Encyclopaedia Biblica/Names-Naphish

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Encyclopaedia Biblica
Thomas Kelly Cheyne and John Sutherland Black
Names-Naphish
see Encyclopaedia Biblica for other articles, typographic issues, links to PDF copies, and public domain status

Contents

NAMES[edit]

{1}

CONTENTS {2}

  • A. PERSONAL NAMES [T. N.] (1-86)
    • A. GENERAL (1-23, 75-86)
      • I. HISTORY OF SUBJECT (1).
      • II. OBSCURITY (2-12).
        • Vowels (3),
        • Consonants (4).
        • Vowel-letters(5),
        • Greek evidence( 6).
        • Meaning obscure (7).
        • Many names not really personal (8-12).
      • III. COMPARISON WITH OTHER LANGUAGES ( 13-19).
      • IV. STRUCTURE OF NAMES (20-23, 75-79).
        • a. Composite names (20).
          • 1. Connective vowel (21).
          • 2. Prepositional prefix (22).
          • 3. Sentence names (23).
          • 4. Theophorous names (24).
          • 5. Syntax of certain names ( 20, 44).
        • b. Reduplications (58).
        • c. Terminations (75-78).
        • d. Abbreviations (49-57).
        • e. Grammatical persons (79).
      • V. HISTORY OF NAMES (80-86).
      • VI. BORROWED NAMES (81-86).
    • B. MEANING OF NAMES (25-74)
      • I. RELIGIOUS NAMES (24-59).
        • a. Divine element ( 25, 40-41).
          • Yahwe, El (25).
          • Other divine names (40-41).
          • Names of relationship (44-48).
          • Divine name abbreviated (49-57).
        • b. Other element (26-39, 44-57).
          • Various predicates (26-38).
          • Obscure (39).
          • Names of relationship ( 44-48).
          • Abbreviated names (49-57).
        • c. Character of religious names ( 59).
      • II. NON-RELIGIOUS NAMES (60-74).
        • Position in family (61-64).
        • Relationship (65).
        • Descriptive (66-67).
        • Animal and plant names (68-69).
        • Miscellaneous (70-74).
  • B. PLACE NAMES [G. B. C.] (87-107)
    • I. GENERAL
      • Compared with personal names (87).
      • Obscurity (88).
      • Origin (89-91).
    • II. STRUCTURE
      • Abbreviations (92).
      • Expansions (93).
      • Plurals and duals (107).
    • III. MEANINGS
      • Religious (94-98).
      • Non-religious ( 99-106).
  • C. DIVINE NAMES {3} [E.K.] (108-124)
    • Significance of a name (108).
    • Yahwe (109-113).
    • Elohim (114-115).
    • El (116).
    • Shaddai(117).
    • Elyon (118).
    • Adonai (119).
    • Baal (120).
    • Abir (121).
    • Rock (122).
    • Sabaoth (123).
    • Father (124).

1 The whole plan of the present work (see vol. i. p. ix [second paragraph], p. xvi, 5) rendered it necessary that the article NAMES should be one of the first written and forbade any subsequent modification of its general structure. On the relation of the article to the separate articles on individual names see (in addition to the passages in the preface referred to above) below, 87, 107, note, and cp NAME, 4.

2 This table of contents does not everywhere follow the actual order of the article. It is to a certain extent a compressed subject-index (arranged logically, not alphabetically).

3 See the footnote to this heading in loco(co\. 3320).

4 See Lag. OS (1870), 2nd ed. (1884).

5 Hiller, OS, Tub. 1706.

6 Simonis, OS, Halle, 1741.

A. PERSONAL NAMES.[edit]

1. Hist. of investigations.[edit]

Each of the many names of persons in the Bible must, of course, originally have had some special meaning. To discover this meaning is of great importance, since much light may thereby be thrown upon the manners and thought both of the ancient Hebrews and of the neighbouring peoples, not to mention the linguistic interest which attaches to such investigations. In the more ancient parts of the OT itself etymological explanations of names begin to occur (e.g. Gen. 4:1, 5:29) ; but these artless attempts, it need scarcely be said, have no more scientific value than the etymologies of Plato. The more systematic explanations given by Philo are likewise, as a general rule, mere plays upon words, and are moreover based upon a very inadequate knowledge of the language. They nevertheless exercised great influence during some fifteen centuries, owing to the fact that they served as the principal foundation of various Greek Onomastica and of the Latin Onomasticon of Jerome ; 4 similar works were likewise produced among the Syrians. Moreover, the explanations of proper names in the sixth and final volume of the Complutensian Bible are, for the most part, derived from Philo. It was not till later that the subject began to be treated in a scientific manner (especially after the appearance of the great works of Hiller 5 and of Simonis 6 ), and thus many points have been satisfactorily cleared up. Important contributions have been made quite recently by various authors, especially by G. B. Gray (Studies in Hebrew Proper Names), who carefully and with marked success de termines what kind of name - formation prevailed in the various periods. To a very large extent the present writer agrees with his result. It must be admitted, however, that very much still remains obscure, far more than was supposed by Gesenius, 1 for example, and even by the sceptical Olshausen. 2

2. Difficulties.[edit]

We are here met by two great difficulties, the fact that the Hebrew language is but imperfectly known, and, what is much more important, the fact that the traditional forms of the names are often untrustworthy.

3. Vocalisations.[edit]

In the first place, we cannot fail to perceive that the vocalisation of the less known names is, in many cases, chosen arbitrarily.

This is sufficiently proved by the manifold inconsistencies in the treatment of analogous and even of identical names : for instance, by the side of the correct form form Michayahu 1 * (I.TD D; 2 Ch. 13:2, 17:7) we often find Michayehu; by the side of 'Ader (-ny, 1 Ch. 8:15), the pausal form of 'Eder, we find 'Eder (~ny, 1 Ch. 23:23, 24:30), and so forth. It was impossible to ascertain from tradition the exact pronunciation of names no longer in use, particularly of such as occur in the ancient lists in Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah ; accordingly, the scribes used to content themselves with the shortest possible vocalisation, as was first remarked by Wellhausen (if the present writer be not mistaken). The LXX version often exhibits a different pronunciation, which, in some cases, is preferable to the Massoretic.

1 See the explanations of proper names in his monumental work, the Thesaurus.

2 See his Heb. Gramm. 609 Jf. This section, however, is remarkably instructive, in particular the introductory portion.

3 The names in this article are, as elsewhere, for practical convenience generally spelled as in AV, unless there is strong reason for following RV or giving a new transliteration. Long vowels are often marked as long, schwas as short - mainly to avoid ambiguity, the Hebrew being, as a rule, unvocalised. Absolute consistency has not been aimed at.

4. Consonants.[edit]

Even the consonants, however, are sometimes far less trustworthy than we might at first suppose. It is enough to compare the list of David's warriors in 2 S. 23 with those in 1 Ch. 11 and 27, referring also to the Greek text ; many of the names are quite different, and some are perhaps in no case handed down correctly.

Instead of po^s (2 S. 23:28) we find yj| in 1 Ch. 11:29, whilst LXX{B} in 2 S. appears to read E\\iav [elloon]! (see ZALMON). instead of p3*?y 3J< ( 2 S. 23:31), which is omitted in (unless it appears at the end of the list as y<z6<xj8u)A. vid? [B], cp yaas aj3u)\ [BNAL] of 1 Ch.), we find ^N 3K in 1 Ch. 11:32 ; it has been conjectured that the original form was Si 3"3N, but this cannot be regarded as absolutely certain (cp ABIALBON). In 2 S. 3:3 David's second son is called 3x^3, which is, no doubt, a corruption due to the following word ^J SK 1 ? (see DANIEL, 4), just as in Gen. 46:10 Ex. 6:15 *?N1D seems to he a corruption of SxiCJ (Nu. 26:12; 1 Ch. 4:24 ; cp also Nu. 26:9), through the influence of the following plD l (cp NEMUEL, i); but the AaAoum [dalouia] of LXX (AL and in 2 S, B) and the ^N n of 1 Ch. 3:1, which take the place of HN^D, are likewise open to suspicion (for a suggestion as to the true reading, see DANIEL, 4).

In the much later list also of those who returned from the Exile, twice cited by the Chronicler from the memoirs of Nehemiah (Ezra 2 = Neh. 7 ; cp 1 Esd. 5), we may observe slight divergences. Even the list of Saul's family in 1 Ch. 9:39+ differs in several points from that given in 8:33+ of the same book. The carelessness with which the Chronicler treated the lists of names is shown by the fact that on more than one occasion he quotes the same piece twice ; especially in regard to our knowledge of the proper names the inaccuracy of this compiler is much to be deplored. Even in the documents from which he copied, however, some of the names may have been already grievously distorted. Hence in the case of names which occur only once in Chronicles, Ezra, or Nehemiah, the greatest possible caution is necessary. We have still more reason to regret that the books of Samuel contain so many corrupt readings, which, even with the help of LXX, can be emended only in part ; the proper names in particular, which were many and invariably genuine, have suffered much in consequence.

We may note, for example, that the same man is called nyilNn (Kr. _rui-|N,-i) in 2 S. 24:16, rt ^K (Kr. mm) in . 18, rum in <"" 20 (bis) 22:23, whilst in Chronicles he always appears as Oman (j:nN), in LXX always as Opva [Orna] (once Opvav [accus.] in 1 Ch. 21:21), and in Josephus, it would seem, as Opocas [Oronas] (Niese, Oporra? or Opuj^aj). What was his real name? (For a plausible conjecture see ARAUNAH.)

Even in books of which the text is, in general, much better preserved, however, the forms of the proper names cannot always be trusted.

When we find 3V in Gen. 46:13 corresponding to 3i[j" in Nu. 26:24 (3 % E" in 1 Ch. 7:1, A"/.), the mistake can be easily corrected, the more so as the Sam. text and LXX likewise read 3*2" in this passage (cp JASHUB, i). Hut the list in Gen. 46, as com pared with Nu. 26, presents some other variations which prove the existence of early corruptions in one at least of these texts. Hence we have no guarantee that names which occur only once in the Pentateuch, not to mention the Book of Joshua, are cor rectly written.

5. Vowel letters.[edit]

It must be remembered, furthermore, that in all probability many proper names which now contain vowel letters were written defectively in the more ancient documents (see WRITING, 15).

We cannot, therefore, feel at all sure that in every instance the vowel-letters were inserted as correctly as in the case of the well-known -pvi (instead of the more ancient in, on which see DAVID, DODO, DODAI, DODAVAH). The sovereign who is called ytj"o [MYSHA] (Mesha) 2 in 2 K. 3:4 appears as jjtTO [MSHA] in the inscription set up by himself; his name in LXX is Moxra [Moosa] (but Josephus has >I[e]io-as [Meisas]) [BAL], i.e., yc ic, and this would seem to be the correct form. The name of the king of Tyre in 1 K. 5:24, 5:32 [5:10, 5:18] is ciTn> hut elsewhere, in Samuel and Kings, DTn, with which i Ch. 14 i, Kt. agrees ; in the latter passage the Kr. is Huram (oiln), and elsewhere, in Chronicles, this form is invariably used. The Tyrian tradition followed by Josephus (c. Ap. 1:17-21) has Eipj^.os [eiroomos], or lp<afj.o^ [iroomos], and so we should read in Herod. 7:98 (cp 5:104), instead of Jupio^os [siroomos]. Hence it follows that ciTn s the only correct form, and that min can be nothing but a blunder. Such being the case, what reason have we for believing that the names of less celebrated persons, such as Bani ( 33), Bunni (-33, 313), or Binnui (-133), are always correctly vocalised, especially as the Bani of 2 S. 23:36 seems to become Mibhar (in3C) in 1 Ch. 11:38? (for an explanation see MIBHAR, HAGRI).

1 In citing Oriental words from LXX aspirates and accents are here omitted, since they were introduced into the text at a time when the real pronunciation could no longer be ascertained.

2 Another Mesha (V& O, 1 Ch. 2:42) whose name, for some unknown reason, is written with a, while that of the Moabite king has a, is called Mo.pto-a(s) in HA by a confusion with the Mareshah who comes later in the same verses.

6. Greek versions.[edit]

On the other hand, there may be many cases in which the Massoretes failed to mark the long vowels because the names in question had been handed down without vowel letters. It is of less importance that in certain names the Greek texts exhibit a somewhat older pronunciation than that recognised by the Massoretes.

Thus the Greek forms often preserve the vowel a, particularly in unaccented closed syllables, where the Massoretic form has / , in accordance with the latest phonetic development of Hebrew ; for example, Ma/naja [mariam] - i.e., Maryam or rather Maryam (C""P, the only form known to the Syrians and the Arabs) - is, of course, more primitive than Miryam. Cp also MarCaijias, MarraSias with Mattithyah (nvwc), Va\aaS with Gil fid (li Sj), etc. Similarly the a in A/3eA [Abel], T<x/3ep is more primitive than the e (;) in Hebel (S3n), Geber (133) ; but in the majority of such form. LXX has the later pronunciation with e.

From all this we may conclude that in the case of obscure names we have no right to assume the traditional punctuation to be correct, and must always make allow ance for considerable changes.

7. Meanings obscure.[edit]

Since, moreover, our knowledge of the Hebrew language, as has been remarked above, is very imperfect, and since we cannot hope to discover the particular circumstances by which this or that name was first suggested, it follows that even when the form of a name is fairly certain its meaning is often unintelligible. This applies even to such names as Judah (,TTI,T), Aaron (pintf), Rechab (331), Ruth(rvn), etc. 1 By a comparison with the cognate languages we frequently obtain nothing better than an interpretation which is barely possible. It is, for example, conceivable that the Hebrews once used the verb JTQ in the Arabic sense 'to rise', 'to be prominent', and that hence the name Beriah (nyn) was formed ; but this is very far from being certain. The reader must therefore bear in mind that many of the explanations given below are merely tentative, even where doubt is not positively expressed. Furthermore, many names which at first seem to admit of an easy explanation prove, on closer inspection, to be either very obscure or transmitted to us in a doubtful form. In general, it may be said, compound names are more easily explained than simple ones (cp 88).

8. Eponyms.[edit]

Among the persons mentioned in the OT we find a considerable number of eponyms - i.e. , representatives of families and tribes. It is certain, or at least highly probable, that some of these were originally names of countries or places, for both in ancient and in modern nations there has been a wide spread tendency to assume that a people, a tribe, a family, or a country must derive its name from some individual. In Gen. 10 the genealogy of Noah's descendants includes even plurals such as Ludim (c -n 1 ?) and Pathrusim (c Ditne), as well as countries and cities, such as Egypt (c lsc) and Zidon (JITS). Here the fictitious character of the list plainly shows itself. Similarly 'the Jebusite', 'the Arvadite' (i.e., native of Aradus), and others who appear in the same chapter, are to be understood, in accordance with the genuine Hebrew usage, as collective terms for the tribes, or rather inhabitants, of the places in question.

1 To suppose that here a y has been dropped is contrary to the laws of the language.

9. Gentilicia.[edit]

In like manner we are to explain the gentilicia (i.e., adjectives derived from proper names) with the ending /, which are enumerated among the posterity of Jacob in Nu. 26:15+. Perhaps even Levi ( i 1 ?) and Naphtali (-^ns:) may belong to the same class.

The name Mushi ( ( BHD) which occurs, together With Merari ("Tic) and Mahli (*Sno), in the pedigree of the Levites, is rightly regarded by Wellhausen as a derivation from Moses (na ; c) > B ?S s tnat P art f tne priestly tribe which claimed descent from Moses himself (cp MOSKS, 2). That in the later system the name occupies a different place, and that the vowel has been slightly changed, is not to be wondered at. The expression 'the sons of half the tribe of Manasseh' (np-jjQ iip >xn % 33 ; 1 Ch.5:23) may serve as a warning against explaining such 'fathers' literally, for no one, of course, can have imagined that ntPJD D^f Sfl [='half the tribe of Manasseh'] was an individual.

10. Place names.[edit]

Among the descendants of Jacob there are also, it would seem, several names of places ; Hezron (j nsn), a grandson of Judah, represents the place bearing this name in the Judaean territory (Josh. 15:25) - the word signifies 'enclosure' (which is the original sense of the English 'town' ) from the same root as Hazor (-lixn, see HAZOR), and some other Semitic names of places, for instance, the well- known Hatra in the Mesopotamian desert.

In 1 Ch. 2 names of places such as Hebron (p"On) and Tappuah (rUBn) are cited as persons ; Hebron (;i"Qn) appears also as a grandson of Levi (Exod. 6:18), since Hebron was a Levitical city. The Manassite Shechem (C3C* ; Nu. 26:31; Josh. 17:2, cp 1 Ch. 7:19) and the non-Israelite Shechem [different accents] (DDE? ; Gen. 33:18; Josh. 24:32 ; Judg. 9:28), alike represent the city of Shechem. Shimron (jiioc?), a son of Issachar (Gen. 46:13), is probably to be pronounced Shomerom (J TCE )I and stands for the city of Samaria ; that this place derives its name from a man called Shemer (IBB? ; 1 K. 16:24) is very unlikely. The Josephite tribes, it must be remembered, were in part settled on the ancient territory of Issachar (and Asher), cp Josh. 17:11. 1 The other capital of the northern kingdom, Tirzah (ns in) is represented by a daughter of the Manassite Zelophehad (ins^i i Nu. 26:33, and elsewhere). Many similar instances might be adduced. It is even possible that the Judaean Ethnan (pnN ! 1 Ch. 4:7) may stand for the Judaean city Yithnan, EV Ithnan (pn 1 ! Josh. 15:23). In the case of some names mentioned in the earlier parts of Chronicles we cannot determine whether they were intended, at least by the original narrator, to represent places or persons ; 'sons of So-and-so' may very well mean 'inhabitants of such-and-such a place'.

11. Tribe names.[edit]

Most of the family names and tribal names which occur in the OT are formed exactly like the names of persons - Among the Arabs there are very many names which are borne by tribes and individuals alike, and often the name is such as properly applies to an individual only. In a large number of cases 'the sons of So-and-so' are really descendants of the man in question, though they sometimes include adopted members. In other cases, a whole tribe takes the name of a famous chief or of his family, and the old tribal name gradually falls out of use. Such processes may be observed in Arabia even at the present day. Other causes also may operate in producing these changes. At all events we are justified in treating the names of real or supposed ancestors as individual names, unless their appearance indicates the contrary.

1 See, however, ASHER ( 3).

12. Fictional.[edit]

A considerable number of names in the OT must be regarded as fictional. Not to mention the names in the lists of mythical patriarchs down to Abraham, who are perhaps, in some cases, of non-Hebrew origin, we meet with various names which were invented in order to fill up the gaps in genealogies and the like. Such names appear in the middle books of the Pentateuch and are particularly numerous in Chronicles. The so-called Priestly Code - which gives not only the exact measurements of Noah's ark and of the scarcely less fabulous Tabernacle, but also impossible statistics as to the numbers of the Israelite tribes - mentions many representatives or chiefs of the tribes, and there is every reason to suspect that some of these personages had no existence. Their names are indeed generally formed in the same manner as the names of real men ; but they sometimes exhibit certain peculiarities ; it is, for example, only here that we find names compounded with Shaddai (HIT; see SHADDAI) and Sur (-HS ; see ZUR, NAMES WITH). The main object of the compiler of Chronicles is to glorify the Levites, and especially the families of temple-singers and door-keepers, and thus, in treating of the times of David and Hezekiah, he mentions many Levites, whose names rest upon no better documentary evidence than the descriptions of the religious services, performed by the said Levites according to the post-exilic ritual. Names coined by prophets or poets (such as the author of Job) belong, of course, to a different category.

13. Cognate dialects.[edit]

The present article includes those OT names which were in use among the nations bordering on Israel - names formed according to ordinary Hebrew analogy. On the other hand, the names of Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians, and Persians are excluded (see ASSYRIA, 22, EGYPT, 40).

14. Arabic.[edit]

At the present day we are acquainted with very many personal names that were current among other Semitic peoples. The Arabic names known to us are particularly abundant ; these include the great majority of the names found in the Nabataean inscriptions (of which the Sinaitic inscriptions are a subdivision), and also a large proportion of the Palmyrene names. Many Arabic and Aramaic names have been preserved in the Greek inscriptions of Syria and of the neighbouring countries. 1 As to the pronunciation of most Arabic names we are accurately informed, thanks to the industry of Mohammedan scholars. But this knowledge unfortunately throws very little light upon Hebrew proper names, owing to the fact that the nomenclature of the Arabs differed widely from that of the Israelites.

15. Phoenician.[edit]

To the latter the Phoenician is much more nearly alike. The Phoenician inscriptions contain many proper names ; since, however, vowel letters are very rarely used, the exact pronunciation cannot be ascertained, nor is much information to be derived from the transcriptions which occur in Greek and Latin documents. These transcriptions, moreover, vary considerably. The Phoenicians, particularly in Africa, appear to have had a somewhat indistinct pronunciation and a fondness for dull vowels, so that the sounds are reproduced by Greeks and Romans in an uncertain manner.

Thus the Punic name rtO (Heb. jnc, Mattan) figures in the Latin inscriptions of Africa as Metthtinus, Mettun, Matthun, Mutum, Mytthum ; Jos. c. Ap. 1:21 has MiirrvitK [muttunos]; Polybius ix. 22:4, Mvrroyof [myttunos]: Livy 25-27, Muttines ; and perhaps we may add the Mo.TTiji [matten] of Herod. 7:98.

16. Aramaic.[edit]

It must likewise be remembered that of the Phoenician language extremely little is known. With respect to Aramaic names we possess very much fuller information ; a considerable number may be found in inscriptions and literary works, and the pronunciation is, for the most part, fairly certain.

17. Sabaean.[edit]

The names in the Sabaean inscriptions agree to some extent, it is true, with the Arabic (in the narrower sense), or at least are formed according to Arabic analogy ; but many of them have an antique character, unknown in classical Arabic, and these latter names exhibit many features which appear also in Hebrew nomenclature. The Sabaean pronunciation, however, is but very imperfectly known, and even those who are really acquainted with the inscriptions (which is far from being the case with the present writer) understand still less of the language than students of the Phoenician monuments understand of Phoenician.

1 Such names will here be cited in the genitive case, whenever the nominative is uncertain.

18. Abyssinian.[edit]

The formation of Abyssinian proper names, as they are coined even in our own time, offers very instructive analogies to the Hebrew (see below, 21, 22).

19. Other languages.[edit]

The fact that it has been found necessary to exclude Assyrio- Babylonian and Egyptian names 1 from this article, doubtless constitutes a serious defect, for quite apart from general analogies, it is not impossible that the two ancient centres of civilisation, Babylonia and Egypt, exercised a direct influence on the mode of coining names among the neighbouring Semitic peoples. The present writer, however, is not in a position to verify the statements of Assyriologists and Egyptologists, still less to throw fresh light upon such matters. Furthermore, it would seem that the proper names of the Assyrians and the Babylonians sometimes differed essentially from those of the Hebrews. It may be noted, in particular, that there was a liking for very long names. The names of the non-Semitic Egyptians probably diverged still more from the Hebrew type. In consequence of some attention devoted to Greek proper names - a study which the work of Fick 2 has now greatly facilitated - it has been thought permissible to cite a few illustrations from this department. Some surprising analogies will here be found, in spite of the great dissimilarity of the two races.

20. Composite names.[edit]

Very many Hebrew names are formed by composition from two or more independent words. We will first consider these compounds from the point of view of their form before treating of their signification. Such names, according to the Massoretic vocalisation, undergo various contractions, which must be based, to a large extent, upon sound tradition, or at least upon correct analogy ; but some of the details are uncertain. 3 A compound name may consist of

  • (a) two substantives, the second being in the genitive (20-21), or else it may form
  • (b) a complete sentence (22+).

a. To the class of compounds consisting of two nouns, in the nominative and the genitive respectively, belong such names as Jedid-iah (,TTT), 'beloved of Yahwe', Mattithiah (in nnc). 'gift of Yahwe', Esh-baal (Syn)wx), 'man of Baal', Obadiah (in-ny), 'servant of Yahwe', etc.

21. Connective i.[edit]

In many proper names the first part ends in i. This is mostly to be regarded as the suffix of the first pers. sing. 4 but sometimes as a mere appendage of the construct state - a formation of which we occasionally find examples elsewhere, and a survival, it would seem, of some old case-ending. A few of these instances are open to question, in consequence of the general uncertainty of the vowels.

If the form Abdi-el (Vx lDy) in 1 Ch. 5:15 (equivalent to Abdeel [Sx nDyl i" Jer - 30:26) be correct, it can mean only 'servant of God', just as Zabdiel (^N Tm) in Neh. 11:14, 1 Ch. 27:2 (cp Za/3il)A 6 "Apai//, 1 Macc. 11:17) means 'gift of God'. Hanniel (Sx jn) is 'favour of God', like the common Carthaginian name SjD:n, 'Hannibal', Ari/i pas. 5 So also Melchizedek ( 3^0 pis) is probably 'king of righteousness', * and the name of the angel Gabriel (SN -OJ), 'man of God'.

The use of this old termination i in names formed at a late date may be due to an imitation of antique names. Archaic forms have an air of solemnity, for which reason the same ending i is sometimes added to ordinary nouns in the construct state by later poets. Similarly the u before the genitive in another common Punic name Vy3iTy, Azrubal, Azzrubal, Hasdrubal, 'Affdpovfias [hasdroubas], 'help of Baal', seems to occur in a few ancient biblical names - e.g. , Samuel 7 C?KieB )> 'name of God'.

1 See ASSYRIA, 22, EGYPT, p 40.

2 Die gricchischen PersonennatnenC 2 -}, Fritz Bechtel and Aug. Pick, Gott. 1894.

3 Contractions so violent as the Phoenician Bomilcar, Boncar f r mpSoi3i Gescon, Giscon for poij, Bodostor, Bostar for rnnE ina, seem to have been quite unknown in Hebrew.

4 For an alternate view see ABI, NAMES WITH, 3.

5 SyTJnD (CIS, 1 661) appears doubtful on account of the frequent ATutthin/>al without ; .

6 See, however, MELCHIZEDKK.

7 On the meaning of this and similar names see SHEM, NAMES WITH.

22. Prepositional prefix.[edit]

In some names a preposition stands before the noun in the construct - e.g. , Besod-iah (miD3), 'in the secret of Yahwe', Bezaleel (^N^a), 'in the shadow of God' ; cp the Phoenician SNT3> 'in the hand of God'. * Such formations are common among the Abyssinians - e.g. Baeda Maryam, 'by the hand of Mary', Basalota Mikael, 'by the prayer of Michael', etc. ; cp also the Sabaean nfijrn 1 ?, 'to the life of Athtar'. Single nouns with prepositions appear in Lael (jn 1 ?), and Lemoel (Prov. 31:4, MT^ iD 1 ?), or Lemuel (^NiD 1 ?), 'to God' (i.e. , 'belonging to God'), as also in Bera (jra) and Birsha (yeha), 'with (or, in) evil', and 'with (or, in) wickedness', the names of the legendary kings of Sodom and Gomorrah. Similar are the foreign names Bishlam (oWn) 'with peace' (Ezra 4:7 ), and Ethbaal (Syprm), 'with Baal' (1 K. 16:31), unless the latter be equivalent to I0w/3aXos [hithoobalos] (according to the Tyrian tradition in Jos. c. Ap. 1:18 ; Ant. 8:13:2, cp c. Ap. 1:21; Ant. 10:11:1), which probably means 'with him is Baal'. On such Semitic names with prepositions see WZKM, 6314^!

23. Sentence names.[edit]

b. The use of complete sentences as proper names is common to all Semites. Among the natives of central and northern Arabia, it is true, such formations appear only as sporadic survivals, in nicknames (e.g. , Ta'abbata sharra[n], 'he has mischief under his arm', Ja'a kamluhu 'his lice are hungry' ), and in names consisting of a single verbal form (e.g. , Yazid, 'he augments' ). But among the Syrians these names were freely coined, even in Christian times (e.g. , Slibha zakhe, 'the cross conquers', Kamisho , 'Jesus is risen', Subhha Imaran, 'praise to our Lord' ! etc. )

Similar are the Abyssinian Takasta berhan, 'the light has been revealed', Madkhanina Egzi , 'our Redeemer is the Lord', Mal'ak samra, 'the angel has pleasure in her', Yemrahana Krestos, 'may Christ have mercy on us' ! etc., and the modern Amharic Delwambara, 'victory is her throne' (name of the wife of Muhammed Gran, the enemy of the Christians), Alam ayahu, 'I have seen the world' (name of a son of King Theodore), Wandemu nau, 'I am his brother' ; cp also such cases as Tawabach, 'she is beautiful' (name of the wife of Theodore), Abarash, 'thou (fem.) hast enlightened', etc.

To these correspond the Hebrew Hephzibah (n3 sen), 'I have my pleasure in her' (2 K. 21:1, cp Is. 624); Azrikam (cp"iiy), 'my help has arisen' ; Col-hozeh (nih ^), 'he sees all' (?) ; Jushab-hesed (icn 3B v), 'kindness is requited'. Even the tribal name Issachar (OB tS") seems to belong to this class, since it can scarcely be anything else than -ob uK 'there is a reward', although it must be admitted that the meaning appears somewhat strange (see ISSACHAR, 3, 6). In like manner Isaiah expresses one of his fundamental ideas in the name which he gives to his son, Shear-jashub (mr INC ), the remnant shall be converted ; another son he ventures to call Maher-shalal-hash-baz(i3 tyn ^>Se> ins), 'plunder has hastened, booty has sped'. 2 Ezekiel forms the name Oholi-bah (RV), na %l ?nN, 'my tent is in her', cp Lo-ruhamah (,-icrn N 1 ?), 'she has not found mercy', in Hosea. Joshbekashah (ntrpair), in 1 Ch. 25:4, 25:24, seems to be yashib kashah, ntrp ac* 'He (i.e., God) brings back hard fate'. Instead of Hazzelelponi (RV), jisSSsn (fem.), in 1 Ch. 4:3, we should perhaps read Haslelpanai (-jsS^iin) or Haselpanai ( 3s ?!>n= :s ?sn hazel panai], 'Do thou shadow my face' ! We must of course regard as a fiction the statement in 1 Ch. 25:4, where the sentence Giddalti we Romamti Ezer [YShRKShH] Mallothi Hothir Mahazi'oth (-rnin TII^D 3 -ITJ? nccm B^ia nN mo), 'I have made great (cp v. 29) and have helped mightily (v. 31), I have fulfilled (? v. 26) abundantly (v. 28) visions (v. 30)', is cut up in order to furnish names for the five sons of Heman, one of the Levitical singers (see HEMAN). The name of another Levite Shemiramoth (niDYCtr) appears also to have been borrowed from some poem, which contained the words 'My name (i.e. the name of God) is exalted' (lit. exalted things), or else, if we pronounce Sheme ( Otr), 'the heavens on high'. 1

1 On an intaglio - a term used in this article to include inscriptions on seals, scarabs, and gems, such as those published by M. A. Levy (Siegel -und Geiinnen), de Vogue (Intailles), and Ganneau (SceaHx et cachets).

2 Here inp is probably to be taken as a perfect.

3 Here nB p3B" nas been interpolated.

Theophorous names.[edit]

24. Their Form.[edit]

The above-mentioned names have, for the most part, a religious meaning, implied or expressed. Much more numerous are names which consist of sentences explicitly mentioning the Deity. In such sentences the predicate is sometimes a verb, sometimes a noun. The verb may stand in the perfect or the imperfect, rarely in the imperative ; of this last we have an instance in Hachaliah (rvSan). which, as Th. Bohme first pointed out, should be read not Hachalyah (.T^pn), but Hakkeleyah (ir^an), 'wait for Yahwe'! Both in the verbal and in the nominal sentence the subject may stand either at the beginning or at the end - e.g., Elnathan ([ruSn), and Nathaneel C?N3ru) 'God has given' ; Jehoiarib (TTI.T), 'Yahwe contends', and Jerubbaal (^JHT), 'Baal contends' ; Elimelech (I m Sx), 'my God is king', and Malchiel Cnr^a), 'God is my king'. 1 2 The order of the words cannot, of course, vary in interrogative sentences - e.g., Michael C?N;J-C), 'who is like God?' Michaiah (iirro), 'who is like Yahwe?'

In many cases, it should be noticed, we have no means of deciding whether the predicate be a. verb or a noun, nor even whether the name before us be a sentence or two nouns of which the second is in the genitive. In the absence of conclusive arguments to the contrary, it is best to follow the vocalisation, without placing too much confidence in it. As regards the sense it matters nothing whether, for example, we pronounce Joezer (ityr), 'Yahwe is help', in accordance with tradition, or Joazar (iu?r), 'Yahwe has helped', after the analogy of Eleazar (itySx). of which the vowels are certain, since the name was a very favourite one.

25. Divine part.[edit]

In Israelite names the Deity is most frequently called by the name peculiar to the God of Israel, - viz. Yahwe (rn,r), which is invariably contracted. At the beginning it appears as Jeho- (I,T) or Jo- (r), at the end as yahu or yah (1,1 or ,v ; EV always -iah or -jah). Often (see e.g. , ISAIAH) the same name has both forms. 3 On ancient Israelite intaglios we find v used also at the end - e.g. , VTJ; (twice), and V33ty (once, while irnnsyi corresponding to rnnt? in the OT, occurs once also), ve j; (once), and vnx (once). The pronunciation was probably yau or yau [with accent], the contraction being similar to that in V3N, abhiu, 'his father', instead of I.TSN, which also occurs ; the phonetic difference must have been very slight. In like manner we should perhaps read Ahiyyau (vnn = Ahiyyahu, urnx), instead of Ahio (i-nx), in 1 Ch. 8:14, 8:31, 9:37, as also in 2 S. 6:3-4 (=1 Ch. 13:7), where a proper name suits the context better than 'his brethren' (rnx). Even an Aramaic heathen of Egypt writes his name i-ny, 'Yahwe helps' (Clerm. -Gann. , Rt. d Arch. , 1896, 2 25). The man was perhaps of Judean extraction ; the name of his father -231? seems also to be Hebraic, cp auty, 57-

The word El (Sx), 'God', is likewise very common in proper names ; at the beginning it usually appears as Eli- ( Sx)i which can scarcely be translated otherwise than 'my God'. 4 Among the Phoenicians, Aramaeans, and Sabaeans also Sx was largely employed in the formation of proper names. Names containing other appellations of the Deity are much rarer, and will be noticed below in their proper place.

1 Whether the name Semiramis has the same etymology cannot here be discussed. In any case the Hebrew name is not borrowed from that of the divine queen.

2 These facts constitute a strong argument against the opinion that the characteristic difference as to the order of the words between the nominal and the verbal clause in Arabic dates from primitive times.

3 When both forms occur, only the form with in will here be mentioned.

4 For an alternative view see ABI, NAMES WITH,

26. Their meanings.[edit]

Theophorous proper names often give clear expression to the ideas of the Hebrews and of tne Semites generally, as to the relation of man to God. A comprehensive view of the names in question will be found more instructive than a lengthy exposition ; in the following lists, however, a rigidly systematic order will not be observed.

27. God the giver.[edit]

In many names God appears as the giver of the child. Elnathan (which occurs also in Egyptian Aramaic), Nethaneel, Jehonathan(jri3i,T), Nethaniah (imra also on an ancient Hebrew intaglio), Mattaniah (imno). Mattithiah (i,i-nnc, wrongly written nnnn, Mattattah [RV] in Ezra 10:33). Cp the Nabataean (or Edomite) jroDpi Kocrvdravos [kosnatanos] (Miller 1 ); the Phoenician jn Sys, v, and other names containing |jv, -iadwv, jjore, 1C, the old Aramaic |n33Di. the Palmyrene jrunj, 1 , as well as other Aramaic names containing 3,1-, Arabic and Sabaxm names containing 3,11 ; so also Oe65u>/>os [theodoros], AwcriOeos [doritheos], HpoSoTos, etc. The same meaning belongs to Elzabad (mi^x), Jehozabad (1371,1-), Zebadiah (i,i i3i), Zabdiel Sx i27(/a/i5i7jX6"Apai|i ); compare the Palmyrene 121133,

  • 7313I (Za/SSi /S?7Xoj [zabdibelos], Polybius 679105), etc. Perhaps we

may, with Gesenius, include in this category EW-, t?xirr; cp the Arabic Aus, 'gift', and the Sabaean names oixSx, SXDIX, SXDIX . But the vocalisation of Josiah (i.Trx ) seems to militate against this view. 2

God gives of his own free will, or apportions (as a gift) - Jehonadab (3131,1-), Nedabiah (i,T3i3) ; so also it would appear, Ya^a^X [gabael] (Fa/icbjXos) in Tobit, 'God has chosen out'. But Pelaiah (rvx TE. n-Se), and in 1 Ch. 15:18, 15:21 Eliphelehu (inSs Sx, to be taken as an imperative) probably have a different meaning.

God increases (the family) - Eliasaph (PD-^K), Josiphiah (,VSDT).

God opens (the womb) - Pethahiah (n-nns), as Nestle has rightly explained (Die Israelitischen Eigennamen, 168), in accordance with Gen. 30:22; cp the Sabaean Vxnn2- The 'opening' or 'enlightenment' of the mind is expressed in Pekahiah ( in-ripe )

28. Gracious.[edit]

God is gracious Elhanan, pn^x (also on an ancient Hebrew intaglio) Hananeel, S N 3jn ( AvacTjXos, Jos. Ant. xv. 4), Jehohanan (pnin-), Hananiah, 1,1-330 (on an intaglio ,i.-33n), Hanniel (Sx"3n)- 3 Cp the Phoenician Sy33rT, in-Sjn (Baliahon, CIL 8 10785), ^330 (Hannibal), nnpS^n (Hamilcar), ixm , the Nabatasan ^K3n ("Aw^Xos [hannelos]) ; the Palmyrene |rrnS3, [nnj;. So also Hasadiah (n-ion). in 1 Ch. 3:20, and perhaps Rizia [RV] (N-V.-I) in 1 Ch. 7:39, for Resaya, ,i-v;i.

God has mercy - Jerahmeel, rxcm -

God blesses - Barachel ( I ?K312), Berechiah, 1,1-313 (Bapax as), Jeberechiah, i,T3i3\ Cp KocrySdpa/cos [cosbarakos] )i I5oi ;U.atos, CIG, 5149 ; the Phoenician juS^, Barichal in Latin inscriptions, and so we should read the name in Cicero, Verr. 3:39, 3:89), 713112 (on an intaglio) , the Palmyrene 713*713 (UwX/j dpa^os [theopsilptos]).

God loves - Jedidiah (,TTT), perhaps also Eldad (nSx), Elidad (n-Vx). Cp the Sabaean ^jon, 6e60iXos [theopsilos], Ai</n/\os [dipsilos], Qeo^iXijTos [theopsiletos], etc.

God helps - Eleazar (i7y i ?x), Azarfel C?xiiy), Azariah (in-uy), Eliezer (i7ySx), Joezer (i7yr). Cp the Phoenician 1IJ?3CC X, l7i % Vj;3 (BaX^fu>/>os [Balezeroos], Jos. c. Ap. 1:18), ^>j;2i7j; (Azrubal, etc. ), I ?y3ni7j? i the old Aramaic itySj, 3. njnirr. Vx3i7j;, Sxny ; the Sinaitic nyoip, -nSxnii 1 , the Palmyrene n*?ii 3 (the three last names are Arabic). Adriel (^x ny). in 1 S. 18:19, 2 S. 21:8, would be Aramaic ; but it is

probably a mere mistake for Azriel C?N"ity), or Azareel C?N-iiy), as the LXX seems to indicate (LXX{L} , however, in i S. edptrjX [edriel]). The same meaning, it would appear, is conveyed by Jesha (ytr), Shua (yir), Sha (yy, cp nyirn) in Isaiah (Yesha-yahu irryir), Hoshaiah (rryti in. .vytinn), ^>xytr (on an intaglio), Jehoshua (ye-irv), Jeshua (yitr)i Elishua (yitr jN), Elisha (ytrW) ; similarly Rehabiah, varrii 'wideness (i.e. help, cp ytr) through Yahwe'.

God is with man - Immanuel, Vxusy, and perhaps Ithiel, 1 SNTVK (Neh. 11:7). Conversely Azaliah, I.V^K, 'with Yahwe' 1 (?).

God confers benefits - Gamaliel [EV], ^jj^oj. Mehetabeel, jNatrno (Edomite) fem.

God is good, kind -Tabeel, SxaB (altered purposely by the scribes into Vxac:, Tabeal, which was intended to signify 'not good' ), Tu/SiijX [tobiel] (Tob. 1:1), Tobiah, uraic-

1 By Miller is meant, in this article, the list of Semitic names of the second century B.C. from Egypt, given by E. Miller in the Revue Archeotttgique for 1870, icx)Jf.

- It is hardly justifiable to explain Kushaiah, n C lp 1 Ch. 15:17 ( Kicraiou [AL]; Keio-. [B]), for which 644(29] h.-j Kishi (-c,"p), from the Assyrian kashu, 'to give', a verb unknown, it would seem, in the other Semitic languages.

3 VxC3n in Jer. 32:7-9, 12, though repeated several times, seems to be incorrect.

29. Strength.[edit]

God sustains - Semachiah(iri < 3CD), Ismachiah(i,T3CD*). cp irmP (on an intaglio)

God bears - Amasiah (.rccy), cp the Phoenician DDyVjDi DCyjSB N-

God holds - fast Jehoahaz, inNiiVi Ahaziah, i.TtnN (the king who bears this name is called inNirr in 2 Ch. 21:17, 25:23), Hezekiah, irrpm (the punctuation of the form irrpirr, which also occurs [see HEZEKIAH], can scarcely be correct), Ezekiel, jxpirr-

God is strong, and strengthens - Uzziel C?N"Ty), Azaziah (in ny), Uzziah, irrry (on an ancient Hebrew intaglio, vry). Cp the Phoenician iSciy ( Af^utXicos), Vyaiy, mpteiy, lyrnnc y, ^xwy (the two last are on intaglios), the Saba-an jySx ( EXeafos [heleazos]) ; Geo/v-pdrijs [theokrates], \\offti8oKptuv [poseidokreoon], etc. The names Jaaziel (^x-iy), Jaaziah (in ty), should perhaps be added ; so also Amaziah (I.TSSK)-

God is a refuge - Mahseiah (RV) (Tone) [Bit]. In stead of Maaz-iah (irviyc), and Eluzai ( ny^x) we should probably pronounce Me'oziyyah (iri iys) and El'ozi ( nySx) respectively. Cp Avdrj\os (Miller) and numerous Arabic names derived from iiy = Heb. ny 'to take refuge' ; the Aramaic xTiy , ZyviK^Trfii [zeniketes] EpjMUJnfnj! [ermeketes]. Similarly Bezaleel (Vx^sa), 'in the shadow of God', and Elizur (-ns Sx), 'my God is a rock'.

30. Deliverer.[edit]

God delivers - Elpalet (aSsSx), Elipelet (E^S^N), Paltiel (WrttH Pelatiah (n B^ The same meaning it would seem belongs to Melatiah (irraSc), anc l perhaps to Delaiah (^n Si) 'Yahwe has drawn out'. We may include, with certainty, the name of the Herodian ^acrdr/Xos [phasaelos] - i.e. , Sxi S - the Palmyrene Vx i B ("baffaieXr [phasaeile]), ^>affrjf\f), fern.) cp <I>acrd/3aXos [phasabalos] ( Miller), i.e. , VyasE- So also Meshezabeel (Sxarc c). Cp the old Aram. a^E cSs ; the Phoenician f jnSya, SyaxSn ; 2wo-i#eos [soositheos], Geoo-coros [theosootos], HpocrtDt [herosoon].

God comforts - Nehemiah, n<cn: (on an intaglio i.ram).

God heals - Rephael (^xsn), cp the Palmyrene VNDI, Pe^Aon [rephelon], and the old Aramaic *7NSTi which coincides with the name of the city, Irpeel EV CJKBT), Josh. 18:27 ; Rephaiah (n-sn). Cp the Palmyrene VnNDi, *?iasn ( PffiafiuXov [rephaboolon]), KSnU ( = K!n^13) ; the Phoenician NSinVya-

God redeems - Pedah-el, ^N.TIS (Sxns 0|1 an intaglio ; 4>a8atAoi [phadaielou]), Pedaiah (ms), Iphde-iah RV (mfl )- Cp the Phoenician nitj^ya.

God preserves - Shemariah (imec )- Cp the Phoenician ncss Sya, iCE nDN, etc. ; the Nabataean PNID: (Nardpt]\os [natapelos]) ; the late Greek 0eo</n Aa.KTOS [theopsylaktos].

God keeps in safety - (?) 2 Meshelemiah (irraSc c). Cp the Phoenician c^B Sya. cVc :~u X ( Eiffv/jLffe\~fifj,ov [hesymselemon).

God conceals (i.e., presumably 'defends' ) - Elzaphan (JS^^N), Zephaniah (n 3Bs)i which occurs also on an intaglio. Cp the Phoenician Sya:sx (frequent both as masc. and fem. = Sophoniba z ). So also El-iahba (narrow), and Habaiah (.ran), probably to be read rvan. Cp the Talmudic Sjnno-

1 The name cannot be 7N !VN, 'God has brought' (Aramaic), since in Nehemiah's time the older form jN rrn would have been used.

2 Or perhaps 'requites'.

3 Mis-spelt Sophonisba. The vocalisation agrees with that of So^oyuis [Sophonias] in LXX ; since, however, the Punic o can scarcely corre spond to the Hebrew o, we may conclude only that in this, as in some other names, the first part was regarded as a verb by the Massoretes, but as a noun by the Greek translator, in accordance with the Punic form.

31. Maker.[edit]

God makes - Eleasah (nb-y^x), Asahel (Sunby), Asiel (^^y), Atrt^X [asiel] (Tobit 1:1), Asaiah (, T by) on an ancient Hebrew intaglio vry, Jaasiel RV (Wby). Maase-iah (in byo). Cp the Phoenician VysSx ; 6e6Fe/ryos [theowergos], Aiepfis [dierxis].

God accomplishes - Gemariah (?n"iC;i). Cp Geor^X^s [theoteles].

God creates - Bera-iah (,TKia)i 1 Ch. 8:21 (probably apocryphal).

God builds - Bena-iah (ima), so also on an intaglio, Ibne-iah (n^a )- Cp Kocr/Sacos [kosbalos] (Miller) ; the Nabataean

  • ?an^a ; the Aramaic waiaX = X3ain:) ; Geo/crtoros [theoktistos].

God sets up, establishes - El-iakim (c-p-Vx), Jeho-iakim (D p i.T), mis-spelt c pv, Jokim in 1 Ch. 4:22. Also Jecam-iah (?n DD )i the vocalisation of which can scarcely be correct. Cp the Sinaitic rtepD ; the Sabasan "?{<cp % , Sxcpn. Furthermore in^jia ( A7. ) i.e. , Conan-iah ?rnyo (the forms Kanan-iah, ^n jja, Kenaniah, n ::3, are less probable), Jeho-iachin (pihrr), Jecon-iah (in :a ), in Jer. 22:28 Con-iah (irr::).

God determines fate - Gaddi-el (^K lj).

God brings back - El-iashib (a B"Vj<). Cp the Phoeni cian Syasr, which name, as Geiger has remarked, should be restored in 2 S. 238, the received text having 3ty nac a, LXX {B} Ie/3o<rW [hiebosthe], and the parallel passage 1 Ch. 11:11 cyau" P which point to an original Syatr, or more cor rectly ^yaatr, 1 so LXX{L} , lecr/SaaX [Iesbaal], 2 S. ; lecrcre/SaaX [Iessebaal], 1 Ch. (see JASHOBEAM). Shuba-el (Vxaitr). Shebu-el (Swac?, 7S3I>v)i seems to mean 'O God, turn again' (i.e. , forgive), or, if we pronounce Shabe-el (Sxp-^), 'God has forgiven'. So also Shabiah (rraD )> 1 Ch. 8:10 (which is preferable to the reading Sachiah (n pi; ). cp LXX{BL} o-ftid [sabia], A 2e/3ta ; see SHACHIA). Whether the Sabaean Sxain has the same meaning is uncertain.

God places (?), sits on the throne (?) - Joshib-iah RV (iTaty v, 1 Ch. 4:35), of which Joshaviah (rnirv, 1 Ch. 11:46) and Joshah (,^u ; r, 1 Ch. 4:34) are presumably corruptions. Also Jesimi-el, S,s3 b" (pronounce Jesime-el, ^P ir?),- 1 Ch. 4:36.

God causes to grow (?) - Yashwahyah (n nW )i as we should perhaps read instead of Jeshoha-iah (rrn ir-) in 1 Ch. 4:36.

32. Knower.[edit]

God knows - El-iada (yr^N, a name borne also by an Aramaean, in 1 K. 11:23), Jeho-iada (VTin-), Jeda-iah (, T yr), Jedia-el (s K y. T )- cp. the palmyrene Sayi ( IfSet/^T/Xos [hiedeibelos]) ; the Sabaean Ato^^wcrros; [theognostos] [diognostos].

God remembers 3 - Jozachar (nai v), 4 Zechariah (in % nai). Cp the Sabasan Sxiai ; Qeofj.frjffTos [theomnestos], Aio/j.i -rja ros [diomnestos]. So also, it would seem, Hashab-iah (^Tac riji and Hashabne-iah RV (,vj3BTt), further corrupted into Hashbaddanah RV (niiswn), 5 and Hashabnah (ruarn), for which we should read Hashabni-jah (n jaE n). 'God has taken account of me'.

God weighs - Azaniah (rnix), Jaazan-iah (irniN 1 ), Jezan-iah (imr)- Cp "jHir, on a Phoenician intaglio.

God sees - Haza-el (^Nrnn. VJn. a native of Damascus), Jahazi-el (Sn tn , of which Hazi-el, ^N Tn, i Ch. 23:9 and Jezu-el, ^w, 1 Ch. 12:3 Kt. or Jezi-el [Sxv] Kr. maybe corruptions), Haza-iah (n tn), Jahz6-iah RV (nvn ; Jeziah, RV Izziah, rvr, Ezra 10:25 ?). 1 Also ^XT, rrxn (Reaiah), ,T;X-P (Irijah EV), ,TT (Jeriah).

1 This, it is true, may also mean P>aal dwells."

2 Variant Vx D C". The punctuation varies also between \y and j;*-

3 See Nestle, Ac., who rightly refers to Gen. 30:22. The mother is primarily the object of the verb.

Ginsb. ian\

5 Unless n may be due to dittography ; see HASHBADANA.

33. Treats with man.[edit]

God hears 1 - Eli-shama (yas? Sx, which occurs also on an intaglio, probably of ancient Hebrew origin, yor^x ; cp Sabaean " J^oSx), Ishmael, Vxyatr, (cp Sabaean ^Nyao ). Hoshama (yae>i,t) i Ch. 3:18 (for Jehoshama ysen.T, or Joshama, yae ; v), Ishmaiah (irryae )- Cp the Phoenician yermpVa. etc. ; the Sabitan Vxnpi-

God answers (properly, by an oracle, hence, 'He grants a petition' ) - Ava^X [hanael], unless connected with pn (see Swete, Av. ) Tobit 1:21, Ana-iah (my). So also Anan-iah (m:y), which should probably be pronounced Anani-jah (m:y), 'Yahwe has answered me'. Cp the Syriac 'Ananisho' 'Jesus has answered me'.

God speaks (by an oracle) - Amar-iah (max). Cp the Talmudic -io"ia, ~O Stt (=naTDx); the Phoenician x^jaVyn, 'Baal reveals'. Perhaps we may add the Phoenician I^DHI . j^NUTi J^iir. from the verb nin , [theophemos], [diophemos], [theophrastos], [theochrestos], etc. Possibly the name Kola-iah (n Vip) also refers to an oracle.

God swears (?) - Eli-sheba (yatr^x), Jehosheba (yscn.v) (both feminine). In Jehoshabeath (nyac iir) and the NT name EX(e)t(ra/3e(r [Elisabet] [BXA] (so in Ex. 6:23 [A E] ; cp EXei <ra/3e# [eleusabeth], Ex. 6:23 [B]), the feminine ending appears, which is quite contrary to rule ; the grammatical form presents great difficulties.

God promises - (?) Noad-iah (myij), Moad-iah (myia, Neh. 12:17, for which v. 5 has Maad-iah, mya). Cp the Phoenician nyjcsrx-

34. Object.[edit]

God is the object of hope - EV Hachaliah (rrSsn, see above, 23) RV El-ieho-enai ( ryi.vSx), El-io-enai ( yjtf !?**)" 'towards Yahwe are mine eyes turned'.

God is the object of praise - Jehallel-el RV (SxSVrr). Mahalal-el RV (S N SS TO ), Hodav-iah (i.rnin), Hodi-jah (iTiin), Hodevah (nrrin, pronounce Hodu-jah, m-rin. nnin).

God is the object of a request - Shealti-el (Sx nSxc*)-

35. Various actions.[edit]

God admits into his confidence - Besode-iah (mioa)-

God comes - Eli-athah (nnx Sx), i Ch. 25:4 ( = El-iathah, nrv^x, in v. 27).

God passes by (?) 3 - El-adah (mySx), 1 Ch. 7:20, for which v. 21 has Elead (nySx), Adiel (Sxny), Ada-iah (my), Jeho-addah RV (rnyi.r). 1 Ch. 8:36 twice (for which 942 has Jarah, my, twice). Possibly Laadah (myS), 1 Ch. 4:21, may be for rnySx [el-arah].

God dwells (among his worshippers) - Shechan-iah

God lives - Jehi-el (^KW, also in Palmyrene), Jehi-eli ( Sx rr), Hi-el (Sx n, i K.. 16:34), probably to be read Hay-el (Strn, LXX{BA} has Ax[e]"JX [hachiel], but Sx n occurs in Sinaitic inscriptions). Cp TPB aa (on an intaglio which is probably Moabite), the Phoenician <rna-

God meets (with his worshipper?) - Pagi-el C?x yjs).

God contends* - Jeho-iarib (TV I.T), probably also Israel (^xnb") Sera-iah (,T"ii; ). 5 ar) d perhaps Mera-iah (iTTO)i 'Yahwe has withstood'.

God shoots 6 - Jeremiah (irraT, Yirmeyahu). The same meaning perhaps belongs to the Phoenician iW^yn (a very favourite name, transliterated Balsillec, etc. , Bd<rX?7xos [Baslechos] in Josephus, c. Ap. 1:21) and "Sc ^at X.

God thunders - Raam-iah (rrayi), Neh. 7:7, for which Ezra 2:2 has Reelaiah (rp^jn).

God is glad 7 or, more probably, gladdens - Jahdi-el (Sx^rr). Jehde-iah (imrr, Yehed-yahu),

God is mighty (?) - Jecholiah (ur^r), the vocalisation of LXX (e^eXta [AL] [jechelia]) can hardly be correct, as the name so pronounced would signify 'Yahwe comes to an end' ; perhaps the genuine form was Jechalle-iah (T^3j)i 'Yahwe destroys'. With Jecholiah we may compare Jehucal C?3?,r), Jer. 37:3=Jucal (S 3 v), Jer. 38:1. The Sabcean bx^D may be something altogether different.

God rises (like the sun) - Zerah-iah (rrrni)> Jezrah-iah (rrrnr)- Cp the Sabaean *?xnT. So also .-pint? may perhaps mean 'Yahwe is the dawn'.

God is light - Neriah EV (?nn:). Cp Ato^dets [diophaies], <ba.vt>0(os [phanotheos] (i.e., 'divinely bright' ), etc.

God is fire - 1 Uri-jah (innix) ; perhaps Ari-el C?x-ix, Ezra 8:16), and Ar-eli (4lOKi Num. 26:17) may be corruptions of Uri-el 2 (^x-ix, ^xix). Cp -;Saix of Byblus, written Urumilku in the cuneiform inscriptions (A7?2oo); the Palmyrene ^anj (Noi p/SijXoj [nourbelos]) 'Bel is fire'.

1 Possibly 7M*1 and HT may be connected with HU ; cp n?a Mizzah, Gen. 36:13, 36:17 = 1 Ch. 1:37.

- That is, primarily, He hears the mother's prayer for a son.

3 Cp Ex.34:6, 1 K. 19:11.

4 See Ex. 15:3, Ps. 24:8, etc.

5 mc> which occurs on an intaglio, seems to be quite different.

6 See Ps. 7:14 [7:13], 18:15 [18:14], Deut. 32:23, 32:42, etc. Originally, these expressions had a literal sense, as in the case of Apollo.

7 Scarcely in the sense of icu6ei yaiiav, said of Zeus.

36. Sovereign.[edit]

God judges - Eli-shaphat (DB^ ^X), Jehoshaphat ( *^ } . Shephatiah ( "t!?). Cp the Phoenician tjsc ^ySi ?y3C2t5 . So also Daniel (Sx n, *7x:T, which occurs likewise in Palmyrene) and perhaps Pelal-iah (rr^s).

God is just - Jehozadak (pisirr), Zedekiah (in pix, Sidkiyyahu). Cp the Sabaean Sxpts ; in the ancient Aramaic name pnpis (CIS 273), the letters pi are not quite certain.

God rules, is king z - Eli-melech (TjSa Vx, which occurs also in ancient Aramaic), Malchi-el (^jraSa, cp the Palmyrene SN^;:), Malchi-jah (ino^a). Cp the Edomite Kaushmalaka (KB 220), i.e. , Kocr/udXaxos [kosmalachos]; so also EX/tidXa^os [elmalachos] 4 (Miller) ; the Phoenician -Sc^ys, "Saya I the ligyptian Aramaic iSanox. So also the Phoenician

God is possessor - El-kanah (njp^x), Mikne-iah (in*:pa). Cp T^ojpo on an intaglio; the Boeotian GeoTTTraerros [theoppastos] (in an inscription).

God is Lord - Adoni-jah (?n>jix), Baal-iah (n Vy^, 1 Ch. 12:5). Cp the Phoenician VJHJIN, jix^arx, etc. The form Idnibal, though it occurs only in late times, is important on account of the second i, which must be the suffix of the first person, 'my lord is Baal' (or Yahwe, as the case may be).

37. Man a servant.[edit]

Thus man is regarded as the servant of God - Abde-el (, which occurs also in Edessene) ; Abdi-el (^wnay), Obadiah (i.vny, which occurs also on two ancient Hebrew intaglios) ; the Massoretic pronunciation of this last name is l.Tiay ( ft/3e5i [Oobedias] as in Jos. Ant. 8:13:4) ; but usually has r A/35(e)ia(y) [abdia] [BAL], though 0/35(e)toi [obdiou], [BXAL] also occurs.

Among the Phoenicians, Aramaeans, and Arabs, names compounded with 'Abd (i3x) are nuich commoner than among the Hebrews ; among the Abyssinians the synonymous term Gabra is used instead. Names compounded with the corresponding feminine term nax occur frequently among most Semitic peoples but are wholly wanting in Hebrew. In Greek, names com pounded with 6oCAos [doulos] appear only in Christian times. The name Neariah (myj) can scarcely have this meaning ; derivatives from the root iyj are found in other Semitic names, but the sense is always uncertain.

Man is likewise regarded as belonging to God - Lael (^xV), Lemuel (s^io 1 ?, S^cS, see above, 21). Cp the Palmyrene rarS (Ai(rd/x<Toi< [lisamsou])and the Phoenician mncy 1 ?. if at least the reading AeacrrdpTov [leastartou], in Jos. c. Ap. 1:18 be correct.

1 See Ex. 3 2 ff. Dt. 4 24, the pillar of fire, etc.

2 See also ARIEL, i.

3 See Ps. 27 iff. etc.

4 These forms have the pronunciation of the perfect tense, see Ps. 47 9 93 i <JG 10 97 i 99 i.

38. Divine perfections.[edit]

At the same time God is the portion of man - Hilkiah (irfpSn) ; a costly possession - Magdi-el (Vx ^ja) ; a delight - El-naam (cy^x) ; health - Shelami-el (Sx aSr).

God is great - Gedal-iah (irr n.]), for which Jer. 354 has Igdal-iah (irvSir). The vocalisation is that of the perfect tense, which can scarcely be right here ; LXX usually has ro5oXfa(j) [Godolia] i.e. , I.T TU where gedhol seems to be a contraction of Vru. Cp Sxan ( Pa/3r?Xoi; [Rabelon], Pd/3tXos [Rabilos]), which occurs in Palmyrene, Nabataean, and Sabaean, as well as other compounds with an ; likewise the Sabaean oaVtt-

God is perfect - Jotham (cn v) ; possibly, however, this is not a compound but a single word meaning 'orphan' (like cirr).

God is high - Jehoram (DYIT), Ram-iah (TOT, unless this be a corruption of Jeremiah, n DT, or Rema-iah, JVD-I). Cp the Phoenician mSjn. VyaOT on an old Aramaic (?) intaglio; the Sabaean DI^N ; the Sinaitic

  • 7NOT- So also the Syriac Ramisho 'Jesus is high'.

God is in front (?) - Kadmi-el, (SiTOTp). Cp the Sabasan ntphtt-

God is glorious - Jochebed (naa v fem. ), which we should probably pronounce Jochabed.

God is blissful (?) - Jehoaddin RV (p-jyirr fem.), 2 K. 14:2 (Kt. , for which the Kr. substitutes pyiT, Jehoaddan AV, according to 2 Ch. 25:1). Perhaps we may add Ladan RV (py 1 ?, which occurs several times in Chronicles), a contraction, it would seem, of

God is incomparable - Micha-el (?N:ra), Michaiah OTTO, which occurs also on an ancient Hebrew intaglio],

His Godhead is expressly affirmed in Eli-jah (in Sx), 'my God is Yahwe' ; we even find Eli-el (^K^X), 'my God is God'. Cp the Egyptian Aramaic n jKiaj, the Palmyrene SanSx, EXa/fyXos [elabalos]. Whether Jo-el (Wr) belongs to this category is doubtful, since it may perhaps correspond to iV Xl (fem. n^Ni), the commonest of all proper names in the Sinaitic inscriptions, the Arabic Wa'il^ - i.e. , 'he who seeks refuge (with God)' ; see above, 14. We may add Elihu (Ni.T 1 ?^), and probably Jehu (KIT, for Johu, mn v, like Jeshua, yw\ for Joshua yitfr).


39. Obscure.[edit]

Some other names compounded with El C?N) or Jeho (IT) are very obscure. Thus Jahziel (SK S T), Jahze-el C*" ) means 'God halves' : but how is this to be explained? Nor is it easy to account for ^HDB>, Samuel, 'name of God', though in Syriac we find arraai?, 'name of his house', and in a recently discovered Phoenician inscription, ^mas? [shemubaal] fem. , not to mention several other Syriac names compounded with KGB*, and Sabaean names compounded with ca. 2 Possibly ^tnssy may signify 'bearing the name of God' ; cp ATroXXwfti/xoj [apollonumos], E/caTuicu/xos [hekatonumos], 'named after Apollo (Hekate)'. In the case of so well-known a name it is scarcely permissible to alter the pronunciation into Shemoel, 'his name is God', although the 'Letter of Aristeas', 3 probably composed in the first half of the first century, B.C., mentions in its list of translators two men called Zo/iorjXoy [somuelos] as well as one called Sa/tiot/^Xos [samouelos]; see, however, below, 42. Another obscure name is Misha-el (Sxira), which seems to be compounded with SN, since there is a name Mesha (KB**;:), and in Palmyrene we meet with iwa fem. ( =Maura [maisa], the name of the Syrian grandmother of two Roman emperors). So also Bakbuk-iah (,Tp2pa) can scarcely mean 'pitcher of Yahwe', though the simple Bakbuk (piapa, 71) undoubtedly means 'a pitcher' ; on the other hand the name Bukkiah (.Tpa) might be connected with the Syriac verb xpa, and if read as Bekayah, would signify 'Yahwe has tested'. Elihoreph (tprrSi*) cannot possibly be interpreted as 'my God is winter' ; 4 and to translate the Edomite name, Eliphaz (TS^N), by 'my God is pure gold' likewise sounds very strange. Of Jaareshiah RV and Sherebiah (.raiE*) no plausible explanation has as yet been offered. That the consonants of Shebaniah (iT33C ) and Remaliah (IT TOI) are correct is proved by intaglios bearing ^myo, vyyo, and IT^OT , but the Masoretic vocalisation here gives no sense. The writer of the present article is inclined to read Shabani-jah, 'Yahwe has brought me back', and Ramli-jah, 1 'Yahwe is exalted for me', but this is very far from being certain. Similarly the unintelligible Tebal-iah (jT^at:) should perhaps be read Tobli-jah, 'Yahwe is gracious to me'. In Athaliah (T^JIJ?), also the word V may be contained, and in Othni-el (S^ny), the suffix j-, cp Atha-iah (n-ny, Neh. 11 4) ; the mean ing of nnj; in this connection remains, however, quite obscure. Finally Habazziniah RV (Tjxan. Jer. 35s) may perhaps stand for Habasani-jah (n jxan). 'Yahwe has reduced me to straits'. On the whole, it can hardly be doubted that the suffix ani is contained in some names where the Masoretic pronunciation conceals the fact. A few other names compounded with Vx or IT - e.g., Uel C?NIN) - must here be passed over in silence ; several of these are no doubt corrupt. Names compounded with words expressing relationship will be mentioned later ( 43^-).

1 So Nestle, loc. cit. 132. The Phoenician ^ s > however, not a complete name, but only the beginning of one ; hence nothing can be concluded from it.

2 See further SHEM (NAMES WITH).

3 See the edition of Moriz Schmidt in Merx s Archiv, i. p. 22+.

  • n-in is in Hebrew the opposite of pp and therefore cannot mean 'the time of ripe fruits'.
Other divine names.[edit]
40. Adoni.[edit]

Other appellations of the Deity than Yahwe or El are comparatively rare in Israelite proper names. Adoni ( JIN) 'my Lord', occurs, e.g. in Adoni- kam (CP :IN), 'my Lord has risen up', and in Adoni-ram (DYJIN), 'my Lord is exalted' ; Adoniram appears in 2 S. 20:24 and 1 K. 12:18 as Adoram (QYIN, but LXX [A, and B in 2 S.] A8avipd/u. [adooniram] ; see ADONIRAM). Whether Adoni- zedek(p-ix- yiN), the name of a mythical king of Jerusalem, means 'the Lord of righteousness', or whether we should read some such form as Adoni-zaddik, 'my Lord is righteous', cannot be decided (see ADONI-ZEDEK).

41. Melech.[edit]

The word -jSa, 'King', 2 as a name of God, is found in Nathan-melech (TjSa-iro), 'the King has given', Ebed- melech (^Va 131*. which occurs also in Phoenician, sometimes shortened into l^aaj; ; cp the Mohammedan name, 'Abd-almalik), and Regem-melech (~^a o;n), which seems to have the same meaning as Jeremiah (}TCY)I the first part being probably verbal, 'the King has hurled'. 1 Malchi ( sSc), 'my king', is found in Malchi-ram (CYS^B, Phoenician, DiaSo), 'my King is exalted', and Malchi-shua (JW S^D), 'my king is help' (?).

42. Baal.[edit]

Baal (Vya)i lord, which occurs so frequently in Phoenician proper names, may in early times have been used to a large extent by the Israelites also. In the OT, however, names formed with Baal are rare. Thus we find Esh-baal (s^airx), 'man of Baal' (1 Ch. 8:33 and 9:39), which stands for Sys c i- t<, ISH-BAAL (q.v. ), 'man of Baal', and in other passages is purposely altered into Ish-bosheth (HE S E ; N), or even Ishui ( IB , 1 S. 14:49), while in 1 Ch. 4:21 it is wrongly spelt yaE K, Ashbea (cp the Phoenician rune-N and such Arabic names as B BB TBK, which occurs in Palmyrene inscriptions, perhaps also the Phoenician nnnc jfina, if at least the reading Me^oi do-rapros [methouastaros] in Jos. c. Ap. 1:18 be correct); Beel-iada (jn^jn), 'Baal knows' (where the Massoretic vocalisation intentionally disguises the word Sya ; the name is altered into El-iada [yr^x] in 2 S. 5:16 [but see LXX], and in 1 Ch. 3:8); Jerubbaal (Vjar), 'Baal contends' (explained away even in the biblical narrative so as to mean 'he contends against Baal' ); in 2 S. 11:21 it is distorted into Jerub-besheth (nB ; 2Y). The same meaning belongs to Merib-baal (Sya ana. i Ch. 8:34 and 9:40), once wrongly spelt Meri-baal (na

  • ?yi), and in all other passages corrupted into nc a SB

or nB ; 32B, Mephi-bosheth (q.v.). To these must be added the Edomite Baal-hanan (priSya, Gen. 36:3839), 'Baal has been gracious', and perhaps the Ammonite Baalis (o Sya), a name of which the meaning is unknown.

1 It is impossible for us to discover to what extent vowels originally long may have been shortened in the ordinary pronunciation of proper names.

2 In those cases where the later Jews recognised -pa as tb- e name of a (heathen) god they altered it into MoAox [moloch], Molech.

43. Other divine names.[edit]

The Babylonian form Bel C?3), may perhaps be contained in Ashbel (Sac *, for Ish-bel, 'man of Bel' ), unless the name be a mere corruption of Sya vtt, Ishbaal ; a more probable instance is Tfta, BILDAD (</-v. ), 'Bel has loved' (?).

HE ; , of which the traditional pronunciation, Shaddai, can scarcely be correct, 1 is found in the following names only - Shede-ur (niKnr). 'nr is fire', Zurishaddai ( % iE <- nv), 'my rock is HB' ( (^apaa-aSai [B], or 2a.piffa.5ai [N], Judith 8 1) ; and Ammishaddai (ne> aj, ); see below, i| 45 and 117. None of these names seems to be really ancient, and the same may be said of Pedahzur (-nymE)i 1 'the Rock (i.e., God) has redeemed'.

In Zelophehad (insVs. more correctly Salpahad, LXX Z2a\7rad3), the word ins (pahad) should probably not be taken as a name of God (cp pns "ins, the pahad [fear] of Isaac, Gen. 31:42, 31:53), since -insSs seems to mean 'shadow (i.e., protection) from terror'.

Although Gad (-u) is the name of a deity in Is. 65:11 (cp the Syrian name amj, 'God has given' ), Azgad ("liny) appears to signify only 'fate is hard'.

In Shemida (pres?), the word shem* may possibly be a divine appellation, as in the Syrian KCB"nN (cp n>rm, Ahijah), and ttcsn2 (cp -nn p, Nrr>N na).

On names formed from names of the Egyptian gods, see below, 81.

The name of a foreign deity occurs in Obed-edom (chit 121 ) but whether the vocalisation be correct is doubtful (see OBED-EDOM) ; CIN 13J7 is also a Phoenician name. In the following names borne by foreigners we likewise find mention of foreign gods - Tabrimmon RV (p3"i3a), 'good is Rimmon' ; Benhadad (tin 73), 'son of Hadad' ; Hadadezer (-irj> Tin). 'Hadad is help'. Possibly Hadad occurs also in Henadad (Tun)i which is usually explained as standing for -nn jn, 'favour of Hadad' ; if this be so, we must suppose the name to have been adopted during the Exile by an Israelite who was not conscious of its real meaning, as happened in the case of the name Mordecai ( 3Tis) and others.

1 This pronunciation is based upon the impossible view that 1t? [sh+d+y] means 'One who suffices', Gr. iica.i>6s [ikanos]. The original pronunciation was probably IB*, Shedi (see SHADDAI).

2 On names compounded with this word see SHEM, NAMES WITH.

3 Cp WRS K S? 52^, and see also ABI- and AHI-, AMMI-, and HAMU, NAMES WITH.

Names of relationship.[edit]

44. Their syntax.[edit]

We have next to discuss a group of proper names which consist of a noun expressing relationship coupled either with the name of a god or with some other word. 3 The interpretation of these names involves peculiar difficulties, owing chiefly to the fact that the commonest of the nouns in question, namely Ab (3), 'father', and Ah (rm), 'brother' take in the construct state the termination (i) which serves also as the suffix of the first person singular. Modern discoveries have proved beyond all possibility of doubt that, strange as it may appear to us, names expressing 1 brotherhood or some other relationship with a god were current among the ancient Semites (see ABI [NAMES WITH], 4-5, and cp AMMI, HAMU). The feminine proper name i^onntti on an ancient intaglio, names of Punic women such as -j^snn and mpScnn, as well as the masculine name roSan (Himilcon, Imilcon, etc. ), in which the two component parts are of different genders, cannot be translated otherwise than 'sister of Melk', 'sister of Melkart', 'brother of Milkath', re spectively. So we find the Abyssinian names Ahwa Krestos, 'brother of Christ', Ehta Krestos, 'sister of Christ'. So also -jSon must mean 'brother of Melk'. Hence, too, the Hebrew Ahijah (?,Trm, and rrm, Ahio ; see above, 24) is 'brother of Yahwe', not 'my brother is Yahwe', which of course would come to the same thing, whilejoah (rwv) can signify only 'Yahwe is (my) brother'. 1 The names Abiel (ST3K). Abijah (,T3K), Abimelech (nSs - 3N), as also the Phoenician Sya an (on an ancient intaglio), ^j;33K, Aj3ij3a\os [abibalos] (Jos. c. Ap. 1:17+, Ant. 8:5:3), Sj?3X, and Abillahas (CIL, 89198) - i.e. ,

  • nStt 3K (probably the name of a Syrian) - are all more

naturally explained as meaning 'my father is God, Yahwe, Melek', etc., and with this it agrees that Abijah (.T3n) is also used as a feminine name, like the Sabaean ~^B3N, Vj?3N ; the Phoenician S> 3:3K. moreover, un doubtedly signifies 'our father is Baal' (cp Qfoirdrpa [theopatra]), and Abihu (mn*3tt) can be nothing but 'my father is He'. We also find Abi ( 3n) and Ahi (TIN) used in proper names precisely like El (S) and Jeho (i,v), and we are therefore obliged to regard them as appellations of the Deity - Abidan (fT3n) corresponding to Daniel (^N ri)i Abida (j;v3X, Midianite) to Jeho-iada (jrnrr). Abi-nadab (3ir3J<) and Ahinadab (3-irnN) to Jehonadab (3i3i,v), Abiezer (-iiysN, of which lezer, -\iytt, is a con traction, as Ewald has shown) 2 and Ahiezer (-IIJTHN) to Eliezer (-iiy l ?j>), Abiram (cT3N) and Ahiram (CTIIN) to Jehoram (CTI.T), Abi-asaph (PJON-IN) and Eb-iasaph ( r |D"3x) to El-iasaph (ro<S{<), Abishua (jrtr^N, on an intaglio, j?s-3x) to Jehoshua (j-rirr), Abiner (-irax) and Abner (nj3i) to Neriah (nnj, which is synonymous with "Ax w/3 [hachor] in Judith 5:5+), Ahisamach (-CDTN) to Semach- iah (I.TSCD), Ahikam (cp nn) to Adonikam (cp jnx). Ahishahar (-ine Tm) to Shehar-iah (,T-ine : )- Compare likewise ABISHUR (q.v. ), nv ltt, 'my father is a wall', with the Palmyrene -mrSs (Bri\<Toi>pov), 'Bel is a wall'. Abiathar (-.JT3N, Ebyathar) appears to mean 'my father is eminent', and so ini is used in several Sabrean names. Ahishar (-ir ntf) should perhaps be read Ahisar (-it fin). 'my brother is a prince'. 3 Cp the Sabaean names CN3N (like Hebr. irvicx, Amariah), j;ETfiN, 'the brother raises' (like Hebr. c p in , Jehoiakim), anann, 'the brother is princely', etc. The very ancient name, Abram (CISN), Abraham (c,Ti3), however, must signify 'high father', since it stands in connection with Sarai ( ir), Sarah (mi. M ), 'princess', and Milcah 4 (nsSl), 'queen'.

1 For another view see Am (NAMES WITH, i).

2 Hebr. Gram. ed. of 1863, p. 667.

8 For another suggestion, see AHISHAR.

  • On these names see also the special articles.

5 This use is a development of the kunya, a form of nomen clature peculiar to the Arabs.

6 For another suggestion see ABIHUD; ABI, NAMES WITH, j i.

7 It is true that the modern Arabs, in certain districts, apply abu, 'possessor', even to a woman, e.g., abul-uyfin alu ttfiin, 'the woman with languishing eyes'. The same meaning belongs to the Neo-Syrinc phrase mar eni mare, where mar, 'master', stands for mistress (see Socin, Ncuaramiiische Dialekte, 135, 10). It is very improbable, however, that this usage existed in Hebrew.

45. Second part abstract.[edit]

In those cases where the second part of the name is an abstract term the grammatical analysis becomes more difficult. Here the rendering 'my father is - ' , 'my brother is - ', appears to be supported by the following two considerations. Firstly, the use of 'father' in the sense of 'possessor', 'one who has to do with a thing' - a use which in ancient Arabic is rare, 5 though it is common in the Arabic of the present day - does not occur in Hebrew, unless we reckon the obscure expression, -ijr % 3N, 'father of eternity', in Is. 9:5 [9:6]. 6 To employ 'brother' in the vague sense mentioned above would likewise be contrary to Hebrew usage. Furthermore, names with the prefix 3N or TIM are borne, in some cases, by women." Hence Abihud (-rt,T3N). Ahihud (-nrrrm), must mean 'my father, brother, is glory', and similarly Abitub (3;a % 3{<), Ahitub 3i:rnN (where a?a. tub, is to be rendered 'happiness', or else changed into 312, tob, 'good', as seems to be indicated by the ancient Aramaic name, 3B 3K, compounded with aa, 'good' ), Abinoam (oj,T3K), Ahinoam cp nx (cVJi 'pleasantness' ), Abihail Crrr3N, masc. and fem., ^ n, 'strength' ), Abigail (rr3n, fem. S J, 'exultation' ), Abishalom (ciStt :m) or Absalom (ciVtnx, mSr, 'health, peace' ), which latter form is supported by 1 Macc. 13:11 Ai/ dXwjiios [apsaloomos] (one of the Hasmonoeans, see Jos. Ant. 14:4:4), and Ai/ dXa/uos [apsalamos] (see Miller), whilst the spelling A/3e<r<ra.\wyu. [abbesaloom] in LXX (BA and sometimes L) is by no means inconsistent with it. To these may be added Ichabod (inTx), 'my father is glory', l and the feminine Abital (Vcon). 'my father is dew'. * In some cases, of course, the real meaning is doubtful. Thus Abishai (T ; 3N), Abshai, RVmg (>e ; 3N), Ithamar (-OVK), Abishag (^e :% 3N, fem.), Ahimaaz (j yD nx), Ahi-thophel (SarrriN), Ahiman (JDTIK), Ahban (jarw, cp Eshban, prx), are all obscure (see the several articles) ; others are quite uncertain. 2 Ahimoth (nia nn) may perhaps mean the twin brother of a child born dead, or of a child who died immediately after birth. 3 Ahilud (nS nx) is probably nothing more than 'a brother is born' - i.e., Ah-yalud 4 (nS nx). The name of the Phoenician woman Jezebel C?3i x) can scarcely belong to this category (see JEZEBEL) ; cp two other Phoenician names, !?3TK7j;3 and ^ncw (both fem.). 5

46. Uncle.[edit]

It is therefore in accordance with analogy to interpret Hammu-el RV (Sxisn) as standing for Hamu-el C?mart, TT 1 so already AV) 'brother-in-law of God', like the Sabaean (V)xan, nnyan (see further HAMU, NAMES WITH). The Sabaeans also use Sp, hal 'avunculus', 6 as an appellation of the Deity, in the names nax^n, yrSn, snsSn just as they use oy 'patruus' in lanai i 3iDDy. etc. This word cy ('amm) 'patruus' is common to all the Semitic languages and must at one time have been employed in Hebrew also ; in certain phrases of the OT it still retains the general sense of 'a kinsman by blood'. 7 Hence we are led to interpret cy or "ay ('ammi), in certain Hebrew names, as 'my kinsman', and to refer it to some deity (see further under AMMI, NAMES WITH). Ammi-nadab (ntrey) corre sponds exactly to Abi-nadab (3TT3R) and Jeho-nadab (m:irr), Ammi-zabad (iaray) to Jeho-zabad (-an,-! ), Ammihud (-nrroy) to Abihud (-nn % 3K). The name Eliam (cyVx), 8 in 2 S. 11:3, instead of which 1 Ch. 3:5 has Sx % ay, Arnmi-el (found in several other passages), can hardly mean anything but 'my God is the kinsman', or, if we follow the other reading, 'my kinsman is God'. In the case of Ammishaddai (^iirey), it is possible that the narrator who coined the name intended cy to be understood as 'people', and the name of David's son, EV Ithream (cyirr), may naturally be explained as 'the people is eminent', although the analogy of Abiathar ("in 3N) tells in favour of the other interpretation (see further ITHREAM). The names of the two rival kings Rehoboam (cyarn, RShab am) and Jeroboam (ey3T, Yarob am), however, certainly appear to mean 'the people is wide' and 'the people increases' ; it is conceivable that they adopted these names on coming to the throne, or that one of them, at his accession, adopted a name formed in imitation of his rival's. 9 On 732 see above, 30.

1 If the forms are not corrupt (see ICHABOD, ABITAL).

2 The ancient Aramaic iD^nN and the Palmyrene TirrnN are also of doubtful meaning.

3 Unless the word is corrupt; see AHIMOTH.

4 For another suggestion see AHILUD.

5 It should be mentioned that the real sense both of ^37 Zebul) and of Zebulon (n piai) is unknown.

6 See Praetorius, Neue Beitr. zur Erklar. der himjar. Inschr. 2$.

7 Cp M. Krenkel, ZATir[ &8], 28o/: With some details in this paper the writer of the present article is, however, not able to agree.

8 Cp the Phoenician cySx, and also nyW which seems to occur on an intaglio. The cy which stands at the beginning of some other Punic names is merely a false spelling of CN, i.e., nCN 'handmaid'.

9 For another suggestion see JEROBOAM.

47. Dod, etc.[edit]

Perhaps Dodavah (WITH) in 2 Ch. 20:37 ((S 1 - Aou5ioi< [doudion]) may be a mistake for irrTn (Dodiyyahu) 'my cousin (or friend) is Yahwe' ; on shorter forms of the same see below, 51 (end). Moreover, the name of the Edomite clan Oholi-bamah RV (noa ^ftn) appears to contain a word corresponding to the Arabic ahl 'kindred'. A similar formation is Ohbli-ab RV (sN Snn), whether it be genuine or not ; on the other hand, in Oholi-bah RV (nrrVrm), coined by Ezekiel, the word SHK obviously has the sense of 'tent'. The ancient name Wijn (REUEL, q.v. ) we may suppose to mean 'companion of God'. Compare such Abyssinian names as Arka Dengel, 'friend of the Virgin (Mary)', Bitza Hawareya, 'companion of the apostle'.

48. Son.[edit]

Ben (p) 'son' appears nowhere as an integral part of a Hebrew proper name except in the case of Benjamin (pc 1 :::), which perhaps means originally 'those who dwell to the right' - i.e. , the most southern portion of the tribes who went by the name of Joseph (2 S. 19:20 [19:21]). In the NT we find the Aramaic forms Barsabas ( Bap<ra/3/3as - i.e. , Xawha, Barshabba], 'born on the Sabbath' and Ba/3fd/3as [barnabas], a surname of which the sense is obscure (see BARNABAS). There are several instances of Aramaic names which designate the bearer as the 'son' of some god ; but the only example in the OT is the Damascene Tin J3, Ben-hadad (q.v.). Compare such Abyssinian names as Walda Le ul, 'son of the Most High', Walda Maryam, 'son of (St.) Mary', Walda Gabreel, 'son of (the angel) Gabriel', etc. Cases in which a man is called not by his own name but by a patronymic (as happens several times in 1 K. 4 ; cp BapiTjcrcws [bariesous], Acts 13:6 and probably Bapa/3/3as [barabbas] also), do not, of course, belong to this category. Bath (rn) 'daughter' occurs in Bath-sheba (JOB* rn) an d Bath-shua (jw m) I but whether these really signify 'daughter of the oath' and 'daughter of help' may be questioned. Bith-iah (q. v. ; ,-rrn) would mean 'daughter of Yahwe' ; but the name is doubtful, though supported by the analogy of the Phoenician ^yi ri3- Compare such Abyssinian names as Walata Maryam, 'daughter of (St.) Mary', Walada Madkhen, daughter of the Saviour.

49. Abbreviated names.[edit]

In all languages there is a tendency to shorten, or otherwise to modify proper names. This phenomenon, which has so often been observed in the Indo-European languages, is likewise conspicuous in the languages of the Semites. To this cause it is largely due that, in the vast majority of cases, Arabic proper names take the form of nouns pure and simple. Thus when we find the name Sa'd, 'fortune', used side by side with Sa'd Manat, 'fortune from (the goddess) Manat' (cp the Nabataean n^N -typ, and the Sabaean inny *IJ?D> etc. ), there can be no doubt that the simple Sa'd is an abbreviation. The same thing applies to Wahb and Aus, 'gift' (which are used sometimes alone and sometimes with the name of some god), as well as to many other words. Even a name like 'Ali, 'high' (cp the Nabataean V^y, A\flov [aleiou]) may be a shortened form of ^n^y (which also occurs in Nabataean) 'God is high', or of some similar compound ; the Hebrew Eli ( Vj, ) is perhaps to be explained in like manner, and so also Ram (m, as compared with nii.T, Jehoram). An analogous case is the Greek "TTraros [upatos] ( TTraTijs, TVa-n as), contracted from TVaroSupos [upatodooros]; these names were current at Thebes, where Zei>s VTTO.TOS [zeus upatos] was worshipped (Fick, 271). The fact that the shorter name, taken by itself, offers a plausible sense constitutes no valid objection, for it not unfrequently happens that proper names, with or without change of form, acquire a meaning different from that which they originally conveyed.

Particularly clear examples of abbreviation are to be found among the Abyssinians, who often use part of a compound as a proper name, without further modification - e.g. Sebhat, 'praise', shortened from Sebhat al-Ab, 'praise to the Father', Tasfa, 'hope', shortened from Tasfa Maryam, 'hope in Mary', or Tasfit Hawariyat, 'hope in the Apostles', etc.; often, however, the termination u, o, or ie is added - e.g., Khailu, Khailie, for Khaila Mikael, 'power of Michael', etc., Habtu, Habto, Abtu, for Habta Maryam, 'gift of Mary', etc., Tansie for Tansea Krestos, 'Christ is risen', and so forth. To these may be added the Syriac IQ ^SI 'cross', and 3 Vx> for N3t N3 ^Xi the 'cross conquers'.

50. In Hebrew.[edit]

In like manner the Hebrews abbreviated names, no additional termination being primarily required e.g. , Nathan ([ru), Zabad (131), Nadab (313), Asaph (tjDN), 1 Hanan pn, Hoshea (yrin, which occurs also on an ancient Hebrew intaglio], Azaz (ny), Shaphat (cstt ). Palal (^s), which are obviously abbreviations of compounds containing some name of the Deity. The king who is called Ahaz (mx) in the OT appears as Yauhazi - i.e. , Jehoahaz (tnNirr) - in an inscription of Tiglath-pileser III. (see KB 220). Similarly Giddel (y^u) 'has reared', must be a shortened form of some name in which God was mentioned, and the same thing applies to Ezer (ity), Fekah, (nps, also on an intaglio), Zecher RV (131, also in Phoenician), Pelet (B^B), Shema, y&y (also on an intaglio, cp the Sabtean yen), Ebed (i3y), Obed (tyy, cp the Arabic and Sabrean Abd], Shemer (ice )- The name Zerah (mi) may be an abbreviation of Zerah-iah (rrrnt) ; but it is also possible that it was, at least in the earlier period, identical with Ezrah (rnin), 'indigena'. That all these abbreviations are correctly vocalised is very unlikely, and we may therefore hazard the conjecture that j-Vn, j Sn, Helez (@ EXAifc or XeXXijj) is really j-Vn (Hillez), a shortened form of some name resembling the Phoenician j-^n^yi, Vy3sSn 'Baal has delivered'. The shortened form ^n, which occurs also on an intaglio, perhaps corresponds to Helis (Ephem. epigr. 7:165). Azel C?SM) seems to be shortened from Azal-iah (irr jsK). Anani (jjy) and Anan (py) from Anani-jah, rrny (see above, 32, and cp the Palmyrene 33y and my, the latter signifying 'he has answered us' ), Sheba (y3C ) from some such form as Elisheba (jaeJ ^K). Similarly nno. which is found on an ancient intaglio probably of Hebrew origin, stands for irrnnc, and in like manner we must explain JPC, a common Phoenician name. ZaXti/ttT; [saloome] - i.e. , oW - in the family of Herod and in the NT, is doubtless shortened from VK DI^B [shalomiel], or some thing of the kind. 2

51. Contractions in a.[edit]

In many names the second part is represented by the termination a, X - the first part being sometimes preserved entire and sometimes abbreviated. The fixity of the spelling favours the assumption that here the X was originally pronounced as a consonant, like the Arabic hamza (a slight guttural aspirate) ; only in a few cases has the vowel-letter n been substituted for the X, in accordance with the later pronunciation. But the Aramaic abbreviations in X (e.g., the Palmyrene N13T, Za/35Ss [zabdas]) were presumably pronounced with a simple a ; the same termination is fairly common in Phoenician names, and perhaps sounded as o. Thus we find Abda (tmy. also in Phoenician and Aramaic), Shimea EV (Hl Siy). Shimeah (nyct?). Shammah (net?), 1 S. 16:9 (probably for irrycB , Shemaiah), Uzza (wy), and Uzzah (my), probably for imy, Uzziah), Gera (N-U, for some compound with 7u 'ally', cp the Phoenician JODI:, mnirjru. mpSs-ij), Asa (KOK. for some such form as *VNON, Asa-el = "7x3-,, Rephael), Shebna (KWP), and Shebnah RV (n33c> for im3i?i Sheban-iah), Ishma EV (for VKJCB". Ishmael), Ela RV (nVx) and Elah (rrVn, for some compound beginning with "?x), Joha (xnr) for Johanan (pnv), Mica RV (xrc) and Micah (ns a) for Micaiah (i.TD n), cp N^D: ( n the Talmud) for ^N^CJ- Ara (NIK) should perhaps be pronounced Ura for Uriah (UVHK). Some of these forms are altogether obscure - e.g. Baasha, q.v. (NC>y3). Amasa, q.v. (na-ay), Amasai (<fcy), where they cannot be taken as the equivalent of a D, Ziba(3 s). Ziha (NIT;;), the ancient Canaanite Sisera (NID*D)P etc. In Hannah (nan), the n of the shortened form serves as the feminine ending, and the name therefore does not correspond exactly to the Phoenician K:H Hanno.

1 Cp the Phoenician feminine name n2DN> *A<renr.

2 Cp the name of Herod's daughter SoAafii/dco [salampsioo] - i.e., Jvs nSt? 'prosperity of Zion', Jos. Ant. 18:5:4 and see Dalman, Gram. 122, where some later Jewish corruptions of the name are mentioned.

52. In i or ai.[edit]

Other abbreviations have the ending '- (i) or '- (ai), the first part of the name being sometimes more violently contracted. In these cases the vocalisation is not to be trusted implicitly ; moreover, it is often doubtful whether the i should be regarded as a sign of abbreviation or as the adjectival ending. Thus we find Zabdi ( lai) in the OT, but Zabdai ("n3t) in Aramaic (cp Ze/3e3cuos [zebedaios] in the NT), shortened from some such form as 1 Zebad-iah (mnsi). and similarly Palti ( C^E) for Paltiel ( Straps), Ishi ( yr - ) for Isaiah (i.Tyi? ) Jeremai, CT (probably to be pronounced Jirmi) (or Jeremiah (irrcT). Hanani ("::n) for Hanan-iah (in % 33n), Abdi (^2y, cp the PhoL-nician A/^Saios [abdaios] i.e.,^y, Jos. c. Ap. 1:21) for Obadiah (inn3y), L ri (nix) for Uriah (innut). Amzi ( SDK) for Amaziah (in sD). Imri (-ICK) for Amar-iah (I.TTCN). Zichri ( % i3i) for Zechariah (in 131). Bani ( 33) for Bena-iah (i,T33). Ahi (-nx) for Ahi-jah (in nx), Bukki ( pn) for Bukkiah (,Tp3, see above, 38), Unni (^y) for Ana-iah (n-3y), Shilhi (-n^v) for some name formed with nSc* he sent, Ahzai RV (-inx) for Ahaz-iah (in tnx). Athlai ( Sny) for Athahah (in %i 7ny). Jaasai RV" : - -i-y (Kt. iry) for *i,TE-y , C P Asa-iah (,TB-y), Helkai ( - pSn) for Helkiah (in p^n), Zaccai (TT, Za/cxctros [zakchaios] in NT) for Zehariah (in iDt), Zabbai (-31) for Zebadiah (imnt), Shammai (-ec ; ) for Shema-iah (in ycc ; )>

  • v* (EV JESSE [q.v.]) for Ishmael ( I ?KJ, > CB ?)I Amittai

OFCN) f r some name compounded with new. Similarly we may explain the Phoenician Sichaeus - i.e., * % 2D - as standing for Sicharbas - i.e. , *Sj?3130i with n^o, as usual, instead of -\y. In many cases the contraction is such as to render the discovery of the original form impossible. The changes which proper names undergo in the mouths of small children account for a large number of these peculiar abbreviations - who could guess, to take modern examples, that Bob and Dick arose out of Robert and Richard ? It would therefore be vain to inquire whether Besai ( 03) is for Besode-iah (nmoa), or Bezai ( % s3) for Bezale-el (W?S3). Jaddai (<T, cp the Palmyrene <v, Ia55cuos [Iaddaios]) might well be shortened from Jeda-iah (m 1 ) 1 Ch. 4:37 ; but this latter name is itself obscure. 2 Such forms in ai were particularly common in later times - e.g. , nr ( lavvcuos [Jannaios], cp. Jannai RV) for Jonathan (jru v), Tn (Nartfcuos [Natthanaios] in the Epistle of Aristeas) for Nethane-el C?K3ru). and many more in the Talmud, which also exhibits various other kinds of abbreviation.

There are some possible instances of shortened names with the ending o - e.g. , Iddo, Ezra 8:17 (IIK, perhaps equivalent to the Phoenician X7N), Iddo (veny, ny, the prophet, etc. ), of which the meaning is obscure ; Dodo (inn or vn), as well as Dodai ( in) and Dodi (ni), might stand for *n Tn, Dodi-jah. Padon (pie) and Jadon (p-p) possibly belong to the same category.

53. Abbrev. imperf. names.[edit]

If we compare Joseph (spy) with Josiph-iah (rrcDi ), or Jarib (3 Y) with Jeho-iarib (S T I.T), we can hardly doubt that the shorter ( 'increases', 3 'contends' ) are abbreviations of the longer ('Yahwe increases', 'Yahwe contends' ) or of something quite similar. Cp also Izrah, EV Izrahite (rnr), 'rises' with Izrah-iah (,vm7 ) ; Jakim, (a p*. Sabaean cpn ), 'raises' with El-iakim (c-p Sx) ; Jachin (ps ) 'fixes' with Jeho-iachin (pa i.r) , Jephthah EV (nns ) 'opens' with the name contained in pNTiflE J (valley of Jiphthah-el) ; Japhlet (nSs ), 'rescues', with *in aS3 (=i,Ta ?3, Pelat-iah) ; Yirham (cnT, Yerahem ; MT Jeroham) 'pities', with Jerahme-el (VxcnT) ; Ibhar (in3 ), 'chooses' (cp EKKptros [ekkritos]), with the ancient Aramaic

to these we may probably add Imrah (,-rc ), 'resists', and Mera-iah (imp), Yahboh (nan*), 'hides'

(i Ch. 7:34, Kt. ; see JEHUBBAH), and El-iahba (lorrSw, pin' , on an intaglio), and Ezekiel (Supin*). The following names presuppose the Deity as the subject, and perhaps originally contained some divine appellation - Jair (i-K"), 'enlightens' ; Jabin (| T), 'distinguishes', 'perceives'; Igal (Sw), 'ransoms' (cp inns, Peda-iah) ; Jamlech (^D"), 'gives dominion' (cp the Palmyrene ID^O . "Id/xXixos [Jamlichos], in Greek literature Id/u^Xixos 1 [Iamblichos]) ; Imna (y^D ), 'wards off' ; Imnah (ma )> 'determines' (properly, 'counts' ); Jaalah (,-r?y) or Jaala (tthy), 'is high' (cp the Arabic Ya'la), which last name, however, may possibly be from the Aramaic, and signify 'mountain-goat' (see below, 68). Jaroah (mv) should perhaps be read Yarwah - i.e. , '(God) enlarges' - cp the Sabaean arn.T. To the same class may belong Jeush (thy* or t5"y<, if it be really the equivalent of the Arabic Yaghuth, Ityovffot [Jegouthos] in Miller - i.e. , 'helps', cp the Phoenician ny), and also Jair (YJT, 1 Ch. 20:5), 'awakes'.

1 In what follows the phrase some such form as is omitted as superfluous.

2 I or some reduplicated forms, see below, 57.

3 Cp the Arabic name Yazid.

54. Simple imperf.[edit]

On the other hand, the bearer of the name seems to be the subject in the following : - Jibsam (cba-), 'is fragrant' ( ? ) cp Basemath (nCBQ, Apw-/* aTl " 7 ? [aroomatine]) Jaalam (o^y), 'is youthful' (?), Jashub (3itr), 2 'returns' (cp EtWoTos [eunostos]), Imla (ttho") or Imlah (rr>D ), 'is full' (cp j^D as well as K^c, Max?; [male] in Palmyrene), Jephunneh (ms 1 , LXX leQovvij [Jephonne]), 'is brought back' (?), Izhar (inx )> 'shines' (or 'oil' ), Ishbak (par ), 'leaves behind', 'outruns' 3 (?), Ishua (niB ), 'is worthy' (?), from which Ishui ( its ) was probably formed by the addition of the adjectival ending, Isaac (pmr), 'laughs' = pnir, 'sports', 4 Jacob (ipy), 'follows' ; the last two appear to have been originally names of gods. The following names, nearly all of which occur only once (in Chronicles), are altogether obscure - Ishpan (|3tr), Idbash (vsi-), Idlaph (n^-p), Jaziz (rp), Jaion (p 1 ? ), Jaakan (jptr or ]py), Jachan (|3jr)> Ishbah (natr). The same may be said of the national name Jetur (-ntr), if at least it be derived from TIB and not from -mi.

55. Prefixed t.[edit]

A feminine form of this class is Timna (pon, Edomite), which perhaps originally presupposed some goddess -e.g. Ashtoreth (mnry) - as the subject. In the case of Tahan (jnn), the true pronunciation is possibly Tahon, 'she is gracious'. Teman (p n), 'south', is primarily the name of a place.

56. Adjective names.[edit]

Instead of a sentence, a simple participle or adjective expressing the same idea may often serve as a proper name ; in such cases the Deity is usually the logical subject. Thus we find Zabud (im), 'given (by God)' ; fem. Zabidah (RV following Kt, riTai), Zebudah (AV following Kr, mm), 2 K. 23:36 (cp the Aramaic KTSI, Ze/3et5as [zebeidas], the Arabic Zabid, also AcDpos [dooros], Aw/>u> [dooroo], the Aramaic NT,V, etc.); Baruch (7p-o), 'blessed' ; Rehum (mm) ; Hanun Jpjn), 'pitied' 1 (cp the Talmudic p n , NJMn) ; Raphu (Kim), 'healed' ; Gamul ( "710:1 ) 'benefited' (scarcely 'weaned', cp "?jr!?Dj) ; David (in, rn), 'beloved' ; 5 probably Modad (TIID, as the Samaritan text and the LXX read in Nu. 11:26+, instead of the Masoretic Medad, -ITO) ; perhaps Hobab 6 (J30. cp the Aramaic and Arabic 3'3n, etc. , rnrtNi which occurs on an intaglio, also <bi\ou[j.ei os [philoumenos]; names which at least, in certain cases, may have been intended rather to express love on the part of men) ; Sethur (-flno), 'hidden' (cp the Talmudic 5Wino)- To the same class belong, in spite of the different vocalisation, Zaccur (1131), 'remembered' ; Azzur (-MJ;), 'helped' 1 ; Shammua (jnee f ), 'heard' (or rather, 'one with reference to whom a prayer is heard', the prayer primarily being that of the mother) ; 1 Hasshub (3i:yn), 'thought of'; Jaddua (yw), 'known' ; Amos (oioy), 'borne'. Probably we may add Meshullam (nVe a), fem. Meshullemeth (noWo), 'kept safe' ; and Shallum (a&v). A slightly different example is Saul C?iNr), 'asked' (cp jN nVNB , Shealti-el), with its exact equivalent in Aramaic K<? KV, tt^v (2eet\ay [seeilas], Zi Xas [silas]), cp QeaiT-rjTos [theaitetos], "ETTCVKTOS [epeuktos], etc.

1 Iamlicus in CIL 8:3332, is probably a Palmyrene. The Arabic name Tamlik (fem.) means only 'she has power', 'she rules'.

2 But 3jy, which is found on an ancient Hebrew intaglio, may be 3 ? T , -e., a p; (for 3 irSN, Eliashib), according to 1 Ch. 7:1 (Kt.)

3 Cp p3iB> which exactly corresponds to the Arabic Sabik.

4 It would seem that the roots pnu and pnb were originally distinct.

5 For another possible explanation see DAVID (beg.).

6 For other suggestions see HOBAB.

57. Possible abbrev.[edit]

It is possible that in several other cases laudatory titles, used as proper names, were originally understood as referring to some deity whose name was contained 3 in them (see above, 49). This might apply to Amoz (po), 'strong' (cp I.TSDK. Amaz-iah) ; Zadok (p ns)i 'just' (cp pisi.T, Jehozadak) ; Ram (on) and Segub (yiiy or aub), 'lofty' (cp mri 3Jt?:i. Is. 2:11, 2:17). More doubtful cases are Adin (py), Adina (urny), and py, Eden, 'blissful' (in spite of |Hyi,T, Jehoaddin RV ; pyin 1 , Jehoaddan AV) ; Paruah (nns;), 'blooming' in spite of the Talmudic irrnB); Hariph (qnn), Hareph (rpn), 'sharp' (? - in spite of tprt^K, Elihoreph) ; Ethan (jn N), 'perpetual'. In the case of the Edomite Hadad (tin), the name of the god is all that has remained of the original compound, and the same remark may apply to Melech (^e, cp i^D Sx, Eli-melech), Malluch (^Vs), Baal (^ya, cp BaaX [baal] the Tyrian, Jos. c. Ap. 1:21), Addon (pw) and Addan (px, cp the Palmyrene N:TIN), for which we should probably read Adon. It is quite possible, however, that these latter names mean nothing more than 'master', as applied to human beings, like the Aramaic N-G, fem. Nrro, Mdp6a [martha], and its variations. The personal name Gad (13, and Gadi nj ?) is probably to be regarded as the abbreviation of a compound in which 11 was either a god or else 'fortune'. The tribe of the nj 33 - may also have derived their name from the god.

58. Reduplication.[edit]

Thus, there can be no doubt that very many Hebrew proper names are in reality abbreviations. Among these must be included those reduplicate forms which originate with small children (after the manner of 'Lili' for Eliza beth, 'Mimi' for Marie, 'Lulu' for Louisa ) - e.g., Shavsha (NE ir), 3 Shisha (ttv<v), Sheshai ( E ; E ! ). Shashai ( % B ; r), Sheshan (]vv), Shashak (pvv), Zaza (NTT), Ziza (NTt). 4 To discover the original forms of such names \is, of course, impossible. In Bebai (-33) we seem to have the same term of endearment which, in the form Babba, served as the nickname of a well-known Arab, 5 and is found also in a N. African inscription - Babbe (for Babbae) f(ilius), see Ephem. epigr. 5256; the word is ultimately identical with Engl. baby, Fr. bebe, words formed in imitation of an infant's first attempts to speak.

1 Such abbreviations are common in names of this sort.

2 No importance can be attached to the fact that the Massoretic vocalisation distinguishes Gad the idol, as well as Gaddi (Nu. 13:11), from the other Gad, Gadi (see GAD, i).

  • For another explanation see SHAVSHA.

4 On reduplicated forms in the language of Arabian children, see Goldziher in the ZDATG, 88607.

5 He derived the name from a verse uttered by his mother when he was an infant.

6 It is remarkable how few theophorous names occur in Homer.

59. Character of these religious names.[edit]

Of the names hitherto enumerated the vast majority have a religious meaning, and this is true even of many of those in which no god is expressly mentioned. The same thing may be said of the Semites generally ; nor shall we be wrong in supposing that such was once the case among the Arabs, though long before Islam a great change had taken place in consequence of the growing tendency in favour of simple names. In Greek names also religious ideas are prominent, but less so than in the names of the Semites. 6 Great importance, moreover, must be attached to the fact that, as the above parallels show, the names of the Hebrews hardly differ at all from those of the other Semites with respect to the religious conceptions therein expressed. These formations, it is to be remembered, go back to a remote antiquity ; we must therefore be careful not to interpret them in too spiritual a sense. Names like 'God has helped', 'God has delivered', etc., referred no doubt originally to the help afforded by the Deity to the mother in granting her a child or in averting the peril of death. It is true that from the time of the prophets onward a more spiritual or at least a more general conception began to prevail. Hut a name like the Palmyrene unSu ( ^unSSia), 'Bol has wiped away, effaced', also belongs to a more advanced stage of religious development, since the reference is to the effacing of sin.

60. Other kinds.[edit]

We may now pass on to names of other kinds, mentioning some of those categories which are most important and most clearly defined. In well-nigh every case these names consist of a single member only, though it will some times be necessary to include compounds, and even to refer back to names which have a religious meaning. It may be taken for granted that the meaning of a name applies, in strictness, only to the first individual who receives it. When once a name has been coined, it is liable to be used indiscriminately, that is to say, without any special reference to its original significance. We must admit, however, that among the Hebrews the real meaning of indigenous names could never be forgotten to so large an extent as has been the case among the nations of modern Europe.

61. First-born.[edit]

Some names refer to the special position which the new-born child occupies within the family. If we were better acquainted with the circumstances in which names have been coined, we should doubtless perceive that this class of names is really much larger than might appear at first sight. Thus, as was mentioned above, it is clear from Gen. 30:22 that Jephthah (nns = Grins , Yiftah-el) means the first born. The same meaning obviously belongs to Becher (nan, from which is derived the adjectival form 132, Bichri), the equivalent of the Arabic Bakr, found also in Nabataean and Sabaean ; cp II pur oy tvv)S [protogenes], UPWTOKT^TT;? [protoktetes], 11/3670005 [progonos]. For rni33, 1 S. 9:1, some MSS. of LXX have Bax(e)t/> [bachier], - i.e., T33 or 121. In 1 Ch. 8:38 ( = 9:44) Bocheru (1133) is expressly stated to be the name of a man, but it was no doubt originally nin, 'his first-born', cp 8:30.

1 For other readings see BECHORATH.

2 The vocalisation can scarcely be correct.

62. Substitution.[edit]

In the Semitic languages we find a considerable number of names from the root r^n, whereby a child is designated as a substitute for one lost. The Nabataean nSxsWi, 'substitute of God' (i.e., 'given by God'), proves that these names also originally had a religious sense, like "A^T/Soros [antidotos], AvriSupos [antidoros], which presuppose a giver ; cp likewise Avriyovos [antigonos], AvTKpdvris [antiphanes], AvriifxivTos [antiphantos]. Among the Jews the earliest specimens of names formed from the root above mentioned are XaX^et (Chalphi RV), 1 Mace. 11:70 [AV], and Alphaeus, AX</>cuos in the NT, which corresponds to HsS ii in the Talmud. Probably, however, the same meaning underlies several other names - e.g. , Manasseh (nins), 'he who causes (a loss) to be forgotten', Menahem (cms), 'comforter '(found also in Phoenician and ancient Aramaic, cp fem, 7eran on an ancient intaglio, which is Palestinian but probably not Israelite), Nahum (cp, Phoenician era, Ndou/nos [Naoumos] of Aradus, C/<7, 2526), also vocalised Nehum (cim) and Naham (om)i so likewise jcru (Nahamani) derived from 1]ro, Tanhumeth 2 (nsran), 'comfort', evidently an abstract noun (cp the Talmudic ciran. NSiran, Qa.vovfj.ov [thanoumon]), Nehem-iah(,Tan!), in which the reference to God still appears. The names Repha-iah (,TB~I), Repha-el (Swn. cp Arabic Yatfd), perhaps convey a similar idea; so also certain derivatives of yi& - e.g., Meshobab (33irc), Shobab (33ieO. and, if it be really pre-exilic, El-iashib (3 trVK). This last, at a subsequent time, no doubt, was supposed to denote restoration from the Exile. Reuben (piio) probably belongs to the same class, and may be explained as 'reparation' like the Palmyrenian rt3li Rubatis, the Arabic Ru'ba; but the interpretation, 'behold a son' ! is also possible. The Arabic names 'lyad, Budail, the Abyssinian Fanto, Fantu, Tikku, Matakko, Kasa (the real name of King Theodore), likewise signify compensation.

Jeshebe-ab [EV] (3N3B % 1 Ch. 24:13) appears to be 3N 3^ , 'he brings back the father' = At>riyovos [antigonos]. It is true that IcrpadX [isbaal] in LXX{AL} seems to presuppose hyuw (i.e. , Baal) ; but in this case /3aa\ [baal] must be a scribal error, for the Chronicler would scarcely have bestowed such a name on a Levite.

Posthumous ( ETri-yfVTjs [epigenes], Nerdyovos [metagonos], etc. ) is the most probable rendering of Akkub (sipj, 1 ), Jacob (spy). In the case of the latter the essential point is that he was born after his brother.

The root 3pJ?, which appears also in the Palmyrene 3py 73. 3pyriy ( AftjaitojSot [atheakabos]), the Syriac KnSspJJi the Talmudic !V3pJ7> N3 pJ?i X3p1> i he Arabic 'Okba, 'Okaib, admits of various oilier senses, and may perhaps also mean 'compensation'. 1

63. Circumstances of birth.[edit]

Twin occurs first in the NT name, 6w/uas (Thomas), explained as Ai5u/ios (Didymus), which is itself a Greek proper name, corresponding to the Phoenician cxn- Go^as [thoomas] is xcixn, a Hebrew form with the Aramaic termination ; the later pronunciation is Xe[n-

Azubah (miiy), 'forsaken', perhaps means a girl whose mother died in giving birth to her. The same idea may be conveyed by Azmaveth (niDty), 'death is cruel', by Genubath : (n3i33, cp the Talmudic and Syriac N3 3i), and by the Aramaic form, Hatipha (NS an, Ezra 2:54 = Neh. 7:56). *

64. Child names.[edit]

The name Geber (133, 1 K. 4:13, 4:19) expresses the joy of the mother on having a male child ; cp Job 3:3, ^J ."nil- It is of course possible that we should pronounce Gibbor, 'hero'. Cp the Palm. 133, the Ar. Jabr. On Ahimoth (jTO nN). see above, 45 end. 3

Ben (p), 'son', in 1 Ch. 15:13, is very doubtful ; perhaps it should be read -33 i.e., it may suggest more or less distinctly the idea of 'my son', like the Abyss. Gobazie, 'my boy'. Cp also the Talm. Npi3 , 'suckling', 3n3, 'little son', and the Ar. Walid, 'son'.

Naarah (mjtt), 'girl', occurs in 1 Ch. 4:5-6, and corresponds to the Talm. xnS (for Km? )- Cp the Nabataean n 33, 'little daughter'.

Jaalam (n^jr, see above, 54) may mean 'youthful, strong', and Japhia (ys ), 'tall of stature', a name of this kind being often bestowed upon an infant as a bonum augurium.

1 See also GENUBATH.

2 On the other hand the Palmyrene name ^333 means thief like the Arabic Sarik. Such a name might perhaps have been used by Israelites also at a very early period, when skill in stealing, or at least in robbing, was very highly esteemed.

3 Instead of Gibbar (-133), Ezra 2:20, we find in Neh. 7:25 Gibeon (pj>3J, the name of a place), which is probably the right reading.

4 A considerable number of fresh details might now be added.

65. Relationship.[edit]

Instead of Ahiam (CN ON), we should probably read Ahi-em (cK riN)i 'mother's brother', and instead of Ahumai ( Dinx), the form "CTIK, according to LXX{Aa} ( AXA" [acheimaai]) - i.e. , -EN >nx (Ahi-immi), 'my mother's brother'. So also in Aram, we find ncnN, nannK. not to mention other varieties of spelling ; on this and similar expressions of relationship used as proper names, see an essay by the writer of the present article in the WZLM, 6:307+. The idea is that the new-born child will at some future time stand by his mother, as if he were her brother. To this corresponds Ahab (ZN-.V 'father's brother', of which the more correct form is probably Ahi-ab (nxnn), since A^ ajSoy [achiabos] was the name of a nephew of Herod, and in Jer. 29:21-22. LXX [BxAQ] has Ax d/3 [achiab]. Cp the Aram, ,113x1 xnx and several varieties of the same name. To the same class belongs Ah-ian (pnn) = Syr. Nrnx, 'relative, cousin', which also occurs as a proper name.

66. Physical peculiarities.[edit]

We now turn our attention to a group of names descriptive of physical peculiarities. Some of these may have been originally nicknames, like the corresponding names in Latin , but Arabic usage seems to show that such terms, even when they are far from flattering, often served from the first as proper names in the ordinary sense. 2 This applies also to many Hebrew names of other kinds, such as those borrowed from animals.

Hakkatan (jcpn), Ezra 8:12, the small one ; the article is here not easy to explain. Cp the Phoen. ]a|] (doubtful), ]oo|], the Talm. m!y!, etc., also Pumilio, Pusilla. Habakkuk (p?pan), or (after LXX's nftfttuutvp [ambakoum]) !]i!]an (Habbakuk), might be explained as 'dwarf', from the Arabic; but the meaning is extremely doubtful. 3

The very ancient name, Laban (p 1 ?), 'white', corresponds to the Ar. Abyad, to AevKos [leukos] and to Albinus.* The Levitical name, Libni ( 33^, LXX{BA} Ao/3ei/[e]t [lobeni]), which has the adjectival ending, may perhaps convey the same sense. Haruz (!pln) is probably 'yellow' ( = Flavius }), and Zohar (ins) 'reddish white' ; cp the Talm. KpOiDj the Ar. Ahmar, Kumait, the Lat. Rufus, all of which mean 'red'. On an ancient Hebrew intaglio we find the name ininc>, 'blackish', like the Syr. NO31K, the Ar. Aswad, Suhaim (which is also Sab.), etc., MAas [melas], Niger.

Harim (cm, c % in) might be derived from cm in its usual meaning, 'inviolable', 'holy', etc. Since, however, Harumaph (--p?in) is probably to be explained, with Gesenius, as rj Dim, we may conclude that the former name also signified 'with pierced nose', like the Ar. Ahram.

Heresh (cnn, more probably Heresh, cnn), or, in its Aram, form, Nchn, Harsha (cp the Palm, NE>in, Apcrd [harsa]), 'dumb', =Ar. Ahras. Chimham (CHCD), Chimhan ([,123, in Jer. 41:17 Kt. CTOD), 'blind' (?). Ater (it3N= Itter), 'left-handed', Z/ccuos [scaios], Scawola [scoeuola]. Paseah (nDS = Pisseah), 'halting', Ar. A'raj, etc., Claudius.

Kareah ( = nij; = Kereah, nip), 'bald', cp the Palm. Nnn 33, the Ar. Akra' , etc. , Calvus. The Sinaitic imp, nnip, admits of another meaning. Korah (nip) appears to have been originally the name of a place ( 'bare surface' ).

Ikkesh (vpy), 'crooked', cp Ar. As'ar, Su'air.

GideSn ([iy-u) = Ar. Jud'an, 'maimed'.

Gareb (313), 'scabby', cp Palm. N313, N3 13, Ar. Juraib, Jarba.

Zeruah (nyns), 'leprous' (fem. ), like the Ar. Abras. 5

1 For what follows many English, German, and other modern European family names might be quoted.

2 Cp such names as Ilaraicrx^s [paniasches], Ai<rxi*Aos [aischelos] in Greek.

3 See also HABAKKUK.

4 For another view see LABAN.

5 See, however, ZERUAH.

6 For another view see MERED.

67. Laudatory.[edit]

Among laudatory names may be mentioned Job (ai N), 'assailant', i.e., 'brave warrior' (cp Ar. Muharib) Barak (pia). 'lightning' ; Mered (TTD), 1 Ch. 4:17, 'resistance', 6 unless this be the name of a place, of which in Semitic countries there are several derived from the root TO. To these may be added 3*73, CALEB [q.v.] (of which Chelub, 3^3, and Chelubai, 3^3, are probably incorrect variations), 'raging with canine madness' ; a brave warrior may be compared to a mad dog, as is shown by the corresponding Arabic name Aklab (which occurs also in Nabataean). On the other hand, Nabal (^33), 'fool', can hardly have been the real name of the foolish man who refused his services to David. On laudatory proper names, see also above, 57. To the same class belong Neziah (rrx:), 'excellent' (Aram.); Naaman ([DJW, cp Ar. Nu'man), and the fem. Naamah (nap), 'pleasant', together with several other Arabic names from the root cj, 3 ; Delilah (n r n). probably 'delicate'. We might add Asher (IB>N), which perhaps means 'happy' ; but it may also be taken as an abbreviation of the obscure name which appears as Ashar-el RV (?me-K) or Asri-el (Sun^x) in the MT. The notion of 'long life' seems to be expressed in Huldah (rnVn, fem.), Heled (iSn, very doubtful), and Heldai 1 (nVn); cp Arabic Halid, Mahlad, Yahlud. Similarly Amon (px), AMNON (q.v. , [ UDN), may signify 'safe', 'out of danger'.

68. Animal names.[edit]

Names borrowed from animals (not always, it should be observed, of the nobler and stronger kinds) are found among Hebrews as well as among the Arabs and other races. That the name of the 'lion' is so used does not appear certain, since Arieh (EV .TINI-I), 2 K. 15:25, may be open to question, on account of the article. 2 Apt [ari], Josephus, BJ, 6:1:8, 6:2:6, 7:5:5, may be an abbreviation. Instead of Laish (tr 1 ?) of 1 S. 25:44 we find ri 1 ? in 2 S. 3:15 Kt. , and LXX{BL} diverges in both passages; but B^S, corresponding to the Ar. Laith, 'lion', is probably the right reading. The same meaning belongs to Asad ('AcraSos [asados], Miller), a favourite name with all Arabs ; cp Aewv [leon], Leo. Zeeb (3x1, a name said to have been borne by a Midianite prince) is 'wolf' ; cp Arabic Dhi'b, also AVKOS [lukos], Lupus. Zibeon (iiy3!), 'male hyaena' ; 3 cp Arabic Duba'a, Dubai'a. Shual (Vjw), 'fox' ; cp Ar. Thu'al, Gk. A\dnrr [haloopex]).

Eglah (n^y, fem.), 'cow', cp Ar. 'Ijl (masc. ), 'Ojail, Palm. 1*7-357 ( 0717X011 [ogelon], fem. OyijX?; [ogele]), Sab. n^y, Gk. II6prts [portis], AdyiiaXis [damalis], etc., Vitulus.

Zibiah (n"3^) fem. (x^i-, Zibia, masc. 1 Ch. 8:9), in its Aram, form Ta/3i<?d [tabitha] (Acts 9:36, 9:40), 'gazelle'. Cp Phoen. N3i;, Ar L Zabya, etc. , also Aop/cds [dorkos], Ne/3pis [nebris], etc. Similarly Epher (isy), and the diminutive form Ephron (j nsj?), seem to mean 'young gazelle' ; cp Ar. Ghasala Farkad, etc. Some animal of a kindred species is denoted by Dishon (JIB>H, J EH), Dishan (JCH). In like manner Leah (nxS, fem.) perhaps means a kind of gazelle, corresponding to La'y, Luwaiy in Arabic ; Aron (px), Aran (pn, according to the Syr. Arna), is 'mountain-goat', like Jael C?j? , fem.), of which Jaala (n 1 ?]; ), Jaalah (n^ ), may be the Aram. form (see above, 53) ; cp Arabic Wa'la (masc. form OudXov [oualon]). The Arabic Badan and Arwa (fem.) have the same meaning.

Immer (nax), 'male sheep', corresponds to the Arabic Hamal ; and Rachel (Vni), 'ewe', to the Arabic Ruhaila (diminutive form).

Hamor (iicn), 'ass' = Arabic Hi mar, Lat. Asellus.

Hezir (Tin), 'boar' = Arabic Hinzir, and still at the present day Hansir.* The name 7-in 33i [sons of the boar] which may seem strangely inappropriate in the case of the Jews, is confirmed by an inscription of this very family ; the pronunciation Hezir, which is also that of LXX{BL} , has been adopted in order to distinguish the name from Hazir. By the 'boar' is here meant the wild boar, as a type of combativeness. The names KaTr/sos [kapros], Aper were similarly used ; the corresponding term Varaz appears frequently as a proper name among the aristocracy of the Sasanian Empire.

Shaphan (f@w), the name of an animal similar to the marmot (hyrax) - cp the synonymous Arabic names, Wabr, Ubair.

Achbor (-ii33j;), 'mouse' - cp 1335; on an Israelite intaglio and several times in Phoenician inscriptions, Arabic 'Akbar and the synonymous 'Far, etc., also MCs, Mus.

1 But see also HULDAH, HELED, HELDAI.

2 See ARGOB, 2.

3 The many animal names among the inhabitants of Seir (Gen. 36) have been noticed by WRS (A7. 218). In some points, it must be admitted, he has gone too far, and his explanation of the facts does not appear satisfactory to the writer of the present article.

4 See Jones in the Record of the Bombay Government, 43 60.

Aiah (:TK), 'hawk', or some such bird of prey, corresponds to the Arabic Hida' , Kash'am, Gk. I^pa [hierax].

Oreb (any, a name ascribed to a Midianite prince), 'raven' = Arabic Ghurab, Gk. K6/>a [korax], Lat. Corvus.

Jonah (,i3v), 'dove', is a man's name, like the corresponding Arabic names Hamam, Hamama. The Arabic Fahita, Gk. Ile/xcrrepd [peristera], Tpvyuv [trygoon], Qdrriov [phattion], are names of women.

Hoglah (,-tan), 'partridge' - the word may have the same meaning when it is the name of a place, shortened from nS:n n 3-

Zippor (IBS, TIBS, fem. Zipporah, m!ax), small bird = Palm. xn-ji- (2e</><epa [sephphera]), Arabic, Usfur, Gk. DITTOS [pipos], SrpoP^os [strouthos].

Nahash (era). 'serpent', with its diminutive Nahshon (!wir]), corresponds to the Arabic Haiya, Hanash, Af'a, etc., Gk. ApdKwv [drakon]. Nehushta (untrra, fem.) is doubtful. Saraph (nib) also denotes some kind of serpent.

Nun (p3, Non, | y), 'fish'. So ancient a name may perhaps be connected with the worship of fish-deities which is known to have prevailed in those countries ; to this Exod. 20:4 refers, or 'that is in the water under the earth'.

Hagab (3311), and, in its Aram, form, Hagaba (N3jn), Hagabah n33n (cp AGABA, AGABUS), 'grasshopper', corresponds to the Arabic Jarad, Jundub, Gk. AKpLdiwv [akridioon]. Gazzam (EJJ) is probably another form of gazam, which has the same meaning (e.g., Joel 1:4).

Deborah (mil, rrfoi, better it would seem, Dibborah, miai, according to LXX's form Ae/3^wpa [debboora]), 'bee', - cp MAicnros [melissos], fem. Me Xtcrcra [melissa].

Parosh (trjns) 'flea', - cp SMXXos [psyllos], ^XXa [psylla], and the African priest, L. Caecil. Saturninus Pulex (Ephem. epigr. 5656)

Gaal (Syj) is explained by Wellhausen (IJG 26, 2nd ed. 44) as equivalent to the Arabic Ju'al, 'dung beetle' ; but this is uncertain, although Josephus seems to have the form Fi dXTjs [guales]. Cp Kdvdapos [kantharos], fem. KavOdpa [kanthara], [serambos]

Tola (yVm), 'worm', - the Arabic names, Du'ad, Dudan, perhaps have the same meaning.

69. Plant names.[edit]

Names borrowed from plants are much rarer. Tamar (inn, fem.), 'date-palm', seems to have no equivalent among Arabic proper names ; since names of this class are many in Arabic, it must appear strange that the queen of trees is unrepresented. Allon ([i^x), 'oak' or 'terebinth', 1 Ch. 4:37, is perhaps properly the name of a place, like Elon (pSx, ji rx), Tappuah (n]an, see 10), and Eshcol (SspN, Gen. 14:13, 14:24), the representative of the Va^x Sm, 'valley of grape-clusters' ; Wellhausen is probably right in identifying Anub (yzy, 1 Ch. 4:8), with the place called Anab (335;) in Josh. 11:21, 15:50 (De gent. 34+). Lebana (N33 1 ?), Lebanah (,-133 ?), is perhaps 'poplar', properly 'the white tree, like the Aram. KTin ; elsewhere the poplar is called libneh (,133S).

Rimmon (psi), 'pomegranate', - cp Poios [roios], fem. Potw [roioo]. Zethan (;n T), Zetham (cm), may signify 'olive', - from a similar form is borrowed the Arabic word Zaitun. Hadassah (nDin), 'myrtle' ; cp MI^TT; [myrte], Mvpnov [myrtion], Mvpivvrj [murinne].

Zowrdwa [soosanna], "Lovcrdwa [sousanna]. (Susanna), in the apocryphal addition to Daniel and in the NT is few or rtww, 'lily' ; this name appears as ^wffdvr], in the old Semitic myth from Ctesias, Diod. Sic. 26 ; cp \eipiov [leirion] (fem.).

Koz (pp), b'ne Hakkoz (ppn 33), 'briar' ; many Arabic proper names are borrowed from thorny plants, which symbolise men formidable to their enemies ; cp [akanthos]

70. Trade-names.[edit]

It is not certain whether there are any Hebrew names denoting a trade or profession ; in Arabic we find only a few such - e.g., Harith, 'ploughman' ; Najjar, 'carpenter'. Carmi ( % c-o) probably does not mean 'vine-dresser', but is to be taken as an adjective designating race (cp CARMI). c njrirrp(AV 'son of [one of] the apothecaries' ), Neh. 3:8, is one whose parents or ancestors were aromatarii ; accordingly we should read, in the same verse, C eiitf.Tp. 'son of the goldsmiths'. Such appellations are not rare in Syriac. The yn^n 33 ( 'sons of the lohesh' ; see HALOHESH), traced their descent from a magician, the 33 mSDn ( 'sons of the Sophereth' ), from a female scribe (!), whilst the SK ID nns 33 ( 'sons of Pahath Moab' ), were proud to call themselves after an ancestor who had been governor of Moab. A singular nickname is given to the mother of the family known as c 3xn rms 33 ( 'the sons of Pochereth-hazzebaim' ), 'she who fetters the gazelles', which seems to mean that she was so swift of foot as to overtake these animals. 1 The above designations are of course not to be regarded as real names. Arah (mn) might be the Aramaic word for 'wanderer' (corresponding to the Hebrew Oreah). Heber and Heber (130) appear to be wrongly vocalised ; the form Hober might be a real name, meaning 'enchanter', whereas Haber would be 'associate'.

71. Names from objects.[edit]

In Arabic, very many names are derived from objects of various kinds. Such names are suggested sometimes by a resemblance between the person and the object, sometimes by a purely accidental circumstance attending the birth. The present writer was once informed by Wetzstein that among the Bedouins a girl might be named Thalje, 'snow-flake', because it happened to be snowing when she was born. It is, of course, impossible in most cases to guess what gave rise to such names. Among the Hebrew names hitherto unexplained, there may be some which belong to this class, though it does not seem likely that they are very numerous. We may here mention Hotham (cnin), 'seal', like the Gr. 2 <p pay Is [sphragis]; the same meaning probably belongs to niyaa ( 33), sons of Tabbaoth, where the plural form, strange as it appears, is attested also by LXX. Purah [RV] (,TIE), if correctly vocalised, is 'wine-press'. Bakbuk (fnapa)i 'pitcher' (cp the Aram, name Xoufa[s], Chuza, i.e., N113, 'pitcher', Lk. 8:3). Rebecca (npai, Ribhkah, Pe- (3eKKa [rebekka]), 'cord', especially such as was used for tying sheep (that her daughter-in-law is called Rachel [Sm], 'ewe', may be an accidental coincidence). Rizpah (nan), 'pavement', Achsah (nB3y), 'anklet' (for women). This last belongs to a special category, namely, that of names borrowed from articles of luxury, of which the following also are examples : - Peninnah (,i33E), probably the singular of D 3 3S, 'corals', 2 Shoham (cnir). some precious stone (perhaps the onyx). Keziah [RV] (njrxp)i 'cassia', and Keren-happuch (^31 pp), 'box of face paint'. The last two are ornamental titles bestowed by the poet upon the daughters of Job. Perhaps we may include in the same class the somewhat doubtful name Zeri ( -is), which may be another form of sori ("is), 'storax', and Zeruiah (n ns fem.), which may mean 'one who is perfumed with storax'. Cp Mvpos [muros], fem. Mvpu [muru], also Basemath [RV] (ncc-3).

1 In old Arabic poetry a horse used for hunting is styled Kaid al awahid, 'fetter of the flying animals'.

2 See RUBY.

3 Haggiah (,-t an, the name of a man, 1 Ch. 6:15 [6:30]) can hardly be correct ; the only possible rendering would be 'my feast is Yahwe'.

72. Time.[edit]

The time of birth may have suggested the names Nogah (333) and Moza (uxia), 'sunrise' ; but it is also possible to explain them as metaphors. An analogous case is Shaharaim (c inB ), 'dawn', if the form be correct. A similar assumption being made, Hodesh (chn, fem. 1 Ch. 8:9) signifies 'born at the feast of the new moon' ; cp Phoenician cnn33 which is rendered by Noi /uijcios [noumenios]. Shabbethai (TO;?. 2a/3pa.Ta.ios [zarbataios] in the Letter of Aristeas) is clearly 'one born on the Sabbath' like Baptra/3/ids [barsabbas] in the NT (see above, 48). Haggi ( an), Haggai ( an), fem. Haggith (mn), 3 probably mean 'born on the feast day'. Perhaps Moadiah (myiB, see 32) may have the same sense. Names of this kind, usually compounded with ben (p) or bar (13) as the case may be, are employed by other Semites, in particular by the Syrians.

73. Direction.[edit]

An idea of direction is expressed in the names Jamin (j D ). Ben-jamin (po :a), Min-iamin (po jo) or Mijamin (i s " -) and Zephon (ps*. p Bx Ziphion). Both pa :3 and pas (a son of Gad) seem to be properly names of districts, 'southern' and 4 'northern'.

We may here add the strange names Jaakobah (ra py), 'towards Jacob', and Chenaanah (HJJUD), 'towards Canaan'. Moreover in 1 Ch. 25:14 Jesharelah [so EV] (nSxib , for which v. 2 has Asharelah, n ?NnB N) may naturally be taken to mean 'towards Israel'.

74. Abstract.[edit]

The Arabs use also many abstract nouns as proper names. To account for such names is sometimes even harder than to account for those which are borrowed from material objects. A few examples of this class have already been mentioned incidentally (cp Gr. IcroTTjs [hisotes], Afipofftivi [abrosyne]), "Zutppoavvrj [soophrosyne], etc.). We may cite here, rma, Manoah, 'rest', (unless it comes from the root ma, 'to present a gift', and there fore belongs to the category in 57) ; Merab (ma) probably 'increase' ; Mahlon (pSna) and Chilion (JV^D), 'sickness' and 'wasting' (two persons who are introduced into the narrative for the purpose of explaining how two young women came to be widows) ; Naboth (ni33. masc.), perhaps 'height' ; Tikvah (mpn, masc.), 'hope' ; Rinnah (ran, masc.), 'shouting' ; Sacar (~\3iy), 'reward (from God)' ; Tehinnah (n-inn, masc. ), 'request or favour' ; Hezion (jrin, an Aramaean), 'vision' ; Michal C?3>e, fem.), perhaps 'power' ; Harhur (-iirnrt), 'fever'. That Mirmah [RV] (HOTD), 'deceit', should be the right form seems very improbable. Tw/3[e]ir [toobeit], Tw/3a# [toobeith], Tobit (masc.), 'goodness', appears in post-biblical Jewish writings as ni3B, n 3B. Mahol (\'i!]e) 'might be 'dance', were it not that Mahlah (nSna, masc. and fem. ), Mahalath (rtSna, fern. ) and Mahli ( Sna, the name of a family of Levites) point to some other derivation than that from Sin ; the uncertainty of the vocalisation here renders it impossible to draw any conclusions.

Terminations.[edit]

75. Final ni.[edit]

Amongst the names ending in oth (ni) there may be some abstract nouns which perhaps should be pronounced with uth (nr) ; but nearly all of these are very doubtful, and in some cases even the form varies. Thus the man who is called Meshillemoth (niaWa) in Neh. 11:13, 2 Ch. 28:12, is called Meshillemith (rraWa) in 1 Ch. 9:12; in this last passage (as in 2 Ch. ) LXX has -wf) [-ooth] [BAL], whereas in Neh. 11:13 one reading [X ca mg. inf. ] is -iff [-ith]. 1 In like fashion the same man appears as Shelomoth (niaW) and Shelomith (n cVc*), the former being used as a name elsewhere. To settle the precise meaning is hardly possible. Nor can we explain Meremoth (niana, masc. ) ; though it is once spelt nana it may perhaps be com pounded with ma, 'death'. The same word is possibly contained in Jerimoth (nia T). Jeremoth (niar), and doubtless in Azmaveth (maty, 63). Lappidoth [RV] (n rrs 1 ?, masc.), 'torche's, 1 is no less suspicious in appearance than Mikloth (ni^pc, Ma/ce\[\]u>0 [makelooth]), 'rods'. On the other hand, Jerioth (rrijrv), 'tents' (1 Ch. 2:18), may be originally the name of a place. Nebaioth (nv3]), 'heights' (?), the name of a people, seems to be a real plural, like the names of modern Arabian tribes in -at.

The plural forms Huppim (c sn, csn, Gen. 46:21 ; i Ch. 7:15) and Shuppim (D BC, cstr, 1 Ch. 7:12, 7:15, 26:16, for which Gen. 46:21 has Muppim, n 3a) are proved incorrect by the adjectives Huphamite (DB?n) and Shuphamite (asic*). The form Shephupham [RV] (csiBtf, Samaritan DBIIP) is found in Nu. 26:39, and Shephuphan (JS^B?) in 1 Ch. 8:5. Both form and meaning are here quite uncertain. The same may be said of Shapham (DBB>, the name of a man), Shepham (CEIT) and Siphmoth [EV] (n lBBt?. names of places), and also of the adjective Shiphmite ( Dfic>). Whether the dual Diblaim (o Van), as the name of a man, be correct, it is impossible to say, since the meaning of the word is unknown.

l BN*A omit ; L has -108 [-ooth].

76. Final i.[edit]

Adjectives in -i (gentilicia) appear to have been very rarely used as names in the strict sense. Thus we find Jehudi ("" lT> J er " 3:6, 14:21, 14:23); the man in question is thereby designated as a real Judaean, perhaps in consequence of the fact that his great-grandfather, to judge by his name Cushi (-riD), was a native of Aethiopia. Similarly we find a Boeotian named Botwros [boiootos], a Molossian named MoXoacros [molossos], a Thessalian named IIeT0a\6s [petthalos] ] (i.e., GerraXos [thettalos]); see Kick, 340. A Judith [EV] (rrar) appears even in Gen. 26:34, and in the well-known romance the heroine bears the name Ioi>50 [Joudeith], as being the ideal of religious and political virtue. The Cushi who was a member of the royal family, according to Zeph. 1:1, very possibly had a mother belonging to some black race. The man called jj isn (the Cushite) in 2 S. 1:8 and insri -jVo 13V (Ebed-melech the Cushite ; EV Ethiopian), who is mentioned several times by Jeremiah, were no doubt of African extraction ; cp 55-3 in the Phoenician inscription of Elephantine, which is contemporaneous with Jeremiah. We also find Beeri ("1N3, or -a, Beri, 1 Ch. 7:36), 'belonging to the well', or 'belonging to the place called Beer', and Gehazi (vnM or im), which has the appearance of being derived from the name of some place compounded with -j or NU (Ge, valley) ; we are reminded of the mysterious phrase j vin j (Ge-hizzaion, 'valley of vision' ) in Is. 22:15. On the many names ending in i in the genealogies, see above, 52 - these are used simply as adjectives. So far as the form is concerned we must include in the same class names like Omri (nay), Barzillai (-Vnaji 'made of iron' (cp the Punic Birzilis, genitive case, Ephem. epigr. 5:40) and Shimshai ( ^a;: ) 'solaris', 1 the name of a non-Israelite ; in later times Shimshai appears among the Syrians as Za/ucrcuos [samsaios], 2a,cwr6os [samseos], and the brother of Simeon Stylites was called -rar. Though the grammatical form of these three names offers no diffi culty, their origin and meaning are quite obscure. 1 ITDI? might also be regarded as an abbreviation of some name like ciiE Cc? (iciju.i/ fy^pa.juos [sampsigeramos), which was not rare among the Aramaeans.

77. Final an, on, am, om.[edit]

A considerable number of names end in j (an) or |S (on), for which, in some cases, the archaic termination c ^~ (am) or c ~ (om) is suhstituted. Whether these terminations are really identical is by no means certain. Sometimes |i appears to be a diminutive termination - e.g., in Ephron (j nsy), 'hinnulus' ; Eglon 'vitulus', Arabic 'Ojail; Nahshon (p:?m), 'small serpent' ; Samson (pB Ca*. Shimshon), 'small sun', like the Arabic Shumais (name of a man); Abdon (j nay), diminutive form of the abbreviated name Ebed (135;), like the Arabic 'Obaid. Other examples of these terminations are Hemdan (pan), Gen. 36:26 (so also in LXX[ADL] and Samaritan text), but Hamran (pan) in 1 Ch. 1:41 (LXX{AL} follows Gen. ) probably desirable, like the Arabic Hamdan ; z Amram (ciay), probably 'in good condition' ; Chimhan (fnDD)i Chimham (cnca), and Gideon (pjna); see above, 66. Malcham (caSa, 1 Ch. 8:9) is open to suspicion. No definite meaning can be extracted from Simeon (pyac 1 ) Gershom (citrij). Gershon (ptnj). Onam (mix), Onan (pin), Hemam (cc n. Gen. 36:22, for which 1 Ch. 1:39 has Homam, [a!n), Heman (jD n)i Bilhan (jn*?3; the fem. Bilhah, nrrSa, is also obscure), Balaam (cj;S3, Bil'am). As for Iram (cry) and Eran (py), they are no less difficult to explain than Ir (TJ;), Er (iy), Ira (NTP), Iri (-TJ;), Eri (ny), Iru (n y), - forms of which some are doubtless incorrect. In Reuben (pija, as in pi", Yarden, EV Jordan), we seem to have a variation of An, if the view expressed in 62 be right. The n disappears in naVe i Shelomo, EV Solomon (= Arabic Salaman), 'peaceable' or 'happy', and probably in i-irr, EV Jethro (=Yithran, prr). 'eminent'.

1 For other possible explanations see OMRI, BARZILLAI, SHIMSHAI.

2 See also HEMDAN.

78. Archaic feminine.[edit]

Had all Hebrew names been transmitted to us in their correct form, we should presumably be able to point out in them many archaisms and dialectic peculiarities. As it is, the most noteworthy phenomenon of this kind is the retention of the ancient feminine ending n [h] in a few OT names - a form which survives in Phoenician and even in Moabite. Thus we find the masculine names Genubath (m:j)i Shimrath (mac )- Goliath (n <l ?J, a Philistine), Manahath (nma, originally, it would seem, the name of a place), Ginath (nrj, LXX Yuva.6 [gunath] [BA] -w6 [-ooth] [L]) ; the feminine names Basemath (nafc 3). Mahalath (rrWia). Of these names only a few admit of a satisfactory explanation. Taphath (nEB, fem, 1 K. 4:11) has a suspicious appearance, as the words -im na: immediately precede.

79. Grammatical persons.[edit]

It is interesting to notice that all the grammatical persons occur in Hebrew proper names, though they do not alwaysrefer to the same kind of subject.

i. The third person is used of the Deity in names like Azar-iah (imiy), and also without any express mention of the Deity - e.g., in Joseph (JD V) - whilst in Jephunneh (njfl ) and the like it refers to the bearer of the name.

ii. The second person occurs only in imperative forms ; it is used of God in Shuba-el (Sj^sy) and jfiSjjn (if the explanations given above, 22, 30, be correct), and of man in rrVsn (Hakke-le-yah, see above, 23), miin (Hodu-jah; see 33), perhaps in piNT (Reu-ben; but see above, 77, 62). 1

iii. The first person singular refers

  • (a) to God in the artificial names Giddalti ( nSu) and Romamti-ezer (ity neon) i see above, 22.
  • (b) To the bearer of the name in such cases as Abihu (Ki,V3K)i Elihu (in Sn), and in those which have ni or li 0 e.g. , Hashabne-iah (n^atrn), Tebal-iah (in San) ; 2
  • (c) to the mother, or, in some cases, tothe father, in Shealti-el (VN n^Nw ) Hephzi-bah (n3 sEn), Noomi ( oyj, EV Naomi), 'my sweetness', 'my delight' ; Peullethai [RV] ( n^ys, pron. Peullathi), 'my wages' ; Naari (nyj), 'my lad' ; Beni ( 33), 'my son' (if we adopt the view that these forms are to be substituted for the Massoretic Naarai and Bunni respectively). Among the Abyssinians we find a multitude of such names expressing motherly affection e.g. , 'my king', 'my crown', 'my gold', 'my plum', 'my buffalo' (i.e., 'my hero' ); similarly in Palmyrene, <rnc. 'my mistress' ; TDK , 'my glory' ; o an, 'my beloved' ; and in the Talmud Yyi, 'my little one'. Whether Cozbi ( 373) and Tibni ( izn) belong to this class is doubtful.
  • (d) The first person plural refers to the parents or to the whole community in Immanuel C?N?:ey) I cp Phoen. ^333K, Syr. pax, Talm. pa, 'our father' (a term of endearment used by the mother, like N^N, 'father', etc. ), Palm, nj^ia, 'Bol is ours' ; ijjy, 'he has answered us'.

1 Cp also BENINU.

2 These and many others may, however, really belong to c.

3 W. Max Miiller has completely failed in hisattempt to produce from hieroglyphic inscriptions examples of the use of n [yah] (sic, not in [yahu]) in ancient names of places, and at least in one name of a person (As. u. Eur. 312^).

History.[edit]

In conclusion something may be said about the history of the formation of names among the Israelites.

80. El and Yahwe names.[edit]

Whilst the divine appellation El (Sx), which was common to all the Semites, appears even in the oldest names, such as Israel (Sine"), it would seem that names compounded with jah (in*) came into use later and gradually increased in number. 3 Jochebed (-ear) is scarcely to be regarded as historical. In Jehoshua (ycnrv). the name of the successor of Moses, we have an apparent instance of Jeho- (I,T) as a divine appellation ; but since the same man is also called Hoshea (yrin), some doubt still remains. On Seraiah (n-ic 1 ) and Reaiah (rrjo) in Chronicles no argument can be based, for even if these names be genuine they belong to a later period than that which might be supposed from their connection with the patriarchs. Whether Gideon's son Joash (C>NV), and Samuel's son Joel C?KV) are cases in point is at least not quite certain (see above, 26, 37). In any case names formed with Jeho (in*) occur shortly before the period of the kings, and after a while they became more popular than any other class of names.

Names formed with Baal (^3) were doubtless used to a considerable extent in early times, and even under the first kings. We may still perceive traces of the attempt to abolish this name of the Deity, which had become offensive in consequence of the feeling that it stood in contrast to Yahwe (see also 41). It is therefore quite possible that in several biblical names El or Yahwe has been substituted for Baal.

81. Egyptian.[edit]

Since the Israelites were at one time sojourners in Egypt and ever afterwards continued to have intercourse with that countr like the neighbouring peoples, we might naturally expect to find a certain number of Egyptian names in use among them. The only clear case, however, is Phinehas (DTO E), a name which (according to information received by the present writer from Erman and Spiegelberg) was extremely common in Egypt, and has the singular meaning 'this negro' (cp Cushi, cfta). It might be plausibly conjectured that Moses (nsy a) is of Egyptian origin, although the Egyptian equivalent which has been suggested for it, namely Mose ( or some such form), has a different sibilant (see MOSES, 2). Putiel (VKTME) bears a resemblance to the Egyptian names Potiphar (IS DIE) and Potiphera (yns aiE) ; a name compounded with El (SN) might be coined in Egypt as easily as one compounded with some other Semitic appellation of the deity. Ashhur (-nni5>K) is very probably Ish-hor, 'man of Horus', an Egyptian god who undoubtedly appears in the Phoenician name -im3y (cp notray. 'servant of Osiris', and other Phoenician names). It seems therefore quite possible that Hur (-)?n), who, like Phinehas, stands in connection with Moses, is neither more nor less than 'Horus', for, acccording to Spiegelberg, this name occurs in Egypt as the name of a human individual, not only as the name of a god. 1 The same scholar has also corroborated the further suggestion that Pashhur RV (vnc E-). which certainly does not look like a Hebrew name, is compounded with Horus ; PShHR 'portion of Horus', or 'Horus apportions', occurs once as a proper name. Persons thoroughly acquainted both with Egyptian and with Hebrew would probably be able to point out a few more Egyptian names borne by Israelites. 2

1 That -yin is Horus has already been suggested by Nestle, who regards Putiel (5X'Ol@) likewise as Egyptian (I.c. 110+)

2 Cp Che. Proph. Isa. (3+) 2:144. S. Kerber in his very able treatise 'Die religionsgeschichtliche Redeutung der hebraischen Eigennamen', which appeared after this article was set up (see above, col. 3269, n. i) points out (75 f.) that the name yvnx [ahyra] is compounded with the name of the great Egyptian god Ra . It is to be noticed that this man belongs to the family of the Naphtalites mentioned in Numbers.

82. Exile.[edit]

A reference to the Exile is contained in Assir (nex), 'prisoner', the name of a son of Jeconiah who was carried captive to Babylon (see ASSIR). In Ex. 6:24, 1 Ch. 6:7, 6:8, 6:22 [6:22, 6:23, 6:37] the same name TDK must have been suggested by some other circumstance. The name El-iashib (TjrSx) was likewise used, at the period in question, with reference to the return to Canaan. Zerubbabel C?331T), according to Jensen, occurs several times as a Babylonian proper name ; it signifies 'seed of Babylon'.

83. Babylonian.[edit]

Of the same period are the following Babylonian names (on which see the special articles) : Sheshbazzar (-ii 3c*tr), Sharezer [RV] nsmtr (Sareser) Zech. 7:2, Bilshan (jr^, which is found also in an ancient Aramaic document, CIS, 259, and corresponds to the Babylonian Belshun), Nekoda (xiip:, the Babylonian Nikudu, a kind of bird), see Friedr. Del. Prol. 212, where the name Barkos (bpia) is also explained as Babylonian. 1 On Sanballat (BV23D), see Schrader, KAT&, 382. Mordecai ( 31-0. MapSoxatos [Mardochaios]) is at least derived from the name of the Babylonian god Marduk.

In Meshezabeel (?K3rBto. 29) the first part is doubtless of Babylonian origin ; but since the verb yv, 3W had already passed into the Aramaic language, the name must be regarded as Aramaic. It is certain that at that time Aramaic was largely used in Babylonia. Hence it is that several families of Jewish exiles mentioned in Ezra 2 = Neh. 7 = 1 Esd. 5 bear Aramaic names e.g., b'ne Hatipha (xs tsn 33), b'ne Hatita (xtren -33) ( 'pointed' ?), b'ne Perida (NTIS 33) or b'ne Peruda (x-iriB 33, 'separated' ?), etc. So also we find Aziza (ttny) 'strong' (Palm, ny, and, in its Arabic form iriy), Zebina (xr3t) 'bought' (used in later times both by Jews and Aramaeans), cp Palm. pin^N 'God has bought' ; the name must therefore be included among those mentioned in 56. We may observe here how ready the Jews were, even at that period, to conform to foreign custom in the matter of names, as in other externals, while rigidly preserving their national char acter.

No Persian names are borne by Jews in the OT ; even Esther (TTIDK) is scarcely of Persian origin. See ESTHER.

84. Old names revived.[edit]

In the time of Ezra some ancient names reappear e.g. , Shimeon (ppssr), Ezra 10:31. The great popularity of this name (in Greek, Sweu" [symeoon], Si/uuw [simon], the latter being also a genuine Greek name) is probably due to Simeon the High Priest, of whom Jesus bar Sira speaks with such admiration, and to Simeon the brother of Judas the Maccabee, who was himself a great - grandson of another Simeon. Joseph (tpi ) is found in Ezra 10:42, Neh. 12:14, and afterwards appears very frequently, sometimes in its full form, sometimes shortened into Jose (-DV), in the NT Joses, Iw<rr?s [Jooses]. Joshua (yc-in ), the name of the successor of Moses, occurs again in 1 S. 6:14-18 and 2 K. 23:8; the same name, mostly written Jeshua (jw-) according to the later pronunciation, was borne by the high priest in the days of Darius I. About 340 B.C. it reappears in the family of the High Priests, and occasionally in the period following. At the time of Christ, and even later, it was extremely common (Greek form, I^troCs [Jesous], Jesus). The name Jonathan (|n:r) had never dropped out of use. Of repetition of the name Judah (rrnrr) the earliest instances are Judas the Maccabee and one of his contemporaries (1 Macc. 11:70) ; in subsequent ages it was very popular, as is shown by the NT. Jacob (spy) seems to have come into use very late ; the list in the Letter of Aristeas contains one Id/cw/Soy [Jacobos], and the NT mentions three (EV James). Of ancient names, moreover, the following were particularly common at that period - Hananiah (,T::n), Johanan (pnv). Iwdvvrj S [Jooannes] (EV John), and, as a feminine name Iwdvva [Jooanna], Joanna, (Lk. 8:3, 24:10), Eleazar (ity jK), Adffcpos [lazaros] (Lazarus), Azariah (miy), Mattithiah (rrnna), Martfi aj [matthias] (Matthias). We also find in a considerable number of cases Menahem (cms), Hezekiah (rrptn). Jeremiah (,TDT). On the other hand, as has long ago been remarked, the Jews continue for many ages after the Christian era to avoid the sacred names Abraham and Moses, likewise Aaron and David. The Letter of Aristeas , it is true, mentions an " A/3pa/uos [abramos] (Abram), and in Tobit Zappa [sarra] (Sara) plays an important part. The name of Moses' sister probably owed its popularity to Mariamme, the last of the Hasmonaeans ; in the NT we meet with several women called Maptd/u [mariam] or Mapta [maria] (Mary).

1 See, however, BARKOS.

85. New names.[edit]

Since Ezra's time very few Hebrew names have been coined. The following may be mentioned - *rnn t known to us only in the shortened forms 'Otas, Onias (min). Talmudic X1ln, X]ln (which latter represents the Babylonian pronunciation); "A/3<K /3os, Abubus 'beloved' (3?3n, Habub], 1 Macc. 16:11 ; <baffdri\os [phasaelos] (^NSB, Pesael) ; Map7dXw0oj [margaloothos] 'pearls' (ni[ ]Snc), Jos. Ant. 17:6:2; Zwo-dwa [soosanna], ^ovcrdwa [sousanna], 'lily' (j^itr or nwier). At the same time some Aramaic names became current - e.g. , N TNE (see above, 55), Neret pas [neteiras] (KTBJ) 'preserved (by God)', Jos. BJ 3:7:21 ; but such names are fewer than we might have expected.

86. Greek.[edit]

Soon after Alexander the Jews began to adopt Greek names ; this process doubtless originated in the upper classes. A high priest called himself Idffwv, Jason, attempting to imitate his real name l7j(roOs [jesous], Jeshua (jntr), just as a certain Id/xos [jacimos] (o p , Jakim) called himself "AX/a/tos, Alcimus, and ZiXas, Silas (N TNC ) in the NT was transformed into 2tXoi>ap 6s [silouanos], Silvanus. From that time Jason became a common name among the Jews. The brother of the above-mentioned Jason, Ovtas, Onias (min), bestowed upon himself the name of MevAaos, Menelaus. The author of the Letter of Aristeas includes several Greek names in his list of those who translated the Pentateuch in the third century B.C., a list which, it is true, he composed from his own imagination. The national reaction of the Maccabaean period did not put a stop to this tendency. A nephew of Judas was named prfp TpKavos, Johanan Hyrcanus ; his sons were jmirr (shortened into xr) A\eavdpos, Jannai Alexander, rmn Api<rT6/3oi>Xos, Judah Aristobulus, and Avriyovos, Antigonus. The NT also contains double names of this kind - e.g. , SaCXos C?INB>, Shaul) IlaDXoj, Saul Paul; ludvvris (pnv) Map/cox, John Mark ; Zu/xeoj;/ (pycty) 6 Ka\oi>fj.evos ?\Lyep [simeon o kaloumenon niger], Simon called Niger (Acts 13:1). 1 Even in Palestine, however, many Jews of the time of Christ bore only Greek names. Of the apostles, who were Galilaeans in an inferior social position, one was called 4>tXt7rTTOS, Philip, and another AvSp^as, Andrew. Among the Jews of the more western regions, Greek names seem at that period to have had a decided preponderance. Nor was any offence caused by names connected with the worship of heathen deities, since no one thought of the meaning. It is true that in the Book of Daniel Abed-nebo (133 I3y)> of which the sense was only too obvious, has been changed into Abed-nego ( 133 tny) ; but just as Ashhur (Tins?*) and Mordecai (-yro) were regarded as unobjectionable, we read of strict Jews calling themselves ATroXXwptoj, Apollonius, and AioSupot, Diodorus (names borne by the envoys of the Maccabasan prince in Jos. Ant. 13:9:2), whilst the associate of the apostle Paul was named ATroXXws, Apollos. Similarly at a later period, the father of a certain Rabbi Jose bore the distinctively Christian name oita S. Il^rpos, Peter. Some names which the Jews borrowed from the Greeks are ultimately of Latin origin ; a particular favourite was loDo-ros, Justus, KBDV or UDV (which is the form of the vocative).

In the NT 2 and elsewhere we find many Greek abbreviations used by Jews - e.g. , AXeas, Alexas (ND^N) ; AovK&f, Lucas; Apre/iay, Artemas ; KXeo?ras, Cleopas ; KXwTras, Clopas ; 0eu5as, Theudas, which last is a genuine Greek abbreviation of 9e65wpos, Theodorus, or 6eo56<Tios, Theodosius, whereas 6a55a(os, Thaddaeus, Kin, is formed after the Hebrew fashion. Soon after the apostolic age, if not earlier, some Jews adopted the practice of spelling their Hebrew names according to the Greek pronunciation - e.g. , po D, Simon, Ztyuwv, or fi D D, Simeon, Zvpeuv, for pjEup, Shim'on ; po N, Isak, for pns . Yishak ; jar, Juda (vocative) or pr, Juda,n (accusative) for rmv, Yehuda ; cp the name on iV, Levites, AI^TT;S, for nVn, Hallevi. The fusion of Greek and Jewish culture, a process of such vast importance in the history of the world, is here, as it were, symbolically represented. The creative power whereby a nation is enabled to coin new names had at that period long been extinct among the Jews, even as it has become extinct among the Christian peoples of the present day.

T. N.

1 On double names the one indigenous, the other Greek of Jews and other Orientals, cp R. Herzog in Philologus, 66

2 See Winer, Gram.(^, 16, 9.

B. PLACE-NAMES[edit]

In the following sections dealing with place-names, as in the rest of the article, the aim is

  • (1) to give the right points of view for the study of the names,
  • (2) to show how they may be classified, with examples,
  • (3) to discuss in an introductory way some of the many difficult questions which arise out of the subject, and
  • (4) incidentally to throw some light on certain names and so to supplement the special articles.

87. Compared with personal.[edit]

The names of places recorded in the OT are, regarded as a whole, different in character from the personal names. Two differences in particular are worthy of notice.

  • (1) A very much smaller proportion of place-names consists of compounds forming a sentence (sentence-names) ; for whilst the great majority of compound personal names are sentences (e.g. , Elnathan), the great majority of compound geographical names are combinations of two (or more) nouns in a genitival relation (e.g., Bethel).
  • (2) Whilst in the case of personal compounds with a divine name, the number of those containing the proper name of the deity is larger than that of those making use of one of the common divine terms (such as el, ba'al) ; in geographical compounds, on the other hand, the proper name of a deity is very rare, and a common term, such as el, ba'al, frequent.

Both these differences may be due to the great antiquity of the place-names ; for there are indications that sentence-names were not the earliest type even of personal names among the Hebrews (cp HPN 246+), and an early preference for the common rather than the proper name of deity is also a probable inference from the history of personal names. It would be hazardous, however, to make the assumption that place-names were generally derived from personal, or the reverse, the basis of an examination of either group. The two groups require in the first instance independent analysis and examination, and only in the light of this can the deter mination of the relation between them be profitably attempted.

88. Obscurity.[edit]

The rarity of sentence-names among the names of places is one cause of the greater obscurity in which geographical names are involved ; for the combination of two terms into a sentence limits the range of ambiguity of either more than their union as construct and genitive. Another cause is the greater antiquity and non-Hebrew origin of at least many of the place-names ; we have to interpret them with but little or none of the literature of the people who framed them to help us. Yet another cause is the uncertainty attaching to the period in which they originated ; we can seldom fix more than a terminus ad quem, the terminus a quo being absolutely undefined. The textual tradition of place-names is frequently very dubious.

A very large number of place-names at present defy any reasonable interpretation. In other cases difficulty arises from the ambiguity of the form ; and not unfrequently from the uncertainty of the Massoretic reading. As an example of both causes of obscurity we may take Migron. This name may come either

  • (1) from the root mgr with the substantival suffix on, or
  • (2) from gry with substantival prefix m and suffix on, or
  • (3) from grn with prefix m.

As to No. 1, it is true that the origin from the root mgr is the barest possibility. It is unlikely that a root so Aramaic in character should have entered into the name of a Mid-Canaanite town already existing, in the time of Isaiah (10:28). We may also dismiss No. 2 (root gry) on the ground of the lateness of the noun formation (Barth, AH, 204), and, adopting No. 3 (root grn), interpret the name as 'threshing-floor' (see We. on Is. 14:2). Next, as to the reading. This, though retained by critics, cannot be held to be quite certain. In the only two places where this name is found, LXX in Is. and in 1 S. reads Megiddo, which has suggested a new emendation of the text in 1 S. 14:2 (see MIGRON). Here then we have a typical instance of the uncertainty of geographical names. For another such instance take Madon (LXX{BF} Marron) - of which possible roots are dun, mdw, mrw.

In dealing with the present subject it is most important to bear in mind this great ambiguity or uncertainty of most individual names. It is as a rule only when the instances are many that we can be certain that a particular class of meanings was actually expressed by place-names. There can, for example, be no question that many place-names are identical with animal names. Many of the individual instances even in this case are uncertain ; but the coincidences are too many to admit of the reality - and, indeed, of the considerable extent - of the class being doubted.

Still further uncertainty is connected with this and many other classes when we proceed from determining the meaning to inquire into the cause and origin of the name. For instance : are these animal names due to totemistic beliefs, or were they given because the animals referred to abounded in the neighbourhood of the several places, or because in some prominent feature the place resembled the animal in question ?

It is impossible within the limits of the present article to discuss the various theories or to examine in any way exhaustively the various possible meanings of the whole of the biblical place-names. All that we can attempt to do is to arrange the names in classes and according to meanings that are tolerably well established. Moreover, we shall, generally speaking, exclude the names of Egyptian, Assyrian, and other towns remote from Palestine, confining ourselves to the names in the land of Israel and the immediately surrounding countries.

Origin.[edit]

89. How far pre-Israelitish.[edit]

Before we proceed to the classification, however, certain points that have already been briefly referred to call for discussion, and, especially, the history of Palestinian places. It is difficult to say how many of these were given by the Israelites. In a considerable number of cases we know definitely that they were not. In other words, many of the names of places in the land of Israel are pre-Israelitish. As to these there are two main sources of information - the Amarna tablets (circa 1400 B.C.) and the lists of Thotmes III. (not later than 15th cent.), Seti I. and Rameses II. (predecessors of Mernephtah in whose reign the Exodus is usually placed), Pap. Anastasi I. (temp. Rameses II.); for references and details compare Winckler s edition of the Amarna tablets with index (KB 5), and for the Egyptian lists W. M. Miiller (As. u. Eur. , especially 154, 157-164, 181). Cp PALESTINE, 15.

Among names (of subsequently Israelitish towns) occurring in the list of Thotmes, and therefore at least as ancient as the fifteenth century B.C. , are Abel, Accho, Achshaph, Ain, Aphek (?), Asthteroth-karnaim, Edrei, Gath, Gaza, Hadid, Helkath, Ijon (?), Joppa, Kanah, Makkedah, Migdal, Mishal, Rehob, Sharuhen, Socoh, Zephath ; and among names mentioned in the lists of Seti I. and Rameses II. are Beth-anath, Luz and Secu, and perhaps also Jabneh and Heres. In the Amarna tablets (14th cent. B.C.) we meet with Aijalon, Gath-rimmon (?), Hannathon, Hazor, Jerusalem, Kanah, Lachish, Megiddo, Seir (?), Zorah.

The significance of these sources for our present purpose, however, is not fully represented by the actual identifications. Several of the names are typical instances of considerable classes - Ain (cp also Hi-ni-a-na-bi = 3:j; py, Amarna 237:26) and Abel of the numerous compounds with these terms ; Aijalon and Zorah of animal names ; Jabneh of names which consist of a third sing, impf. Further, other names in these sources, though not identical with biblical names, are instances of other large groups of the latter ; Bit-ninib (Amarna), Ba-t-y-a (Thotmes list) of compounds with Beth ; and Joseph-el (see JOSKPH i. , i) and Jakob-el (see JACOB, i, and cp WMM As. u. Eur. 162 ff.\ of compounds of an impf. and el. In brief, the biblical place-names have so many and such close resemblances to those early names that it is difficult, if not impossible, in the absence of direct information to distinguish names given to places by the Israelites from the names which the} took over from the former inhabitants.

With regard to a few names, it is true, the biblical writings contain statements or suggestions that certain names were first given by the Israelites. Thus it has generally been inferred (e.g. , by Di. ) from Judg. 19:10, 1 Ch. 11:4+, Josh. 15:8, 18:16, 18:28 that Jebus was the Canaanite name of the city which was subsequently called by the Hebrews Jerusalem, and this was probably intended by the Hebrew writers ; but the occurrence of the name Jerusalem in the Amarna tablets now shows us that this was not the case.

The words 'their names being changed' in Nu. 32:38 may be, as Dillmann suggests, a gloss directing that the two preceding names Nebo and Baal-maon are to be so read as to conceal their heathen origin ; in any case the clause can hardly mean that these two names are of Israelitish origin. To the name Baal-perazim an Israelitish origin is attributed in 2 S. 5:20, but perhaps erroneously (see BAAL-PERAZIM, and cp HPN 133). See, further, BETHEL, SAMARIA. Joktheel was the name given to Sela by Amaziah (2 K. 14:7); but whether the name itself, which is borne by a Jewish town (Josh. 15:38), be pre- Israelitish or not, we cannot say.

In any case, the number of names directly stated or implied in the OT to have been of Israelitish origin is small. In one or two cases the character of the name itself clearly indicates such an origin ; perhaps the clearest instance is Baal Judah (HPN 133 ; see also for a suggestion relative to Laish, ib. 102, n. 5).

90. Non-Semitic.[edit]

Most of the pre-Israelitish names cited above are clearly Semitic ; but it is not improbable that some of the biblical place-names are not merely pre-Israelitish but non-Semitic. Such a name as Ziklag, for instance, is difficult to explain from the known Semitic vocabulary. Cp ZIKLAG.

Names of Greek or Latin origin (in some cases substitutes for old names, in others names of entirely new towns) are easily distinguishable. The ancient name Bethshean is already displaced by Z.K.vQ&v TroAis [skuthon polis] in Judith 3:10 (cp Judg. 1:27, LXX) ; and the NT refers to several places with such names - e.g. , Ptolemais, Caesarea, Antipatris ; see further, Schurer GJV 2:50-131.

Modern Palestinian names are Arabised forms of the ancient names or fresh Arabic formations (cp Survey of Western Palestine - Special Papers, 254-258, and the Name Lists).

91. Conclusion.[edit]

To sum up, then. Apart from the Greek and Latin names which are confined to the Apocrypha and the NT and are immediately distinguishable, the great majority of biblical place-names are of Semitic origin ; of the Palestinian names many are certainly pre-Israelitish, a few may be non-Semitic, a few are certainly Israelitish ; but with regard to the great majority we are left in doubt whether they were given by the Israelites or their Semitic pre decessors. Hence from place-names we can infer Israelitish belief and practice only with great caution and under strict limitation. The precise origin of a name is of course of less interest when it refers to unchanging physical features of a place ; but it is of considerable importance when it refers to belief, practice, or social characteristics which are subject to change. In these cases it is seldom safe to infer more than is justified by the consideration that, even when not given by the Israelites, these names were intelligible to them.

92. Abbreviations.[edit]

The interpretation of the names is to some extent controlled and in some cases facilitated by certain more or less general characteristics. Many names (below, a, b, c) are abbreviations of compound names (nJ3 = SO3 ) or compound terms (fB V = fry na) ; others ( 93) are expansions of simpler terms, e.g. , pyn *?ya = pyo. (For another question relating to the form of certain place-names see 107).

(a) Abbreviation by omission of defining member?- One of the commonest forms of abbreviation is the omission of the article, or the genitive, which originally defined an appellative used as a proper name. In some cases we still find both the full and the abbreviated form of the same name in the OT ; but it must be remembered that where the definition is by means of the article the EV never retains the distinction. Thus Gibeah (hill) is the name of at least three different places mentioned in the OT ; one of these appears under these different forms - nyaan (the hill), iittv nyaj (Saul's hill), pc 33 njni (the hill of Benjamin), nya.J (hill) the other two are each mentioned but once : in the one case we find the simple, undefined form nyin (hill), in the other the com pound expression oru B nyaj (the hill of Phinehas). Compare further, Kirjath and Kirjath-jearim, Bamoth and Bamoth-baal. We have no doubt to explain certain place-names of very general significance as the result of this process of abbreviation - e.g. , Adamah ( = land [of . . .]), which was perhaps also the original form of the names now appearing as Adam, Admah, and Adami (in Adami - nekeb ); Ain = Well (of . . .); Gezer and Helkath = Portion (of . . . ).

(b) By omission of defined members. - A second type of abbreviation is due to the omission of the substantive in compound terms consisting of a substantive and an adjective; thus 'Ashan (old) in Jos. 10:42 etc. is an abbreviation of the full name Bor-ashan (=old well, unless indeed the name is to be explained with BDB as 'smoking pit' ; see COR-ASHAN), which occurs in OT only in 1 S. 30:30. This instance shows how in some cases fuller forms did actually lie behind adjectival names. At the same time it is probably unnecessary to assume that all adjectival names spring from original compound terms.

The way in which tribal names became place-names is illustrated by the abbreviation of Beeroth Bene-jaakan (Dt. 10:6) into Bene-jaakan in a younger source (Nu. 33:31-32, R) ; perhaps also by Addar as an abbreviation of Hazar-addar (cp 105).

(c) The parallel forms Jabneh and Jabneel illustrate another important class of abbreviations cp Earth, NB, 154.

93. Expansions.[edit]

Other types of abbreviations occur among the class of names which constitute what we have termed expansions.

The existence of the various forms Beth-baal-meon, Beth-meon, Baal-meon, and Meon (so read in Nu. 32:3 for Beon), taken in connection with the meaning of the constant element Meon (Dwelling), suggests that the full form is an expansion from the original simple place-name which, like so many others, is an appellative of wide signification and was once no doubt defined by the article or a genitive. Moreover, in other similar compounds the final element is of a similar character ; cp Baal-hermon, Baal-hazor.

These expanded compounds, however, as the above parallel forms prove, were in turn subject to more than one form of abbreviation ; the middle term Baal or the first term Beth was omitted. The omission of Beth is further illustrated by such alternative forms of the same place-name as Beth-lebaoth and Lebaoth, Beth-azmaveth, and Azmaveth. For further discussion of these points see HPN 125-136 324; on the significance of the Baal names see also below, 96.

1 Cp. Kcinig, Syntax d. hebr. Sprache, 295.

Meanings.[edit]

94. Religious.[edit]

We now come to the classification of place-names according to their meanings ; and we may first consider names originating in religious ideas or practices. ^

As we have seen, these names cannot be indiscriminately used to illustrate Israelitish belief or practice ; by themselves they merely prove that such and such a belief or practice was at some time con nected with such and such a place. In some cases, however, the testimony of the meaning of the name combined with other testimony renders much more definite conclusions possible.

95. With divine proper-names.[edit]

i. A considerable number of names reflects the worship of certain objects or deities. As already remarked, the deity is in most place-names referred to under a general term (e.g. baal) but in a few a more definite designation occurs.

Sun-worship pretty clearly accounts for several.

  • (1) Beth-shemesh (House or Temple of the Sun), the name of a city in Judah (also called Ir-shemesh = City of the Sun, and, perhaps, in Judg. 1:35 MT. HERES [q.v.]), of another in Naphtali and another in Issachar ;
  • (2) En-shemesh (Well of the Sun), the name of a well on the borders of Judah and Benjamin ;
  • (3) the ascent of HERES [q.v.] - on the E. of Jordan;
  • (4) Timnath-heres (Portion of the Sun), in the hill-country of Ephraim.

The distribution of these names is general ; their origin, no doubt, pre-Israelitish ; for the last name (Timnath-heres) is probably found as Hi-ra-ta in the list of Rameses II., and Shamshan (in the neighbourhood of the southern territory of Dan) in the same list is obviously of similar significance (VVMM As. u. Eur. 165, n. 4, 166). Perhaps, in spite of the different sibilant (i? not o), the name of the Moabite city KIR-HERES, or Kir-haraseth, is of similar origin. Cp, further the Shamshimurun of the Assyrian inscriptions, which may lie concealed in the name usually read SHIMRON-MERON in Josh. 12:20.

The worship of the moon may perhaps be traced in Jericho, and Lebanon might be similarly explained ; but the latter word can be explained quite satisfactorily, and therefore more probably, by the primary meaning of the root, 'to be white' ; see below, 102. The name of the Babylonian moon-goddess, Sin, is generally detected in the names Sinai and Sin.

Other proper names of gods surviving in place-names are : - those of the Babylonian god Nebo in the Moabite town and mountain, and in a town of Judah of that name (but cp NEBO) ; of Anath in BETH-ANATH, BETH-ANOTH, ANATHOTH (the localities indicate the wide spread of this primitive cultus) ; of Ashtoreth in ASHTEROTH-KARNAIM and BE-ESHTERAH ; of Dagon in BETH-DAGON (represented both in N. and in S. ). Rimmon, which appears in several place-names, is ambiguous : it means a pomegranate ; but it is also the name of a god. The use of the article (pain y^D in Judg. 20:45) favours interpreting the Rock of Rimmon as the Rock of the Pomegranate ; but in several of the other names (En-rimmon, Rimmon, Rimmon-perez, and Gath-rimmon) it is possible that Rimmon is a divine proper name. It is true, the evidence of LXX is rather against this view (JPTh. 334, n. i ; but see RIMMON). The name given as HADAD-RIMMON (q.v. ) is too doubtful to quote, and the same remark applies to the name ETH-KAZIN (q.v. ), considered as a mark of the cultus of the goddess Athe. The Babylonian Bel (as distinct from Baal) perhaps lies concealed in EBAL (q.v.) and the RIBLAH (q.v.) of Nu. 34:11 (LXX . . . ap /SrjXct [ar bela]); and a god Kush or Kish (=Ar. Kais) in KISH, KISHON, and ELKOSH. Possibly Zur in Beth-zur is the name (or title) of a deity. On the other hand, it is very doubtful whether the am which we find at the end of some place-name be the name of a deity ; see AMMI [NAMES IN]. The altar-names, Jehovah-shalom and Jehovah-nissi, and the names Jehovah-jireh and Jehovah-shammah are hardly of the same kind ; cp also Jer. 33:16. The only two instances occurring in OT of actual town-names containing Yah, Yahwe, are Jeshua and Ananiah. Both of these are mentioned for the first, and, indeed, in each case, for the only time in Neh. (11:26, 11:32); both are elsewhere personal names. If the text be sound where they occur as town-names, the names of the towns in question were probably derived from persons. Unmistakably geographical is Beth-jah, which, according to W. M. Muller (As. u. Bur. 162, 312), occurs in the List of Thotmes, and is consequently a pre-Israelitish name.

1 Cp Von Gall, Altisraelitische Kultstdtten.

96. With Baal.[edit]

2. Of divine general terms el and ba'al enter into several place-names. In Bamoth-baal (the high places of Baal) and Kiriath-baal (the city of Baal) Baal is the second term of the compound and defines the first. In the other compound names it is the term defined ; thus Baal-hazor is the Baal or owner of the place Hazor, Baal-tamar the Baal of a particular palm tree, and so forth. For further details as to the significance of the divine term in question see BAAL. What we have to observe here is that such names as those just cited are, properly, names, not of places, but of deities. All names of this type, together with the undefined names Baal, Baalah, and Bealoth, when used as place-names, are abbreviations, having arisen by the omission of Beth (cp 93). The Beth which still survives in Beth-baal-meon most probably referred in the first instance to the temple or abode of the god (cp Judg. 9:4, 9:46), and the whole compound then became used of the town or village in which the temple of the god stood ; cp other names consisting of Beth and a divine name or title - e.g. , Beth-anath, Bethel, Beth-shemesh, and perhaps Beth-zur. The omission of Beth, however, was not the only method of abbreviation used ; the divine term itself might be the element omitted ; Beth-baal-meon is abbreviated not only to Baal-meon but also to Beth-meon. Obviously, in the last instance, it is only the survival of the parallel forms that proves Beth-meon to be a name originating in religious worship. It would, therefore, appear very probable that some of the compounds with Beth which do not at present contain Baal are abbreviations of forms that did ; this theory, perhaps, does most justice to compounds with Beth and a term (like Maon) which by itself is a suitable place-name ; e.g. , Beth-rehob is probably an abbreviation of Beth-baal-rehob, and although it is not easy to select many particular cases and say that they are necessarily or probably abbreviations, it is at least likely that the considerable number of Baal names of places which the OT mentions would be increased if all the alternative forms of the Beth names were preserved. On the other hand, it would be unreasonable to suppose that all or even most of the- Beth names have arisen from the omission of Baal ; Beth does not necessarily mean temple, nor consequently does it necessarily imply that the name of which it forms a part has a religious significance ; Beth-shittah is quite suitably and sufficiently interpreted as meaning 'The place which contains the acacia tree', Beth-marcaboth as 'the place where the chariots are kept', Bethlehem as 'the place of food', though the second element of the last name has been identified by some with the Babylonian god Lahamu (see BETHLEHEM).

97. With el.[edit]

Some twenty towns or districts mentioned in the OT bear names containing el as one element. These names are of three classes.

  • (i) Names in which el is a genitive defining the first element of the compound.
These names are Bethel (cp 96), Nahaliel = the wady of El ; Migdal-el = the tower of El; Penuel = the face of El, and two

names of obscure meaning, Neiel (the first part of which maybe connected with Neah, nyjn) and BETHUEL [q.v.}.

  • (ii.) Names in which el is part of a (compound) genitive.
Such are the valley of Iphtah-el - where IPHTAH-EL (?.r.) seems to be the name either of a town or of a man, which attached itself to the valley (cp Class iii., on the one hand, and the Sabaean personal name SunOS on the other) ; the Tower of Hananel (Hananel probably being originally a personal name) ; and perhaps Beth-arbel.
  • (iii. ) Names in which el is the subject of a sentence.
These are Jezreel ( = 'let El sow' ), a town in Issachar, and another in Judah(cp also 1 Ch. 4:3) ; Jabneel ( = 'let El build' ), a town in Naphtali and another in Judah; Jekabzeel ( = 'let El collect' ), of which KABZEEL (q.v.) is probably an abbreviated form; 1 Irpeel ( = 'let El heal' ), i.e., probably, 'let El rebuild' (cp the use of us-] in 1 K. 18:30) ; Iphtahel (cp n) = 'let El open'. Joktheel, the name of a town in Judah, which was also given by Amaziah to the conquered Sela (2 K. 14:7), is obscure as far as its first element is concerned (see JOKTHEEL).

If the first part of Elealeh be the divine term, so that the name belongs to the present class, it would appear to mean 'El doth ascend' or 'hath ascended' ; but see below, 107, end. With the exception of this doubtful instance, however, in all place-names consisting of el and a verbal element, the subject stands last, and the verb is imperfect. Consequently, since there appears to have been a strong tendency in earlier times to give the divine subject the first place in a name intended to make a statement, the translation of the verbal elements in these place-names by the voluntative as above is pre ferable to the commoner method of translating by the imperfect - El soweth, etc. The point is argued more fully in HPN 215-218.

The el in all names of classes i. and iii. is probably the numen of the place (cp the accounts of the theophanies of Bethel and Beer-lahai-roi). - 2

An instance of abbreviation of the third type (iii., above) of el names is JABNEH (q.v. ), the full form of which (see above, 92 c] also occurs. Similarly, both Iphtah and Iphtahel are found, though not as the name of the same place. We should probably also regard as abbreviations Jazer ( = 'may [El]' help ) and possibly JANOAH ( = 'may [El] make resting-place here' ); but scarcely JABBOK (q.v.). The pre-Israelitish names Jakob-el and Joseph-el (see JACOB, i ; JOSEPH i. , i ; ii. , i ; and cp 89) do not occur in the OT, nor are even the corresponding abbreviated forms, Jakob and Joseph, used as strictly geographical terms.

98. Without divine name.[edit]

3. Names clearly due to religious considerations, though not containing the name or title of a deity, are derivatives from the roots Kdsh and hrm which express general Semitic religious ideas. KADESH (q.v. ; pre-Israelitish) and Kedesh (the name of at least two places, one of which has a pre-Israelitish record ; see KEDESH) from the one root, Horem, Hormah, and Hermon from the other, must all have been given to the respective places on account of their sacred or inviolable character. Some less certain but possible instances of names having a religious origin may be added : Gilgal, the name of five places in different parts of Palestine, and Geliloth of two, may be derived from sacred circles (of stones) ; -Mishal (mentioned by Thotmes III.) may denote a place 'where (the advice or judgment of a deity) is sought' ; and Oboth may be named in reference to spirits (ax). It is quite possible that a very much larger number of names ought to be included here (on the animal names, for example, see below, 104) ; but we cannot admit as more than a mere possibility what has sometimes been maintained (most recently by Grunwald in Die Eigennamen des AT, 1895), that names denoting all sorts of objects or qualities are survivals from Fetichism, Demonism, and the like.

1 Cp Barth, ^227, n. 3. 2 Cp Stade, GVl 1 42 8, n.

Non-religious.[edit]

II. Passing now from names originating in religious ideas or practices, we note a second considerable class consisting of names derived from the natural or artificial features of the place.

99. Height.[edit]

i. Height,

(a) Loftiness of situation is clearly indicated by Ramah (from D n = to be lofty) - generally with the article (n;nn), or height defined by a genitive (e.g. , ^ nOl), but also (according to MT in Jer. 31:15) undefined - the name of seven places in different parts of Palestine ; Ramoth and Rumah from the same root, and, perhaps, Arumah from a cognate root ; Geba, Gibeah, and Gibeon (several places, see the articles), all signifying hill. Naphath-(or Naphoth-)Dor (Jos. 11:2 etc. AV, RV mg) would, if it were the proper name of a town, be a further instance ; but Naphath is rightly translated in RV's text ( 'the heights' [of Dor]). Terms picturesquely indicating the lofty situation of the town itself, or a lofty natural feature in the neighbourhood, are Jogbehah (from 333, to be high), Sela (two places) = The Cliff, and perhaps Hadid (TJTIS eV 6povs Ka^v-q Jos. Ant. 13:6:5) = the sharpened or pointed cliff with which we might perhaps further compare En-haddah (yet see PEFMI^}. Some would include SHAHAZUMAH (q.v. ) in this list. Some metaphorical terms for natural configuration became names of places and are to be noticed here : - Shechem = Shoulder, and, metaphorically, a ridge (cp Gen. 48:22, but see SHECHEM ; the use of the synonymous qro in Nu. 34:11 etc. ; and Ges. Thes. 1407 ); Dabbesheth = 'a camel's hump' (Is. 30:6), which is also according to some (see BDB) the meaning of Gilead ; Chisloth-tabor (-nan nVaj), or abbreviated Chesulloth (rn^DD the different punctuation adopted by MT in the case of the full and abbreviated form is not supported by LXX) = the flanks of Tabor ; Aznoth- tabor perhaps = the ears (and hence metaphorically the peaks) of Tabor. If the last interpretation be correct, we may probably (though against LXX) add UZZEN-SHEERAH (q.v.}. Compare also Bohan (shape of a thumb).

(b) The indication of lowness of situation, or the neighbourhood of some notable depression, is obvious in all compounds with Ge (N>J = valley, and so translated always in RV except Neh. 11:35 mg. and 1 Ch. :14), which are, however, always names of valleys, not of towns ; in Beth-emek = House of the valley ; and probably in Horonaim and Beten (literally = belly). Jahaz, if we may follow a cognate Arabic term (wahsa), means terra rotunda et depressa (BDB). The names SHARON (q.v. ) and BASHAN (q.v. ) seem to have arisen from the absence of conspicuous irregularities of height over the districts which they designate. Bithron (a district) prob ably means cleft or ravine [but cp MAHANAIM] ; and Shepham possibly a bare height (ZATW 3:275 [1883]).

100. Nature of soil.[edit]

2. The character or condition of the soil, the fruitfulness of the place, or the reverse, account for several names - Horeb (a mountain) and Jabesh in Jabesh-gilead (a city) are both [but cp SINAI] most naturally interpreted of the dryness of the ground ; Argob perhaps indicates a rich and earthy soil (cp Driver, Deut. 48), EKKON (q.v. , 3) barren or unfruitful ; the Arabah (the name of the valley of the Jordan and its prolongation) means the desert or waste country ; hence the town-name Betharabah abbreviated in Josh. 18:18 into the Arabah. On the other hand CARMEL (q.v. , i, 9), the name of the well-known, now thickly-wooded mountain range, and of a place in Judah capable of supporting large numbers of sheep, expresses the fertile character of the places in question, and Ephraim and Ephrathah (if cor rectly derived from ma ; so Ges. -Buhl, but not BDB; see EPHRAIM i., i /) have a similar meaning. The following interpretations (some of which are discussed in the several articles) may be mentioned here : Bozkath = an elevated region covered with volcanic stones (BDB), Zion = waterless (Lagarde, BN 84), Abel (= meadow) by itself and in several compounds (e.g. , Abel-Shittim).

1 The etymology of Arabian place-names refers mostly to water, pasturage, plants, and trees, Jacob, Das Leben d. vorislamisclien Beduinen. 41.

101. Water.[edit]

3. The presence of water accounts for many names, 1 most clearly for those which are compounded with Beer ( = well) or En (= a spring).

a. En. In some cases such as En-hakkore = the partridge's (?) well (Judg. 15:19), En-rogel (Josh. 15:7), En-harod (RV 'the spring of Harod' ), as well as in a very large number of modern Palestinian names in 'Ain, the name appears to be that of a spring only. In most cases, however, the name serves also for the name of the place containing the well or spring, or possibly in some cases for a new township that sprang up nearer to the well than the place from which the name was derived (? Hazor and En-hazor, Josh. 19:36-37). En-mishpat (the well or spring of judgment) was no doubt originally the name of the spring at Kadesh ; but in Gen. 14:7 it is used of the place itself. Town-names of this type are many, distributed over all parts of the country, and were already in use before the Israelitish conquest of Canaan. In OT we have mention of the following : - En-dor, En-gannim, En-gedi (2), En-haddah, En-eglaim, En-hazor, En-nmmon, En-shemesh, En-tappuah. Ain is an abbreviated name (perhaps from En-rimmon, q.v.). Enaim ( = Enam) perhaps means 'Two springs' (cp 107) and in any case owes its origin to the presence of a spring, as also does Hazar-enon (Hazar-enan) and perhaps Anim.

b. Beer, which in Hebrew generally (though not exclusively: see, e.g., Nu. 21:17) denotes a well rather than a spring, is less frequent in names ; OT mentions Beer (two places - in both cases without the article) Beeroth (pi. = wells), Beer-lahai-roi, Beer-sheba, Beer-elim, Beeroth-bene-jaakan. Berothah ( = Berothai) is perhaps to be similarly explained.

c. Me ( = water) is found in Me-jarkon, Me-zahab (if we may regard this name as only apparently personal, and really geographical; Gen. 36:39, cp Dt. 1:1 Dizahab) and perhaps in Medeba. Giah (to judge from the root-meaning) very probably means a spring; so also Gihon. The presence of hot springs gave rise to the names Hammath, Hammoth-dor and Hammon (perhaps only two different places in all), and of a bitter spring, if we may for once trust the biblical etymology, to Marah. Nahalol means the 'watering-place'.

102. Other features.[edit]

4. Beauty of situation and appearance, for which some of the Hebrew writers certainly had an eye (Ps. 48:2, Cant. 6:4), or general attractiveness may account for some names - e.g. , Shaphir, Shepher (a mountain ) = beautiful, beauty; Tirzah = she is pleasing; Jotbah and Jotbathah = pleasantness ; and, more metaphorically, Ziz perhaps = the flower. Most of the names, however, that have been or might be cited in this connection are really very ambiguous or indecisive.

5. Colour appears to account for a few names. Lebanon is most probably named from the whiteness of its cliffs (or its snows?) ; and the root meaning 'to be white' seems at least as probable an explanation as any of other proper names from the same root, viz. , Laban, Libnah (2), Lebonah. Kidron, the name of a torrent-bed, may mean black or dull-, dirty-, coloured (cp Job 6:16) ; Hachilah (a hill), dark ; Zalmon (two hills according to MT ; but see ZALMON), dusky ; Adummim, red ; Jarkon in Me-jarkon, yellow ; Hauran, black. None of the foregoing instances, however, are really free from ambiguity ; though in some at least the colour-meaning seems the most probable.

103. Plant names.[edit]

III. Having dealt with religious place-names and names indicating natural or artificial features, we must consider next place-names derived from names of trees, plants, etc. , and of animals.

i. Trees, plants, etc. Some instances are unmistakable : (Abel) Shittim = (the meadow of) the acacias, Beth shittah = the house of the acacia ; the apple tree (tappuah) gives its name to three places - Beth-tappuah, En-tappuah and Tappuah ; the palm tree (tamar) to Tamar, Baal-tamar, Hazazon-tamar, the city of palm trees (Judg. 1:16, 3:13 = Jericho, Dt. 34:3), and probably also Tadmor (cp Lagarde, Ubers. 125) ; the terebinth (or whatever large tree may be implied by the Heb. "TN, rbx, pSn) to Elparan ( = Elah, Elath, Eloth), Elim, Elon and perhaps Allammelech. All of these are names of towns. On the other hand Allon-bacuth appears to be simply the name of a particular tree (cp in the Hebrew Gen. 12:6, 13:18, Dt. 11:30, Jos. 19:33, Judg. 9:37, 1 S. 10:3, where similar designations have been translated). The pomegranate appears at least in the Rock of Rimmon (Judg. 20:45 etc. ) and probably in other compounds with Rimmon ; but for another possible interpretation of these, see above ( 95). Olive trees give their name to the Ascent (2 S. 15:30) or Mount (Zech. 14:4 etc.) of Olives ; vineyards to Abel-cheramim (the meadow of vineyards) in Ammon and Beth-haccherem in Judah ; the grape cluster to the valley of Eshcol ; and probably, the 'choice vine' (pie 1 ) mentioned in Is. 5:2 (cp Gen. 49:11) to the fertile valley of Sorek and the Edomite town Masrekah. Anab, too, probably means grapes in spite of the differing punctuation of the proper name (335?) and the common noun (335;). TAANATH-SHILOH (q.v .) is the fig tree of Shiloh, if we may follow the Greek rather than the Hebrew vocalisation. RITHMAH, a station in the wilderness, is the juniper tree, and AROEK (q.v. ) has been interpreted bushes of dwarf juniper. EZION-GEBER (q.v. ), another station, derives its name from the tree called in Arabic gada. Thorn bushes of different kinds are denoted by the names Atad, Shamir (2), and perhaps also Seneh (see BUSH) ; the almond tree by Luz (which, however, is otherwise explained by Lagarde, Ubers. 158). The balsam tree accounts for the name of the valley of BACA (q.v.}, and perhaps also for Bochim (cp Moore, Judges, 5:9-10). Libnah may be named from a tree (cp n:aS = ? the white poplar - Gen. 30:37, Hos. 4:13) or be more closely connected with the root-meaning 'to be white'. (For another view see LIBNAH.) In the light of Aramaic we can without much difficulty interpret Gimzo the Sycamore tree, and Dilan the cucumber ; cp Low, Pflanzennamen, 387, 334, 351. Betonim, especially in the Greek (/Joravet/u [botaneim]) closely resembles the Hebrew word (Gen. 43:11) for pistachio nuts (NUTS, 2). A water-plant (rp D ), as most scholars suppose, gave rise to the Hebrew name Yam Suph ; see RED SEA ; but cp MOSES, 10.

104. Animal names.[edit]

2. Animals. - The following animals have given names to places.

(a) Wild quadrupeds: the stag (Aijalon), the lion (Lebaoth, Laish and? Shahazumah), the leopard (Beth-nimrah) the Gazelle (Ophrah [2], Ephron [1 or 2]), the wild ass (Arad), the fox (Hazar-shual, the land of Shual, Shaal-bim), the hyena (Zeboim).

(b) Domestic quadrupeds : Lambs (Telaim, Beth-car), the cow (Parah), or calf (En-eglaim, Eglon), the horse (Hazar-susah [or Susim]), the goat (? Seirah), or kid (En-gedi).

(c) Birds : the partridge (Beth-hoglah, ? En-hakkore), birds of prey (Etam [1-3]).

(d) Reptiles and insects: the serpent (Ir-nahash), the lizard (Humtah), the hornet (Zorah), scorpions (Akrabbim), the cricket (Gudgodah).

Names of animals applied to towns are much more frequent in the southern territory of the Israelites than in the northern : cp HPN 105-106. Names of this class are also frequent as clan names (on the other hand they are comparatively rare as personal names). This is one of the reasons which favour tracing at least many of them back to a totem stage of society.

1 isn (constr. isn) or Tisn, the latter only in proper names but cp Lag. Vbers. 47.

105. Compounds with Hazor, etc.[edit]

IV. A considerable number of places derive their names from what may be termed the social, political, and industrial characteristics of the place. Here we may notice first the names consisting wholly or in part of the terms Hazor or Hazar, Ir, and Kiriath. Haser or Hasor 1 denotes the fixed settlement as contrasted on the one hand with the movable encampments of nomads, and on the other with walled towns ; cp in the one case the contrast between the hadariyy or ahlu l-hadar (with which perhaps cp the nan 3B" of Jer. 49:30-33) and the badawiyy or ahlu l-badiyah (i.e., the Bedouin) and in the other, e.g. , Lev. 25:31. Clearly the proper names can only be taken to indicate the character of the place at the time of the origin of the name ; in the case of the Hazor of Judg. 4:2, 4:17 etc., at least, the name must have continued in use long after the place had ceased to be an actual hasor and had become a fortified city ; for it is mentioned by Thotmes III. among his conquered towns, in the Amarna Tablets as the seat of a prince (sar Ha-zu-ra - 154:41) and in the OT, more than once, in connections which indicate that it was a place of strategic importance (e.g. , 1 K. 9:15, 2 K. 16:29). With the exception of the place just mentioned, Hazar-enan (or -enon) on the N. boundary of Palestine, and (Baal-) Hazor in Benjamin, all names of this type are of places in the S. of Palestine (being assigned to the territories of Judah or Simeon) or in the wilderness ; many of them, therefore, no doubt retained the character whence they originally derived their name. The places are Hazor (two places, one of which is also called Kerioth- hezron), Hazor-hadattah (? = New Hazor - if the text be right), Hazar-addar ( = Hezron), Hazar-gaddah, Hazar-susah (or -susim), Hazar-shual, Hazeroth. Hazarmaveth (q.v.) is the name of a district in S. Arabia, and is perhaps only apparently connected with the type of name under discussion.

There are some indications that the second element in the compounds is, as we might independently expect, a clan or tribal name. Thus we note (1) the alternative forms (Susah and Susim), (2) the two animal names (Susah [horse] and Shual [fox], if the most obvious meaning is correct ; but cp HAZAR-SUSAH, HAZAR-SHUAL) - cp the many clan names of this type (HPN 97 ff-)-

  • (3) Addar actually occurs as a clan name, if the text of 1 Ch. 8:3 be sound.
  • (4) Gaddah resembles the tribal name Gad. Similarly Jair in Havvoth-jair (the tent villages of Jair) is no doubt a clan name (see JAIR).

Other names originating in and reflecting much the same stage in social development as Havvoth-jair and the compounds with hazar are Mahaneh Dan (Camp of Dan) and Mahanaim (two camps), Succoth (booths, though the originality of this form of the name is contested, see SUCCOTH).

'Ir (TV), which forms the first element in the compound names Ir-shemesh, Ir-nahash, the City of Salt (n"?Bn TV. Josh. 15:62), and the City of Palm trees (onsnn TV, Judg. 1:16), is a wider term, applicable to a camp or a watchtower (Nu. 13:19 2 K. 17:9) as well as to fortified towns, in which latter case, however, the term may be more exactly defined (Lev. 25:29). As to the second element : in the first of the foregoing names (Ir-shemesh) it is an object of worship, in the second (Ir-nahash) probably tribal rather than personal, and in the last two (City of Salt and of Palm trees) presumably derived from natural characteristics of the place. The Ar (ny) m tne Moabite name Ar Moab (or, abbreviated, Ar) is a parallel form of the same term.

The kiryah (mp), again, which constitutes, or forms part of, several names, cannot be very closely defined ; etymologically, it appears to mean simply 'meeting-place'. The plural form KERIOTH (q.v. ) is the name of a Moabite city, and, compounded with Hezron, of a city in Judah ; the dual form Kiriathaim is the name of a city in Reuben and another in Naphtali ; three of the compound names - Kiriath-arba (Four cities - cp 107), Kiriath-jearim (City of Forests), also called Kiriath-baal, and Kiriath-sepher (City of Books) - are found in Judah, and another Kiriath-huzoth (City of streets?) in Moab. Kir, the Moabite word for city (MI 11-12, 24, 29) probably as a walled place (cp the Hebrew usage), forms, by itself as an abbreviation, or in one of the compound forms Kir-Moab, Kir-heres or Kir-hareseth, the name of an important Moabite town. With Kartah compare the word for city (nip) used in Job 29:7. On these names, as indeed throughout these introductory discussions, compare the special articles.

106. Names due to character of town.[edit]

The defensive character or feature of the town is more or less clearly indicated by the names Bezer (2) and Bozrah, which mean a fortified place (cp ir mibsar= fortified city, 1 S. 6:18 and often) ; Geder, Gederah ; Gederoth, Gederothaim, Gedor - all of which are from [root] gdr = to wall up, but some of them perhaps with the specific sense of sheepcotes (so often Heb. g'derah) ; Hosah (place of refuge); the compounds with Migdal (=tower), viz., Migdal-el, Migdal-gad, Migdol (cp also Magdali, KB v. 237:26); Mizpeh or Mizpah (5), which signifies the watch-tower (cp 'the field of Zophim', Nu. 23:14 and Di. ad loc. ; possibly also Zephath). Azem and Azmon, if, as is likely, they are to be derived from [root] asm = to be strong, are probably to be explained in the same way ; of the meanings 'enclosure' or 'fortress' suggested in BDB for Aphek and Aphekah the latter may perhaps be justified by the Assyr. epeku = to be strong (Del. Ass. HWB 115^), but scarcely (with Ges. in Thes.) by known usages of the root in Hebrew and Arabic.

The size of the town appears to have been the origin of the names Zoar and Zior (small), Rabbah (large) in Judah (17!in) and in Ammon (fully pcv 33 nan). Rabbith is perhaps also to be connected with the root of Rabbah.

En-mishpat, Madon, and probably Meribah, owed their names to being places where disputes were settled.

The presence of one or more wine-presses gave their names to the cities of Gath, Gath-hepher, Gath-rimmon (2), Gittaim (in addition to the place so named in Neh. 11:33, cp Gen. 36:35 LXX re00cu/i [geththaim] = Heb. rny ; see AVITH, GITTAIM); cp further Judg. 7:25, ]Xwap . Similarly the town of Migron is probably derived from a threshing-floor (see 88); but it is not clear whether the 'threshing-floor of Atad' (Gen. 50:10-11) and the 'threshing-floor of Nacon' (2 S. 6:6 = Chidon 1 Ch. 13:9) are names of towns or not (see ATAD, NACON). Madmen in Moab, Madmenah in Benjamin, and Madmannah in Judah, mean the dung-place or dung-pit, 1 and KIKIATH-SEPHER (q.v.) should apparently be translated Book-city.

Whether the stenches which appear to have given their names to Zanoah (2), Ziphron, and Ophni 1 were natural, proceeding from some well or cave or the like, or artificial -: i.e., due to the life of the town - is uncertain. In the latter case, the names may have originated with the Bedouins, who are sensitive to the smells of towns (Doughty, Ar. DCS. 1:210 438).

1 The occurrence of such names as Madmen, and perhaps we may add Kibshan, 'furnace' (see NIBSHAN), makes it plausible (but cp the special articles) to hold that ZANOAH (2), ZIPHRON, and OPHNI are so called from natural or artificial stenches. n3T is a well-known Heb. root. For Ziphron cp dafira = to smell (especially, though not exclusively, of bad smells) ; cp also Syr. zephar= foetuit, a sense of which some trace is found in certain derivations of Ar. zafira. With Ophni cp Ar. afina = to be putrid. We might add Hannathon if this name be from the root hanan (but see below, 107); cp Ar. hanna = foetorem emisit ; Syr. hannina = rancid ; also in Heb. Job 19:17 (mi from 111 = to be loathsome).

107. Plurals and duals.[edit]

Many place-names are plural in form - e.g. , Gederoth, Akrabbim. In some cases the exact number of objects whence the name was derived is perhaps definitely indicated. Thus Kiriath-arba may mean four-cities; Beer-sheba, seven wells. Migdal Hammeah (EV the tower of Meah) should mean the tower of the hundred ; but on the reading of MT see HAMMEAH. In the case of Sheba (seven) and Eleph (a thousand) we have names consisting of a term of number only ; unless, indeed, as is quite possible, the names are to be otherwise interpreted. The question whether this class of names is at all large depends on the actual character of certain names apparently dual in form.

Such names are

Adithaim Enaim Kiriathaim
Adoraim En-eglaim Mahanaim
Almon-diblathaim Ephraim Mizraim
Beth-diblathaim Gederothaim Ramathaim
Diblaim Gittaim Shaaraim
Diblathaim Hapharaim Zemaraim
Dothaim (DOTHAN) Horonaim
Eglaim Kibzaim

Cp also SAMARIA, JERUSALEM, i

Does Kiriathaim mean two cities, Enaim, two wells, as Kiriath-arba means four cities and Beer-sheba, seven wells? The dual significance of this ending in many or all of these proper names has been called in question by Wellhausen (JDTh. 1876, p. 433), Philippi (ZDMG, 1878, pp. 63-67), Barth (KB 319, n. 5), Kautzsch (Heb. Gram.W, 88 c), Strack (Genesis, Ex cursus, i39/.). Cp also WMM, As. u. Eut. 251 f. [Winckler, KATW, 28/.] The dual interpretation is retained, sometimes with a ?, in certain cases by BDB (see, e.g. , under D Jin, cnm), and defended by Konig (Lehrgeb. d. Heb. Sprache, 2^6/. ).

The main reasons urged against the dual character of the ending are these:

  • (i) The dual in Hebrew, as also, it is urged, in original Semitic, is confined to things found in pairs ; in many cases the proper names cannot be naturally explained of a pair of objects.
  • (2) Such a form occurs in some cases side by side with a singular e.g. , Mahaneh and Mahanaim, Ramah and Ramathaim.
  • (3) The forms also occur side by side with forms in -an (j ) and -am (c )

This last parallelism has been explained indeed by the supposition that -an and -am are alternative dual endings ; but on the other hand it is argued with force that the endings -an and -am are unquestionably frequent in names in which there is no reason to assume a dual meaning ; and that in some names the ending -aim is certainly secondary, as may be seen most clearly in the case of Jerusalem (cp Amarna Urusalim and MT Kt. form oSem ). which was later pronounced Jerusalaim (o ^PlT MT Kr. ), and Samaria (pints , but in Aram, piety).

Barth's explanation is somewhat different ; he regards -aim (-ain) as an old locative ending which was subsequently displaced by the more familiar -on, -an.

The first of the foregoing objections (limitation of Hebrew dual) cannot be pressed ; the names in question may be pre-Israelitish (cp 89) and sprung from a dialect which, like Arabic, used the dual more freely than Hebrew ; nor can a stricter dual-meaning be considered in all cases inappropriate - e.g. , Kiryathaim may mean 'The twin cities' (cp use of the Heb. dual in Q nv - Ges.-Knutzsch, Gram.W ET, 88c).

The second objection (parallel singular forms) is far from conclusive.

As to the third (parallel forms in am, etc.) - in view of the history of the name Jerusalem, a certain tendency to change a name so that it should resemble a dual form cannot be denied. On the other hand, this very tendency renders the prior existence of actual dual names probable. Further, in many cases the endings -aim, -am, -an are attached to the feminine inflection ; if these endings be duals, the forms of the names are in accordance with the known laws of inflection ; but if they are substantival afformatives the proper names in question are exceptional formations ; Barth, at least, in his section (A 7 /?, 316-416) on nouns with suffixes, cites no instance of nouns formed by the addition of endings (such as -am, -an, -on) to the feminine inflection. Among proper names might be cited some few ambiguous forms, such as !imn, !imj.

The present writer therefore concludes that those names in which the endings -aim, -am, or -an are attached to the feminine termination are dual forms ; that several other names also may be duals, but that the ending in their case is ambiguous. Though not unaware of the divergence of some scholars, he would interpret Kiriathaim, 'the two cities' ; Gittaim, 'the two winepresses' ; Diblathaim (in Beth-dibla-thaim = Almon Diblathaim), 'the two assemblies' (cp BDB s.v. ); RAMATHAIM 1 (q.v. ), the two hills. Gederothaim is a name of doubtful genuineness, but, if genuine, would mean the two walls or sheepcotes. In the following (among other) names the ending is ambiguous ; but the dual is in some cases appropriate and probable - Dothan (jni firm), Enaim or Enam (the two wells), Horonaim (the two hollows), Shaaraim (two gates, or double gates ; cp St. Heb. Gr. 340 ).

The significance of place-names turns not only on their meanings but also in some cases on their forms. This is too complicated a question to discuss here. As is remarked elsewhere, the names of two towns in Judah (ESHTEMOA [q.v.]and Eshtaol) present the same modification of the root as is found in the Arabic verb (conj. viii. ) (and also in Mesha s Inscr. l. 11); and in three names of towns belonging to the southern tribes (Eltekon, Eltekeh, and Eltolad), possibly also in the Reubenite Elealeh, the first element may be the Arabic article. 1 G. B. G.

1 Probably a later name of Ramah.

C. DIVINE NAMES.[edit]

{2}

108. Significance of names.[edit]

The special importance attaching to the names of God in the OT and the emphasis often laid on their signification (cp Ex. 3:13+, 15:3, Is.428, 51:15, Jer. 33:2) finds a partial explanation in the peculiar emphasis with which the word 'name' itself is there employed. The name of a person or thing was for the Hebrew not simply distinctive ; it was a revelation of the nature of the person or thing named, nay, often almost an equivalent for the thing itself. This is specially true of names of God. A new special revelation of God leads to the formation of a new name (Gen. 16:13). Only so can we explain many Hebrew forms of expression that either seem to us pleonastic or peculiar, or else easily become associated with a false meaning. [For other applica tions of the term, some of them compelling attention by their boldness, see NAME, 9.]

109. Yahwe, the sacred name.[edit]

I. What is called the Tetragrammaton, ,n,T, 3 appears in the OT 6823 times as the proper name of God as the God of Israel. As such it serves to distinguish him from the gods of other nations. It is the [sacred] name par excellence (Lev. 24:11, Dt. 28:58). In the MT ni;v (YHWH) is almost always written with the vowels of Adonai, JIN, 4 'lord' (YeHoWaH, rrirr), the vowels of Elohim, DTiVx, 'God' 1 (YeHoWiH, ,ii,-r) being used when adonai itself precedes. 4 This was a direction to the reader always to substitute for the unpronounceable 1 actual name either adonai, <:IN (hence in LXX 6 Ki/pios [o kyrios] for nin [YHWH]) or elohim, D ri^K- On this Kre perpetuum cp Gesen. Gram. 17s.

1 [It will not be surprising that the special articles, having been prepared independently, do not always agree in their explanations of these names with the present critical discussion. The reader will rightly infer that the question at issue is difficult.]

2 For other titles applied to God, see the several articles : ABI-, ADONI-, AHI-, AMMI-, DODI-, HAMU-, SHEM-, ZUR, names in ; also BAAL, MOLECH, etc.

For epithets applied to God, see above 26 ff.
For designations of other supernatural beings, heavenly or earthly, see ANGELS, AZAZEL, DEMONS, LILITH, SATYRS.
For names of deities other than Yahwe, see ANATH, ASHERAH, ASH-HUR, ASHTORETH, BELIAL, CHEMOSH, CHIUN, DAGON, QUEEN OF HEAVEN, SICCUTH, TAMMUZ, FORTUNE, ABRAHAM, ISAAC, SARAH, MILCAH, LABAN, SAMSON, also above, 4oj+.

3 So also MI l. 18. In the second half of compound Hebrew proper names the name has the form 1.T ; contracted into ,V T T (only, in the case of some of the names compounded with fl the final element fT or 1iT represents merely an emphatic affirmative and not the divine name ; so Jastrow, JSBL 13:101+. [cp the view often maintained in this volume that the final TV or ITV is due to post-exilic manipulation of early names, such as jrUi 31J?> DBS, of ethnic origin]). The contraction fl occurs not only in the liturgical formula W iTTfl (written rPl77jJ only in Ps. 104:35), praise ye Yah, but also twenty-four times otherwise, though only in poetical (and probably all late) passages. It is most probably to be regarded with Jastrow (ZATW, 1896, p. 1+) as an artificial post-exilic formation. It is very doubtful whether - (e.g., in JPC, etc.) occurs as a con traction for "V. Cp on this point Olsh. Lehrb. 6i2_/f., and Grimine, Grundziige tier Heb. Akzent- und Vokallchre (Freiburg, 1896, p. 146).

In the first half of compound proper names, on the other hand, we find the form irv (from 1.1 , the equivalent of 1.1 j contracted into \> (e.g., in JD3V, etc.).

4 In 310 places (143 of them in Ezek.) TV.TV [YHWH] (originally probably without vowels) is retained in the text after the Kr. i^N, which has come to be regarded as a Kethib. The resulting combination 'Adonai [substituted for] YHWH', Kr. 'Adonai YeHoWiH' - i.e., Adonui Elohim - appears in EV as 'the Lord GOD'.

110. Its pronunciation.[edit]

The controversy as to the correct pronunciation of the tetragrammaton, whether as Yahwe, niiT, Yahawe, nin , Yahwa, nin , or Yahawa, nin , 2 a controversy in which - as in Ex. 3:14 , the derivation of nin [YHWH] from an imperfect form of nin [HWH] was always assumed, 3 has been gradually brought to an end by the general adoption of the view, first propounded by Ewald, that the true form is Yahwe, nin . The abbreviated form, Yahu, ?,T, can be explained only by the form, Yahw, in (with closed syllable ; cp \r\v from inb), and the seghol(e) of the second syllable is attested, to mention nothing else, by the fact that, in Samaritan poetry, nin [YHWH] rhymes with words ending in that way. 4

1 As early as the beginning of the third century B.C. nin [YHWH] seems to have been regarded as apprjroc [arreton], at least beyond the sacred precincts. Thus is to be explained to a considerable extent the avoidance of the Tetragrammaton in the latest books of the OT, as e.g., in Daniel (except chap. 9), to some extent in Chronicles, and, in consequence of editorial revision, in Ps. 42- 84, as well as in the Apocrypha generally. The NT follows LXX in invariably substituting 'the Lord' (o Kiiptos [o kyrios]) for YHWH, nin - At the same time, however, the gradual change that came over the idea of God as it became more and more universal, had also a great deal to do with the suppression of the personal name in favour of 'God', C il/N (so everywhere in Koheleth) and other appellatives. What led more than anything else, however, to men s avoiding the utterance of the sacred name, was probably the dread of breaking the injunction Ex. 20:7. I would appear, indeed, from LXX of Lev. 24:15 that the very mention of the sacred name was threatened with death. Probably, however, as in the original, all that is meant is the employment of it in abusive language or in witchcraft.

According to the Babylonian Talmud (Yoma 39-40) the name ni,T [YHWH] had ceased to be pronounced even by the priests in the blessing as early as the time of Simon the Just (about 270 B.C. ; cp, however, on this date, ECCLESIASTICUS, 7 [b]). Philo, on the other hand, declares simply that the sacred name was pronounced only in the sacred precincts, and according to the Jerusalem Talmud (Yoma 87) it was lawful down to the very end for the high priest to pronounce it though finally only below his breath in the ceremonial of the day of Atonement. Moreover, Josephus (Ant. 2:12:4) seems to have known the true pronunciation, though he excuses himself from giving it as being unlawful. As late as 130 A.D. Abba Shaul denied eternal bliss to any one who should pronounce the sacred name with its actual consonants. See on this especially Dalman, Der Gottesnatne Adonaj und seine Gesch. (Berlin, 1889), and cp Che. OPs. 299-303.

2 Cp Franz Del. On the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, ZATWzf. (1883-84). Brinton reads Jahva, 'The origin of the sacred name Jahva', Arckivfiir Rel.-Wiss,, 1899, 8226^

3 Grimme alone (op. cit. 143^?!), on quite insufficient grounds, explains nirr [YHWH] as a lengthened form of in , Yahu, regarding it as a sort of plural or collective form from the root in [YHW] or l.Yl [WHW].

4 On this cp Kau. TLZ, 1886, no. 10, col. 223. Moreover, Theodoret (quiest. 15 in Exodutii) states that the Samaritans pronounced the sacred name lajSc [Jabe], and the same pronunciation is ascribed by Epiphanius (Adv. haer, 1:3:20) to a Christian sect, and is to be found in Egyptian magic papyri (on this, as also on the whole question, see the thorough investigation of A. Deissmann, 'Griechische Transskriptionen des Tetragrammaton' in his Bibelstudien, Marburg, 1895, p. -^jff. ; Author. Transl. by A. Grieve, 1901, p. 321 ff.). Clement of Alexandria (Strom. v. 634, according to the better reading) attests the still more exactly corresponding form laoue [Jaoue] or laouai [Jaouai] ; Origen, the form larj [Yae]. Burkitt's edition of fragments of Aquila shows that Aquila wrote the sacred name in archaic Hebrew characters. Finally, on Jahwe is based also the form latoovrje [Jaoooueee] in the Jewish-Egyptian Magic-papyri ; cp L. Blau, das altjudische Zauberwesen (1898), 128. According to Blau, to appears in the third place in order that the first three vowels may be sounded law [Jaoo] ( = l,v)- The form Joie occurring in Latin MSS (cp ZATW 1:346 [1881], 2:173 [1882]) at least testifies to an e in the second syllable. On the other hand, the form lap [Jao], handed down by the Gnostics, may be left out of account. Like all similar forms (f.g. t Iev<o [Jeuoo], in Philo Byblius), it is simply the product of erroneous or misunderstood Jewish statements. On this cp Baudissin, Der Ursprung des Gottesnamens lao, in his Studien zur scmit. Rel. 2 i8i_^ 0876).

111. Supposed meaning.[edit]

A much more difficult point to decide is the original meaning of the word Yahwe. In E of the Pentateuch nin [YHWH] transposed from the third person into the first is explained by God himself first by 'I am that I am' (nvm frnx ivx), and then by the simple 'I am' (.T.IN [AHYH]). YHWH (nin ) is here obviously regarded as the third person imperfect of the archaic stem HWH (mn=n n), 'to be', in the sense of 'he is (and manifests himself) continually', J with the additional connotation of remaining the same, so that the name would express both the attribute of permanence and that of unchangeability, and especially unchangeability in keeping promises - i.e. , faithfulness.

This explanation offered in the OT itself has been felt by many modern scholars (beginning with Ewald) to be only an attempt to explain a primitive name that had long since become unintelligible, and, further, to be simply the product of a religious-philosophical speculation and far too abstract to be by any possibility correct. Increased importance is given to these considerations by the observation that the name is in no sense peculiar to the Hebrews, and on other soil it must originally have had a much simpler and in particular a much more concrete signification.

112. Supposed foreign origin.[edit]

Of the various hypotheses that maintain an adoption of the name from some foreign nation, that which derives it from the cultus o the Kenites has still the greatest claim to mention (so Tiele, years ago; most recently in his Gesch. der Rel. im Altertum, 1299 ; St. GVI, 1887, 1:130+ ; cp Che. EBP) 5 [1876] 790). At Sinai Yahwe revealed himself to Moses and then to the whole people ; whence Sinai was - what it long continued to be ; cp, e.g., i K. 19:8+ - the proper seat of Yahwe. According to the oldest tradition the Sinai district was inhabited by the Kenites (cp KENITES, MOSES, 14). That indeed the name Yahwe was then revealed to Moses and through him to the people is expressly asserted only by the youngest Pentateuch source (P). 2 E does not say this expressly, and according to J Yahwe was in use from the beginning as the name of the god of the patriarchs ; even the interpolated Gen. 426 carries it back as far as Enoch. It is, in fact, hardly conceivable that Moses should have been able to proclaim a god that was simply unknown, a new god, as 'god of the fathers'. Great uncertainty, however, attaches on the other hand to the hypotheses of the occurrence of the related forms Yahu ( Yau) and Ya in Assyrio-Babylonian or Canaanitish proper names. 3

1 The MS known as the Graecus Venetus finely renders nin [YHWH] by inventing the substantive 6 OVTWTT/S - i.e., probably 'the really existing one' ; hardly, as Lag. (Ubers. 138), comparing Sov\6ta [doulooo], supposes, with a causative signification, to indicate nin* [YHWH] as a Hiph'il.

2 When P nevertheless gives Jochebed (123V, Ex. 6:20) as the name of Moses mother, we must suppose this to be a name substituted by a later editor for what P originally wrote. Others take the name Jochebed as an indication that Yahwe was originally the God of Moses family or his tribe. But cp JACOB, i ; JOCHEBED.

3 In support of a Canaanitish Jahu the following cases have been cited: - the place-names mentioned by W. M. M tiller (As. u. Eur. 162, 312-313) - viz., from the list of Thotmes III., Ba-t-y-'-a (iTTTa??), and from that of Shoshenk, Ba-bi-y-'a, Sa-na-y-'a, and Ha-ni-ni-'a - all equally doubtful; Yaubidi, the name of a king of Hamath, also written Hubi'di: so Schr. KA TT- I, 23+:, and Wi. GI 36+, who has also proved Azriyau of Yaudi (according to Schrader, Azariah of Judah) to be the name of a N. Syrian king (AOFL 13) ; but cp also Jastrow, Ilubidi and the supposed Jaubidi, ZA, 1895, p. 222^?! The names adduced by Pinches, 'Ya and Jawa in Assyro-Babylonian inscriptions, PSKA 15 i pp. 1-13 (cp also Jager, Beitr. zur Assyr. 1 452^ ; Grimme, Grundzuge, etc., 145 ; Hommel, AHT 115, and Kxp. T 104248144; Sayce, ib. 0522; [against Hommel] Konig, 'the origin of the name nin [YHWH]' , ib. 10:189+), must for the present, on account of the uncertainty attending the explanation, and often the reading as well, be left out of account. Against the proposal of Frd. Del. (Par. 158+) to derive a form Jahu, common to all Canaanites, from an Accadian Ja-u, trans formed by the Hebrew priests into nin [YHWH], so as to render possible its derivation from ,-j n, 'to be', cp Philippi, Z.f Volkerpsych. u. Sprach Miss., 1882, pp. 175^; Tiele, Th.T, 1882, pp. 262 ff. ; Kue. Hibbert Lectures, -y&jf. Moreover, according to Winckler, niiT [YHWH], with the meaning of 'Lord of eternal being', is to be regarded as a spiritualising of the quite independent and distinct popular form Jehu.

113. Modern etymological explanations.[edit]

Ex. 3:14 being left out of account, 'Yahwe' has been explained variously. 1

  • (a) As nomen imperfecti Kal of run [HWH], 'to fall', either in the sense of 'rushing, crashing down' (Klo. Gl 70), or in that of 'falling (from heaven)', as being originally the name of one of the objects (see MASSEBAH, 1d) called Baityl (so, along with other possible explanations, Lag. Orientalia, 227 ff.).
  • (b) As a nomen imperfecti Kal of m,t [HWH], 'to blow' (cp Arabic hawa(y), 'to blow', hawa"", 'air, breeze' ), 'the

Blower', 2 as a name for the storm-god, analogous to the Assyrian Ramman.

  • (c) As a nomen imperfecti Hiph'il of ni,t [HWH], either as 'he who makes to be, calls into existence, the Creator', 3

or, following (a), as 'he who makes to fall, who smites with lightning', 4 and so, as before, the storm-god.

A Hiph'il (or a causative form analogous to the Hebrew Hiphi'ilP), however, from run [HWH] (or rrn) cannot be produced, apart from late Syriac formations, in any Semitic dialect, and the signification 'fall' occurs in Hebrew only in the imperative Kin [HWA], Job 376 (where Siegfried, SBOT, reads nn) ; and for the meaning 'blow' recourse must be had to Arabic ; whilst the interpretation of Yahwe as creator would ill agree with Hebrew usage, which employs the name Yahw6 chiefly with reference to revelations of God to his people, or the conduct of the people towards their national god, whereas the cosmic working of God is connected with other divine names.

It is not to be denied that nin [YHWH] may have had originally another much more concrete signification than that given in Ex. 3:14. Nevertheless it seems precarious to suppose that while Hebrew was still a living language, the people should have been so completely deluded as to the meaning of the most important and sacred name. The objection that Ex. 3:14 rests on a piece of too subtle metaphysical speculation, falls so soon as we cease to force into it the abstract conception of 'self-existence', 5 and content ourselves with the great religious idea of the living God who does not change in his actions.

1 Cp especially Driver, Recent theories on the origin and nature of the Tetragrammaton, Stud. Bibl. \ : T. P. Valeton, De Israelitische Godsnaam, Theol. Stud., May i88g.

2 So Wellh. IJGC-S.), 25, n. i, ( 4 ) 26 n. i : 'The etymology is quite obvious ; 'he rides through the air, he blows'.

3 So already Jn. Clericus (1696) on Ex.63; Schr., since 1862, and in Schenkel's Bib.-lex. 3 167^ (cp, however, also KATP) 25); Lag. ZDMG l 2^i, and most recently in Ubers.iyj ff. (= 'he who calls into being what he has promised' ). The equating of ni.T [YHWH] and niD i [YTWH] so as to obtain the meaning, 'the Vivifier, distributer of life', must be rejected, for the interchange of n [H] and n [T] at the beginning of a Semitic word is unheard of.

4 So Lag. Orientalia, 2:29 (alongside of the explanation as imperf. Kal), and, doubtfully, Stade, GV/l+ig. According to G. Margoliouth (rSBA, 1895, p. 57^), nl.T [YHWH] is 'one who sends down things from heaven'.

5 So, e.g., Di. {Gen., 1887, p. 74): 'he who exists absolutely and lives in himself'; Schultz, Alttest. Theol.P), 387, 'the immutable, self-centred existence ; the absolute personality'. Deserving of mention, also, is the hypothesis of G. H. Skipwith ( 'The Tetragrammaton', JQ R 10:662+), according to which fllil [YHWH] 'he will be' is the elliptic form of the invocation of the ancient Israelite warrior-god, to be completed by *?(< and ?J2V - i.e., 'God will be with us'. The Untersuchungen uber den Namen Jehova of B. Steinfuhrer (1898), and W. Spiegelberg's eine Vertautung iiber den Ursprung des Namens ni,T [YHWH] (from an Egyptian word for 'cattle' ), ZDMG, 1899, p. 633^, are quite valueless.

Elohim.[edit]

114. Form and meaning.[edit]

Of originally appellative names by far the commonest (2570 times) is Elohim (nTtSx), the regular plural of elo(a)h (ai^x), God, which (if we allow for the modification of a to o) corresponds to the more original Arabic ilah (Aramaic nSx). Of the fifty-seven places where the singular (aiSj<) occurs, forty-one belong to the Book of Job, and the rest (apart from the Kt. of 2 K. 17:31) either to poetic passages or to late prose. It can hardly be doubted, accordingly, that the singular (ni^x) is only an artificial restoration based on the plural (oTf^w). 1 The plural serves sometimes to denote the heathen gods (Ex. 9:1, 12:12, 20:3 etc.) or images of gods (Ex. 20:23 etc.), but mostly to denote a single god (or image of a god - e.g. , Ex. 32:1, most probably also Gen. 31:30, 31:32), whether a heathen deity (e.g. , 1 S. 5:7, of Dagon ; 1 K. 11:5, even of a female deity - for Hebrew never had a word for goddess) or the God of Israel. 2 In numberless places - especially with the addition of the article - C rtSiKn (i.e., like 6 0eos [o theos] in the NT, the well-known, true God) is a sort of proper name and equivalent for Yahwe. The usage of the language gives no support to the supposition that we have in the plural form eluhim, as applied to the god of Israel, the remains of an early polytheism, 3 or at least a combination with the higher spiritual beings (the 'son of God' or 'sons of the gods' - i.e., according to Heb. usage, simply beings belonging to the class of Elohim, Gen. 6:24, Job 16:21, 38:7, cp Ps. 29:1, 89:7 [89:6]). Rather must we hold to the explanation of the plural as one of majesty and rank (a variety of abstract plural expressing a combination of the several characteristics inherent in the conception). 4

1 According to Baethg. (Beitr. 297) the poetic author of Dt. 32 is to be regarded as the inventor of the sing. JTI.K.

2 The use of c nSx ( 1 S. 28:13) in the sense of supernatural being, ghost, is quite exceptional, and it is certainly an error to assert that N [el] sometimes indicates judges or magistrates in general. In Ex. 21:6, 22:7-8 [22:8-9], 1 S. 22:5 X [el] invariably means God, as witness of a lawsuit or dispenser of oracles. (We have clearly a relic of the last-mentioned usage in Ex. 4:16 [J ?] and even in 7:1 [P?].) In Ex. 22:7, too, the parallelism shows that what is meant is the reviling of God as the giver of decisions on points of law. In Ps. 82:16, 97:7, 138:1, on the other hand, the N [el] are, like the 'holy ones' of Ps. 89:6, 89:8 [89:5, 89:7], the gods of the heathen, which, in later post-exilic times, fell to a lower rank (see ANGELS).

3 According to WRS (A 1 5(2), 445), 'the Elohim of a place originally meant all its sacred denizens, viewed collectively as an indeterminate sum of indistinguishable beings'.

4 On this point cp Ges. Gram.Pi), 124^- and 132 h. In the Phoenician inscriptions, too(cpG. Hoffmann, Ueber einige phon. Inschr., 1889, p. 17 jff.~), D^N (elim) indicates most probably the universal conception of divinity, /f*, on the contrary, the individual deity in the idol.

5 So especially the illustrious Arabist Fleischer (most lately in Kleine Schriften, 1:154+). and after him Franz Del. (most recently in his Genesis, 1887, p. 48, where he explains 5i^{| as 'awe or respect', and then 'object of awe' ).

6 So Nold. ZDMGW 174, after We. Wakidi, 356, n. 3 (uliha 'an-irraguli, 'the fear of God has made the man harmless' ). The other example from Lieder der Hudhail (ed. We. 123), no. 278, /. 3, is less certain.

115. Etymology.[edit]

There is much difference of opinion as to the etymology, and therefore the proper signification, of the word Elohim. A verbal stem, n^N [ELH], of which one would naturally think first of all, is not known in Hebrew ; and the Arabic 'alaha, 'to worship God', is obviously a denominative from the substantive 'ilah, 'God'. On the other hand, the derivation from the Arabic 'aliha, with medial i (according to Arabic scholars an old Bedouin word meaning 'to be filled with dread, be perplexed', and so 'anxiously to seek refuge' ), seemed enticing. 'ilah (niSi*) would thus mean in the first place 'dread', then the object of the dread with whom one nevertheless seeks refuge. 5

Support for this view has been found in particular in several allusions in the OT itself to the supposed proper meaning of the word, since in Gen. 31:42, 31:53 God is called 'the fear (ins) of Isaac', and in Is. 8:13, Ps. 76:12 [11], the object of fear (jnic). The state of the problem is this. If 'aliha along with the cognate waliha, 'to fear', is really an independent verbal stem, the above explanation has a greater claim to consideration than any other. Possibly, however, 'aliha itself, along with waliha, is only a denominative from ilah, and signifies originally 'possessed of God' (cp eV0ov<ria<Jei>>, Sai^ovav [entheonsiazein daimonan]), as the Arabic ba'ila. means 'to be possessed of Ba'l'. & In this case, naturally, Fleischer's explanation would be futile.

There is just as little proof, however, for the view of Ewald, and after him Dillmann (on Gen. 1:1 ; also in Handb. d. AT lichen Theol.}, that a^x [eloh] means 'to be mighty', and is to be regarded as a by-form of the stem n^K ( ^N), from which SN [el] comes.

Nestle follows another course (Theol. St. aus Wiirt., 1882, p. 243^!), explaining elohim as the plural, not of the late artificially revived form eloah, but of the sing. el (see next). 1

Nestle supposes the plural to have arisen from el by the artificial insertion of a n (h), like Heb. ni.lCN, maidens, from nOM, Arab. 'abahat, fathers, Syr. s*mtihdn [shemahan], names, etc. Nestle is thus able easily to explain how the older language had no singular for elohim but el, and no other plural for el but elohim. The explanation of this plural form would thus be dependent on that of the sing, el (see below). To Nestle's hypothesis, however, there is the objection - that at least the Arabic formations of this kind have a short a before the termination, whilst the long o of elohim would represent a long o ; and above all, that all examples with inserted n [H] (if we ignore some secondary formations in Syriac) have the fem. ending. Moreover, were this hypothesis accepted, the Ar. ilah and the Aram. n?N would have, with Nestle, to be regarded as words borrowed directly or in directly from the Hebrew.*

1 Conversely, Ewald had already explained 7K as abbreviated from aiSj? (DWJt); Lehre der Bibelvon Gott, 2&2j?f.

a Cp N5ld. SBA W, 1882, p. 1180.

3 Cp the detailed refutation of this theory by Nold. (SBA W, 1882, pp. 1183^), according to whom both el and ilah were already in existence side by side before the parting of the Semitic nations. Cp also Ed. Meyer, El in Roscher's Lex. d. griech. u. rom. Mythol. 1223 ff. ; Baethgen, too, shows (Beitr. 271, and in the excursus, 297^) that it is at best but traces of the form il (el) that are to be found in the various Semitic tribes and peoples, whilst ilah is quite wanting in some languages. On the other hand, il has in some cases become quite unfamiliar in the living language ; in others it is passing out of use, its place being taken by ilah. It is only in personal names that '. . . il has established itself in all Semitic languages, either alone as in some of them, or alongside of ilah as in others'.

  • Cp El roi, Gen. 16:13 RVmg. ( x| <?,<); see ISAAC, 2.

5 On this usage of el, perhaps the oldest, where it originally denoted the local divinity (afterwards identified with Yahwe) of the several places of worship, cp Stade, GVI 1 428.

6 Wellhausen says (Skizzen, 3 169) : the true content of the conception " God " amongst the Semites generally is that of lordship. With this it agrees that Yahwe is also called in Is. 6:5 and elsewhere the king, and that in Ethiopic the plural is majestatis amlak has become a sort of proper name for God.

116. El.[edit]

There is no less difference of opinion as to the explanation of el, 'God', a word which appears as a divine name 217 times (73 in Ps. , 55 in Job, and generally almost only in poetical passages, or at least in elevated prose), and just like elohim (see preceding col., n. 2) may denote either deities (D^K e.g. , in Ex. 15:11, etc., Ps. 58:1 [58:2] corrected text) which have come to be viewed as subordinate divinities, or the god of Israel. Sometimes it occurs with the article (yet also without it ; so especially in Deutero-Isaiah, 40:18, etc.), like the elohim (cTiSxn) in the sense of the true God (e.g. , Gen. 46:3), but specially often with some attribute or other, whether a noun (e.g. , -1133 SN, 'hero-god', Is. 9:6) or an adjective as in >n *?K, 'the living God', 4 [vSy Sx (see below, . 118), 'God most high', vyy VN (see below, 117), 'God almighty' (?), or with a genitive, as ^Kiya JN, 'the God of Bethel' 5 (Gen. 35:7), nVty V*i 'the god of antiquity' (Gen. 21:33), or finally with a noun in apposition - e.g. , Gen. 46:3; cp also 33:20 where Jacob calls the massebah (for in view of -3X i we must read thus, not [ain, 'altar' ) that he erected 'el, god of Israel'. Very frequent is the occurrence of el (never aiSx or DTI^N) as first or second member in proper names - e.g. , f^nSx, "lU^N. in St*, Wv, ^MUay. etc. (see above, 25).

Against the derivation of the substantive el (?) from W 'to be strong', with the meaning 'the strong one', a derivation at one time common and in itself satisfactory, 6 objections have been raised. The most that can be cited in the way of evidence for such a use of the substantive el is the expression >T ^vh-to\ 'it is in the power of my hand (Gen. 31:29 and elsewhere). It has been urged too, especially by Lagarde (Mitteilungen, 1884, pp. 96+), that the derivation of this particular name from a neuter verbal stem is unthinkable (cp, however, also p 1 ? [lq], 'scoffer' ; -\y [shr], Demon ). Above all it is objected that a participle or verbal noun from "JIN (or TN) would of necessity have an unchangeable e , 1 whereas forms like Elhanan (priSx), Elimelek (^irSx) and many others would argue for the e being simply a prolongation of an original i. The last objection would apply also to Noldeke's 2 derivation from SIN [el], 'to be in front'. Dillmann (on Gen. 1:1) and Lagarde 3 derive Sx from n^K (or "?) ; but for the meaning, assumed by Dillmann, 'to be mighty', no authority can be found, and Lagarde's connection of el with the preposition (Vx) 'to', is open to serious question. (See NATURE-WORSHIP, 2. )

Lagarde maintains that el denotes: 'him after whom one strives', 'who is the goal of all human aspiration and endeavour' (according to Deutscke Schriften, 222, the 'aim' or 'goal' ), or (1888) 'to whom one has recourse in distress or when one is in need of guidance' (Ulters. 170 : 'to whom one attaches oneself closely' ). Such an origin for the name would be no doubt conceivable on the basis of pure and strict monotheism ; it is, however, inconceivable if ilu, el, originally served to denote any god whatever, 1 * and even a demon or local divinity.

1 Yet Noldeke still in 1882 decided (SBA 11 , 188-2, p. 1188) that SN [el] has probably an originally long vowel. As a matter of fact the punctuation of the Massora (in 3N 7N, etc., alongside of "?!*) may be founded on an error. Whether the Babylonian ilu, 'God' (but never the name of a defined god: cp on this point Jensen, Kosmog. der Bau. 116), can be cited in support of the original shortness of the vowel in 5X, must be left an open question. Lagarde (Ubers, 131-132) regard the Assyrian form Sir-'-la-a - 'Israelite' as sufficient proof.

2 SB AW, 1880, p. 760 ff., less definitely 1882, p. 1175^

3 Symmicta, 2 (1880), 101 ff. ; Orientalia, 2 (1880), *off.\ Mittheilvngen, 1 94 jf. 107 ff. 231 / 2 27 / 183 (1881-86); at length (most recently) in Ubers. i$<)ff. According to p. 167 the derivation of ?N [el] from the preposition 7N [el] was proposed as long ago as by Josue de la Place (ti655).

4 According to Lagarde, it is true, VN [el] was not a native word amongst the Arabs, Idumaeans, etc., but only a loan-word from the Jews (cp, however, above n. 3).

5 Five times in Gen. (for we must certainly read <-jj ^ x for t? flN in Gen. 49:25) and in Ex. 6:3.

6 In Ezek. 10:5, probably an interpolated verse, retains the form 2a6Scu [saddai]. This, however, by no means furnishes any real evidence for the originality of the pronunciation &.

117. Shaddai.[edit]

We are no nearer a solution in the case of the divine name Shaddai, "TO. Whilst it occurs six times 5 as an attribute of Sx [el], it occurs as an indepedent divine name 39 times, of which 31 belong to the poetical parts of Job (since here, as is well known, Yahwe is avoided and its place taken by other names). According to Ex. 6:3 (P) it was by the name El Shaddai (not Yahwe) that God revealed himself to the patriarchs. It is in agreement with this that four of the six Genesis passages belong certainly to P (along with the three personal names compounded with HE ), whilst, as LXX shews, Shaddai in Gen. 43:14 is a Redactor's interpolation into the text of E. The only pre-exilic testimony for Shaddai is therefore Gen. 49:25, Nu. 24:4, 24:16.

It is incorrect to appeal in support of the common explanation 'Almighty' to the Arabic root shadda, 'to be firm, strong', for the Hebrew equivalent for this would be not TIC* (ShDD) but -ny (SDD). Nor is much weight to be laid on LXX's rendering saddai by 'Almighty' (wa.i>TOKpa.Tup [pantokratoor]). This occurs only in the book of Job, and there only in 15 out of 31 places, whilst in the Pentateuch Shaddai is simply rendered by a pronoun (fnov, <rov [sou], 6 f/uos [o emos]) or passed over altogether. 6 Judged by its form, Shaddai could only be a derivative of the form TIB> with the suffix ay. 1 But this root means only 'lay waste, destroy', and it is surely inconceivable that, for example, in the oldest passage (Gen. 49:25), El Shaddai designates God as the devastator or destroyer. Moreover, the pronunciation Shaddai is perhaps purely artificial, intended to embody the explanation ne> (&)= 'what (or who) is sufficient'. It is only thus we can explain the remarkable rendering (6 i/cavos [o ikanos]; cp iKai uOijvai [ikanoothenai] [ = "]] in Mal. 3:10) of LXX in Job 21:15, 31:2, 40:2, Ruth 1:20-21 of LXX{A} in Ezek. 1:24 and of Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion (also R. Ishaki on Ex. 6:3). To derive the name from a root mi? would require the pronunciation saddai ( i\y, the so-called nomen opificis) But there is no such root in Hebrew, though according to Frd. Delitzsch (Prol. 1896) there is a root shadu 'to be high' in Assyrian. 2 See SHADDAI.

1 So Baethgen (fieitr., etc., 294) who appeals to Palmyrene and other parallels. He maintains that y [sS] can be explained only as an Aramaism, an Aramaism that the Hebrews brought with them from their Aramaean home.

2 Noldeke (SB A \V, 1880, p. 775; ZDMG 42 480) conjectured that 1B> [ShDY] or (on the analogy of *3~lt<) "l;?, 'my lord' was the original pronunciation. Cp G. Hoffmann, Phon. Inschr. 53-55. But what explanation could then be given of IP 7N [El Shaddai] in the mouth of God (Gen. 49:25, Ex. 6:3)? Cp SHADDAI.

118. Elyon.[edit]

Like Shaddai, the title Elyon (j vSj;), 'the Almighty', appears sometimes in connection with El (Gen. 14:18-20 and in apposition with Yahwe in v. 22; Ps. 78:35) or Yahwe (Ps. 7:18 [7:17], in 57:3 [57:2], 78:56, too, Elohim has been substituted by a Redactor, as elsewhere in Ps. 42-84 for Yahwe : see PSALMS, 7), sometimes standing alone (Nu. 24:16, Dt. 3:28, Ps. 21:8 [21:7], 46:5 [46:4], 77:11 [77:10], etc. ; as a vocative 9:3 [9:2]). That when it stands alone elyon was felt to be a proper noun is clear from its never having the article even after prepositions ; cp, e.g. , Ps. 73:11, Is. 14:14, Ps. 50:14. With this agrees the testimony of Philo Byblius (Eus. Praep. evang. 1:10) that among the Phoenicians EXioiV [Elioun] was in use as a name for God. This is the simplest explanation of the fact that in the single early passage where 'Elyon occurs (Nu. 24:16) it is put in the mouth of a foreigner, whilst the employment of the word as an Israelite name for God belongs almost exclusively to post-exilic usage.

119. Adonai.[edit]

Another word, occurring as a sort of proper noun 130 (or according to the Massora 134) times, not as Kr. for Yahwe (see above note i) but as Ktb., is (TIN, i.e.) according to MT Adonai ( rix) but probably originally Adoni ( rw) 'my lord'. 3 Adon (pix) without suffix is used only in Ps. 114;, of God; and 'the Adon' (jiixn) in Mal. 3:1, and, in connection with other divine names, in Ex. 23:17, 34:23 and five times in Is. (1:24, 3:1, etc.).

3 As Dalman has shown (Dcr Gottesname Adonnj it. seine Gesch.), it is simply by Rabbinic arbitrariness, not yet known to the Talmud, that we have the form ( 31N) with long a (commonly supposed to be a means of distinction from the ordinary profane form [ j lK] 'my lords' ; but supposed by Nestle ZA TIV, 1896, p. 325, to be a reaction of the a of fyf i such a form as fl l " 1 being impossible; and by Lagarde, Dhers. 188, to be an Aramaism, related to the Old Palestinian jilN like Syriac malkay, 'kingly' to melekh) or even a plural suffix at all (in connection with the plural of majesty D ilN). For with the suffix of the first person sing, elsewhere only the sing. i^K is found, and from this form the divine name had to be distinguished. The common assertion that the suffix in <px is often, as in monsieur, madame, etc., quite meaningless, is corrected by Dalman by the observation that outside of the Book of Daniel and eight critically doubtful passages, the suffix is never quite meaningless. (Cp excursus on Adonai, Che. OPs. 299-303.)

120. Ba'al.[edit]

Of other terms indicative of lordship Ba'al (Vya) 'proprietor, lord' (with the article Syan) was also in ancient times used without hesitation as a designation for the god of Israel. This is proved by a series of proper names compounded with 'Baal', in the bestowal of which not the heathen Baal but Yahwe was certainly thought of. 1 See JERUBBAAL, ISHBAAL, MERIBAAL, BEELIADA (forms retained in Ch. ), but in the earlier books deliberately corrupted by the substitution of El or Bosheth. 2 See, however, MEPHIBOSHETH.

121. Abir.[edit]

The title 'Abir of Jacob' (a py Tax) 'the Strong One of Jacob' (i.e. , he whom Jacob must acknowledge and honour as the Strong One ; cp ^Nnfc" na T " in all parts of the Book of Isaiah - i.e., he whom Israel ought to treat as the Holy One), Gen. 49:24 and four other times (cp Is. 1:24 SKIS" x), occurs only in poetical writing. Since no adjective abir (THN) is known, it is probable that we should read abbir (TSN), but with the same meaning, 'the Strong One of Jacob', not 'the Bull of Jacob' as by itself it might mean. Isaiah would certainly not have employed the expression had it contained for him any reminiscence of steer-worship. On the other hand it is very probable that abir (TDK) is so written in order to avoid the likeness to abbir (rax) 'bull'.

122. Rock.[edit]

Another term used only in poetry as a kind of divine name is sur (111;), 'Rock'. 3 It occurs attached to a genitive C?to:r -ns, 2 S. 23:3, Is. 30:29) or with a suffix (e.g. , Dt. 32:30 ; in v. 31 also of a heathen deity), and also alone - e.g. , in Dt. 32418 even as a vocative, parallel with Yahwe, Hab. 1 12 (if the text is sound). On the other hand it is very questionable whether in the plainly very corrupt text of Gen. 49:24 (Sins" jat), 'the stone of Israel' is to be taken (like -fin) as a name for God.

1 In 2 S. 5:20 we have a place-name (BAAL-PERAZIM) containing Baal governing a genitive (cp below, 123), although it is Yahwe that is meant.

2 In 2 S. 11:21 we find the form Jerubbesheth = Jerubbaal.

3 Cp especially A. Wiegand, ZA TH IQ 8s/. The employment of "RS in the proper name Pedahzur ("Msrn9 : Nu. 2 20 and elsewhere) specially favours its being a genuine divine name. (On the difficult problems involved see ZUR, NAMES IN.)

4 Cp Katitzsch, Zebaoth in PR KM 17 423^ and ZATW 6:17+, Lohr, 'Jahve Zebaoth' in Untersuchungen zum B. Amos (1901), 37+ (with a thorough statement of the usage of *).

5 Cp on this abbreviation Gesen. Grant. 26, 125/1. For the grammatically impossible combination '(Yahwe) god, hosts' ( S O H^X or ^ C .-jSfj <) in Ps. 59:6 [59:5] and elsewhere (for the last time 84:9 [84:8]) we must everywhere read 'Yahwe of hosts'. Kl fihTm ( 'god' ) was substituted for Yahwe throughout the 2nd and 3rd Books of Psalms by some redactor without regard to Syntax ; but then the original Yahwe was in some cases also retained in the text. Cp PSALMS, 7.

6 The theory of Klostermann (Gesch. Isr. 76) is worthy of notice. He thinks that the name was really removed from the Pentateuch by a redactor just as in Josh. 3:11, 3:13, 4:7, instead of 'the ark of the lord of all the earth', there must clearly originally have stood 'the ark of Yahwe of hosts'.

123. Sebaoth.[edit]

Special fulness is required in discussing, finally, the combination of Yahwe or Elohim with the genitive sebaoth (jiiKax) 'hosts', from which sprang a much used name for God. 4 The original appellative signification of sebaoth appears still quite plainly in the full formula 'Yahwe the god of the hosts' (nixavn riSx m.T, with the article), Hos. 12:6 [12:5], Am. 3:13, 6:14 ; according to LXX originally also 9:5. Much more common is the form (nixas n^N ) without article, and commonest of all 'Yahwe of hosts' (nixas ). 5 Frequently, too, adonai is prefixed to this (probably in most cases an interpolation to supply the place of the original Yahwe, on which cp above 109, note 4), sometimes also litNn, 'the lord' (Is. 12:4, 19:4, to which, according to LXX, 10:16 is to be added).

Of the 282 places where the genitive sebaoth occurs, no less than 246 are in the prophets (55 in 1 Is., 81 in Jer. ), and even the five that occur in Kings are in speeches of prophets. It nowhere appears in the Pentateuch, 6 Josh., Judg. , Ezek., Joel, Obad. , or (apart from Ps. 24:10, and 15 places in the 2nd and 3rd Books of Psalms, and 3 in Ch. taken from 1 S. ) the whole Hagiographa.

The old dispute whether the title Yahwe Sebaoth designates Yahwe as God of the earthly (Israelite) or of the heavenly hosts (angels or stars or both) may be decided in this way - viz. , that sebaoth denotes in the first place the earthly hosts, the hosts of Israel fighting under the leadership of Yahwe. Apart from this divine name, sebaoth in the plural never means anything but 'armies of men', 1 and indeed almost always Israelite armies, whether at the Exodus (Ex. 6:26, etc., cp especially 7:4 and 12:41) or later (Dt. 20:9, etc., and so also Ps. 44:10 [44:9], 108:12 [108:11]), only in Jer. 3:19, Ps. 68:13 [68:12] heathen armies. The heavenly host on the other hand is without exception 2 designated by the singular (x:i* [tseba]).

The above interpretation of Yahwe Sebaoth is favoured moreover by 1 S. 17:45 where 'the God of the ranks of Israel' is plainly intended as an interpretation of Yahwe Sebaoth - an interpretation not superfluous for a Philistine - and above all by the fact that of the 11 occurrences of Yahwe Sebaoth in the book of Samuel, 5 (1 S. 1:?, 3:11, 4:4, 2 S. 6:2, 6:18) are directly or indirectly connected with the ark, and 3 others (1 S. 15:2, 17:45, 2 S. 5:10) with military transactions. The sacred ark is, according to the earliest references (cp especially Nu. 10:35-36, 14:44-45, Josh. 6:4-5, 1 S. 4:3+, 4:21-22, 2 S. 11:11), the symbol, nay the pledge, of the presence of Yahwe as the god of war, the proper leader of Israel ; and in 1 S. 4:4 and especially 2 S. 6:2 the name Yahwe Sebaoth is expressly connected with the sacred ark. The idea that the appositional phrase 'who is enthroned above the cherubim' here designates Yahwe as leader of the heavenly hosts, appears to us to be quite excluded by 1 S. 17:45 (see above). On the other hand it cannot be denied that even in the earliest prophetic passages there is hardly a trace to be seen of this original meaning. Nay, we may assume that Isaiah, e.g. , would not have used the name so often, had its connection with the former markedly naturalistic representation of the sacred ark been expressly before his mind. On the contrarv, the admission of the word into the prophetic vocabulary must have been preceded by its transference from the earthly to the heavenly hosts. At the same time it can never be determined with certainty whether sebaoth denotes the angels 3 or the stars or both. 4 What is clear with regard to prophetic usage is that with Yahwe Sebaoth is associated the thought of super mundane power and majesty. It is very significant in this connection that Yahwe Sebaoth is parallel with 'the holy (one)' (ernpn) in Is. 5:16, and with 'the holy (one) of Israel' (?N-iir tr np) in v. 24, whilst in Is. 6:3 it has 'holy' (tr np) for its predicate. 'The Holy' (anipn), however, in Is. likewise means exalted above everything earthly. The most probable conclusion is that in prophetic usage Yahwe Sebaoth - agreeably to its original meaning - suggested in the first place the angelic hosts of war, but that finally the thought of the starry host, as the grandest proof of divine omnipotence and infinity, prevailed. LXX appears to attach a still more general meaning to Yahwe Sebaoth, when it renders it, as it often does, 5 by 'Lord of the powers or forces' (KI^/HOS TWV 5vva.fj.fui> [kyrios ton dynameon]), 1 or even by 'the Almighty God' (6 0eo$ 6 iravTOKpdrup [o theos o pantokratoor]), or 'Lord Almighty' (xtipios TravroKparup [kyrios pantokratoor]). That Yahwe Sebaoth early came to be felt to be a single proper name, is shown by the invariable dropping of the article (except in Hos. 12:6 [12:5], Am. 3:13, 6:14, 9:5) and the almost equally invariable dropping of the governing noun (flty

1 Against this view Borchert plausibly objects (St. Kr., 1896, p. 619+), that all the places where sebaoth is used of hosts of men belong to the later or even the very latest literature, and that, besides, sebauth in P means not fighting hosts but the masses of the Israelitish people, whilst for the former the sing, saba is used. But we really know no other usage, apart from the divine title, and the angelic host is called in Josh. 5:14-15, 1 K. 22:19, Is. 24:21 saba in the sing. Certainly P regards the masses of the people as fighting hosts (see Nu. 2).

2 In Ps. 103:21, 148:2 for 'his hosts' (vjoxX which the Massora thought necessary on account of the preceding imperative plural, read 'his host' (1N3!> : the language knows no plural C KDS).

3 So most recently Borchert explicitly (op. cit. 633^).

4 According to Smend (Alttest. Rel.-gesch.fi\, 202), indeed, the meaning 'lord of all the forces of the world' is to be regarded as the original. [Wellhausen thinks of the baipoves [daimones] (D Stf) who were attached to different localities, but were all subject to Yahwe.]

5 In 1 S. and almost invariably in Is. (hence it appears also in Rom. 9:29, Jas. 54) LXX retains [xvpios [kyrios]] ^.aftaiaO [sabaoth]. It occurs for the first time absolutely as a proper name (i.e., ignoring its dependence as properly a genitive) in the Sibyl (1:304). In the so-called Ophite Gnosis, Sabaoth is one of the emanations from the world fashioner, Jaldabaoth.

124. Father.[edit]

The transition to the divine names of the NT is effected by the title ab, 'Father'. This name cannot, however, claim in the OT anything like the wealth of meaning that belongs to it in the invocation of the 'Lord's prayer', and in countless other passages in the NT. Just as in the OT (apart from the theocratic king, Ps. 2:7 ; cp 2 S. 7:14) it is not the individual Israelite but the whole people that is called 'son (or sons)' of God (Ex. 4:22-23, Is. 1:2, Hos. 11:1, etc.), so also God is called 'father' not of the individual Israelites but of the whole people. Moreover, the context of such passages as Dt. 326, Is. 64:7 [64:8], Jer. 31:9, Mal. 1:6, 2:10 shows that in the name 'father' what is chiefly thought of is the formation of the nation - i.e., its elevation to its historical position. Only in Is. 63:16 is there at the same time an allusion to the redemptive acts of Yahwe, to his fatherly care for his people, whilst in Jer. 34:19 'father' is used as a sort of name of endearment. The only reference to an individual relation is to be found in 2 S. 7:14 (see above ; and cp Ps. 89:27 [89:26], likewise with reference to the theocratic king). The thought of the inexhaustible fatherly compassion which is the significant idea in the name father in the NT appears in the OT only in Ps. 68:6 [68:5] and 103:13, and in both places merely by way of simile.

125. Bibliography.[edit]

i. Concordances and Dictionaries. For the Hebrew text Mandelkern s Concordance (Brecher's Concordantiie Nomimtm Propriorum, Frankfort a. M. 1876, is very defective) ; Gesenius, Thesaurus; Brown - Driver - Briggs, Hebr. Lex. ; and (for post-biblical Jewish names) Levy, Ncuhehr. Worterbuch. For the Greek versions and Greek apocrypha Hatch and Redpath's Concord, to Sept. (Supplement) ; for the EV Strong s Exhaustive Concordance.

ii. Text. This important part of the subject has never been systematically treated, and as a rule is neglected or indifferently handled in commentaries ; it receives much attention in many of the individual articles in this work : see also Lists and Notes in HPN, pp. 277-313, and Gray s article in JQK, 1901, pp. 375-391 ; Smend, Die Listen d. BB. Ksra u. Neh. (1881); Marquart, Fund. (1896), pp. 10-26. On the prefixes in a "d V see Bonk, ZA \TW 11 125-156.

iii. Interpretation and usage.- Lagarde, OS (including Jerome. s Liber interpretation is hebr. noiiiinutii): M. Hiller,O<7- masticum Sacrum (c. 1000 pp. ; Tiibingen 1706); Nestle, Eig. (1876) : Gra.y,Studies in Hcbr. Proper Name s (i 896) : Kerber, Die religionsgeschichtliche Bedeutvng der heb. Eigennamen (1897). For later Jewish names, see Zunz, Namen der Juden (1837) reprinted in Gesaiinnelte Schrifien,Zi-%2 and H. P. Chajes, Beitriige zur Nordsein. Onomatologie (1900). For discussions of details, the reader may consult the separate special articles in the present work, not neglecting the references ; 2 and the works of Nestle and Gray. Here it may suffice to mention one or two of the more important discussions in periodicals (chiefly JQK, JRAS,JBLit. and especially ZDMG, ZATW) prior to the latest of these publications and to some subsequent contributions on the subjects : \V. R. Smith in J Phil. 9 75-100 and Jacobs, Studies in Bibl. Arch. (1894) chaps. 4 5 (Animal and Plant Names); Noldeke in ZDMG 1886, pp. 148-157; 1888, pp. 470- 487 ; Kenan, Des Noms theophores apocopees, in REJ 5 161 ff.\ M. Jastrow in JKL 1894, pp. i<j Jf-, 101-127; 1 9 0: >< PP- 82-105 (on compounds with boshcth, -yah, and the name Samuel) ; Homtnel AHT, and Die Siid-arabischen Alterth.iiier (1899) 21-27 (on Ammi) ; Gray s Criticisms of Hommel s AH T in Exp. 1897^, 173-190. Specially important for the subject of place- names are Stade s article in ZA TW 1885, pp. 175-185, and von Gall, altisraclitische Kultstiitten (1898). Further, for the com parison of Hebrew with other Semitic names the following will be found specially valuable : Lidzbarski, Handbuck li. Northern. Epigraphik\ the notes in CAS"; Del.,/Vy/. ; Hammer-Purgstall, Ueber d. Namen d. Arabcr, We. Ar. Heid. G. B. G.

iv. The literature on the names of God is embarrassingly large. On the name Yahwe may be mentioned WRS Proph. (1882), pp. 385 ff. ; Wellh. IJGV1, 25 ; Dr. Recent Theories on the Origin and Nature of the Tetragrammaton, 1 Stud. Bib. 1, pp. \Jf.\ Dalman, DerGottesnaine Adonaiitnd seine Gesch., 1889; KiJnig, Die formell genet. Wechselbeziehung der beiden Worter Jahve und Jahu, ZA TW\1 \Tzff. I.Lag. Psalte riu in juxta Hehriros fHeroitymi,\%J4\Or., 1879; Ubers., 1889; Baudissin,.SVv<Y. zur scin. Rel.-gesch. 1(1876), pp. 181-254 ; Kuenen, (7<viW. (1869), 1 398 (ET, same reference) ; Lolir, Uiitcrsiich. zt B. Ainos, 2nd app., Jahve Zebaoth (tables showing where this name, in different forms, occurs in OT, how (5 translates, and on what occasions it is used) ; Giesebrecht, Die A Tliche Schiitzungdes Gottesnainens it. Hire religionszesch, Grundl., 1901. Illustrative; Del., Par. (1881); P mchts,PSBA 15(1892), j 3 Jf.; ViL,Gflj r .i Hommel, AHT 102; and Exp.T, 1899, p. 42; Sayce, ib. 1898, p. 522; Philippi, Zt.f. I Mkerfisych., 14 (1883), 175^; Jastrow, ZA 10222^:, and ZATll ltii jf.\ Stade, Die E.ntsteh. des V. Israel, Al h., 97 ff. On the other divine names El, Eloah, and Elohim, Elyon Shaddai, etc., see the references in 108-124. T. N. ( 1-86); G. B. G. ( 87-106, 125, i.-iii. ); E. K. ( 107-124) ; T. K. c.( 125, iv.).

1 In the other Greek versions it is Kiipios Toir oTpartui - in what sense is doubtful, but perhaps looking back to the a-rpana. TOV ovpai oi) of LXX.

2 [It is hoped that when the present work is finished, the reader will have before him a more complete and up-to-date survey both of the material at our disposal for solving the problems of names and of the possible solutions of those problems than can be found elsewhere, mainly through the co-operation of scholars of different sections of the critical school. The greatest difficulty has been the backwardness of textual criticism (see TEXT AND VERSIONS), which has inevitably affected all the current treatises bearing on names. The thorough criticism to which in this work the text has been subjected has often led to the adoption of new views of some importance, which, with all deductions for possible errors, justify the editors in claiming that here, as elsewhere, they have been able to carry the subject at any rate a little beyond the point hitherto reached in print (Preface to vol. i., p. n). ED.]

NANEA[edit]

RV Nan*a (NANAIA [AV] ; Syr. iUJ ), the Graecised form of Nana or Nanai, a goddess worshipped in Elymais or Elam, in whose temple, according to 2 Macc. 1:13, Antiochus Epiphanes was by the deceit of Nanea s priests (see MACCABEES, slain SECOND, 7, col. 2876). In 1 Mace. 6:1-4, indeed, a different story is told, and the name of the deity whose temple Antiochus sought to plunder is not given. Polybius (31:11) and, following him, Josephus (Ant. 12:9:1) give it as Artemis; Appian (Syr. 66) as Aphrodite. Nana, however, was a primeval Babylonian goddess - the only one of the great Sumerian (non- Semitic) goddesses who still retained her rank as 'lady of the temple E-anna' in her city of Uruk (Erech). Kudur-nanhundi, king of Elam, robbed E-anna of its lady's image (about 2280 B.C.), and it remained at Susa till ASHUR-BANI-PAI. (q.v.) recovered it. This accounts for the permanence of the cultus of Nana in Elam. The Assyrians and Babylonians, however, did not forget the goddess. Tiglath-pileser III. sacrificed to her under the title of 'lady of Babylon', after a victorious campaign against Babylonia (h B\\. 67). Originally distinct from Ishtar (Del. Par. 222), she came to be regarded as a form of Ishtar (cp ERECH), so that an identification with Artemis and Aphrodite lay close at hand. See ELYMAIS, PERSEPOLIS.

Two more references to Nana have been supposed in the OT. Lagarde introduced her name by a very arbitrary emendation into Is. 65:11 (see FORTUNE AND DESTINY), and many have regarded the obscure title C E 3 men, 'the delight of women', as belonging to Nana (against which see Hevan, Daniel, 196).

For literature, cp COT2 159^, and add Maspero, 'Dawn of Civ'. 665-674 ; Jastrow, Kel. Bab. Ass. 81, 85, 206. T. K. C.

NAOMI[edit]

better Noomi ( RV, 'my sweetness', 79, iii. c ; NtO/v\eiN [B], NOCMM, and A in 24317 NOGMMei, NOOMMI[N] [A], NOOMI [L]), wife of Elimelech of Bethlehem, and mother-in-law of Ruth (Ruth 1:2+). See RUTH.

NAPHATH-DOR[edit]

(TNI nS3), 1 K. 4:11 RVmg, RV 1 'heights of DOR' (q. v. ).

NAPHISH[edit]

in 1 Ch. 8:19, AV NEPHISH (BB3), a son of ISHMAEL(?.V. ), Gen. 25:15, 1 Ch. 1:31, 5:19 (NA<f>ec[BAE], ee [>]. -4>eic [L]; in 5:19 N<\(|>eic&A<McoN [B], N&4>IC<MCON [AL]). The name may mean widespread (cp Aram. DB3. Ass. napashu) ; it may also be a distortion of rTBJi a collateral form of jv3J ( = Nebaioth) presupposed by the Assyrian form Napiati (Schr. KGP 104). Cp NEPHISIM. T. K. c.