had already, it appears, been expressed by Zoroastrianism. 4

45. Nationalistic Conception.[edit]

(v.) Narrmv Nationalistic Conception of the Kingdom (about 520 to 300 B.C.); deliverance and Messianic blessedness for Israel: 5 (a) ministry or bondage, or (b) destruction (partial or complete ) for the Gentiles. 6 Concurrently with the large-hearted universalism (of the post-exilic writers) just described, there were narrow one-sided views, which held more or less closely to the particularism that originated with Ezekiel. Such were the views most widely current in Judaism. According to these the future world, the Messianic age, belonged to Israel to Judah and Israel reunited (Hos. 3 5 Mic. 53[2j^ post-exilic) under the Messianic descendant of David (Is. 9i-6 [823-95] 11 1-8 Mic. 52-4 [1-3]; all exilic or later) ; the Gentiles had either no share at all, or only a subordinate share as dependents or servants of Israel. Their destiny was subjection or destruction- generally the latter, always so in the case of those that had been hostile to Israel.

(a) The Gentiles are to escort the- returning Israelites to Jerusalem and become their servants and handmaids, Is. 14 1-3" (cp 66 12-20). They shall build up the city walls (60 ip), bow and be subject to Israel, 60 14 (or perish, (>0i2), becoming Israel s herdsmen and ploughmen and vinedressers (61 5)."

(b) Still more frequently what is predicted for the Gentiles is destruction. In 34_/J (450-430 B.C. ; Che.) there is described a universal judgment in which all of them are thus involved (34i-3). 9 In the fifth-century fragment 59 15^-20 those hostile to Yahwe and Israel 1(l are singled out, whilst those that fear the name of Yahwe are spared 59i8yT 6616 19 f. (666-16 18^-22 belong to the age of Nehemiah and Ezra); I 1 but in another fragment of the same date (G3i-6), which closely resembles the preceding passage in subject and phraseology, only destruction is announced for all.

In Haggai and Zechariah," where the establishment of the Messianic kingdom is expected on the completion of the temple 1 (Zech. 8 15), to be rebuilt by the Messiah, 2 a pre-condition is the destruction of the Gentile powers. We have, thus, a further development of that opposition between the kingdom of God and the world-kingdoms which appears in Ezekiel and is presented in its sharpest features in Daniel. See, e.g. , Zech. 1 19-21 [22-4] 61-8, Hag. 2 21 /.

1 Cp also the addition in Zeph. 3 9 /

2 Cp also 256 in the small apocalypse in Is.24 256-8 26 zof. 27 i 12 f. This Che. assigns to the fourth century, Duhm to the second. The later date would help to explain the very advanced eschatology appearing in 2421-23, which speaks of a preliminary judgment and then after a long interval of the final judgment. On the latter judgment follows the theocratic kingdom (24 23).

3 On the expectation of proselytes see also Is. 14 i 256 6636 and cp STRANGERS, PROSELYTE.

  • Che. OPs. 292, 305 f.

5 There are many passages in the post-exilic additions to Is. which speak of Israel only in relation to the Messianic age ; cp 4 2-6 29 16-24 35 i-io.

6 The only exception is Malachi.

7 Cheyne regards these verses as alien to 132-1421.

8 These passages are post-exilic ; 60 and 61 about 432 B.C. (Che.).

9 We have a world-judgment described in 186-13, though the judgment is there directed primarily against Babylon (cp 185 n), just as in 34 it is specially directed against Edom.

1" In the post-exilic (?) passage 9 1-7 it is the Messiah who destroys the oppressors of Israel (e r . 4). This active role of the Messiah is rare in the OT.

11 Cp the world-judgment in the fourth-century apocalypse in Is. 24 256-8, where, after the judgment (2418-23), tne surviving Gentiles shall be admitted to the worship of Yahwe 25 6. It is very remarkable that in 242iyC we read of an intermediate place of punishment. The judgment, therefore, appears to be conceived as consisting of two distinct acts. The clause 25 8a declaring the annihilation of death appears to be an interpola tion. It is against the general drift of the content, and wholly alien to the thought-development of the period.

46. In Joel, etc.[edit]

In Joel (4th Cent. ; cp JOEL, 4) the enemies of Judah who are not present foes but the nations generally, are to be gathered together in order to be annihilated ( 3 [ 4 ] 1-6). Even the place of judgment is mentioned the valley of Jehoshaphat, the choice being obviously determined by the etymological meaning of the name. Yahwe will sit in judgment (3 [4] 12) and all the Gentiles shall be destroyed. This is a nearer approximation to the idea of a final world-judgment than there is elsewhere in the OT save in Dan. ?9/. Still the judgment is one-sided. The day of Yahwe does not, as in the pre-exilic and some exilic prophets and the exceptional post-exilic Mai. 82-5 4 1-3 5 [3 19-21 23], morally sift Israel ; it serves to justify Israel (225-27 3i6/. ) against the world (cp the interpolation in the Second Isaiah, i.e., 4625). See JOEL, 6.

With Joel and his successors prophecy is beginning to change into apocalypse. The forecasts do not, as a rule, stand in a living relation with the present ; frequently they are the results of literary reflection on earlier prophecies. This lack of organic relation with the present, such as we find in the earlier prophets, is specially clear in Joel s day of Yahwe.

According to the late post-exilic fragment Zech. 12 1- 13 6, 3 all the Gentiles while making an attack on Jerusalem shall be destroyed before it (12s/ 9), whereas in the still later fragment, chap. 14, it is only the hostile nations that are to be annihilated (Zech. 14 12 f. ), the remnant being converted to Judaism and led to attend the yearly feast of Tabernacles (Zech. 14? 16-21). This fragment is peculiar also in postponing divine intervention till Jerusalem is in the hands of the Gentiles (14/1 ).

47. In Daniel.[edit]

In the apocalypse of Daniel there is a great advance on the eschatological ideas of its predecessors. When the need of the saints is greatest (7 2i/. 121 in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes) the Ancient of Days will intervene ; his tribunal shall be set up (7 9) ; the powers of this world shall be over thrown (7n/-), and everlasting dominion given to his holy ones (7 14 22 27). These will destroy all rival powers (244), and become lords of all the surviving nations (7 14). To the contrasted fates of the faithful and the unfaithful in Israel who have deceased (12 1-3) we shall return ( 59).

1 For Yahwe the temple is indispensable as his dwelling-place. This thought is apocalyptic. It is not through moral reforma tion but through divine intervention that the kingdom is to be introduced.

2 After the example of Jer. 23s 33 15 Zechariah names him 1 the Branch (6 12 38 /). He identifies him with Zerubbabel (cp Hag. 26-9 23).

3 See ZECHARIAH ii., T,ff.

  • Cp Che. OPs. 404 jf.
48. In Isaiah 65-66.[edit]

In defiance of historical sequence we have reserved to the last the consideration of the composite chapters. They call for special treatment because they seem to present a new development as regards the scene of the Messianic kingdom there are to be new heavens and a new earth. 4 We must not be misled by appearances, however. When, in chap. 65, Jerusalem is to be especially blessed it is to be transformed into a blessing (65 18) the reference is apparently not to a New Jerusalem. It is the same material Jerusalem as before, but supernaturally blessed ; men still build houses and plant vineyards (652i/~. ), sinners are still found (6620), * and death still prevails. 6617, therefore, where the creation of new heavens and a new earth is proclaimed, seems out of place. In the Messianic times here foreshadowed men live to a patriarchal age, and the animal world, as in an earlier prophecy (11 6-9), loses its ferocity and shares in the prevailing peace and blessedness (6525). In 666-16 I &b f. we have a fragmentary apocalypse (see Che. Intr. Is. 374-385) which describes the judgment of the hostile nations (66:6-16 186 f: we have a fragmentary apocalypse (see Che. Zntr. Zs. 374-385) which describes the judgment of the hostile nations (6616 166 f.).

Those of the Gentiles who escape are to go to the more distant peoples and declare the divine glory (Ofi 19). Thereupon the latter are to go up to Jerusalem, escorting the returning exiles.

This apocalypse concludes with a remarkable reference to the new heavens and the new earth, which is all but unintelligible. Does the new creation take place at the beginning of the Messianic kingdom? or at its close? By neither supposition can we overcome the inherent difficulties of the text. If the new creation is to be taken literally, it can only be supposed to be carried out at the close of the Messianic kingdom ; but this kingdom has apparently no close. Either, then, the expression is used loosely and vaguely, or and the present writer inclines to this view 6622 is a later intrusion. 2


49. Synthesis.[edit]

Concurrently with the establishment of the Messianic hope in the national consciousness (see 34) the claims of the individual had, as we have seen, pressed themselves irresistibly on the notice of religious thinkers so irresistibly in fact that no representation of the future which failed to render them adequate satisfaction could hope for ultimate acceptance. The two questions naturally came to be regarded as essentially related. The righteous individual and the righteous nation must be blessed together or rather the righteous man must ultimately be recompensed, not with a solitary im mortality in heaven or elsewhere but with a blessed resurrection life with his brethren in the coming Messianic kingdom. If, as we have seen, the doctrine of an individual immortality failed to establish itself in the OT, the grounds of such a failure were not far to seek, and the very objections against the belief in a blessed immortality of the righteous man apart from the righteous community are actual arguments in favour of the resurrection of the righteous to a share in the Messianic kingdom.

1 Unless 652o is a gloss, as Haupt thinks (SBOT, Heb. ad loc.).

2 Is. 51 16 and 60 19 can hardly be quoted in support of 6617 1)622, for in the last two passages the language is obviously meant to be literal, whereas in the former it is metaphorical.

A synthesis of these two eschatologies, of the individual and of the nation, was attempted by Ezekiel wholly within the sphere of this life. The reconciliation, however, was achieved only through a misconception and misrepresentation of the facts of the problem. Still this doctrine of retribution gave such general satisfaction that the need of a theory that would do justice to the facts of the problem was not experienced save by isolated thinkers till the close of the fourth century K.c.

50. Resurrection in Is. 26. Dan. 12.[edit]

The doctrine of a resurrection is clearly enunciated in two passages of great interest, (a) as a spiritual conception in Is. 261-19, and (b) as a mechanical conception in Dan. 12. (a) Is. 26 1-19 forms an independent writing composed, according to Cheyne about 334 BC. The writer, who speaks in the name of the people, looks forward to the setting up of the kingdom, with a strong city, whose walls and bulwarks are salvation, and whose gates will be entered by the righteous nation (26 1/.) ; and since the nation is but few, the righteous dead shall rise and share the blessedness of the regenerate nation (26 19). This notable verse should, with Duhm nnd Cheyne, be read as follows: Thy dead men (Israel) shall arise : the inhabitants of the dust shall awake l and shout for joy ; 2 for a dew of lights is thy dew, and the earth shall bring to life the shades. 3

This positive belief in the resurrection of the right eous did not win its way into acceptance, however, till over a century later. Still, that it gained some currency and underwent some development in the interval is obvious from the next and only remaining passage which attests it in the OT.

(b) In Dan. 122(168 B.C.), which seems to be based on Is. 26i9, 4 there is an extension of the statement. The resurrection here is not only of the righteous but also of the wicked, 5 who are to rise in order to receive their due reward shame and everlasting contempt. 6 The resurrection moreover ushers in the Messianic kingdom (12 1). This spiritual form of the resurrection doctrine is the genuine product of Jewish inspiration ; for all its factors are indigenous to Jewish thought.

Between the rise of the doctrine enunciated in Is. 26 and Dan. 12 a considerable period must have elapsed, sufficiently long to account for the loss of the original significance of the resurrection as a restoration, in the next world, of the life of communion with God which had been broken off by death. During this interval the spiritual doctrine passed into a lifeless dogma. In Is. 26 it was the sole prerogative of the righteous Israelite, now,, it is extended to the pre-eminently good and the pre-eminently bad in Israel. Without any consciousness of impropriety the writer of Daniel can speak of the resurrection of the wicked. Thus severed from the spiritual root from which it grew the resurrection is trans formed into a sort of eschatological property, a device by means of which the members of the nation are pre sented before God to receive their final award. The doctrine must therefore have been familiar to the Jews for several generations before Daniel.

1 The designation of death as a sleep did not arise from the resurrection hope. It is found in books that are unacquainted with that hope. Death is described as sleep in Gen. 47 30 Dt. 31 16 Job 7 21 14 1 2, as the eternal sleep in Jer. 6139 57. In the later period, therefore, in which the belief in the resurrection was finally established, when the state of the departed is described as a sleep, the word must in no case be taken in its literal meaning.

- vn ar >d 71^33 are omitted by these scholars as interpolations, and instead of Urn J3J they read Wrn pni.

3 See Che. Intr. Is. 158, and cp OPs. 403 f.

  • Cp the inhabitants of the dust shall awake and many that

sleep in the land of dust shall awake.

5 This resurrection to punishment, or a belief perfectly akin, is found in contemporary work; 24 256-8 262oyC 27 1 12 f., a fragmentary apocalypse of 3^4 B.C. (Che.). Thus in 242I./I, the host of heaven i.e., angelic rulers of the nation and the kings of the earth are to be imprisoned in the pit and, after many days, to be visited with punishment. Cp Eth. En. 549025. According to later views God does not punish a nation until he has first humiliated its angelic patron (Shir-rabba 276). More over the future judgment of the Gentile nations will be preceded by the judgment of their angelic chiefs (Beshallach 13 [see Weber, L. d. Talmud, 165]).

6 The many who are condemned here are Jewish apostates. The place into which they are cast is evidently Gehenna, though the term does not appear in OT with this special penal sense. The place is referred to also in Is. 6624 and probably in 50 n.


51. Review.[edit]

Before entering on the further development of Jewish eschatology, it will be helpful to sum up shortly the results arrived at by the writers whom we have already considered. We find in them an eschatology that to a large extent takes its character from the conception of Yahwe. As long as his jurisdiction was conceived as limited to this life, there could be no such eschatology with reference to the individual. When at last, however, Israel reached real monotheism, the way was prepared for the moral - isation of the future no less than of the present. The exile contributed to this development by making possible a truer conception of the individual. The individual, not the nation, became the religious unit. Step by step through the slow processes of the religious life, the religious thinkers of Israel were led to a moral concep tion of the future life and to the certainty of their share therein. These beliefs were reached, not through deductions of reason, as in Greece, but through spiritual crises deep as the human personality and wide as human life.

52. Comparative eschatology.[edit]

[At this point a caution must be offered to the student. The study of the religious content of eschatological ideas is to some extent distinct from that of its form, nor can either religious or literary criticism (to the latter of which special attention is given here) enable us to dispense with the help of the comparative historical study of the religious ideas of those peoples which came most into contact with the Jewish. Some excellent introductions to Biblical Theology are based, consciously or unconsciously, on the principle that the movement of religious thought in Israel was completely independent of external stimulus. There can be no greater mistake. Students of Jewish religion can no longer avoid acquainting themselves with Babylonio- Assyrian, Egyptian, Zoroastrian, and Greek religion, and using any further collateral information that they can get. 1 The abundance of fresh literary material for the study of eschatology as it took form in Jewish minds is our excuse for not, in this article, bringing Jewish eschatology into relation to other eschatologies, more especially Babylonian and Persian. The article would have become disproportionately long if we had adopted the course which is theoretically the only right one. It must also be remembered that the spiritual crises referred to above were conditioned by crises in the history of the nation. We are far from denying that the spirit as well as the wind, breatheth where it listeth. Even the spirit of revelation, however, cannot work on unprepared minds. Jewish eschatology there fore can be fully sketched only on a canvas larger than is here at our disposal, and this article must be supple mented by reference to a group of other articles, includ ing especially ANTICHRIST and PERSIA (the part dealing with religion). On the narrative in Gen. 24*5-3 which influenced directly or indirectly so many later writers, reference should be made, for the mythic form of the ideas, to CREATION, 20 (c). ED.]

53. Outline of Method.[edit]

In the writings (Apocryphal, Apocalyptic, etc.) that we are now to consider, the eschatological ideas of the later prophets are reproduced and further developed - We sha11 find it convenient to deal with this literature in three chronological periods ; I. 200-100 ( 51-63), II. 100-1 B.C. ( 64-70), III. i-ioo A.D. ( 71-81). In treating each of these periods, after (a) a general account of its thought and (/>) an account of the various works it pro duced, we shall show in detail (c) the development of certain special conceptions viz. (i) Soul and spirit, (2) Judgment, (3) Places of abode for the departed, (4) Resurrection, (5) Messianic kingdom, Messiah, Gentiles.

54. Ecclus. and Tobit.[edit]

Unlike the rest of the apocalyptic and apocryphal books, Ecclus. and Tobit, instead of reproducing and developing the ideas we have just summarised, represent the older and more conservative views. As lying off the main path of religious development and witnessing to still surviving primitive elements in Judaism, we shall consider them together at the outset.

1 See Charles, Doctrine of a Future Life, pp. 24-25 n., 33 n., 34 n., 57 n., on the relation of the religion of Babylonia to that of ancient Israel ; pp. 116 n., 134-136, on the relation of Zoroas- trianism to Judaism ; pp. 24 n. , 26-27 n -> 34 n. , 40 n., 57 n. , on the analogies between the primitive religion of Israel and that of Greece; and pp. 79 n., 137-151, on the development of the doctrine of immortality in Greece as contrasted with that in Palestine.

55. Ecclus.[edit]

In Ecclus. the problem of retribution takes a peculiar form. On the one hand it is purely conservative. All retribution without exception is confined to this life : there is no inquisition of life in Sheol (414). On the other hand it supplements Ezekiel s theory of exact individual retribution with the older view which he attacked, and seeks to cover its obvious defects with the doctrine of the solidarity of the family.

A man s conduct must receive its recompense in this life (see especially 2ioyC and cp 23-9 9i2 Ylzf. also 1126). Obvi ously, however, all men do not meet with their deserts. Hence a man s sins are visited through the evil remembrance of his name and in the misfortunes of his children after him (1128 2824-26 40 1 5 415-8). Similarly the posterity of the righteous is blessed (447-15). Sheol is the abode of the shades and the region of death 1 (9 12 14 12 16 41 4 48 5), where is no delight (14 16), no praise of God (1717-28): man is plunged in an eternal sleep (4619 22n 30i7 8823).- As regards the future of the nation, the writer looks forward to the Messianic kingdom of which Elijah is to be the forerunner (48 10), when Israel shall be delivered from evil (5023_/T), the scattered tribes restored (8813 = AV 3lin), the heathen nations duly punished (32 22-24 = AV 35isy;). This kingdom of Israel will last for ever (3725 [so Gk. and Eth. but wanting in Syr.]) 44 13 [so Gk. and Eth. ; Heb. and Syr. read memorial instead of seed ]).

56. Tobit.[edit]

The eschatology of Tobit is very slight. Like the earlier books, it entertains high hopes for the Jewish people. Jerusalem and the temple shall be rebuilt with gold and precious stones, the scattered tribes shall be restored, and the heathen, forsaking their idols, shall worship the God of Israel (13io-i8 144-6). Sh.651 is taken in the traditional sense 'eternal place', 1 6 aiuvios rtiiros, 36. As in Job and in Ecclesiastes, Hades (cp 3io 182) is a place where existence is practically at an end.

Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, prays : Command my spirit to be taken from me, that I may . . . become earth . . . and go to the everlasting place (36). This description is accounted for by the writer s acceptance of the later doctrine of the spirit ( 17)-

57. Hassideans.[edit]

We now pass to the writings of the Hasids or Assideans, a small but important body of zealous Jews, first referred to as a religious organisation in Eth. En. 906 (see note in Charles s ed. ). Its rise may be placed at about 200 B.C. 3 The Hasids first appear as the champions of the law against the Hellenizing Sadducees ; but they were still more the representatives of advanced forms of doctrine about the Messianic kingdom and the resurrection. The arrangement we shall adopt has been explained already ( 53).

1 In 21 10 thoughts of the penal character of SheOl do not seem to be quite absent.

2 The reference to Gehenna in 7 17 (e/cSiKTj(ris acre/Sous irvp Kal o-KioAjjf) is probably corrupt (om. Syr. Eth. [best MSS]). The Hebrew has nDI t?13N JYIpn 3-

3 On the earlier association of pious Jews called Q"jj; (the humbled or humiliated), QIJJ; (the humble), QTDn (the pious, covenant-keepers) cp PSALMS ; and on the AcriScuoi of Mace, cp ASSIDEANS ; ISRAEL, 73.

4 This, the oldest, portion of the Sibylline oracles dates from the latter half of the second century B.C. Since, however, it belongs to Hellenistic Judaism, its evidence is not of primary interest in the story of Palestinian eschatology, and may ad vantageously be relegated to a note. Broadly speaking, we may say that it combines^ though not always consistently, various earlier descriptions of the future. It shows no trace of original thought. Its eschatological forecasts are confined to this world. Though so limited, it gives a vivid account of the Messianic kingdom. Very soon the people of the Mighty God will grow strong (3 194-198), and God will send from the east the Messiah, who will put an end to evil war, slaying some and fulfilling the

Cromises in behalf of others, and he will be guided in all things y God. The temple shall be resplendent with glory, and the earth teem with fruitfulness (8652-660) [cp Che. OPs. 23]. Then the nations shall muster their forces and attack Palestine (8660-668); but God will destroy them, and their judgment shall be accompanied by fearful portents (8669-697). Israel, how ever, shall dwell safely under the divine protection (3 702-709) ; and the rest of the cities and the islands shall be converted, and unite with Israel in praising God (8710-731). The blessings of the Messianic age are recounted (8744-754; cp also 8367-380, 691-723). The kings of the earth shall be at peace with one another (3 755-759)-

In the later section of this book the forecast is somewhat different. Though in the earlier part, as we have seen above, it was the Messiah that conducted the war against the hostile nations, in this it is the prophets of God. Thus God will establish a universal kingdom over all mankind, with Jerusalem as centre (3 767-771), and the prophets of God shall lay down the sword and become judges and kings of the earth (3-?&if.), and men shall bring offerings to the temple from all parts of the earth (3 jyz/.).


58. Second Cent. B.C.[edit]


  • Ethiopic Enoch 1-36 (APOCALYPTIC, 27).
  • Daniel ( 59).
  • Ethiopic Enoch 83-90 ( 60).
  • Sibylline Oracles - Prooemmium and 3:97-8:18. 4
  • Test. xii. Patriarchs - Some of its apocalyptic sections( 61).
  • Judith (?) ( 62).

(a) General eschatological development. It was under the pressure of one of the most merciless persecutions recorded in history that much of the eschatological thought of this century was built up. In order to encourage the faithful, various religious thinkers consolidated and devel oped into more or less consistent theodicies the scattered statements and intimations of an eschatological nature in the OT. In these theodicies there is no vagueness or doubt as to the ultimate destinies of the righteous and the wicked. Faith rests in the reasonable axiom that the essential distinctions between these classes must one day be realised outwardly. The certainty of judgment on the advent of the Messianic kingdom, accordingly, is preached in the most emphatic tones, and the doctrine is taught that at death men enter immediately in Sheol on a state of bliss or woe which is but the prelude of their final destiny. The righteous, both living and dead, shall be recompensed to the full in the eternal Messianic kingdom established on earth with its centre at Jerusalem. Within the sphere of Judaism it is in this second century B.C. that the eschatologies of the individual and of the nation attain their most complete synthesis (cp below, 82). The firm lines in which these eschatological hopes are delineated mark the great advance achieved in this period by religious thought.

59. Eth. En. 1-36; Daniel.[edit]

(b) The theodicies of the several writers. Eth. En. 1-36 has been described in detail elsewhere (see APOCALYPTIC 2 ?)- with regard to Daniel, as the right point of view for studying it has been given elsewhere (DANIEL ii. ), and we have already noticed its main eschatological conceptions (above, 47), we need only observe that in it, as in Eth. En. 1-36, the Messianic kingdom is eternal, its scene is the earth, and all the Gentiles are subject (7i4). There is no Messiah. Those Jews who are found written in the book J [of life] shall be delivered during the period of the Messianic woes. At the resurrection only those Jews who are pre-eminently righteous and wicked shall rise from the land of dust " 2 (i.e., Sh661) to receive their deserts: the righteous to inherit aeonian life, the wicked to be cast into Gehenna 3 (12 2). For the pre-eminently righteous in Israel, there fore, Sh25l has become an intermediate abode, though for the Gentiles it continues to be final. The risen body seems to possess its natural appetites (as in Eth. En. 1-36). The Messianic kingdom of which the righteous are members is one that bears sway over peoples.

The writer of Daniel makes a very special use of the belief in angelic patrons of nations, of which another application will be found in the almost contemporaneous work to which we turn next viz., Eth. En. 83-90.

1 On this eschatological term see Charles, Enoch 131-133. In the earlier passages in which it occurs it stands in connection with temporal blessings only.

2 We assume that the reading 1BJ7 riD"IN is correct. For this description of Sheol cp Job 17 16, Ps. 22 15, with Cheyne s note referring to a similar Assyrian phrase. If this interpretation is correct, Sheol, though it has become a temporary abode for the righteous, still retains its traditional character.

3 Cp Che. OPs. 406.

60. Eth. En. 83-90.[edit]

The author of Ethiopic Enoch 83-90, which was written a few years later than Eth. En. 1-36 (on which see APOCALYPTIC, 27), was a Hasid and a supporter of the Maccabean (B C 166 161) movement - His eschatology is developed at greater length than that of the Daniel apocalypse, to which in many respects it is so closely allied. The belief in angelic patrons of nations is common, as we have seen, to both writings ; but our author applies it in a peculiar way.

The undue severities that have befallen Israel are not from Clod s hand ; they are the doing of the seventy shepherds (.i.e., angels) into whose care God had committed Israel (8959) for the destruction of its faithless members. These angels have not wronged Israel with impunity, however; for judgment is at hand. When their oppression is at its worst there shall be formed a righteous league (i.e., the Hasldim ; 906), out of one of the families of which shall come forth Judas the Maccabee(!X)7-i6), who shall war victoriously against all the enemies of Israel.

While the struggle is still raging, God will intervene in person.

The earth shall swallow the adversaries of the righteous (90 18). The wicked shepherds and the fallen watchers shall then be cast into an abyss of fire (i.e., Tartarus; 9020-25), ant the blinded sheep i.e., theapostate(Jews) into Gehenna (90 2<>). Whether the apostate Jews already dead are to be transferred from Sheol does not appear.

Then God himself will set up the new Jerusalem (9028/. ). The surviving Gentiles shall be converted and serve Israel (90 30), the dispersion be brought back, and the righteous Israelites be raised to take part in the kingdom (9033). When all is accomplished, the Messiah, whose role is a passive one, shall appear (9037), and all shall be transformed into his likeness.

61. Test. xii. Patr.[edit]

Until a critical edition of the XII. Patriarchs is published, that composite work cannot be quoted as an authority. It belongs to very different periods. It contains apocalyptic sections that appear to belong to the second century B.C. ; but the body of the work seems to have been written about the beginning of the Christian era. There are, moreover, numerous (Christian) interpolations. Many of the apocalyptic sections appear to have constituted originally a defence of the warlike Maccabean high priests of the latter half of the second century B.C., whilst others 1 seem to attack the later chiefs of that family, in the last century B.C.

It is hardly possible to interpret otherwise such a statement regarding Levi as that in Reub. 6 ad fin. . He shall die for us in wars visible and invisible ; cp Sim. 5.

Whilst one or more of these sections may be of an earlier date, many of them may belong to the last century B.C. Since, however, their eschatological thought in some respects belongs to the second century B. C. , we shall for the sake of convenience deal with it here, though in no case shall we build upon it as a foundation. 2

Levi has been chosen by God to rule all the Gentiles with supreme sovereignty (Reub. 6). The Messiah of the tribe of Levi, who will appear at the close of th^ seventh jubilee, will possess an eternal priesthood 3 (Levi 18 ; apoc. sections of Levi = J-5 8 10 14-18). This will endure till God comes and restores Jerusalem and dwells in Israel (Levi 5). This Messiah will judge as a king ; he will bind Beliar, open the gates of Paradise and give his saints to eat of the tree of life (Levi 18 cp Eth. En. 264-6). To the Messianic kingdom on earth, all the righteous patriarchs shall rise (Sim. 64 Zeb. 10 Jud. 25). Then the spirits of deceit shall be trodden under foot (Sim. Zeb. 9) and Beliar destroyed (Levi 18 Jud. 25). There shall be only one people and one tongue (Jud. 25). The surviving Gentiles are in all cases to be converted, save in Sim. 6 where they are doomed to anni hilation. According to Benj. 10 there is to be a resurrection, first <if the OT heroes and patriarchs, and next of the righteous and of the wicked. Thereupon is to follow judgment, first of Israel and then of the Gentiles. It is doubtful whether we are to regard this resurrection as embracing Israel only or all man kind.

The designation of Michael in Dan. 6 (cp Lev. 5 Judith 25) as a mediator between God and man is noteworthy.

1 Cp Levi 14 16 (beg.). These passages resemble the Psalms of Solomon that assail the Sadducean priesthood.

- In the references here made we shall use the better readings of the A rmenian Version.

3 Sometimes a Messiah of the tribe of Judah is spoken of. There is nothing against the Jewish origin of such passages ; but others which combine the two ideas are Christian.

62. Judith.[edit]

It may be permitted in conclusion to refer to the book of Judith. The words in which the Gentile enemies of Israel are threatened (1617) obviously refer to Gehenna, and remind us of the very late appendix to Is. 66 (v. 23 /.), which however refers to unfaithful Jews. The view of Gehenna as the final abode of the Gentiles is not again attested till the first century of the Christian era (in Ass. Mos. 10 10 4 Ezra 7 36). In so far, the date (circa 63 B.C.) given elsewhere for this book (see JUDITH, 5) seems preferable to the earlier one advocated by Schurer.

63. Special conceptions.[edit]

(c) Development of special conceptions in second century B. c. I. Soul and Spirit. The later view of the 'spirit' ( see 20 ) as the divine breath of life probably underlies Ecclus. 38:23 Bar 2:17( the dead also who are in Hades, whose spirit is taken from their bodies ); see also Tob. 36 l Judith 10 13. Elsewhere in the second century we can trace only the older Semitic view (above, 19), according to which soul and spirit are practically identical. The apocalyptic use, however, diverges from the more primitive ; what is predicated of soul can be predicated also of spirit. In Daniel indeed we always find, not soul but spirit, even where soul could have been used with perfect propriety. 2

In Enoch 1-36 the inhabitants of Sh661 are spoken of as souls in 22s (cp 9s), but generally as spirits (22 5-7 9 11-13). We even find the strange expression spirits of the souls of the dead 3 (9io). Here also, therefore, soul and spirit are practically identical. Fallen angels and demons are always spoken of as spirits (the former in 136 154 6/., the latter in 169 ii 16i). Indeed soul is never in Jewish litera ture used of angels, fallen or otherwise (cp above, 20).

2. Judgment. The judgment, which is preliminary and final, involves all men living and dead, the faithless angelic rulers, and the impure angels. It will be on the advent of the Messianic kingdom. These points mark the development of the second century B. c. upon the past. There is the further development that the judgment is sometimes (?) conceived as setting in, immediately after death, in an intermediate abode of the soul. In Eth. En. 1-36 there is a preliminary judgment on the angels who married the daughters of men, and likewise on all men who were alive at the deluge (10 1-12). The final judg ment before the advent of the Messiah s kingdom will involve the impure angels (10 12/), the demons who have hitherto gone unpunished (16 i), and all Israel with the exception of a certain class of sinners. In Daniel there is a preliminary judgment of the sword executed by the saints (244 722), as well as the final world-judg ment (7g a /. ), which will introduce the Messianic kingr dom by God himself. There is no mention of judgment of angels ; but judgment of the angelic patrons of Persia and Greece may be assumed. In Eth. En. 83-90 there is the first world-judgment of the deluge (89), the judg ment of the sword executed under Judas the Maccabee (90 19 16), and the final judgment on the impure angels and on the faithless angelic patrons (9020-25). The last serves to introduce the Messianic kingdom on the present earth.

3. Places of abode for the departed. i. Sh&ol. Sheol undergoes complete transformation in the second century B.C. and becomes an intermediate place of moral retribution for the righteous and the wicked. (The traditional sense probably survives in Dan. 122, but not in Eth. En. 22. ) All the dead who die before the final judgment have to go to Shgol. It has four divisions ; two for the righteous and two for the wicked. From three of them there is a resurrection to final judg ment ; but from the fourth, where are the wicked who met with violent death, there is no rising. Sheol has in this last case become hell.

1 How thoroughly life was identified with the presence of the spirit appears from this verse ; Command my spirit to be taken from me, that I may be released, and become earth.

3 In Dan. 7 15 it has generally been thought that the spirit is spoken of as enclosed in the sheath (njnj) of the body ; but we should no doubt, with Buhl and Marti, read rip [ 33 because of this. (587 which gives (v TOVTOIS, and Vg., imply rt]"l 133.

3 In these references the Gizeh Greek text has been followed. In the Ethiopia text the term soul is used instead of spirit in 223 9 n^, but corruptly.

ii. Paradise. In the second century only two men, Enoch and Elijah, were conceived as having been admitted to Paradise on leaving this world (Eth. En. 87s/ 8952). 1 The cause is manifest. See ENOCH, i.

iii. Gehenna. Gehenna is definitely conceived in Dan. 122 Eth. En. 27 1/. and 9026 /. (?) as the final, not the immediate, abode of apostates in the next world.

iv. The abyss of fire. 2 This is the final place of punishment for the faithless angelic rulers and for the impure angels (Eth. En. 18n-19 21 90 21-25). In Eth. En. 18n-i6 21 1-6 the fiery abyss for the impure angels is distinguished from another fiery abyss mentioned in 2l7-io. This latter may be for the faithless angelic rulers.

4. Resurrection. -In Eth. En. 83-90 (see 90 33) there is a resurrection only of the righteous ; in Dan. 122 f., of those who are righteous and wicked in a pre-eminent degree ; and in Eth. En. 22 of the righteous and of such of the wicked as had not met with retribution in life. Thus in Eth. En. 83-90 the older and spiritual form of the doctrine is preserved. In all cases the righteous rise to participate in the Messianic kingdom.

5. Messianic kingdom. In Dan. and Eth. En. 1-36 the scene of the Messianic kingdom is the earth. In Eth. En. 83-90 its centre is to be, not the earthly Jerusalem, but the new Jerusalem brought down from heaven. This is the first trace in the second century B. c. of a sense of the unfitness of the present world for Messianic glory. The kingdom is to be eternal. Its members are to enjoy a life of patriarchal length (Eth. En. 5 9 256), or to live for ever (9033). In Dan. 122/. the point is left doubtful. Besides the Messiah in Sibyll. Or. 3 652-654 there is no mention of the Messiah in the second century B.C. except in Eth. En. 83-90 (see 9037), where, however, his introduction seems due merely to literary reminiscence.

6. Gentiles. According to Eth. En. 10 21, all the Gentiles are to become righteous and worship God. Only the hostile Gentiles are to be destroyed (Dan. 2244 7 n/ Eth. En. 909-i6 18). The rest will be converted (?) and serve Israel (Dan. 7 14 Eth. En. 9030).


64. Last Cent. B.C.[edit]

Authorities for 104-1 B.C.

  • Ethiopia Enoch 91-104 (65).
  • Ethiopia Enoch 37-70 (66).
  • 1. Maccabees (66, end).
  • Psalms of Solomon ( 67).
  • Sibylline Oracles 3 1-62 (68).
  • 2. Maccabees ( 69).

(a) General eschatological development. A great gulf divides the eschatology of the last century B.C. as a whole from that of its predecessor. The hope of an eternal Messianic kingdom on the present earth is all but universally abandoned. 3 The earth as it is, is mani festly regarded as wholly unfit for the manifestation of the kingdom. The dualism which had begun to assert itself in the preceding century is therefore now the preponderating dogma. This new attitude compels writers to advance to new conceptions concerning the kingdom.

(i. ) Some boldly declare (Eth. En. 91-104), or else imply (Pss. Sol. 1-16 2 Mace. [?]), that the Messianic kingdom is only temporary, and that the goal of the risen righteous is not this transitory kingdom but heaven itself. In the thoughts of these writers the belief in a personal immortality has disassociated itself from the doctrine of the Afessianic kingdom, and the synthesis of the two eschatologies achieved in the preceding century (see 58) is anciv resolved into its elements.^ This is a natural consequence, as we have said, of the growing dualism of the times.

i Cp Che. OPs. 414.

" Cp PERSIA (the part dealing with religion).

3 Only in Pss. Sol. 17 f. of this century does the Messianic kingdom seem to be of eternal duration on the present earth (cp 17 4). Since the Messiah himself, however, is only a man, his kingdom is probably of only temporary duration (see below, 67 [i.], and APOCALYPTIC, 85).

4 On the synthesis effected in the NT, see 82; on the exceptional anticipation of this in Eth. En. 27-70, see 66.

(ii. ) Quite another line of thought, however, was possible. The present earth could not, it is true, be regarded as the scene of an eternal Messianic kingdom ; but a renewed and transformed earth could. The scene of the eternal Messianic kingdom would be such a new earth, and a new heaven, and to share in this eternal kingdom the righteous should rise (Eth. En. 37-70). Here the idea of a new heaven and a new earth, which appeared illogically in Is. 65 f. ( 48), is applied with reasonable consistency.

It is further to be observed that writers of the former class (i. ) anticipated a resurrection only of the righteous, a resurrection of the spirit not of the body (Eth. En. 91-104 Pss. Sol. ) ; but writers of the latter class (ii. ) looked forward to a resurrection of all Israel (Eth. En. 37-70) at the close of the temporary, and the beginning of the eternal, Messianic kingdom. In 2 Mace., which diverges in some respects from both classes, a bodily resurrection of the righteous, and possibly of all Israel, is expected.

Again, in contradistinction to the preceding century there is now developed a vigorous, indeed a unique, doctrine of the Messiah, the doctrine of the supernatural Son of Man (Eth. En. 37-70).

Finally, the present sufferings of Israel at the hands of the Gentiles are explained as disciplinary (2 Mace. (5 12-17 cp Jud. 827 Wisd. 1222).

Israel is chastened for its sins lest they should come to a head ; but the Gentiles are allowed to fill up the cup of their iniquity (cp Gen. 15 16 Dan. 8 23 9 26).

65. Eth. En. 91-104.[edit]

(b) Eschatologies of the several writers. We have said that the eschatology of the last century B.C. introduces us into a world of new conceptions (S 70). Whilst in the writings of the preceding century the resurrection and the final judgment were the prelude to an everlasting Messianic king dom, in Ethiopic Enoch 91-104 they are adjourned to the close. The Messianic kingdom is thus, for the first time, conceived as temporary. It is therefore no longer the goal of the hopes of the righteous. Their soul finds its satisfaction only in a blessed immortality in heaven. The author acknowledges that the wicked seem to sin with impunity ; but he believes that this is not so in truth ; their evil deeds are recorded every day (1047), and they will suffer endless retribution in ShSol (99n), a place of darkness and flame (for ShCol is here conceived as hell), from which there is no escape (98310 103 7 /)-

In the eighth week, the Messianic kingdom (but without a Messiah) shall be established, and the righteous shall slay the wicked with the sword (91 12 967961 98 12 9946). To this kingdom the righteous who have departed this life shall not rise. At its close, in the tenth week, snail be held the final judgment ; the former heaven and earth shall be destroyed, and a new heaven created (91 14-16). The righteous dead, who have hitherto been guarded by angels (100 5), in a department of Sheol (? cp 4 Ezra 441), shall be raised, 91 10 923 ( not . however, in the body, but as spirits ; 103 }/.), and the portals of heaven shall be opened to them (1042); they shall joy as the angels (1044), becoming companions of the heavenly host 104e), and shining as the stars for ever (1042).

66. Eth. En. 37-70 and 1 Macc.[edit]

The interest of the author of Eth. En. 37-70 is in the sphere of the moral and spiritual. This is manifest even in his usual name for God, the Lord of Spirits, and in the peculiar turn that he gives t0 the trisagion in 39:12 ( holy, holy is the Lord of spirits : he filleth the earth with spirits. His views are strongly apocalyptic and follow closely in the wake of Daniel. Unlike the writer of chaps. 91-104 ( 65), however, he clings fast to a future kingdom of (righteous) Israel, destined to endure for ever, to which the righteous shall rise. The righteous individual will thus find his con summation in the righteous community.

In addition to the eschatological details given elsewhere (APOCALYPTIC, 30) we should observe the following points: The Son of Man is to judge all angels, unfallen and fallen (61 8 564), and men righteous and sinners (62 2/i), kings and mighty (623-11 681-411). The Messiah is for the first time represented as a supernatural being, Judge of men and angels. The fallen angels are to be cast into a. fiery furnace (546), the kings and the mighty to be tortured in Gehenna by the angel of punish ment (53 3-5 54 i_/), and the remaining sinners and godless to be driven from the face of the earth (38 3 41 2 45 6) ; the Son of Man shall slay them by the word of his mouth (022). Heaven and earth shall be transformed (45 $/.), the righteous shall have their mansions therein (39 6 41 2), and live in the light of eternal life (083). The elect one shall dwell amongst them (444), and they shall eat and lie down and rise up with him for ever (t>2 14). They shall be clad in garments of life (6 2.is/.), and become angels in heaven (51 4) ; and they shall seek after light and find righteousness (58 if.), and grow in knowledge and righteousness (58 5).

i Mace, is quite without eschatological teaching, if we except the writer s expectation of a prophet in 446 144I. 1

In considering the Psalms of Solomon the eschato logical system of the last two psalms (17 /.}, which differs in many important respects from that of Pss. 1-16, may be taken first.

i. The eschatology of Ps. Sol. 17/. is marked by a singular want of originality.

67. Psalms of Solomon. B.C. 70-40.[edit]

There is hardly a statement relative to the hopes of Israel that could not be explained as a literary reminiscence. Where these psalms are at all original their influence is distinctly hurtful ; the proof that the popular aspirations with which they connect the Messiah were injurious to the best interests of the nation was written in fire and blood (see MESSIAH).

The following is the account of the Messiah (who is specifically so called in I7s6 186 8).

He is to be descended from David (17 23), a righteous king (1^35), pure from sin (1741). He will gather the dispersed tribes together and make Jerusalem holy as in the days of old. No Gentile shall be suffered to sojourn there, nor any one that knows wickedness. The ungodly nations he shall destroy with the word of his mouth (1727 cp 173941). The remaining Gentiles shall become subject to him (IT ^if.); he will have mercy on all the nations that come before him in fear (17 38). They shall come from the ends of the world to see his glory, and bring their sons as gifts to Zion (17 34).

The Messianic kingdom is apparently of temporary duration. There is no hint of the rising of the righteous who have died ; only the surviving righteous are to share in it (cp 17 50). We might infer the transitory nature of the Messianic kingdom from the fact that the Messiah is a single person, not a series of kings. The duration of his kingdom is to be regarded as conter minous with that of its ruler.

ii. In Pss. Sol. 1-16 there is hardly a single reference to the future kingdom and none to the Messiah. Since, however, they paint in glowing colours the restoration of the tribes (834 11 3-8), they look for a Messianic kingdom at all events a period of prosperity, when God s help should be enjoyed (7 9). Beyond prophesying vengeance on the hostile nations and on sinners, however, the psalmists do not dwell on this coming time. For them the real recompense of the righteous is not bound up with an earthly kingdom. The righteous rise, not to any kingdom of temporal prosperity, but to eternal life (3i6 13g) ; they inherit life in gladness (146), and live in the righteousness of their God (15 15). There seems to be no resurrection of the body. As for the wicked, their inheritance is Hades (here = hell), and darkness and destruction (146 cp 15 n), whither they go immediately on dying (162). The eschatology of Pss. 1-16 thus agrees in nearly every point with that of Eth. En. 91-104 ( 6s). 2

68. In Sibylline Oracles 81-62.[edit]

In Sibylline Oracles 81-62, written before 31 B.C. (see APOCALYPTIC, 85), God s kingdom is expected and the advent of a holy king who shall sway the sceptre of every land a (849). This Messianic king is to reign for all the ages (850). These words must not be pressed, however ; for, a few lines later, a universal judgment on all men is foretold (853-56 dof.). For a similar limitation cp Apoc. Bar. 40s 73 1.

1 Cp Che. OPs. 40 n.

" Cp APOCALYPTIC, 8 85. The sketch there given is merely to justify dividing Pss. 1-lti from 17./C

  • 7jei 6" ayi/bs afa Traorjs yrjs (TKTJTTTpa KpaTjjcrcov.
69. 2 Macc.[edit]

There is in 2 Macc, only one direct reference to a Messianic kingdom : the youngest of the seven brethren prays that God may speedily be gracious to the nation . (7:37 ) The hope of it is implied, however, in the expectation of the restoration of the tribes (2i8). The righteous rise in the body to share in the kingdom where they will renew the common life with their brethren (729). The kingdom is to be eternal ; for God has established his people for ever (14 15). There is certainly no hint of a Messiah. Thus the eschatology is really that of the second century B. C. (58+).

Since the Messianic kingdom here implied is to be of a material character and therefore presumably on earth for the righteous rise to an eternal life (7 9 36), in a body constituted as the present earthly body (7n 22^ 1446) we may reasonably infer that the eternal kingdom thus expected was to be upon the present earth, as in Eth. En. 83-00 ( 60). Thus the eschatology of this book belongs really to the second century B.C. as the epitomizer claims.

On the other hand the doctrine of retribution, present and future, plays a significant role. Present retribution follows sin, for Israel and for the Gentiles. In the case of Israel its purpose is corrective ; but in that of the Gentiles it is vindictive (6 13 ff. ). To enforce his doctrine the writer reconstructs history, and corrects the im perfect assignment of destiny to the heathen oppressors, Epiphanes (7i7 95-12) and Nicanor (1632-35), and to the Hellenising Jews, Jason (67-10) and Menelaus (138).

Even the martyrs confess their sufferings to be due to sin (7 18 33 37), and pray that their sufferings may stay the wrath of the Almighty (738). Immediate retribution is a token of God s goodness (G 13). Our present concern, however, is mainly with retribution beyond the grave. The righteous and the wicked in Israel enter after death the intermediate state (Hades) (15 23), where they have a foretaste of their final doom (6 26), which takes effect after the resurrection. There is to be a resurrection of the righteous ("911 14 23 29 36), perhaps even of all Jews (1243_/), but not of the Gentiles. These remain in Sheol. Possibly its torments are referred to in 7 17. When the heathen die they enter at once on their eternal doom (7 14).

70. Special conceptions.[edit]

(c) Development of special conceptions in the last century B.C. i. Soul and Spirit. As in the preceding century, so also in this, the doctrine of soul and spirit follows almost without exception, the older Semitic view (above, 19). The exceptions are in 2 Macc. 7:22-23.

In v. 22 the mother of the seven martyred brethren declares : I did not give you spirit and life (TO Tri-eC/ua ai -n\v /^(ar^y). Here, as in Gen. 2 4/>-3 (above, 20), the nvev^a is the life-giving principle of which the o>rj is the product. The same phrase recurs in v. 23 and in 14 46. The withdrawal of this spirit, how ever, does not lead to unconsciousness in Shepl ; the departed are still conscious (6 26). The writer is, thus, inconsistent ;^for the ordinary dichotomy of soul and body is found in 630 7 37 14 38 15 30.

In all the remaining literature of this century there is only a dichotomy either spirit 1 and body, or soul and body. Some writers use one of these pairs, some use both ; in none is the spirit conceived as in Gen. 24^-3.

In the oldest writing of the century the departed in Sheol are spoken of as spirits (Eth. En. 98 10 103 3 4 8) or as souls (102s ii 1087). On the other hand, in the Similitudes and the Pss. Sol. (nearly contemporaneous works), the term spirit is not used of man at all. only soul ; see Eth. En. 453 63 10, Pss. Sol. passim, but particularly 9 7 and 9 9 where the highest spiritual functions are ascribed to the soul. Finally in the Noachic interpolations (see APOCALYPTIC, $24) only the term 'spirit' is used of man (cp 41 8 604 67 8s 71 I), and likewise in the Essenic appendix to this book, where we read of ' the spirits of the wicked (108 3 6) and of the righteous (r>v. 79 n).

2. Judgment. The judgment is final and involves all rational beings, human and angelic. It will be either at the advent of the Messianic kingdom, or (and this is the common view) at its close.

It is only in Eth. En. 37-70 that it is regarded as introducing the Messianic kingdom, and here it differs from the conception which prevailed in the second century, in that it ushers in the Messianic kingdom, not on the present earth, but in a new heaven and a new earth.

1 In Eth. En. 154 the antithesis between the spiritual and the fleshly is strongly emphasized ; but the contrast is not between two parts of man but between the nature of angels and of men.

The main difference, however, between the judgment in the eschatologies of the last century and in those of the second is that all (?) other writers of the last century, except Eth. En. 37-70, conceived it as forming the close of the temporary Mes sianic kingdom (so clearly in Eth. En. 91-104 and Pss. Sol. 1-16, probably also in Ps. Sol. 17 f. and 2 Mace. ; see above, 65 67). There is, however, in Eth. En. 91 12 95 7 96 i 98 12, etc., a preliminary judgment of the sword which (as in Dan. 244) is executed by the saints. In Ps. Sol. 17_/? this Messianic judg. ment is executed forensically by the Messiah.

3. Places of abode of the departed. i. Paradise. Paradise, which in the preceding century had been regarded as the abode of only two men ( 63 [3] ii. ), has come to be regarded as the intermediate abode of all the righteous and elect; Eth. En. 61 12 702 ff. (Noachic Fragment, 608). In the Similitudes the righteous pass from Paradise to the Messianic kingdom.

ii. Heaven. For the first time in apocalyptic litera ture heaven becomes, after the final judgment, the abode of the righteous as spirits (Eth. En. 10424 103 3 /).

iii. Shgol. There is a considerable variety in the views entertained about Sheol ; but most of them have been met with earlier.

(a) It is the intermediate abode of the departed whence all Israel (?) rises to judgment (Eth. En. 51 1). 1

In 2 Mace, this is the only sense (6 23). It is noteworthy that the writer regards a moral change as possible in Sheol (see 12 42-45). According to Eth. En. 100 5 the souls of the righteous are preserved in a special part of Sheol (? cp 4 Ezra 4 41).

(6) Sheol is Hell.

Eth. En. 63 10 56 8 99 n 1037 and always in Pss. Sol. [14 6 15 ii 16 2]. Note how in Pss. Sol. Sheol is associated with fire and darkness ; it has drawn to itself attributes of Gehenna. In the Similitudes Sheol is an intermediate abode for all that die before the advent of the Messianic kingdom (51 i). The wicked that are living on its advent shall be cast into Sheol ; but Sheol then becomes a final abode of fire (63 10).

(c) ShCSl is Gehenna in the interpolated passage, Eth. En. 568.

iv. Gehenna. Two new developments of this idea appear in the last century B. c.

(a) The first is referred to in Eth. En. 48 9 SiiyC 62i2yi According to the prevailing view of the second century B.C., Gehenna was to be the final abode of Jewish apostates whose sufferings were to form an ever present spectacle to the righteous ; but in the Similitudes (37-70) Gehenna is specially designed for kings and the mighty, and it is forthwith to vanish for ever with its victims from the sight of the righteous. This latter idea is due to the fact that in the Similitudes there were to be, after the judgment, new heavens and a new earth.

(b) The second development is attested in Eth. En. 91-104, where Gehenna is a place only of spiritual punishment, whereas hitherto it had been a place of spiritual and also of corporal punishment ; in 98 3 we read of spirits being cast into the furnace of fire (cp also 103 8). In this writer Sheol and Gehenna have become equivalent terms (see 99 n 1087, also 100 9). The same conception is found in the Essene writing Eth. En. 108 6.

v. Burning furnace. In Eth. En. 546 (cp 18n-i6 21 1-6) the final abode of the fallen angels is a burning furnace.

4. Resurrection. The views of the last century B.C. on the resurrection show a great development on those of the preceding century. In Eth. En. 91-104 ( 65) and the Pss. Sol. (67) the resurrection is still only spiritual ; but 2 Mace, puts forward a very definite resurrection of the body (7n 1446), as does also Eth. En. 37-70. Only, the body is a garment of light (62 is/ ), and those who possess it are angelic (51 4). Similarly Eth. En. 91-104 and Pss. Sol. agree in representing the resurrection as involving only the righteous, and Eth. En. 37-70 and 2 Mace. (?) in extending it to all Israel.

1 Eth. En. 51 i is difficult. Both Sheol and hell (i.e., Jiaguel -destruction) are said to give up their inhabitants for judgment. Are we therefore to regard Sheol and hell as mere parallels here, or is Sheol the temporary abode of the righteous and hell that [ t] 16 wicked ? The fact that Paradise is the intermediate abode of the righteous in the Similitudes (see above, i.) would favour the former alternative. Sheol would then in all cases be a place of punishment intermediate or final in the Similitudes. The connotation of Sheol, however, in this section may not be fixed. The second alternative, therefore, seems the true one ; for She5l and hell appear to hold both good and evil souls.

5. (a) Messianic Kingdom. See 64.

(b) Messiah. In the preceding century the Messianic hope was practically non-existent. Under Judas and Simon the need of a Messiah was hardly felt. In the first half of the last century B.C. it was very different. Subject to ruthless oppressions, the righteous were in sore need of help. As their princes were the leaders in this oppression, the pious were forced to look for aid to God. The bold and original thinker to whom we owe the Similitudes conceived the Messiah as the super natural Son of Man, who should enjoy universal dominion and execute judgment on men and angels (cp MESSIAH, SON OF MAN). Other religious thinkers, returning afresh to the study of the earlier literature, revived (as in Pss. Sol.) the expectation of the prophetic Messiah, sprung from the house and lineage of David (17 23). See above ( 67); also APOCALYPTIC, 32. These very divergent concep tions took such a firm hold of the national consciousness that henceforth the Messiah becomes generally, but not universally, the chief figure in the Messianic kingdom.

6. Gentiles. The favourable view of the second century B.C., as to the future of the Gentiles, has all but disappeared. In Eth. En. 37-70 annihilation ap pears to await them. In Ps. Sol. 17 32 they are to be spared to serve Israel in the temporary Messianic king dom. This may have been the view of the other writers of this century who looked forward to a merely temporary Messianic kingdom.


71. First Cent. A.D.[edit]


  • Book of Jubilees (72).
  • Assumption of Moses (73).
  • Philo (74).
  • Slavonic Enoch (75).
  • Book of Wisdom (76).
  • 4 Maccabees (77).
  • Apocalypse of Baruch (78).
  • Book of Baruch 1 (see APOCRYPHA, 6).
  • 4 Esdras (79).
  • Josephus (80).

(a) General eschatological development. The growth of dualism which was so vigorous in the last century B. c. now attains its final development. The Messianic kingdom is not to be everlasting ; in one work it is to last 1000 years (see below, 75) ; in some writings it is even wholly despaired of ( Apoc. Bar. 1824, Salathiel Apoc. [ 79, e], 4 Mace. ). According to another work some of the saints will rise to share in it ( the first resurrection ). The breach between the eschatologies of the individual and of the nation which had begun to appear in the last century B.C. ( 64) has been widened, and the differences of the two eschatologies have been developed to their utmost limits. The nation has no blessed future at all, or, at best, one of only temporary duration. This, however, is a matter with which the individual has no essential concern. His interest centres round his own soul and his own lot in the after-life. The great thought of the divine kingdom has been surrendered in despair.

The transcendent view of the risen righteous which was sometimes entertained in the preceding century ( 65) becomes more generally prevalent. The resur rection involves the spirit alone (Jubilees, Ass. Mos. , Philo, Wisd. , 4 Mace. ) ; or, the righteous are to rise vestured with the glory of God (Slav. En.), or with their former body, which is forthwith to be trans formed and made like that of the angels (Apoc. Bar. , 4 Esdras ; see also the Pharisaic doctrine in Jos. BJ 814).

Several writers reveal a new development in regard to the resurrection of the spirit. Instead of being preceded by a stay in Sheol till after the final judgment, the entrance of the righteous spirit on a blessed immortality is to follow on death immediately. This view, however, is held only by Alexandrian writers (Philo, Wisdom 3 1-4 42710, etc., 4 Mace. ) or by the Essenes (see Jos. 5/28 n, cp ESSENES, 7). The only exception is Jubilees (see chap. 23). The older view survives in the first century A.D. in Ass. Moses lOg, in Slav. En. and (partly) in Eth. En. 108.

Finally, the scope of the resurrection, which in the past was limited to Israel, is extended in some books to all mankind (Apoc. Bar. 31z 4Ezra73237>. For the Gen tiles, however, this is but a sorry boon. They are raised only to be condemned for ever with a condemna tion severer than that which they had endured before. 1

1 The earlier part of this work may be as old as the second century B.C.

72. Jubilees.[edit]

(b) Eschatologies of the several writers. In the Book of Jubilees there is not much eschato- logical thought. Levi is given a special blessing ; from him are to proceed princes and judges and chiefs (31 15). From Judah there seems to be expected a Messiah.

Isaac blesses Judah thus : Be thou a prince thou and one of thy sons over the sons of Jacob ... in thee shall there be the help of Jacob, etc. (31 J8_/C). There is a detailed description of the Messianic woes (23 13 19 22). These will be followed by an invasion of Palestine by the Gentiles (23 23./). Then Israel will begin to study the laws, and repent (2326). As the nation becomes faithful, human life will gradually be lengthened till it approaches one thousand years (23 27 ; cp 23 28). This period is the great day of peace (25 10). Whether the blessings granted to the Gentiles through Israel (18 16 20 10 27 23), how ever, are to be referred to the Messianic age, is doubtful. Finally, when the righteous die, their spirits will enter into a blessed immortality (2831). And their bones shall rest in the earth and their spirits shall have much joy, and they shall know that it is the Lord who executes judgment, etc.

The day of the great judgment (23 n) seems to follow on the close of the Messianic kingdom.

Mastema and the demons subject to him shall be judged (10s). On the restriction of the resurrection to the spirit (2831), see above ( 71, a). The question arises, Where do the spirits of the righteous who die before the final judgment go? It cannot be to Sheol, for Sheol is ordinarily conceived in this book as the place of condemnation into which are cast eaters of blood and idolaters (7292222). It must be either, as in the Simili tudes, to an intermediate abode of the righteous, such as Para dise, or else to heaven. All Palestinian Jewish tradition favours an intermediate abode.

73. Assumption of Moses.[edit]

The Assumption of Moses (7-29 A.D. ) is closely allied to Jubilees in many respects. Whereas Jubilees, however, is a manifesto in favour of the priesthood, the Assumption, proceeding from a Pharisaic quietist, contains a bitter attack on them (7).

The preparation for the advent of the theocratic or Messianic kingdom will be a period of repentance (1 18). 1750 years after the death of Moses (10 12) God will intervene in behalf of Israel (107) and the ten tribes shall return. There is no Messiah ; the eternal God alone . . . will punish the Gentiles (107). In this respect the Assumption differs from Jubilees. The idealisation of Moses leaves no room for a Messiah. During the temporary Messianic kingdom Israel shall destroy its national enemies (10s), and finally be exalted to heaven (10 9), whence it shall see its enemies in Gehenna (10 10).

It is noteworthy that the conception of Gehenna, which was originally the specific place of punishment for apostate Jews, is here extended, so that it becomes the final abode of the wicked generally. Finally, there seems to be no resurrection of the body, only of the spirit.

74. Philo.[edit]

Philo. - We shall only touch on the main points of the eschatology of Philo. He looked forward to the return of the tribes from captivity, to the establishment of a Messi anic kingdom of temporal prosperity, and even to a Messiah.

The loci classic! on this subject are De Execrat. 8f. (ed. Mang. 2435 f.) and De Proem, et Poen. 15-20 (ed. Mang. 2421-428). The former passage foretells the restoration of a converted Israel to the Holy Land. The latter describes the Messianic kingdom. The Messiah is a man of war efeAevcreTai yap avOpwiros, $T\<J\V 6 xprjajios (Nu. 24 17), Ka.Taa Tpa.Tap\iav xat

The inclusion of the Messiah and the Messianic king dom, though really foreign to his system, in Philo s eschatology, is strong evidence as to the prevalence of these expectations even in Hellenistic Judaism. Appar ently Philo did not look forward to a general and final judgment. All enter after death into their final abode. The punishment of the wicked is everlasting (De Cherub, i) ; even the wicked Jews are committed to Tartarus (De Execrat. 6). As matter is incurably evil, there can be no resurrection of the body. Our present life in the body is death, for the body is the sepulchre of the soul (Quod Deus immut. 32) ; our aCip-a. is our <rij/*a (Leg. Alleg. 1 33 ).

1 So Eth. En. 22 19 Apoc. Bar. 30 4/ 36 n 4 Esd. 7 87. 1367

75. Slavonic Enoch. 1-50 AD.[edit]

According to the Slavonic Enoch 1 (1-50 A.D. ), as the earth was created in six days, its history will be accomplished in 6000 years ; and as the six days of creation were followed by one of rest, so the 600 years of the world's history will be followed by a rest of 1000 years the Millennium or Messianic kingdom. Here for the first time the Messianic kingdom is limited to 1000 years (whence the later Christian view of the Millennium ), at the expiration of which time will pass into eternity (322-332), and then will be the final judgment.

That event is variously called the day of judgment (39 i 513), the great day of the Lord (186), the great judgment (52 15 685 667), the day of the great judgment (004), the eternal judgment (7 i), the great judgment for ever C>04), the terrible judgment (48s), the immeasurable judgment (40 12).

Before the final judgment the souls of the departed are in intermediate places.

The rebellious angels awaiting judgment in torment are con fined to the second heaven (7 1-3). The fallen lustful angels are kept in durance under the earth (18 7). Satan, hurled down from heaven, has as his habitation the air (29 t,f.). For the souls of men, which were created before the creation of the world (23 5), future places of abode have been separately prepared (49 2 58 5). The context of 58 5 appears to imply that they are the intermediate place for human souls. In 32 i Adam is sent to this receptacle of souls on his death, and is transferred from it to paradise in the third heaven after the great judgment (42 5). Even the souls of beasts are preserved till the final judgment in order to testify against the ill-usage of men (.08 5 6).

The righteous shall escape the final judgment and enter paradise as their eternal inheritance (8 9 42a 5 6X3 65 10). The wicked are cast into hell in the third heaven where their torment will be for everlasting (10 40 12 41 2 42 if. 613). There is apparently no resurrection of the body the righteous are clothed with the garments of God s glory (22 8; cp Eth. En. 62 16 108 12). Theseventh heaven is the final abode of Enoch (55 2 67 2) ; but this is an exception.

76. Wisdom.[edit]

In the Alexandrian Wisdom of Solomon there is no Messiah ; but there is to be a theocratic kingdom, in which the surviving righteous shall judge the nations (3 7 8), forensically (cp i Cor. 62), not by the sword. Here is a mark of progress. The body does not rise again ; it is a mere burden taken up for a time by the pre-existent soul (cp Slav. En. ). It is the soul that is immortal (81-4 etc.). The wicked shall be destroyed (419), though not annihilated (4 19 5i). The true judgment of the individual sets in at death (41014). For further details see WISDOM OF SOLOMON, 17.

77. 4 Macc.[edit]

4 Maccabees is a philosophical treatise on the supremacy of reason. 2 The writer adopts, as far as possible, the tenets of stoicism. He teaches the eternal existence of all souls, good and bad, but no resurrection of the body. The good shall enjoy eternal blessedness in heaven 3 (98 152 17s); but the wicked shall be tormented in fire for ever (9 9 10 15 12 12).

1 For further details see Morfill and Charles s editio prince fs of this book ; also APOCALYPTIC, ? 33-41-

2 See MACCABEES (FOURTH), 2, 7, and cp Che. OPs. 29. Cp Che. OPs. 414, 443.

4 For a fuller treatment see Charles, Apocalypse of Baruch.

78. Baruch. Apocalypse of Baruch.[edit]

On the composite Book of Baruch see BARUCH ii. , and cp APOCRYPHA, 6, i. Here we only note that in 2:17 Hades still possesses its OT connotation. The Apocalypse of Baruch also (50-80 A.D. ) is a composite work (APOCALYPT1C, 10-11 for a summary of contents see ib. 8), 4 the six or more independent constituents of which may, when treated from the stand point of their eschatology, be ranged in three classes.

i. The Messiah Apocalypses A,, A 2 , A 3 (27-30 1, 36- 40, 53-74). This part differs from the rest of the book in being written before 70 A.D. and in teaching the doctrine of a personal Messiah. In A p however, his rdle is a passive one, whereas in A 2 and A 3 he is a warrior who slays the enemies of Israel with his own hand. In all three apocalypses the Messiah-kingdom is of temporary duration.

In AS the Messiah s principate will stand "for ever" until the world of corruption is at an end (40 3); in Ag his reign is described as the consummation of that which is corruptible and the beginning of that which is incorruptible (74 2). During it there will be no sorrow nor anguish nor untimely death (73 2f.). The animal world will change its nature and minister unto man (736). In A.^ and A;J the kingdom is inaugurated with the judg ment of the sword (39 7-40 2, 72 2-6). The Gentiles that have ruled or oppressed Israel shall be destroyed ; but those that have not done so shall be spared in order to be subject to Israel (72 2-6).

The final judgment and the resurrection follow on the close of these kingdoms.

ii. In Bj (1-9 1 43-44 7 45-466 77-82 86/.) the writer (who is optimistic) looks forward (69) to Jeru salem s being rebuilt (after it has been destroyed by angels) lest the enemy should boast (7i), to the restora tion of the exiles (776 78;), and to a Messianic kingdom (Is 466 77 12); but he does not expect a Messiah. Little consideration is shown for the Gentiles (822-7).

iii. In B 2 (13-25 30 2 -3541/. 448-i 5 47-52 75/ 83), written after 70 A.D. , the writer has relinquished all expectation of national restoration and all hope for the present corruptible world. He is mainly concerned with theological problems and the question of the incorruptible world that is to be.

The world shall be renewed (32 6) ; from being transitory (48 50 85 10) it shall become undying (51 3) and everlasting (48 50) ; from being a world of corruption (21 19815; cp 40 3 74 2) it shall become incorruptible and invisible (51 8 44 12). Full of world -despair, the writer looks for no Messiah or Messianic kingdom, but only for the last day when he will testify against the Gentile oppressors of Israel (13 3).

In the meantime, as men die they enter in some degree on their reward in Sheol, the intermediate abode of the departed (23s 48 16 522; cp 566), in which there are already certain degrees of happiness or torment.

For the wicked Sheol is an abode of pain (30 5 36 1 1), still not to be compared with their torments after the final judgment. The righteous are preserved in certain chambers or treasuries in Sheol (4 Ezra 4 41), where they enjoy rest and peace, guarded by angels (Eth. En. 100 5 ; 4 Ezra 7 15).

At the final judgment the righteous issue forth to receive their everlasting reward (302).

As regards the resurrection B 2 teaches as follows :

In answer to the question, Wilt thpu perchance change these things [i.e., man s material body] which have been in the world, as also the world ? [49 3], he shows in chap. 50 that the dead shall be raised with bodies absolutely unchanged, with a view to their recognition by those who knew them. This completed, the bodies of the righteous shall be transformed, with a view to an unending spiritual existence (51 1 3 7-9). They shall be made like the angels and equal to the stars, and changed from beauty into loveliness, and from light into the splendour of glory (51 10) ; they shall even surpass the angels (51 12).

The Pauline teaching in i Cor. 1535-50 is thus in some respects a developed and more spiritual expression of ideas already current in Judaism.

In B 3 (chap. 85) there is the same despair of a national restoration as in B 2 , and only spiritual blessedness is looked for in the world of incorruption (85 4/).

1 The same idea is probably to be found in 13 52.

79. 4 Esdras.[edit]

In dealing with 4 Esd. we shall adopt provisionally some of the critical results attained by Kabisch (cp ESDRAS [FOURTH]). Of the five independent writings which he discovers in it, two were written before 70 A. D. and three after.

i. The two former he designates respectively an Ezra Apocalypse and a Son of Man Vision.

a. The Ezra Apocalypse consists of 4 52-5 13*1 613-25 726-44 8 63-9 12 and is largely eschatological.

The signs of the last times are recounted at great length (5 1-12 62i/: 9 1-3 6), the destruction of Rome (63), and the advent of the Messiah the Son of God (5 6 726). Certain saints shall accompany the Messiah (728)1 here we seem to nave the idea ot a first resurrection of the saints to the temporary Messianic kingdom, the general resurrection taking place at its close 3 1 ./) and all the faithful who have survived the troubles that preceded the kingdom shall rejoice together with the Messiah 400 years. 1 Then the Messiah and all men shall die (7 29), and in the course of seven days the world shall return to its primeval silence, even as in the course of seven days it was created (7 30). Then the next world shall awake, the corruptible perish (731), all mankind be raised from the dead (7 32) and appear at the last judgment (7 33), and Paradise (the final abode of the righteous) and Gehenna be revealed (7 36). The judgment shall last seven years (7 43).

b. The Son of Man Vision (chap. 13) was composed probably before 70 A. D.

Many signs are to precede the advent of the Messiah (1832), who will appear in the clouds of heaven (13 3 32). The nations, a multitude without number, shall assemble from the four winds of heaven to attack him (13 5 34) ; but the Messiah will destroy them not with spear or weapon of war (18928), but bya flood of fire out of his mouth and a flaming breath out of his lips (181027), ar >d by the law which is like fire (183849). The new Jerusalem shall be set up (1836). The Messiah shall restore the ten tribes (184047) and preserve the residue of God s people that are in Palestine (1848).

ii. The other three constituents of 4 Esd. were com posed between 70 and 100 A.D.

c. The Eagle Vision (10 60-1235). Here is predicted (1233) the destruction of Rome through the agency of the Davidic Messiah (1232 ; so Vv. except Lat.), who will save the remnant of God s people in Palestine, and fill them with joy to the end, the day of judgment (12 34).

d. An Ezra Fragment (14 i-ija 18-27 36-47)- Ezra is to be translated and to live with the Messiah till the twelve times are ended (Hg). Ten and a half haveelapsed already (14 ii). Great woes have befallen ; but the worst are yet to come (14 i6/.). Does 14 9 imply that when the times are ended there will be a Messianic kingdom like that in the Ezra Apocalypse discussed above (a)? This is not improbable if we compare 14 9 with 7 28. The parts of chap. 14 under consideration, therefore, may belong to that apocalypse.

e. The Apocalypse of Salathiel (3 1-31 4 1-51 5 13^-6 10 630- 7 25 7 45-8 62 9 13-10 57 1 2 40-48 1 4 28-35). The world is nearly at an end (4 44-50). As it was created, so it is to be judged, by God alone (5 56 6 6). Very few shall be saved (7 47-61 8 zf.\ Judg ment and all things relating to it were prepared before the creation (7 70). It will come when the number of the righteous is completed (4 36) ; the sins of earth will not retard it (4 39-42). In the meantime, retribution sets in immediately after death (7 69 75 80 86 95 14 35). The souls of the righteous, who are allowed seven days to see what will befall them (7 ioo/ .), are guarded by angels in chambers (775 85 95 121) till the final judgment, when glory and transfiguration await them (795 97). The souls of the wicked in torment roam to and fro in seven ways (viat) which answer to the seven ways of joy for the righteous (7 80-87 93)- After the judgment their torments become still more grievous (7 84), and intercession, permissible now (7 106-111), can no longer be allowed (7 102-105), a l things being then finally determined (7 113-115). This world now ends, and the next (7 713), which will be a new creation (7 75), begins. It is the time of the great reward of the righteous, who shall be bright as stars (7 97) ; yea, even brighter (7 125)~ for they shall shine as the sun, and be immortal (7 97). Paradise shall be their final abode (7 123).

The teaching of this book is closely allied to that of Apoc. Bar. B 2 .

80. Josephus, 37-101 A.D[edit]

Josephus, a Pharisee, gives a fairly trustworthy Pharisaic eschatology in Ant. xviii. 1 3 (cp SCRIBES). The account in BJ iii - 85 is in a high degree misleading. In reality, Josephus believed in an intermediate state for the righteous, and (see Ant. iv. 65) in a future Messianic age. 3

1 This number has originated as follows: According to Gen. 15 13 Israel was to be oppressed 400 years in Egypt. Ps. 90 15 contains the prayer, Give us joy ... for as many years of misfortune as we have lived through (We. SBOT). From a combination of these passages it was inferred that the Messianic kingdom would last 400 years. Compare this view with that of the looo years broached in Slav. En. ; see 75.

2 A treatment of this passage of Josephus, with regard to its eschatological contents will be found also in Cheyne s OPs.

3 It is Josephus the courtier who speaks in BJ vi. 64.

4 In Baruch 1-38, which belongs in eschatological character to the OT, this teaching appears, and the term spirit is used in its later sense in 217, The dead that are in Hades whose spirit is taken from their bodies. Still in 3 i spirit and soul are treated as synonymous according to the popular and older view. This part of Baruch may belong to the second or the last century B.C.

81. Special conceptions.[edit]

(c) Development of special conceptions in first century Ad. 1. Soul and Spirit. - There is hardly a trace of what we have called ( 20) the later doctrine of the soul and the spirit in the Jewish literature of the first century A. D. 4

In Jubilees 23 31 the departed are spoken of as spirits. So likewise in Ass. Mos. (see Origen, In Jos. homil. 2 i). On the other hand Slav. En. speaks only of souls ; see 235685. Again, whereas Apoc. Bar. uses in reference to the departed only the term soul cp 30 3 4 (51 15) the sister work 4 Esd. uses both soul (7 75 93 99^) and spirit (7 78 80).

The author of Wisdom was clearly influenced by Gen. 24<J-3 ; but his psychology is independent, and more nearly agrees with the popular dichotomy (14 8igf. 915). In the next life the soul constitutes the entire personality (3i) ; spirit is clearly a synonym (cp 158 and 1 5 16 ; also 1614). There is, therefore, no trichotomy in 15 ii. The difference between an active soul (tyvxty fvepyovffav) and a vital spirit (irveu/jLa fum/cov) lies not in the substantives but in the epithets. 1 The soul here is not the result of the inbreathing of the divine breath into the body but an independent entity, synony mous with the spirit derived directly from God.

2. Judgment. This century witnesses but little change in the current beliefs on this head. There is to be a preliminary judgment in all cases where a Messianic kingdom is expected (in Jub. , Ass. Mos., Wisdom, and all the different constituents of Apoc. Bar. and 4 Esdras save BS and B 3 of the former and the Apoc. Salathiel of the latter). The final judgment is to be executed on men and angels (Jub. , Slav. En. and Apoc. Bar. ) at the close of the Messianic kingdom, or, where no such kingdom is expected, at the close of the age (Apoc. Bar., B 2 B 3 ), or when the number of the righteous is completed (4 Esdras, Apoc. Sal.). In 2 Mace, and Philo, however, no final judgment is spoken of. Each soul apparently enters at death on its final destiny. In this last respect alone is there a definite divergence from the beliefs of the last century B.C.

3. Places of abode of the departed. There are many ; but they have, for the most part, their roots in the past.

i. Heaven (or Paradise). The final abode of the righteous (Jub. 2831, Ass. Mos. lOg, Apoc. Bar. 51).

ii. Paradise, (a) The final abode of the righteous (Slav. En. %>f. 423 5 etc.; 4 Ezra 7 36 123). (b) The intermediate abode of the righteous (Jub. ?).

iii. SheOl or Hades, (a) The abode of all departed souls till the final judgment (Apoc. Bar. 23s 48 16 52 2 ; 4 Ezra 441; Josephus [see above]). Sheol thus conceived, however, had two divisions a place of pain for the wicked (Apoc. Bar. 30 5 36 1 1), and a place of rest and blessedness for the righteous (cp 4 Ezra 44i).2 This was called the treasuries (cp Apoc. Bar. 30 2 ; 4 Ezra 7 75 85 95). (6) Hell (Jub. 72 9 22 22 ; 4 Ezra 853).

iv. Gehenna. This is now generally conceived as the final place of punishment for all the wicked, not for apostate Jews as heretofore (Ass. Mos. 10 10 ; 4 Ezra 7 36). It seems to be referred to in Wisdom (cp 4 19). In Slav. En. it is in the third heaven (cp!040 1 2 41 2). 3

4. Resurrection. (a) Resurrection of the saints to the Messianic kingdom. This is apparently the teaching of 4 Esdras 728. (6) General resurrection. According to all the authorities of this century as enumerated above (except Apoc. Bar. and 4 Esdras), there is to be a resurrection of the righteous alone. In B 2 of Apoc. Bar. (30a-5 so/) and in the Ezra Apoc. in 4 Esd. (732-37) the resurrection involves all men. A resurrec tion or an immortality only of the soul is found in Jubilees, Ass. Mos. , Philo, Wisdom and 4 Mace.

1 Thus the resemblance to Gen. 2 7 is merely verbal.

2 The statement that "the treasuries" are a department of Sheol is based on the Latin version of 4 Esdras 4 41. The present writer, however, is now inclined to regard this statement as false on various grounds, one reason being the fact that the Syr. and Eth. versions of the passage agree against the Latin.

3 In the fragmentary Christian apocalypse in the Ascension of Isaiah (813-432) Gehenna is regarded as the final abode of Beliar. See 414 and cp ANTICHRIST, 13.

5. (a) Messianic kingdom. See above ( 71).

(b} Messiah. We remarked above (705) that from about 50 B.C. the Messianic hope rooted itself so firmly that henceforth the Messiah became, on the whole, the central figure in the theocratic kingdom. It may startle some to find that only five of the books we. have dealt with express this hope (cp MESSIAH). The ex planation, however, is not far to seek. Against the secularisation of the hope of the Messiah, favoured (see APOCALYPTIC, 85) by the Psalms of Solomon, an emphatic protest was raised by a strong body of Phari sees, Quietists like the ancient Hasids (above, 57), who felt it to be their sole duty to observe the law, leaving it to God to intervene and defend them. This standpoint is represented by Ass. Mos. , and later by the Salathiel Apoc. in 4 Esdras. Among the Jews of the dispersion, too, this view naturally gained large acceptance. Hence we find no hint of the ideas it protested against in the Slav. En., the Book of Wisdom, and 4 Mace. This opposition to the hope of the Messiah from the severely legal wing of Pharisaism at length gave way, however, and in Apoc. Bar. 53-74 (i.e., A 3 ) we have literary evidence of the fusion of early Rabbinism and the popular Messianic expectation. How widespread was the hope of the Messiah in the first century of the Christian era may be seen not only from Jubilees (?), Philo, Josephus and the various independent writings in the Apoc. Bar. and 4 Esdras, but also from the NT and the notice taken of this expectation in Tacitus (Hist. 513) and Suetonius ( Vesp. 4).

Since in all cases only a transitory Messianic kingdom is expected in this century, the Messiah s reign is natur ally conceived as likewise transitory.

The Messiah is to be of the tribe of Judah (Jub. 31 18 /., 4 Esd. 12 32). According to Apoc. Bar. 27-30 i and 4 Esd. 7 28 (i.e., Ezra Apoc., see above 79, a) he is to play a passive part. In the former passage he is to appear at the close of the Messianic woes ; in the latter, at the time of the first resurrection. He is not usually passive, however ; in Apoc. Bar. 36-40 53-70 and 4 Esd. 10 6o-12 35 he is a warrior who slays his enemies with the sword. Other writers, more loftily, substitute for a sword the invisible word of his mouth (4 Esd. 13 10 ; cp Ps. Sol. 17).

6. Gentiles. In most works written before the fall of Jerusalem only the hostile nations are destroyed (see e.g. , Apoc. Bar. 40 1 /. 72 4-6) ; but in later works (see 4 Esd. 13) this fate is suffered by all Gentiles. In no case have they any hope of a future life. They descend for ever either into Sheol or into Gehenna. If, any where, they are represented as having part in the resur rection, it is only that they may be committed to severer and never-ending torment (4 Esd. 7 36-38).


82. NT writers.[edit]

In entering the field of the NT we find at once a distinguishing peculiarity. The ideas inherited from the past are not in a state of constant flux in which each idea in turn appeals for acceptance, and enjoys through the system which it generates a brief career. The ideas are subordinated to the central force of the Christian movement.

In the next place we have to note that the teaching of Christ and of Christianity at last furnished a synthesis of the eschatologies of the race and the individual.

The true Messianic kingdom begun on earth is to be consummated in heaven ; it is not temporary but eternal ; it is not limited to one people but embraces the righteous of all nations and of all times. It forms a divine society 1 in which the position and significance of each member is determined by his endowments and his blessedness conditioned by the blessedness of the whole. Religious individualism becomes an impossibility. The individual can have no part in the kingdom except through a living relation toils head ; but this relation cannot be maintained and developed save through life in and for the brethren, and so closely is the individual life bound to that of the brethren that no soul can reach its consummation apart.

Of the large body of Jewish ideas retained in the system of Christian thought many undergo a partial or complete transformation, and it is important at the out set to place this relation in a clear light. We cannot expect Christianity to be free from inherited conceptions of a mechanical and highly unethical character, 2 when we remember that in the Hebrew religion there were for centuries large survivals of primitive Semitic religion.

Nor can we be surprised to find ideas which belong to different stages of development, not only in the NT as a whole, but also in the mind of the same NT writer. The fundamental teaching of Jesus, assimilated (it may be) more by one writer than by another, could not all at once transform the body of inherited eschatological ideas. The development of Paul will, if our results are correct, supply an instructive commentary on this axiomatic truth.

In what follows we shall deal first ( 83-101) with the books and groups of books in the order that will best bring to light the eschatological development. We shall then ( 102 /.), as before, deal with the development of special conceptions.

1 The joyous nature of the fellowship of this kingdom is set forth in the gospels in the figurative terms of a feast ; but all idea of the satisfaction of sensuous needs in the consummated kingdom of God is excluded by the only account of the risen life of the righteous which comes from the triple tradition.

2 Among those in Christianity which historical criticism com pels us to assign to this class are the generally accepted doctrine of Hades, and the doctrine of eternal damnation.


83. The Synoptic Gospels.[edit]

i. The eschatology of the Synoptic Gospels deals with the consummation of the kingdom of God. This kingdom is represented under two aspects, now as present, now as future ; now as inward and spiritual, now as external and manifest.

Thus in Mt. 633 7 13 11 12 12 28 2131 Lk. 17 21 it is already present, whereas in Mt. 6 10 8n 2629 Mk. 9i Lk. 927 V&z&f. 14 15 it is expressly conceived as still to be realised.

The two views are organically related, and are com bined in a well-known saying of Jesus (Mk. 10 15), which declares that entrance into the kingdom as it shall be is dependent on a man s right attitude to the kingdom as it now is.

We shall deal next with the three great events which are to bring about the consummation of the kingdom : (a) the parusia ( 84/), (6) the final judgment ( 86), and (c) the resurrection ( 87).

84. The parusia at hand.[edit]

a. The parusia l or second advent introduces the consummation of the divine kingdom founded by the Messiah. It is certainly to take place at the close of the age (<rvvT^\ft.a TOU aluvos), Mt. 13 y)f. 49 24s 2820. When we seek a more precise definition of time, however, we find in the Gospels two apparently conflicting accounts.

(i. ) The parusia is within the current generation and preceded by certain signs. This was very natural, because in the OT the foundation and the consummation of the kingdom are closely connected. Hence Jesus declared that this generation (r\ yevea avrij) should not pass away till the prophetic description had been realised (Mt. 2434). The description referred to (see Mt. 24 and Mk. 13 ; Lk. 21 5-35) is no doubt full ; but these chapters appear to be derived in part from Jesus and in part from a Judaistic source. They identify two distinct occurrences, the destruction of Jerusalem and the end of the world. 2

1 The idea of the parusia could not but arise in the mind of Jesus when he saw clearly the approaching violent end of his ministry. As a fact, it is first expressed in connection with Christ s first prophecy of this great event (Mk. 8 38 Mt. 1(3 27 Lk. 826).

2 Among attempts to analyse the chapters that of Wendt {Die Lehrejesu, 10-21) deserves attention. He traces Mt. 24 1-5 23-259-1332^ 36-42 (i.e., Mk. 13 1-621-239-13 28X32-37) to Jesus, and the rest of this chapter to a Jewish Christian apocalypse written before 70 A.D. Cp also ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION. The present writer is of opinion that the solution of the difficulty must be found in some such theory as that of Wendt, which is a modification of that of Colani (Jesus Christ et les Croyances Messianiques de son Temps, p. 201 ff. [ 64]). According to the Jewish apocalypse just referred to, the parusia was to be heralded by unmistakeable signs, but this view is irreconcilable with another which teaches that the parusia will take the world by surprise (Mk. 13 33-36 Mt. 24 42-44 Lk. 12 35-40). This latter doctrine goes back undoubtedly to Jesus ; the former is derived from traditional Judaism.

This is sometimes explained by the well-known theory of prophetic perspective (see PROPHECY) ; but the explanation is unsatisfactory. Illusions of the bodily eye are gradually corrected by experience until at last they cease to mislead ; but it is not so with prophecy as regards either the prophet or those who accept his prophecy : both are deceived. That Jesus did expect to return during the existing generation (Mt. 10 23 162777 Mk. 9 i Lk. 926_/C) is proved beyond question by the universal hopes of the apostolic age. To speak of error in this regard, however, is to misconceive the essence of prophecy. So far as relates to fulfilment, it is always conditioned by the course of human development. OT prophecy and Jesus own inner consciousness as God s Messiah pointed to the immediate con summation of the kingdom ; but there was still possibility that it might be long delayed (Mt. 2448 Lk. 12 45, also Mk. 1835 Lk. 1238 Mt. 265), and he expressly declared that the day and the hour of his return was known only to God (Mk. 1832). This determination God had withheld from him because it was dependent not on the divine will alone but also on the course of human development. He could indicate, however, the signs of his coming, such as the appearance of many false Messiahs (Mt. 24 5 Mk. 13 22), deceived by whom the nation would finally arise in arms against Rome, complete the national guilt, and entail on themselves destruction (see also ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION) (Mt. 2836). These things would be as cer tainly prophetic as the growing greenness of the fig-tree (Mt. 24 32). The return of the Son of Man to judgment would be imminent (24 29-31). It should be noted, however, that docu ments from two very different sources appear to be combined here. See note 2 below.

The same expectation is attested in Mt. 1023, where Jesus declares to his disciples that they will not have gone through the cities of Israel before the coming of the Son of Man, and likewise in Mt. 1627^ Mk. 838 9 1 Lk. 926/. , where it is said that some shall not taste of death before that time. It must be abundantly clear from the evidence that the expectation of the nearness of the end formed a real factor in Jesus views of the future. There are, on the other hand, many passages which just as clearly present us with a different forecast of the future, and this view demands as careful attention.

(ii. ) The parusia will not take place till the process of human development has run its course, and the Gospel has been preached to Jew and Gentile.

85. At the end.[edit]

The kingdom must spread extensively and intensively : extensively, till its final expansion is out of all proportion to its original smallness (cp the parable of the mustard seed) ; intensively, till it transforms and regenerates the life of the nation, or rather of the world (cp the parable of the leaven, Mt. 1831-33). This process has its parallel in the gradual growth of a grain of corn; the ripe fruit is the sign for harvest (Mk. ^26^.). The preaching of the Gospel too must extend to the non-Israelites (Mt. 228yC). To the Jews, who were on their last trial, it would appeal in vain (Lk. 13 T,ff.\ In the coming days the kingdom of God should be taken from them and given to others who would bear appropriate fruits (Mk.l2g Mt. 21 41 43 Lk. 20 16); their city should be destroyed (Mt. 227), the times of the nations should come in (Lk. 21 24 only), and the glad tidings of the kingdom should be carried to all nations before the end should come (Mk. 13 TO and Mt. 24 14! [cp 24 9] Mt. 28 19).

This representation of the future obviously presupposes a long period of development. No less than that of the near parusia, it goes back to Jesus. The con tingency that the more sanguine view, which is derived from OT prophecy, might not be realised, is acknow ledged in Mt. 2448 Lk. 1245, 2 also in Mk. 1835 where the possibility of an indefinitely long night of history preceding the final advent is clearly contemplated. It is hardly possible to avoid the conclusion that discourses relating to different events and from absolutely different sources are confused together in Mk. 13 = Mt. 24 = Lk. 21 (see 84, n. ).

b. The parusia was to be likewise the day of judgment (Mt. lOis 11 22 24 1236), -also called that day (Mt. 7 22 24 36 Lk. 623 10 12 2134)-

1 It is possible, as Weiss (Marcus-ev., 417) thinks, that the original form of this statement is to be found in Mt. 10 18 and that its present form is due to Mk.

2 Beyschlag (NT Theology, ET 1 197 ./) points out that the words of that day or that hour knoweth no man, etc. (Mk. 13 32 Mt. 24 36) cannot be reconciled with the words that precede them, This generation shall not pass away, till all these things be accomplished. Accordingly he refers the latter to the destruction of Jerusalem (cp Mt. 2836) and the former to the final judgment of the world. An interesting discussion of these chapters is given by Briggs (Messiah of t lie Gospels, 132-165). Weiffenbach (Wiederkunftsgedanke fesu, 1873), like Colani, Pfleiderer, and Keim, seeks to show that in Mk. 13 ( = Mt. 24 = Lk. 21) there is a Jewish-Christian apocalypse interwoven with the genuine words of Jesus. This apocalypse consisted of three parts (i) Mk. 13 7 f. giving the beginning of woes, (2) Mk. 13 14-20 giving the tribulation, (3) Mk. 1824-27 giving the parusia. Wendt s modification of this theory has been referred to already. He and other scholars think that this is the oracle referred to by Eusebius (Hist. Eccl.\\\.f>-$). It is impossible to treat seriously the statement of Weiss (NT Theology, 1 148) that there is no contradiction between Mk. 13 32 and 13 30 because the time of the current generation presented a very considerable margin for the determining of the day and hour. This would be tantamount to saying, It will be within the next thirty or forty years ; but I am not acquainted with the exact day or hour."

86. The judgment.[edit]

Christ himself will be judge; 1 for all things have been delivered by the Father into his hand (Mt. 11 27). All nations shall be gathered before him (Mt. 263^. He will reward every man according to his works (Mt. 1841-43 40^ 1627 22 11-14).

Amongst the judged appear his own servants (Lk. 19 22 f. Mt. 2614-30), the Israelites (Mt. 1928), the nations (Mt. 25 32), not only the contemporaries of Jesus, but also all the nations of the past, Nineveh, the Queen of Sheba (Mt. \1\if. Lk. 11 y.f.\ Sodom and Gomorrah (Mt. 11 20 24). The demons probably are judged at the same time (Mt. 8 29).

87. The resurrection.[edit]

c. The kingdom is consummated, comes with power (Mk. 9i), on the advent of Christ. The elect are gathered in from the four winds (Mt. 2431), and now, after being, we must assume, spiritually transformed, enter on their eternal inheritance (Mt. 2534), equivalent to eternal life (Mk. 10 17). The kingdom, therefore, is of a heavenly, not of an earthly character : the present heaven and earth shall pass away on its coming (Mt. 5i8 243s). The righteous rise to share in it ; but only the righteous : the resurrection is only to life. Those who share in it are as angels in heaven (Mt. 22 30 Mk. 1225), are equal to the angels and sons of God, being sons of the resurrection (Lk. 2036). Only those, therefore, attain to the resurrection who are accounted worthy to attain to that world, and the resurrection from the dead (Lk. 2035). Elsewhere the third evangelist speaks of the resurrection of the just (14 14). The entire context of Mt. 222 3 - 33 ( = Mk. 1218-27 Lk. 20 27-40) points clearly to the conclusion that the resurrection is conceived as springing from life in God. In such communion man is brought to the perfection to which he was destined. The righteous thus in an especial sense become sons of God, inasmuch as they are sons of the resurrection (Lk. 20 36).

In the resurrection, therefore, the wicked have no part. It has been said by some scholars that there must be a resurrection of all men in the body because all must appear at the final judgment ; but the final judgment and the resurrection have no necessary con nection.

In Jubilees there is a final judgment but no resurrection of the body, and in Eth. En. 91-104 there is a final judgment, but a resurrection only of the spirits of the righteous (91 10 92 3 103 3-4). The fact that demons and other disembodied spirits (Mt. S 29) are conceived as falling under the last judgment is further evi dence in the same direction.

As the righteous are raised to the perfected kingdom of God, the wicked, on the other hand, are cast down into Gehenna (Mt. 629 / 10 2 8 Mk. 9 4 3 45 47/)- The fire spoken of in this connection (Mt. 622) is not to be con ceived sensuously ; it is a vivid symbol of the terrible wrath of God. The place or state of punishment is also described as the outer darkness (Mt. 812), the place of those who are excluded from the light of the kingdom. The torment appears to be a torment of the soul or disembodied spirit. See above, 70 (3 iv. ).

Though in conformity with Jewish tradition the punishment is generally conceived in the Gospels as everlasting, there are not wanting passages which appear to fix a finite and limited punishment for certain offenders, and hence recognise the possibility of moral change in the intermediate state.

Thus some are to be beaten with few, others with many stripes (Lk. 1246-48). It is not possible to conceive eternal torment under the figure of a few stripes. Again, with regard only to one sin is it said that neither in this world (atoii/) nor in that which is to come can it be forgiven (Mt. 12 32). Such a statement would be not only meaningless, but also in the highest degree mislead ing, if forgiveness in the next life were regarded as a thing impossible. It may not be amiss to find signs of a belief in the possibility of moral improvement after death in the rich man in Hades who appeals to Abraham on behalf of his five brethren still on earth (Lk. 16 27-31).

1 In the parables sometimes God himself is judge (Mt. 1832 208 22 ii Lk. 187), sometimes the Messiah (Mt. 1830 2450 25 12 19).

88. The Apocalypse.[edit]

2. In considering the Apocalypse, the whole of which (see APOCALYPSE) is eschatological, our attention must be confined to a few of its characteristic doctrines, the obvious meaning of which is independent of the various conflicting methods of interpretation that have been applied to the book. The book is remarkable for the large survivals of traditional Judaism which it attests. Its main object appears to be to encourage the persecuted church to face martyrdom. With this purpose its editor draws freely on current Jewish eschatology, some elements of which we shall notice in the sequel. We shall deal with its teaching under four heads.

(a) Parusia and Messianic judgment. Every visit ation of the churches, every divine judgment in regard to them is regarded as a spiritual advent of the Messiah (2s 16 83 20) ; but this invisible coming ends in a final advent, visible to all. Its date is not revealed ; but it is close at hand (3n 22 12 20).

At Messiah s coming all families of men shall wail (1 7). In chap. 14 his coming is in the clouds of heaven, and the judg ment appears under various symbolical figures. Thus he reaps the great harvest with a sharp sickle (14 14-16) ; he treads the winepressof the wrath of God (14 17-20 ; cpl9is). Thejudgment of the great day the great day of God Hi 14) is presented under the image of illimitable slaughter, before the beginning of which the birds of prey are summoned to feast on the bodies and blood of men (19 17-19 21 cp 14 20). At ARMAGEDDON (f.v.) ANTICHRIST! \q.v. ] and his allies are annihilated (16 16), the beast and the false prophet are cast into the lake of fire (19 20), and all their followers slain with the sword (19 21).

(b) First Resurrection, Millennium, uprising and de struction of Gog and A/agog (cp GOG).

With the overthrow of the earthly powers, Satan the old dragon, the old serpent is stripped of all his might, and cast in chains into the abyss where he is imprisoned for a thousand years 2 (20 1-3). Thereupon ensues the Millennium, 3 when the martyrs 4 (and the martyrs only) are raised in the first resurrec tion and become priests of God (cp Is. 61 6) and Christ, and reign with Christ personally on earth for a thousand years (20 4 -6) with Jerusalem as the centre of the kingdom. At the close of this period Satan is loosed, and the nations Gog and Magog the idea is, with certain changes, derived from Ezek. 38 2 39 16 (see GOG) are set up to make a last assault on the kjngdom of Christ. In this attack they are destroyed by God himself, who sends down fire from heaven (209). The devil is then (as in the fully developed Zoroastrian belief) finally cast into the lake of fire (20 10).

(c) General resurrection and judgment. These follow the Millennium, the destruction of the heathen powers, and the final overthrow of Satan.

Contemporaneously the present heaven and earth pass away (20 ii ; cp 21 i). God is judge ; but in some respects the Messiah also (22 12 ; cp also 6 i6f.). All are judged according to their works, which stand revealed in the heavenly books (20 12). The wicked are cast into the lake of fire (21 8 ; see also 19 20 20 10). So likewise are Death and Hades 5 (20 14). This is the second death (20 14 21 8). (See also 2 n 20 6.)

1 Observe that, whereas in the Johannine epistles Antichrist denotes the false teachers and prophets, in the Apocalypse it designates Rome. In 2 Thess., on the other hand, Rome is a beneficent power which hinders the manifestation of Antichrist.

2 On the origin of the conquest of the dragon (ANTICHRIST, 14, PERSIA [Religion]), and on the older Jewish view (of myth ical origin) that this and other sea monsters were overcome in primeval times by God (cp Prayer of Manasses, 2-4), see DRAGON, SERPENT, BEHEMOTH, with references there given.

3 The idea of a temporary Messianic kingdom first emerged at the beginning of the last century B.C. (see above, 6*/.). Its limitation to a thousand years is first found in Slav. En. 33 (see above, 75).

4 This idea also is mainly Jewish. In Is. 26 19 the reference may perhaps be to the bodies of Jews who had died for their religion in the troublous times of Artaxerxes (so Che. Intr. Is. 158; Isaiah, SBOT, ad foe.). In 4 Ezra 7 28 the saints who accompany the Messiah on his advent probably include the martyrs. In Rev. 204 it is said with reference to these saints, (1 saw) the souls of them that had been beheaded.

8 Hades seems to be the intermediate abode of the wicked only ; for it is always combined with death (see 1 18 68 20 I3/). The souls of the martyrs have as their immediate abode the place beneath the altar (69-11). The rest of the righteous were probably conceived as in Paradise or in the Treasuries of the righteous (see 4 Ezra).

6 The second death is the death of the soul, as the first is the death of the body. It is the endless torment, not the annihila tion, of the wicked that is here meant. The expression is a familiar Rabbinic one; see Tg. Jer. on Dt.336. The occupa tion of the martyred souls in the intermediate state reminds one of the departed spirits in Eth. En. 91-104 : their whole prayer is for the destruction of their persecutors.

(d) Final consummation of the righteous. The scene of this consummation is the new world the new heaven and the new earth (21 i 5), the heavenly Jerusalem (21IO-2!). 1

The ideal kingdom of God becomes actual. The city needs no temple ; God and Christ (the Lamb) dwell in it (21 22). The citizens dwell in perfect fellowship with God (22 4), and are as kings unto God (22 5). The Messiah does not resign his mediatorial functions as in the Pauline eschatology. See 7 17 21 22/).

89. 2 Peter.[edit]

3. 2 Peter and Jude. - 2 Peter is closely related to Jude - in fact presupposes it.

Like Jude, 2 Peter recounts various temporal judgments which the author treats as warnings to the godless of his own day. Thus he adduces the condemnation of the fallen angels to TARTARUS [?.? .] (where they were to be reserved till the judgment) (24), the Deluge (258 6), the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (2 6). These, however, were but preliminary acts of judgment. The final day of judgment (2 9 3 7) is impending. Meantime the un righteous are kept under punishment ((coAa^bneVous) i.e., in Hades (2 9). The ultimate doom of the wicked false teachers and their followers will be destruction (aTnoAeia, 87); it is coming speedily upon them (2 3) ; they have brought it on themselves (2 i) ; they shall assuredly be destroyed (212). At the final judgment the world as it is shall perish by fire (3 7 10), as formerly by water (2 5 3 6), and new heavens and a new earth shall arise (3 i2_/I). All this, however, shall not be till Christ s parusia (1 16 84 12). The last days are already come (84), and the parusia is postponed only through the longsuffering of God with a view to the repentance of the faithless (3 9), and their salvation (3 12). By holy living and godliness Christians could prevent any further postponement of the parusia (3 12). With the parusia the eternal kingdom of Christ (1 n) begins in the new heavens and the new earth, wherein the perfect life of righteousness shall be realised (3 13).

90. Jude.[edit]

In Jude, the divine judgments in the history of the past are but types of the final judgment (e.g., Israelites in the Desert, Sodom, Korah, and the angels who were guilty of unnatural crime).

Everlasting bonds under darkness (v. 6), punishment of eternal fire (v. 7), are the terms employed for the preliminary punishments of sinners. The judgment of the great day (y. 6) is described in the well-known quotation from the patriarch Enoch. The extension of it to the angels is found also in 2 Pet. and in i Cor. 6 3 ; but for at least 300 years it had already been an accepted doctrine of Judaism. At this final judgment with which Jude menaces the godless libertines of his own day the faithful will obtain eternal life, through the mercy of Christ (v. 21).

91. James.[edit]

4. James. - James is a production of primitive Jewish Christianity in which Christ s religion is conceived as the fulfilment of the perfect law, prominence being given to the doctrine of recompense.

Hence, whilst the fulfilment of the law under testing afflictions (Treipourniot) led to a recompense of blessing (1 ia 5n), failure for those who are subjects of the perfect law, the law of liberty, entails an aggravated punishment (2 12 ; cp 1 25). None, how ever, can fulfil the law perfectly (3 2), and so claim the crown of life as their reward. Men who need forgiveness now (5 15) must need a merciful judge hereafter. By the law of recompense only the merciful will find God to be such (2 13 ; cp Ps. 18 25). Moreover the judgment is close at hand. It is a

day of slaughter for the godless rich (5 5). The advent of the Messiah who will judge the world is close at hand (5 B/.). He alone can save or destroy (4 12). As faithful endurance receives life (1 12), so the issue of sin is death (1 15). A fire will consume the wicked, 63 (does this mean Gehenna?). Nor is it only to a death of the body that they will be delivered ; it is a death of the soul (5 20). The faithful will enter into the promised kingdom (2 5).

1 Quite inconsistently with the idea of a new heaven and a new earth the writer represents Gentile nations as dwelling out side the gates ; cp 22 15.

92. Hebrews.[edit]

5. There is a large eschatological element in Hebrews. The final judgment ( the day ) is nigh at hand (10:25). It is introduced by the final shaking of heaven and earth (1226 compared with 122529) and by the parusia. God is judge (lOso/. ), the judge of all (12 23). The second coming of Christ is coincident with this judgment ; but he does not judge (9 2 7/. 10 3 7).

Retribution is reserved unto this judgment (1030), which will be terrible (10 31) and inevitable (1225). The righteous expect Christ to appear not for judgment but for salvation (9 28). Their recompense is to be in heaven (6 19 /.), where they have an eternal inheritance (9 15), a better country (11 16), a city which is to come (1814), whose builder and maker is God (11 <)f.). Then the present visible world (11 3), which is already growing old (1 10-12), will be removed, and the kingdom which cannot be shaken will remain (12 26-28). Into this new world the righteous will pass through the resurrection. There is apparently to be a resurrection of the righteous only. 1 This follows from 11 35 : that they might obtain a better resurrection. These words, which refer to the Maccabean martyrs (2 Mace. 7), set the resurrection in contrast with a merely temporary deliverance from death, and represent it as a prize to be striven for, not as the common lot of all. The blessedness of the righteous is described as a participation in the glory of God (2 io)and in the divine vision (12 14).

As regards the wicked, their doom is destruction (1039). This is something far worse than mere bodily death (827). It is represented as a consuming fire (1027 l- 2 9> C P 68). The destiny of the wicked 2 seems to be annihilation.

93. The Johannine Eschatology.[edit]

6. The sources for the Johannine eschatology are the The Fourth Gospel and the epistles. The Apocalypse (14-17) springs from a different author, and belongs to a different school of eschatological thought.

Though these writings do not present us with any fresh teaching about hades and hell, their author furnishes us with principles which in themselves necessi tate a transformation of the inherited views regarding the immediate and the final abodes of the departed. Thus when he teaches that God so loved the world as to give his only son to redeem it (Jn. 3i6), that God is love (i Jn. 48), that he is light, and in him is no darkness at all, hades, which is wholly under his sway, must surely be a place where moral growth is possible. The conception of a final eternal abode of the damned seems to find no place in a cosmos ruled by such a God as this writer conceives.

Whilst in a certain sense in the Johannine teaching the kingdom has already come, the Christ is already present, the faithful already risen, and the judgment already in fulfilment, we have to deal here not with these present aspects, but with their future consummation.

The salient points of the Johannine eschatology may be shortly put as follows, (a) The parusia is close at hand. (6) It ushers in the resurrection of the dead and the final judgment, (c) Thereupon believers enter into the perfect life of heavenly blessedness and through the vision of God are transformed into his likeness.

(a) The parusia is foretold in Jn. 14s, where Jesus promises that he will return from heaven and take the disciples unto himself that they may be with him where he is i. e. , in heaven. 3

That 14 2yC cannot be interpreted of his coming to receive his disciples individually on death is shown by 21 22. According to the NT writers death translates believers to Christ (2 Cor. 5 8 Phil. 1 23 Acts 7 59) ; he is nowhere said to come and fetch them. This parusia is at hand ; for some of his disciples are expected to survive till it appears (21 22), though Peter must first be martyred (21 i8yC). Even in extreme old age the apostle still hopes to witness it together with his disciples, whom he exhorts to abide in Christ that they may not be ashamed before him at his coming (i Jn. 2 28). The close approach of the parusia is likewise shown by the appearance of false prophets and teachers who deny the fundamental truths of Christianity. In these the Antichrist manifests himself. Such a manifestation must precede the parusia (i Jn. 2 18 22 4 i 3). Hence this is the last hour (i Jn. 2 is).

1 In 6 2 we have set forth the alternatives awaiting all men on the one hand resurrection for the righteous, on the other eternal judgment ((cpi /xa aldviov) for the wicked.

2 In the above the traditional views of scholars have in the main been followed ; but this has not been done without some hesitation. The eschatology might be differently construed. Judgment sets in immediately after death in the case of each individual (9 27). In 6 2 11 35, as in Pss. Sol. and elsewhere, the resurrection may he not only confined to the righteous hut also confined to the spirits of the righteous. Observe that God is spoken of as 'the Father of spirits' (12 9). An Alexandrian origin for the epistle would favour this view. The expression spirits of just men made perfect (12 23) points in the same direction ; for if the perfection meant is moral, these spirits must have already reached their consummation. If they have reached their consummation as spirits, however, the writer (as an Alexandrian) seems to teach only a spiritual resurrection. The chief obstacle in the way of this interpretation is the meaning of the words to perfect" and perfection. See Weiss, Bib. Theol. of NT 123.

3 In a spiritual sense Christ has come already (i Jn. 5 12) : he that hath the Son hath the life.

(b) On the last day Jesus himself, as the resurrection and the life (Jn. lias), raises his own to the resurrection- life (639 /. 44 54 1125), a life that believers indeed al ready possess 1 (624/1 851 ; cpSis/.). Resurrection of all the dead is taught in 5 28 /!

It is clear, however, from the leading thoughts of the Fourth Gospel that a resurrection of the wicked i.e., a resurrection of judgment can be nothing more than a deliverance of the wicked to eternal death at the last day. b?%f. which teach a general resurrection of the dead are most probably interpolated (see Wendt, Lehre Jesu, 1249-251 ; Charles, Doctrine of^ a Future Life, 370-372). In the Fourth Gospel the resurrection is synonymous with life. Hence in some form the resurrection life follows immediately on death, though its perfect consumma tion cannot be attained till the final consummation of all things. It is Jesus also who executes the final judgment. This is the result of his unique mediatorial significance. The Father judgeth no man but has committed all judgment to the Son (5 22 27). 2 In a certain sense believers do not incur judgment (3 18 624) ; but this judgment is that which is present and sub jective, 3 and in this respect the world is judged already (3 18 1231). The final result of this daily secret judgment must how ever one day become manifest ; believers must appear at the final judgment. They shall, however, have boldness there (i Jn. 228 417). A man s attitude to Christ determines now, and will determine finally, his relation to God and his destiny (Jn. Si8f. 9 39 ).

(c) The final consummation is one of heavenly blessedness.

After the resurrection and the final judgment the present world shall pass away (i Jn. 2 17), and Christ will take his own to heaven (Jn. 142^); for they are to be with him where he is (12261724). Eternal life is then truly consummated. Begun essentially on earth, it is now realised in its fulness and perfected. The faithful now obtain their full reward (2 Jn. 8). As children of God they shall, through enjoyment of the divine vision, be transformed into the divine likeness (i Jn. 3 2_/I).

94. The Petrine Eschatology.[edit]

7. Acts 3 12-26 may be accepted provisionally as representing the teaching of Peter (cp, however, ACTS, 14) ; nor do we see any reason at all for hesitating to receive 1 Peter as fully Petrine (cp, however, PETER [EPISTLES], 5). The passage in Acts is, at any rate, of great historical value as embodying a highly Judaistic view, and as showing how much in this view had eventu ally to yield in the Christian church to distinctively Christian principles. The speech ascribed to Peter anticipates that the kingdom of God will be realised in the forms of the Jewish theocracy (cp Acts 16), and that the non-Israelites will participate in its blessings only through conversion to Judaism (826). Hence also Jesus is conceived, not as the world-Messiah, but as the predestined Messiah of the Jews, 820 (rbv irpoKfx el -P lff /j.tvov vfuv Xpiarbv Iijffow). We now see clearly what the much-tortured phrase the times of the restoration (dTro/cardcTTcurts) of all things in 821 cannot be. It has nothing to do with such a speculative question as the ultimate and universal destiny of man. Acts 10, if it proves anything, proves this that Peter was un acquainted with the destination of the Gospel to the Gentiles. The restoration must mean either the renewal of the world, or else, much more probably, the moral regeneration of Israel (see Mai. 46, and Jesus application of the passage in Mt. 17 n).

Jewish hearers are urged to repent that they may be forgiven, and so hasten the parusia. The parusia and the seasons of refreshing (3 19) are connected. Either the aTroicaTdcrracris is preparatory to the parusia or else it is synonymous with the seasons of refreshing, and if so it would appear to belong to an earthly Messianic kingdom. *

1 Eternal life is at times described as a present possession : he that believeth hath eternal life, Jn. 647, cp 5 nf. This divine life cannot be affected by deajh. He that possesses it can never truly die, 8 51 11 25 f. This phrase is used of the future heavenly life in 4 14 6 27 12 25. Cp ETERNAL, 4.

2 In 8 50 there is a reference to God as executing judgment ; but in 5 22 it is said that the Father judgeth no man. Wendt (Teaching of Jesus, lys^f.) rejects as interpolations in an original Johannine source 5 2%/. as well as portions of 639^ 44 54, and 1248 relating to the Messianic judgment.

3 The judgment besides being future and objective is also present and subjective. It is no arbitrary process, but the work ing out of an absolute law, whereby the unbelieving world is self- condemned. Cp 3 17-19 624 12 47_/C

  • The phrase xaipoi ayai^ufews is hardly intelligible on any

other theory ; but the word avd^vg is should probably here be rendered rest or relief; for it is (B s rendering of rnn in Ex. 8 15. If it is taken so^ it finds a perfect parallel in 2 Thess. 1 7 where Paul uses ai>e<ris in the same connection. This rest is promised also in Asc. Is. 4 15.

95. 1 Peter.[edit]

In 1 Peter, as in Acts 3, believing Israelites still form the real substance of the Christian church; but here note the step in advance - this church embraces all who come to believe in Christ, non-Israelites equally with Israelites, in this world or the next (81946). Further, it is not an earthly consummation of the theocracy, but one re served in heaven, that is looked for (14). The goal, then, of the Christian hope is this salvation ready to be revealed at the last time (Is), which salvation or consummation is initiated by the revelation of Jesus Christ and the judgment of the world. Though God is declared in general terms to be the judge (li? 223), this final judgment is expressly assigned to Christ (4s). Still the end of all things is near (4?), for judgment has already begun with the house of God 1 i.e. , the church of believing Israel (4 17).

Persecution is sifting the true from the false members of the Church. Such afflictions, however, will last but a little while (165 10). Then Christ will be revealed (17 64), to judge both the living and the dead (4 5), both the righteous and the wicked (4 17 f.t). The approved disciples will share with their lord in eternal glory (5 10), they will receive the crown of glory (5 4), and live such a life as that of God (4 6).

96. 'Spirits in prison' etc.[edit]

The question of chief importance in the Petrine eschatology has still to be discussed. It centres in the two difficult passages which describe the preaching to the spirits in prison (819-21), and the preaching of the gospel to the dead (4s/.). 1 The interpretations are multitudinous. The majority attribute a false sense to the phrase the spirits in prison. This phrase can be interpreted ordy in two ways. The spirits in question are either those of men in ShS51, or the fallen angels mentioned in 2 Pet. 24 Jude 6. In the next place the words in prison denote the local condition of the spirits at the time of preaching. Hence, according to the text, Christ in the spirit (i.e., between his death and his resurrection) preached the gospel of redemption (for so only can we render licf}pv%ev) to human or angelic spirits in the underworld.

With the more exact determination of the objects of this mission we are not here concerned ; for, however it be decided, we have here a clear statement that, in the case of certain individuals human or angelic, the scope of redemption is not limited to this life.

We have now to deal with 4s/., . . . who will have to give account to him that is ready to judge the living and the dead. For with this purpose was the gospel preached even to the dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh (body), but live according to God in the spirit. The doctrine we found stated above in 3 19-21 is here substantiated, as being part of the larger truth now enunciated. Christ is ready to judge the living and the dead the latter no less than the former ; for even to the dead was the gospel preached 2 in order that though they were judged in the body they might live the life of God in the spirit. Thus it is taught that when the last judgment takes place the evangelium will already have been preached to all. As to how far this preaching of redemption succeeds, there is no hint in the Petrine teaching.

1 For the various conflicting interpretations that have been assigned to these passages from the earliest times, see Dietel- maier, Historia Dogmatis de Descensu Christi ad Infcros litteraria (1741 and 1762); Giider, Die Lehre vcn d. Er- scheinung Christi unter den Toien ( 53) ; Zeyschwitz, De Christi ad Inferos Descensu ( 57); Usteri, h inabgefahren cur Holle , Schweitzer, Hinabgefah>en zur Hillc; Hofmann, Schriftbeiveis, 2335-341; Salmond, Christian Doctr. of Inttnort. 450-486 ( 96) ; Spitta, Christi Predigt an die Geister; Kruston, La Descente du Christ aux En/ers( t)-f), as well as the Commentators in loc.

2 The tense of evTjyyeAicrfty creates no difficulty here. This preaching is regarded as a completed act in the past, because, as 4 7 declares, the end of all things is at hand. Even if this were not so, the aorist can be used of a continuous practice (cp i Cor. 920 Jas. 26).

These passages in i Peter are of extreme value. They attest the achievement of the final stage in the moralisation of Shfiol. The first step in this moralisa- tion was taken early in the second century B. c. , when it was transformed into a place of moral distinctions ( 3 [3]) having been originally one of merely social or national dis tinctions (10-18). This moralisation, however, was very inadequately carried out. According to the Judaistic conception souls in Sheol were conceived as insusceptible of ethical progress. What they were on entering Sheol, that they continued to be till the final judgment. From the standpoint of a true theism can we avoid pro nouncing this conception mechanical and unethical? It precludes moral change in moral beings who are under the rule of a perfectly moral being.

97. The Pauline Eschatology.[edit]

8. In the writings of Paul we find no single eschatological system. His ideas in this respect were in a state of development. He began with an expectation of the future inherited largely from traditiona; Judaism ; but under the influence of great fundamental Christian conceptions he parted gradually from this and entered on a process of development in the course of which the heterogeneous elements were silently dropped.

Four stages are marked out. Even in the last Paul does not seem to have attained finality, though he was still working towards it. It is permissible, therefore, for his readers to develop his thoughts in symmetrical completeness and carry to its conclusion his chain of reasoning.

The various stages are attested by (i. ) i and 2 Thess. ( 98); (ii. ) i Cor. ( 99); (iii. ) 2 Cor. and Rom. ( 100); (iv.) Phil., Col., Eph. ( 101).

98. 1 and 2 Thess.[edit]

(i. ) The Epistles to the Thessalonians (on the criticism and contents of which cp THESSALONIANS) present us with^the earliest form of the Pauline teaching and eschatology. They constitute, in fact, the Pauline apocalypse. In this apocalypse the salient points are (a) the great apostasy and the antichrist ; (6) the parusia and final judgment ; (c) the resurrection and blessed consummation of the faithful. In his teaching on these questions Paul appeals to the authority of Christ. What he puts before his readers in i Thess. 415-17 is derived from the Lord (see v. 15). There is, however, a fixity and rigidity in the teaching of the apostle which is not to be found in that of Jesus.

(a) The apostasy and the antichrist. Paul starts from the fundamental thought of Jewish apocalyptic. When the forces of good and evil in the world have reached their limit of development, God will intervene. There will therefore be nothing sudden, nothing unethical in this. The conditions of the crisis are moral, and those who, morally speaking, can, and those who cannot be saved, will be distinguished gradually and surely. The day of the Lord cannot come till the antichrist (a figure found only in the early Paulinism) and the atroaraffLa. have become facts.

The antichrist is described as the man of sin, the son of perdition, whose coming is according to the working of Satan or, as is also said, with all unrighteous (untruthful) deceit for those who are perishing (2 Thess. 239 _/C). The avo^ia. which already works (2 Thess. 2 7) must reach its climax in a person in the antichrist whose manifestation or parusia (2 Thess. 2 9) is the Satanic counterfeit of the true Messiah s. This person is also described as the antithesis of every known divine form, because he places his throne in the temple in Jerusalem, setting himself forth as God (2 Thess. 2 4). Now, the time of the end is come ; the Lord will at once descend and slay him with the breath of his mouth, and consume him with the manifestation of his parusia (2 Thess. 2 8).

1 See ANTICHRIST. Weiss (Theol. of NT, ET 1305-311) maintains the Jewish origin of antichrist. He argues that an apostasy, in strictness, was impossible in heathenism. The real obstacle to the spread of the teaching of Christ lay in fanatical Jews, the unreasonable and evil men of 2 Thess. 82 (cp also i Thess. 2 18), who having mostly remained unbelieving (Acts 1862 Thess. 1 8), had always pursued Paul with persecution and calumny (Acts 9 23^". 29 18845) and stirred up the heathen against him (1850 1425 19 17s 13). These men, who had slain Christ and the prophets, were now the relentless persecutors of his Church. When we further observe that the false Messiah or antichrist regards the temple at Jerusalem as the dwelling-place of God (2 Thess. 24), the Jewish origin of the antichristian principle seems in a very high degree probable. Sabatier, The Apostle Paul (ET 119-121), however, is now less confident than formerly of the correctness of this view. His present opinion reminds us somewhat of Beyschlag s (NT Theology, ET2257/).

Whence antichrist was to proceed whether from Judaism or heathenism 1 it is difficult to determine. That the apostle did not conceive him as proceeding from Rome is clear ; for 6 Karfyuv [katechon] is none other than Rome 1 (see ANTICHRIST, 7).

(d) Parusia and final judgment. We have seen when Christ s parusia (i Thess. 813 2 Thess. 2 1) is to come. The precise day is uncertain : it comes as a thief in the night (i Thess. 62 ; cp Mt. 2443) ; but the apostle expects it in his own time (i Thess. 4 15 17).

With what vividness and emphasis he must have preached the impending advent of Christ is clear from i Thess. 5 1-3, as well as from 2 Thess., where he has to quiet an excitement almost bordering on fanaticism. When Christ descends from heaven (i Thess. 1 10 4 16 2 Thess. 1 7), angels will accompany him as his ministers (2 Thess. 1 7), and his glory will then first be fully revealed.

The parusia is likewise the day of judgment, as the designations applied to it show. It is beyond doubt meant by the phrases the day of the Lord, the day, that day ( i Thess. 6242 Thess. 1 10). This judgment deals with antichrist and all the wicked, whether Jews or Gentiles, whether simply careless or actively hostile. The doom of the wicked is eternal destruction (6\e0pos aluvios, 2 Thess. lg, cp i Thess. 63; cp aTrwXeta, 2 Thess. 2io).

We see here the intolerance of the inherited eschatology. Later it is not the consummation of human evil but the triumph of Christianity that ushers in the fulness of the times and the advent of Christ. To the apostle s maturer mind God so shapes the varying destinies of Jew and Gentile that he may extend his mercy unto all (Rom. 11 32).

(c) The resurrection and the blessed consummation of the faithful. There was an apprehension among Paul s young converts that those who died before the parusia would fail to share in its blessedness. Hence the apostle refers them to a special statement of Christ on this subject (i Thess. 4. 15). The dead in Christ are to rise first ( i Thess. 4 16 ; but the teaching on this point is not quite clear), 2 by which is meant a contrast, not between a first and a second resurrection, but rather between two classes of the righteous who share in the resurrection. The first are those who have died before the parusia ; the second, those who survive to meet it. Both are caught up to meet the Lord in the air. Thus the elect are gathered together to Christ (2 Thess. 2 1 ; cp Mt. 24 31). There is no reference to a resurrection of the wicked in these two epistles. 3 It is to be inferred that after the resurrection the world, from which the righteous have been removed, is given over to destruction, whilst, for the righteous, there is now the final boon of being for ever with the Lord (i Thess. 417). Christ s people, who are organically connected with him,, will be raised even as he (i Thess. 414), and therefore not to an earthly life, but to the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ (2 Thess. 214) in the completed kingdom of God (i Thess. 2 12 2 Thess. 1 5).

1 The power of Rome had repeatedly protected the apostle against the attacks of the Jews (Acts 17 5-9 18 12-16; cp ACTS, 5). In Rom. 184 the Roman magistracy is God s minister. Later, this distinction between the power of Rome and anti christ disappeared. Thus the emperor is the Beast, and Rome the mystery of avofiia. in Rev. 13 17.

2 According to i Thess. 3 13 the dead are to accompany Christ at his parusia that is if we take a-yioi here as^ the faithful (usage suggests this) and not as the angels. 2 Thess. 17 speaks of angels, but purely as agents of the divine judgment. That we are to understand i Thess. 3 13 of men, not of angels, is clear from i Thess. 4 14. According to 813414, therefore, the resurrection of the faithful dead is coincident with the advent ; but according to 4 16 it is subsequent to the advent.

3 Indeed there could not be a resurrection of the wicked according to Paul s views (see 99 [/>]). The statement attributed to Paul in Acts 24 15 that there shall be a resurrection both of the just and of the unjust cannot therefore be regarded as an accurate report. To share in the resurrection according to the all but universal teaching of the NT writers is the privilege only of those who are spiritually one with Christ and draw their life from the Holy Spirit. There are two passages Jn. 5 28 f. and Rev. 20 12 that attest the opposite view ; but the latter is hardly here admissible as evidence of distinctively Christian doctrine, and the former contradicts the entire drift of the Fourth Gospel in this respect. In all Jewish books that teach a resurrection of the wicked, the resurrection is conceived not as a result of spiritual oneness with God but merely as an eschatological arrangement for the furtherance of divine justice or some other divine end.

99. 1 Cor.[edit]

(ii. ) The second stage in the development of the Pauline eschatology is to be found in i Corinthians. In many respects the teaching of this epistle is in harmony with that of the epistles to the Thessalonians ; but it is without antichrist. Other divergencies will appear in the sequel. Three subjects are prominent : (a) the parusia and the final judgment ; (6) the resurrection ; and (c) the consummation of the blessed.

(a) The parusia and final judgment. Paul looks forward to the parusia of Christ * ( i Cor. 4s 1 1 26 15 51 1622), which will be preceded by severe trials (7 26 28 ). 2 The interval preceding the parusia will be shortened in order that the faithful may keep themselves free from the entanglements of this life (7 29, cp Mt. 2422). This second coming will immediately manifest Christ s glory and bring the world to a close (\jf., cp 2 Cor. lis/. ). With it is connected the final judg ment, at which the judge will be Christ (44/. ). 3

That the second coming is conceived as one of judgment is seen also in the designations elsewhere applied to it ( the day of our Lord Jesus Christ, 18 ; the day, 8 13 ; the day of the Lord, "5 5). From the above facts it follows that Paul did not expect the intervention of a millennial period between the parusia and the final judgment, as some have inferred from

1 Cor. 1622-24. According to this passage every power hostile to God in the world is stripped of its influence by the time of the parusia. With the resurrection which ensues thereupon is involved the destruction of the last enemy, death (15 26). Thus the parusia, accompanied by the final judgment and the resur rection, marks the end of the present age and the beginning of the new. The angels are to be judged ; but their judges are the righteous (i Cor. 63; see, on Bk. of Wisd., above, 76).

(b) The resurrection. The resurrection of man is connected organically with that of Christ. As God has raised up Christ, so also he will raise us (i Cor. 614, cp 2 Cor. 414).

The doctrine of man s resurrection had been denied by certain members of the church of Corinth, who did not question the resurrection of Jesus. To these the apostle rejoined that both were indissolubly united and stood or fell together. The ground of man s resurrection-hope was his living fellowship with Christ (15 22). The relation manifestly in each case is the same. As it cannot be natural and genealogical it must of necessity be ethical and spiritual. Furthermore, from the position of the words (> T<3 ASafji ndfTfi a.Tro6vr)<TKOv<ri:v) the in Adam must be connected with all. Hence it is equivalent to all who are in Adam. Similarly all in Christ = all who are in Christ. * Thus the verse means : as all who are ethically in fellowship with Adam die, so all who are spiritually in fellowship with Christ shall be made alive. This being made spiritually alive 5 ((Jiooiroieio-Oat) involves the being raised (cp Rom. 811). There can be no resurrection but in Christ.

That the righteous alone are raised we shall be forced to conclude also from Paul s teaching on the origin of the resurrection body in 1535-49.

In answer to the question how the dead are raised, Paul rejoins : thou witless one, that which thou sowest is not brought to life, except it die (1536). That is, a man s own experience should overturn the objection that is raised. The death of the seed consists in the decomposition of its material wrappings. By this process the living principle within it is set free and seizes hold of the matter around it wherewith it forms for itself a new body.l In like manner the resurrection is effected through death itself. What appears as the obstacle is actually the means. The spirit of man must free itself from the body which contains it before it fashions for itself a body that is incorruptible.

1 So also in Phil. 320/C, yet he had always before him the possibility of meeting death. This is perhaps the case in i Cor. LBaiA

2 This is the nearest approach to the terrible picture of the future troubles in Thess.

3 As in Thessalonians (see above, 98). This doctrine appears also in 2 Cor. 5 10 the judgment seat of Christ. The judgment is also spoken of as the judgment of God (Rom. 14 10). Cp also Rom. 25/^86 14 12. In Rom. 2i6 the two views are recon ciled ; God will judge the world through Jesus Christ.

  • For similar constructions see 15 18 i Thess. 4 16.

5 That this is the meaning of ftoojroieia-Oai appears to follow from its use in 1636, where, as in 1522, the reference is to the fresh inward development of life, not to its outer manifestation.

We are next instructed as to the glorious nature of the resurrection body (1542-44). The sowing here cannot mean the burying of the body in the grave : such a meaning of sow (cnreipeiv) is wholly unattested : it is rather the placing the vital principle or spirit in its material environment here on earth, where the spirit of man, like a seed, gathers and fashions its body from the materials around it. The life of man in this world from its first appearance to the obsequies that attest its de parting is analogous to the sowing of the seed in the earth.

That this is Paul s meaning will become clearer if we con sider the opposing members in the various contrasts drawn in 1042-44. Thus, it is sown in corruption (1542). This descrip tion is no doubt applicable to the interment of the body | but the first members of the following antithesis are quite inap- I Hrabll i The phrase in corruption is especially Pauline in reference to the present life of man. This life is in the bondagt of corruption (Rom. 821), and the living body is undergoing corruption (2 Cor. 4ie). Furthermore flesh and blood, the constituents of the present living body, are declared in i Cor. 1550 to be corruption. In dishonour denotes the miseries of this earthly life ; which we experience in this body of our humiliation (Phil. 821). Weakness is another fitting descrip tion of the body as an agent of the spirit the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. See also i Cor. 23/1 2 Cor. 129/1 for the contrast weakness and power as here. To apply such a term as weakness to the dead body would be absurd. Finally, this present body is psychical as an organ of the psyche or soul, just as the risen or spiritual body is an organ of the spirit. Thus as the psychical body is corruptible, and clothed with humiliation and weakness, the spiritual body will enjoy incor ruptibility, honour, and power. Hence between the bodies there is no exact continuity. The existence of the one depends on the death of the other. Nevertheless there is some essential likeness between them. The essential likeness proceeds from the fact that they are successive expressions of the same personality, though in different spheres. It is the same individual vital principle that organises both.

From this description of the resurrection body, it is obvious that only the righteous can share in the resur rection.

We have dealt with the characteristics of the risen body and its relation to the present body. The question now arises, When does this resurrection of the body occur? In conformity with the universal Jewish tradi tion Paul makes it to follow on the parusia. Such a time -determination, however, fails to establish an organic connection with the doctrine of the risen body stated above.

Unless our interpretation of that doctrine is wholly wrong, its entire trend points not to a period externally determined and at some possibly remote age, but to the hour of departure of the individual believer. The analogy of the seed points in this direction. Seeing that with the corruption of the material husk the vital principle is set free to form a new body or expression of itself, the analogy urged by Paul ought to lead to the inference that with the death of the present body the energies of the human spirit are set free to organise from its new environ ment a spiritual body a body adapted to that environment. Thus in a certain sense the resurrection of the faithful would follow immediately on death, and not be adjourned to the parusia. Of this variance between his living and growing thought and his inherited view, Paul does not seem conscious in i Cor.

In 2 Cor. we shall find that he has become conscious of the inherent inconsistencies in his former view, which he is deserting in favour of the doctrine of a resurrection of the righteous following immediately on death.

(c) The final consummation. With the resurrection of the righteous dead and the transfiguration of the righteous living, death is finally overcome (i Cor. 1526 51-54). The end has come (1624 18), when the Son will surrender to God, to the Father, the kingdom which he has ruled since his exaltation. The resurrection l of the righteous dead will take place in a moment, at the last trump (15 52)-

1 The Pauline way of stating this formation of the new body is noteworthy, God gives it a body. We moderns say, the new body is the result of the vital principle in the grain acting on its environment in conformity with God s law in the natural world. Paul says in such a case, God gives it a body (15 38). This is important to remember in connection with|2 Cor. 5 ( ioo,c).

Then will follow the transfiguration of the righteous living, when the corruptible shall put on incorruption and the mortal immortality (1553), and the institution of the perfected kingdom of God 2 in a new and glorious world that has taken the place of the present, which is already passing away (i Cor. 7 31). That which is perfect has then come (13 10), and the blessed, in immediate communion, see God face to face (13 12).

In this perfected kingdom God has become all in all (1528). This statement is limited to the blessed. It does not apply to the powers in 1625 28. These have heen reduced to unwilling obedience.

100. 2 Cor. and Rom.[edit]

(iii. ) In 2 Corinthians and Romans we arrive at the third stage in the development of the Pauline eschatology. The development is apparent mainly in a change of view as to the time of the resurrection and in enlarged conceptions as to the universal spread and comprehensiveness of Christ s kingdom on earth. We shall range our evidence under four heads.

(a) Parusia and judgment. The parusia is the day of our Lord Jesus Christ (2 Cor. 114; cp Phil. 16 10 2i6). The judge will be Christ (2 Cor. 5io) likewise God (Rom. 14io; see col. 1383, n. 3). All men must appear before the judgment seat (Rom. 14io, cp 12). The judg ment will proceed according to works (Rom. 26) ; for if faith is operative it can be only in the sphere of works.

The purpose of the mission of Christ is that the righteous demands of the law might be fulfilled in us who live according to the spirit, not the flesh (Rom. 84). We are what we make ourselves. Destiny is related to character as harvest to seed time (Gal. 6 7 f.). Every man bears in his character his own reward and his own punishment (2 Cor. 5 10). Hence, since character is the creation of will, arises the all-importance of the principle that rules the will. Retribution, present and future, follows in the line of a man s works (2 Cor. 11 is). 3

(b) Universal spread of Christ s kingdom on earth. Between the writing of i and 2 Thessalonians and that of Romans we have to place a great crisis of thought. In the earlier epistles, as we have seen, Paul looks forward to a great apostasy and the revelation of the man of sin as the immediate precursor of the parusia. In Rom. 11, on the other hand, he proclaims the inner and progressive transformation of mankind through the Gospel ; the conversion of the entire Jewish and non- Jewish worlds is the immediate prelude of the advent of Christ.

The unbelieving Jews of to-day are indeed as vessels of wrath* (822), hastening to destruction. This temporary destruction of the race, however, has brought about the com pletion (TrAijpio/xa) of the nations, and when the nations have entered Christ s kingdom, then all Israelshall be saved (11 25/1). God has thus shaped the history of both Jew and Gentile in order that he might have mercy upon all (Rom. 1132).

(c) The resurrection the immediate sequel of de parture from this life. We have discovered in the earlier epistles certain inconsistencies in regard to the time of the resurrection. Although Paul formally adjourns this event to the parusia, his teaching with regard to the resurrection body is implicitly at variance with such a belief ( 99, b}. By the time when he wrote the second of the epistles to Corinth he had come to a conscious breach with the older view. The main evidence for this is found in 2 Cor. 5 1-8 (where a specially careful translation is required ; see e.g. , Weizsacker s). In v. 4 Paul declares his wish to live till the parusia in order that he may escape the dissolution of the earthly body and be transformed alive. In other verses he faces the possibility of death, and comforts himself and his readers with the prospect before them. When we die we have (Zxopf) we come into possession of an immortal body in heaven.

1 Since the resurrection is possible only through living fellow ship with Christ, there can be no resurrection of the wicked.

2 The phrase kingdom of God is used by Paul to denote the kingdom of the consummation. In a few cases, however, he applies it to the kingdom as it is at present being realised on earth (i Cor. 4 20 Rom. 14 17). Even here Weiss argues_that the passages refer to the kingdom not in its realisation but in its essence. In Col. 1 13 the present kingdom is called the kingdom of his dear son.

3 The retributive character of the judgment is expressed in still sharper terms in the later epistles (see Col. 3 25 Eph. 68).

That this is a real, not an ideal possession to be realised at the parusia, follows from the date assigned for our becoming possessed of it. Ideally, the faithful receive their immortal bodies at the time of their election (Rom. 829); actually, Paul now declares, at death. This idea of the future body being a divine gift in no way contradicts the teaching in i Cor. 15 35-49 ; it forms its complement and completion. We have already seen ( 99, col. 1384, n.) that whereas, regarded from our usual stand point, the new body is the result of a secret vital process, re garded from Paul s standpoint it may be called a divine gift. Similarly the glorified body is, in one aspect, the result of the action of the human spirit itself divinely quickened, in another an independent gift of God.

In i Cor. 1535-49 the view that the resurrection follows immediately on the death of the faithful is implied ; in 2 Cor. 5 1-8 it is categorically stated.

Of Paul s change of view we naturally expect to find further evidence in his references to the experiences of the faithful at the parusia, and such surely we find in Rom. 8 19 : the earnest longing of the created world waiteth for the revelation of the sons of God. At the second coming, just as there will be a revelation of Christ (i Cor. 1?2 Thess. 1?) that is, a manifestation of the glory he already possesses so there will be a manifesta tion of the glory already possessed by the faithful.

Thus Paul speaks no longer of a resurrection of the faithful to glory at the parusia, but of a manifestation of the glory they already possess. Glory (56fa) is to be their clothing. In Col. 3 4 the manifestation of Christ and that of his people at his parusia are expressly connected.

101. Phil., Col., and Eph.[edit]

(iv. ) In Philippians, Colossians, and Ephesians J we have the final stage in the development of the Pauline eschatology, that which deals with the cosmic significance of Christ. In the earlier epistles, whilst the creation of the world was effected through the Son (i Cor. 86), its consummation was to be realised in the Father, when the Son had resigned to him his mediatorial kingdom (i Cor. 1624-28). In these epistles not only is the Son the creative agent and the principle of cohesion (orvveffTT]kev, Col. li?) and unity in the cosmos ; he is also the end to which it moves (ete avr&v, Col. Ii6), the head in which it is to be summed up (Eph. 1 10),

From the above Christology follow two conclusions. (a) The everlasting duration of the kingdom of Christ. Whereas, according to i Cor. 1528, God alone is all in all in the final consummation, in the epistles we are now dealing with Christ also is conceived as all in all (Eph. 123 Col. 3 ii ). Thus the goal of the universe is no longer, as in i Cor. 1524-28, the completed kingdom of God in which God is all in all, in contrast to the mediatorial kingdom of Christ ; it is the kingdom of Christ and God (Eph. 65)-

(6) The extension of Christ s redemption to the world of spiritual beings. Since all things, in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible (whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers), were created by Christ (Col. 1 16), and were (according to the same passage) to find their consummation in him (et j avrbv ZKTIO-TO.I), they must come within the sphere of his mediatorial activity; they must ultimately be summed up in him as their head (avaKe<pa\aiwffao-0at. TO. Trdvra iv T$ XptcrTy, Eph. 1 10). Hence, in the world of spiritual beings, since some have sinned or apostatised, they too must share in the atonement of the cross of Christ, and so obtain reconciliation 2 (Col. 1 20), and join in the universal worship of the Son (Phil. 2io).

How successful this ministry of reconciliation in the spiritual world is, Paul does not inform us, nor yet whether it will embrace the entire world, and therefore the angels of Satan. Since, however, all things must be reconciled and summed up in Christ, there can be no room finally in the universe for a wicked being whether human or angelic. Thus the Pauline eschatology points 3 obviously in its ultimate issues either to the final redemption of all created personal beings or to the destruction of the finally impenitent.

1 To justify the inclusion of both Colossians and Ephesians see COLOSSIANS AND EPHESIANS.

2 Reconciliation necessarily presupposes previous enmity ; cp Eph. 2 16 and Sanday on Rom. 8 38.

3 In these later epistles, no less than in the earlier, Paul appears not to have arrived at final and consistent views on these questions. Though he speaks of the reconciliation of hostile spirits, he does not seem to have included Satan s angels amongst them. His leading principles, however, involve this.


102. Special conceptions : Soul and Spirit.[edit]

It is the conceptions 'soul' and 'spirit' that chiefly need consideration here.

i. Outside the Pauline Epistles. The meaning attached to the conceptions soul and spirit throughout the NT, except in the Pauline epistles, is in the main that which prevailed among the people.

(a) The Soul. The soul is conceived as the bearer both of the bodily -sensuous life and of the higher spiritual life.

(i.) In the former capacity the soul is sustained by food (Mt. 625), is capable of sensuous impressions (Mk. 1*34), of suffering (i Pet. 4 i), of sensuality (i Pet. 2 ii 2 Pet. 2 14). It is from this conception of the soul that the adjective (^VXIKOS, EV sensual ) derives its bad signification in James 3 15 Jude 19. If the blood is shed the soul departs (Mt. 2835 Mk. 14 24 Acts 22 20): fK\fjv\eiv= to die (Acts 5 510 1223). Further, as in the OT, the soul is identified with the personality : so many souls = so many persons (Acts 241714 27^37 i Pet. 3 20).

(ii.) As in the Judaism of this time, the soul is the seat also of the higher spiritual life : it is the subject of anxiety (Jn. 1024), of grief (Mt. 26 38 Mk. 14 34 Lk. 2 35), of trouble (Jn. 12 27), of pleasure (Lk. 12 19 Heb. 10 38), of love (Mt. 22 37), of hate (Acts 14 2). In a spiritual sense it can become stronger (Acts 14 22), or suffer exhaustion (Heb. 12 3), can be subverted by heresy (Acts 15 24), protected (i Pet. 4 19 Heb. 1817), cleansed (i Pet. 1 22). As the bearer of the personality, it survives death (Mt. 1039), an( l P asses fi rst to an intermediate abode of the departed, to Hades (Acts 2 27 Lk. 16 23), or to Abraham s bosom (Lk. 1623), or Paradise (Lk. 23 43). The departed are called souls in Rev. 6 9 20 4.

(b) The Spirit. In the case of the spirit, as in that of the soul, we find with possibly two or three excep tions no fresh developments ; only the acknowledged and popular conceptions of Judaism. The spirit is the higher side of the soul.

Like the soul the spirit is the subject of grief (Mk. 8 12), of trouble (Jn. 13 21), of joy (Lk. 1 46 10 21), of indignation (Jn. 1133 Acts 17 16), of zeal (Acts 18 25), of meekness (i Pet. 84). It is the seat of purpose and volition (Acts 19 21 2022). Again, as with the soul, if the spirit departs, death ensues (Mt. 27 50 Lk. 23 46 Acts 7 59) ; the body apart from it is dead (James 2 26) ; but if it returns, so does life (Lk. 8 55). Thus fttnvelv in Mk. 15 37 39 Lk. 23 46 is synonymous with fK^vx ei v.

The 'spirit' which so departs exists independently as the bearer of the personality. Hence, though the same or similar diction is found in the OT and in a few of the later books, the idea conveyed in either case is absolutely different. The NT usage is that of the current Judaism. 1 In the next life the departed are called spirits (i Pet. 3 19 4 6 Heb. 1223) as elsewhere they are called souls.

The spirit is the seat also of the higher spiritual life, and forms the antithesis of the flesh ((rdp) Mk. 14 38.2 Thus growth in the spirit is set over against growth in the body (Lk. I8o 240). The spirit which God has placed in man longs for man s salvation (Jas. 4s). It discerns that which is not manifest to the senses (Mk. 28). In these cases we have approaches to the Pauline use. Thus in the NT there is no trichotomy except in the Pauline epistles if such a term as tricho tomy can be rightly used at all of the Pauline psych ology. The only doubtful passage is Heb. 4 12.

2. In the Pauline Epistles. Paul breaks with the entire traditional use of the terms soul and body and gives them a connotation in keeping with his theological system. He appears to teach a trichotomy in i Thess. 523; but the enumeration spirit, soul, and body is no real expression of Pauline anthropology. At times indeed he describes man popularly as a synthesis of spirit and flesh (Col. 2s), spirit and body (i Cor. 63). It is to be observed, however, that he never uses the quite as popular expression soul and body ; his view of the soul precluded its employment.

With him the soul is the vital principle of the flesh T (ffdpt;), and is never conceived, as it is in all the other NT writers, as the bearer of the higher spiritual life. It has thus a very low connotation. The soulish man (\f/vxiKos di>6pwiros, i Cor. 214) is incapable of receiving the things of the spirit.

1 According to Gen. 243-3 the spirit is a breath of life from God, which on death returns to God the fount of life (Eccles. 12 7). As such it has no individual or personal exist ence. In Rev. 11 ii 13 15 the idea of Gen. 2 4^-8 is reproduced.

2 In Mt. 10 28 man is described as a synthesis of body and soul.

The Pauline doctrine of the spirit is difficult. Only a brief treatment of the subject can be given here. The term spirit has, in the Pauline epistles, three distinct applications. The spiritual side of man may be regarded as (a) the intellectual and moral part of man ; (6) the immaterial personality which survives death ; (c) the immaterial part of man s nature which is capable of direct communion with the Spirit of God not, how ever, this faculty as it exists in itself, but as it is re created by God.

In order to express (a) Paul has recourse both to Hellenistic and to Palestinian Judaism. From the former he borrows the phrase the inner man (6 ?<ro; &v6p<i3Tros, Rom. 722). From the same source he adopts the term mind (joOj, Rom. 72325), which belongs to the inner man and signifies the higher nature of man as man. In the same sense he borrows from Palestinian Judaism the term spirit. Thus we have the ordinary synthesis spirit and body (i Cor. 63), spirit and flesh (Col. 2s). 2 Compare also i Cor. 2n, 2 Cor. 7 13. Now this higher side of man s nature may fall under the power of the flesh. Hence the mind may become corrupt (Rom. 128), the spirit may be defiled (2 Cor. 7 i).

To express (b) the immaterial personality which survives death Paul uses the term spirit in i Cor. 5 5.

In the third sense (c) the term spirit has a distinct ively Pauline use. In this sense the spirit is no longer synonymous with the mind as in (a), but is its suzerain. They are clearly distinguished in i Cor. 14 14^ The renewed spirit is our spirit, and lives in communion with the Spirit of God (Rom. 8 16). By virtue of it man becomes spiritual (i Cor. 2 15, 3i), and a new creation (Gal. 815), as opposed to the psychical creation in Gen. 2 4*-3. 3 The mind or the inner man remains in the Christian as the sphere of human judgment (Rom. 14s)- 4

Thus the Pauline psychology stands apart from that of the OT and the rest of the NT.

Judgment. This has been dealt with separately under the different books.

103. Places of abode.[edit]

Places of abode of the departed.

1. Paradise is (a) the abode of the blessed in Sheol (Lk. 2843 Acts23i). (b) A division of the third heaven - being likewise an intermediate abode of the righteous ( 2 Cor _ 124 ). ( c ) Apparently a final abode of the righteous (Rev. 27).

2. Hades is (a) an intermediate abode of the departed containing two divisions, for the righteous ( = Abraham s bosom ) and for the wicked respectively (Lk. 1623); (i>) an intermediate abode of the wicked only (?) (Rev. 1 18 68 20i3/) ; and (c) an intermediate abode of further moral probation (i Pet. 819 46 ; see 96).

3. Tartarus is the intermediate place of punishment for the fallen angels (2 Pet. 24).

4. Gehenna is the final place of punishment for the wicked.

1 The soul is the bearer of the bodily life in the Pauline epistles as in the rest of the NT. Cp Rom. 164 2 Cor. 12 15 Phil. 230. It is menaced when a man s life is sought (Rom. 11 3). It is the bearer of the personality in a general sense (Rom. 13 i 2 9). Since the soul is the vital principle of the flesh, and the latter has no part in the next life, there does not seem to be any place in the next life for the soul, as that life is to be essentially spiritual. Here man has a soulish body, but there he is to have a spiritual. According to the Pauline teaching the soul seems to have its existence limited to this world.

2 Peculiar instances of the Pauline use of the spirit are to be found in 2 Cor. 2 13, where we find the same feeling ascribed to it as to the flesh in 7s. In Phil. 1 27 there seems to be little difference between the spirit and the soul.

3 Cp i Cor. 1646.

4 Observe that the spirit of the Christian is expressly contrasted with the mind (vovs) in i Cor. 14 i4/

In Lk. 12s the punishment is clearly a punishment of the soul ; the body is first destroyed on earth : Fear him who after he has killed has power to cast into Gehenna." The passage has in Mt. 10 28 a different form: Fear him who is able to destroy both soul and body in Gehenna ; but Lk. 12$ seems to be more original. Mt. 5 29 f. does not necessarily imply a punishment of the body : since eye and hand mean certain desires, the phrase the whole body also must be symbolical.

From the above considerations Gehenna appears to be a place not of corporal but of spiritual punish ment.

104. Bibliography.[edit]


i. Hebrew Eschatology. For the older literature on this subject see Alger, A Crit. Hist, of the Doctrine of a Future Life, with a complete Bibliography, by Ezra Abbot, 783-970 (New York, 71) ; Schulze, Voraussetzung der Christ. Lehre v.d. Unsterblichkeit ( 61); Stade, Die ATlichc Vorstellungen vont Zustand nach dent Tode ( 77); GVIV) 1415-427 503-506 ( 89) ; Briggs, Messianic Prophecy ( 86) ; A. Jeremias, Die Babyl.-Assyr. Vorstellungen vom Zustand nach dem Tode ( 87); Schwally, Das Leben nach dem Tode ( 92) original and most helpful ; Che. OPs., see 381-452 already referred to ( 91) ; Intr. Is. ( 95) invaluable both on critical and exegetical grounds ; Jew. Rel. Life after the Exile. ( 98) ; WRS Rel. .SV/.(2)( 94); Salmond, Christ. Doctr. of Immortality^} ( 97); Davidson, s.v. Eschatology in Hastings DB 1 734-741. See also the relative sections in the Biblical Theologies of Oehler, Schultz, Dillmann, and particularly Smend s A Tliche Rel.- gesch. ( 93), and Marti s Gesch. der isr. Rel.W ( 97).

ii. The literature of Jewish eschatology during the period extending from 200 B.C. to 100 A.D. has been grievously neglected. The study of it has been advanced chierly by Liicke (Einl. in die OJfenb. des Johannes, vol. i [ 52]), Hilgen- feld (Die j lid. Apokalyptik, 57), Langen (Das Judentlnim in Paliistina, 461-519 [ 66]); Drummond (The Jewish Messiah, 77), and Schiirer (Hist. ii. 2 126-187). For further aids to study see APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE, 7, 23, 34, 47, 58, 67, etc. (on editions of the books) ; also Schwally, Das Leben nach dent Tode, 92) ; Briggs, Messiah of the Gospels, 1-40 ( 94) ; Messiah of the Apostles, 1-20 ( 95) ; Marti, Gesch. der isr. Rel. 270-310 ( 97) ; Charles, Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life ( 99), where the whole subject of this article is treated at some length.

iii. The New Testament. In addition to the relative sections in works on NT Theology by Baur, Neander, Reuss, Schmid, Oosterzee, Immer, Weiss, Beyschlag, and Holtzmann, the following books will be found helpful in various degrees : White, Life in Christ ( 46) ; Giider, Die Lehre von der Er- sctieinung Christi unter den Todten in ihrem Zusammcnhange tnit der Lehre von den letzten Dingen ( 53) ; Luthardt, Die Lehrevon den letzten Dingen ( 61) ; Gerlach, Die letzten Dingen ( 69) ; Davidson, Doctrine of last Things (1900) ; Biedermann, Christliche Dogmatic, 2 155-169 384-394 ( 84); Petavel, Prob lem of Immortality ( 92) ; Toy, Judaism and Christianity, 372-414 ( 92) ; Kabisch, Eschatologie des Paulus ( 93) ; Wendt, Teaching of Jesus (ET) 1 364-408 2 340-374 ( 93- 96) ; Salmond, Christian Doctr. of Immort.w (97); Briggs, Messiah of the Gospels, 135-165 ( 94); Messiah of the Apostles, 58-66 85-96 34 I "36? 554-S62 ( 95) ; Beet, Last Things (97). R. H. C.


[The references are to the sections of the article.]

Abyss of fire, 63 Advent. See Parusia. Alexandrian Judaism, 71, 74-77 Amos, 35, 37 Ancestor worship, 2-20. See Contents A, I. beg. Angelic patrons of nations, 50 (n. 8) Antichrist, 88 (nn. i, 2), 93 (a), 98 (n. 3) Apocalypse, the, 88 Apocalypses, Jewish, in NT, 84 (n. 4), 98 Atonement, extended to all rational beings, 101 (l>)

Baruch, Apocalypse of, 78 Book of, 78 Body, primitive theories, 12-18, Pauline doctrine, 99 Burial, 8-9.

Daniel, Book of, 59 Day of Yahwe. See Contents, A, II. Dualism in Judaism, 64, 71

Ecclesiastes, 25 Ecclesiasticus, 55 Elijah, 63 Enoch, Ethiopic, 27, 60, 65. Slavonic, 75 Eschatology :

  • general develop ment
    • Second century B.C., 58
    • Last century B.C., 64
    • First century A.D., 71
  • special conceptions, develop ment of
    • in apoc. lit., 63, 70, 81
    • in NT, 102+.
  • comparative, 52
  • of nation, 34
  • of the individual
    • (1) First period : confined to this life, 23-27
    • (2) Second period :
      • individual immortality, 27-
      • Synthesis of, national and individual, 49
      • Synthesis resolved : extreme individualism, 64
        • new Synthesis, 82

Ezekiel, 24, 42 Ezra, Fourth, 79

Gehenna :

  • for apostate Jews, 63
  • for all men (?), 62, 70, 81
  • for disembodied spirits in NT, 103

Gentiles in OT, 34, 42, 45-47, 62, 70, 81 Grave, the family, 9

Hades, see Sheol. Haggai, 45 Hasids, forerunners of Pharisees, 57 Heaven, final abode of righteous, 32, 57, 70, 8 1 Hebrews, 92 Hell, see Hades and Ge henna Hosea, 37

Immortality of soul apart from Messianic kingdom, 28-33, 64/, 67, 71, 72-74 Isaiah, 38, 43, 45, 48

James, Ep. of, 91 Jeremiah, 23, 4o_/C Jesus Christ, 82-87, the Judge of Men. See Parusia (end). Job, 2 7 / Jubilees, Book of, 72 Judgment, see Day of Yahwe,

  • Second century B.C., 63
  • Last century B.C., 70
  • First century A.D., 81
  • Apocalypse, 88
  • Johannine writings, 93
  • Pauline Epistles, 98^

Judith, 62

Kingdom :

  • I. in OT
    • Messianic, 34
    • pre-exilic idea, 38-39
    • later-universalistic, 42-44
    • nationalistic, 45-47
  • II. In Apocalyptic :
    • (1) here, eternal, 27, 60, 69
    • (2) here, temporary, 65, 67 /; T*f; 78
      • = 1000 years, 75
      • = 400 years, 79
    • (3) new regime, eternal, 66
    • (4) despaired of, 78-79.
  • III. In NT:
    • eternal, 82, 101
    • temporary in Apoc., 88
    • present and future, 83
    • after parusia, 84

Maccabees, First, 66, Second, 69, Fourth, 77 Man, primitive conception, 19, later, 20 Messiah,

  • not organically connected with kingdom till 100 A.D. (except in NT),
  • not mentioned in Eth. En. 1-36 91-104 ; i and 2 Mace. Judith, Slav. En.; Wisdom, 4 Mace, and certain parts of Apoc. Bar. and 4 Ezra (qq.v.)
  • in apoc. lit., 6o_/C, 66./C, 72, 74, 7%f-

Micah, 38 Millennium, 88 Moses, Assumption of, 73

Nahum, 36 New heavens, 65 New heavens and new earth, 48, 66, 78, S8/.

Paradise, 63, 75, 79, 103 Particularism in Ezek. and later, 45-47

Parusia or Second Advent :

  • in present generation, 84
  • later, 85
  • signs of, 84 (n. 4), 98
  • spiritual, 88
  • at final judgment, 91 f., 95, 98 ff.
  • a Judaistic view, afterwards abandoned, 98
  • universal conversion, 100
  • of Christ to judge, 86, 88, 91, 93, 98-

Pauline Epistles, 97-101 Peter, First, 94-96, Second, 89 Preaching to spirits in prison, 96. Pre-existence of soul, 75_/C Psychology, 19 f., see Soul and Spirit

Resurrection :

  • I. In OT idea
    • appears as a synthesis ; R. of body at advent of kingdom, 49^
    • (1) righteous Israelites, 50
    • (2) pre-eminently righteous and wicked, 50
  • II. Second century B.C., 63 (3 iv.) :
    • (i) righteous and certain wicked, 59 (see APOCALYPTIC, 27)
    • (2) all Israelites, 69
    • (3) righteous Israelites ; body transformed, 60
  • III. Last century B.C. : R. of Spirit 70 (4)
    • (1) righteous ; at close of kingdom, 65, 67
    • (2) righteous, in glory (also wicked for judgment),
  • IV. First century A.D., 81 (4):
    • (i.) Palestinian Judaism
      • (1) righteous ; after final judgment,
        • (a) without body, 727^
        • (b) in a spiritual body, 75, 80
      • (2) all men ; in body, 78^
      • (3) the first, 79
    • (ii.) Alexandrian Judaism righteous ; in spirit ; immediately after death, 74, ifsf.
  • V. in NT:
    • (1) righteous only, 87, 92 f., ($f.
    • (2) righteous and wicked, fyf; 93, 98 (c), n. 2
    • (3) first ; martyrs, on advent of millennium, 88 (t)
  • VI. R. of Christ and man, 99 .(/(;) time of the :
    • (1) at parusia, 98 (c), 99 (t>)
    • (2) at death
      • (a) implied, 99 (/>)
      • (b) directly taught, 100 (c)

Retribution in Ezekiel, 24 Revelation of the sons of God, 100 (c)

Sheol :

  • I. in earlier writings :
    • (1) original conception, 11, psychical activity, 16, later, destruction, 17
    • (2) for righteous temporary, for others eternal, 28, 50
    • (3) for very good and bad, temporary, 50
    • (4) for wicked only, 3i_/C
  • II. in apocalyptic and apocryphal literature, 63 (3), 70 ( 3 ),8i( 3 ):
    • (1) eternal, for all, 55 f.
    • (2) three modifications: (a) 59 ( sfi e APOCALYPTIC, 27); (b), 69; (c), 78 (iii.) 81
    • (3) final abode of fire, 70 (3 iii- b)
  • III. in NT, 103
  • (1) intermediate ; moral change possible, 96
  • (2) for wicked only ; intermediate, 88 (n. 5)

Sibylline Oracles, 58 (n. 5) Soul in OT :

  • I. primitive Semitic conception
    • (1) identified with the blood, 12
      • seat of personality, 13
      • almost = spirit, 19
      • conscious after death, 16(a), 15
    • (2) later ; extinguished at death, 16 (b)
  • II. after rise of belief in immortality
    • in Job, 28
    • individual immortality in Pss 31-32
    • in apocalyptic literature
      • almost identical with spirit, 63, 70, 81
      • pre-existent, 75+

Soul in NT

  • identical with the spirit, 102
  • Pauline = mere functions of body, 102


  • primitive conception :
    • almost = soul, 19
    • later view, 20
  • in apocalyptic literature = soul ;
    • descends to Sheol, 63, 70, 81
    • not = soul, 63
  • in NT
    • = Soul, 102
    • Pauline ; immaterial personality; deserves death, 102

Tartarus, 89 Teraphim, 4 Testament xii. Patriarchs, 61 Tobit, Book of, 56

Universalism in Jeremiah and later, 42-44

Wisdom, Book of, 76

Yahwe : early religion, 21, 17 (n. i)

Zechariah, 45 Zephaniah, 39


or, rather, as RV, Esdrelon, or Esrelon, 1 a place nigh unto Dotaea [Dothan], which is over against the great ridge 2 of Judaea (JudithSg), and over against which was Cyamon 3 (7s RV). Esrelon is the Greecised form of Jezreel, the name of the well- known city at the E. end of the great central plain of Palestine. In modern books Esdraelon is sometimes used for the plain of Esdraelon , a phrase which is not exactly accurate (see JEZREEL i. , 2), but can hardly now be set aside.

The phrases the great plain (TO juieya ire&iov E., Judith 18 ; TO vt&iov TO /xe ya, i Mace. 12 49) and the great plain of E. occur in the Apocrypna for the region called elsewhere the bifid of Megiddo (WJD nypa, 2 Ch. 8622; JV1JD 3, Zech. 12 n). A rtyp3 bik d (from yp;j to cleave ) is a level tract surrounded by hills (see VALE, 2) ; the term accurately describes this central plain, which is like a great gap cleft asunder among the hills. Esdraelon (now called Merj ibn Amir, or meadow of the son of Amir ) is, in form, triangular ; the base on the east extending fifteen miles, from Jenin to Tabor ; one side, formed by the hills of Galilee, is 12 m. long, and the other, formed by the mountains of Samaria, 1 8 m. The apex is a narrow pass opening into the plain of Acre. (On the five gateways of Esdraelon, see GASm. HG 390 f. ). This broad plain has for centuries attracted, as if by a spell, both nomad tribes and civilized hosts, who have coveted the rich lands of Palestine. See GALILEE (map of Galilee and Esdraelon).

Three eloquent pages are devoted by G. A. Smith 4 to the historic scenes of Esdraelon, with the object of conveying, not so much the dry historic facts, as the impression which this pageant of embattled hosts is fitted to produce. To the biblical student, however, two memories dwarf all the others.

It was in this plain that Barak won his famous victory (Judg. 4/i); here, too, that Josiah received his mortal wound (2 K. 2829). Whether the apocalyptic seer expected the kings of the earth to assemble in the latter days on the mountains of Megiddo, is a difficult problem. See ARMAGEDDON. Let it be also noticed that one whose conquests were moral, not material, was no stranger to Esdraelon ; the city called NAIN (Lk. 7 n) was situated to the NE. of the great plain.

Esdraelon lies 250 feet below the sea- level, and is extremely fertile. The rich, coarse grass gives a pleas ing aspect to the plain in spring-time, and yet the land is for the most part untouched by husbandry. What it might yield under better agricultural conditions is shown by the tall stalks of grain which spring up wherever corn is cultivated (W. Ewing, in Hastings, DB 1757 b. ).

The only important stream is the Kishon, the southern affluents of which come from near Jenin, whilst the northern branch rises near el-Mezra a, SW of Mt. Tabor (cp the torrent-course of Kishon, Judg. 4 13). This drains the Great Plain, and falls into the sea at Haifa. There are numerous springs on the NE and W. The most noteworthy is that of Jenin (seeEN-GANNlM, 2), those at and near Jezreel (cp HAROD, 2), and those of Lejjun. Among the places on the borders of the plain were Jokneam (the CYAMON of Judith 73), Megiddo, En-gannim, Jezreel (the city of Ahab), Shunem, Nain, and Endor (the last three on the slopes of the Little Hermon). No important town was situated on the plain itself. Cp PALESTINE.

1 <5 fcrSprjAwi ; but in Judith 1 8 o-p[p]Hi [B], eo-fipij^i [A], in 3g rSpa.r)\tav [B], -itjpA. [*], in 46 eo-pijXwf [B], repr)x<a [A], in V 3 ecnSprjAco/u. [A] ; Vg. Esdrelon (Hesdrahelon, -ahelom, -aelon).

2 TOO n-piWos TOW fieyoAou ; irpiutv, a sierra, or serrated ridge ? So at any rate Grotius.

3 The expression is accurate ; see GALILEE (map of Galilee and Esdraelon).

4 /fG 406-408