Executive Order 12936

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Signed by President  William J. Clinton  Thursday, November 10, 1994 Federal Register  page & date: 59 FR 59075, Tuesday, November 15, 1994
See the Notes section for a list of Executive Orders affected by or related to the issuance of this Executive Order.

Executive Order 12936 of November 6, 1994

1994 Amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984


By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including chapter 47 of title 10, United States Code (Uniform Code of Military Justice, 10 U.S.C. 801-946), in order to prescribe amendments to the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, prescribed by Executive Order 12473, as amended by Executive Order 12484, Executive Order 12550, Executive Order 12586, Executive Order 12708, Executive Order 12767, and Executive Order 12888, it is hereby ordered as follows:


Section 1. Part II of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984, is amended as follows:

a. R.C.M. 405(g)(1)(B) is amended to read as follows:

"(B)Evidence. Subject to Mil. R. Evid., Section V, evidence, including documents or physical evidence, which is under the control of the Government and which is relevant to the investigation and not cumulative, shall be produced if reasonably available. Such evidence includes evidence requested by the accused, if the request is timely. As soon as practicable after receipt of a request by the accused for information which may be protected under Mil. R. Evid. 505 or 506, the investigating officer shall notify the person who is authorized to issue a protective order under subsection (g)(6) of this rule, and the convening authority, if different. Evidence is reasonably available if its significance outweighs the difficulty, expense, delay, and effect on military operations of obtaining the evidence.".

b. R.C.M. 405(g) is amended by inserting the following new subparagraph (6) at the end thereof:

"(6)Protective order for release of privileged information. If, prior to referral, the Government agrees to disclose to the accused information to which the protections afforded by Mil. R. Evid. 505 or Mil. R. Evid. 506 may apply, the convening authority, or other person designated by regulations of the Secretary of the service concerned, may enter an appropriate protective order, in writing, to guard against the compromise of information disclosed to the accused. The terms of any such protective order may include prohibiting the disclosure of the information except as authorized by the authority issuing the protective order, as well as those terms specified in Mil. R. Evid. 505(g)(1)(B) through (F) or Mil. R. Evid. 506(g)(2) through (5).".

c. R.C.M. 905(f) is amended to read as follows:

"(f)Reconsideration. On request of any party or sua sponte, the military judge may, prior to authentication of the record of trial, reconsider any ruling, other than one amounting to a finding of not guilty, made by the military judge.".

d. R.C.M. 917(f) is amended to read as follows:

"(f)Effect of ruling. A ruling granting a motion for a finding of not guilty is final when announced and may not be reconsidered. Such a ruling is a finding of not guilty of the affected specification, or affected portion thereof, and, when appropriate, of the corresponding charge. A ruling denying a motion for a finding of not guilty may be reconsidered at any time prior to authentication of the record of trial.".

e. R.C.M. 1001(b)(5) is amended to read as follows:

"(5)Evidence of rehabilitative potential. Rehabilitative potential refers to the accused's potential to be restored, through vocational, correctional, or therapeutic training or other corrective measures to a useful and constructive place in society.

(A)In general. The trial counsel may present, by testimony or oral deposition in accordance with R.C.M. 702(g)(1), evidence in the form of opinions concerning the accused's previous performance as a servicemember and potential for rehabilitation.

(B)Foundation for opinion. The witness or deponent providing opinion evidence regarding the accused's rehabilitative potential must possess sufficient information and knowledge about the accused to offer a rationally-based opinion that is helpful to the sentencing authority. Relevant information and knowledge include, but are not limited to, information and knowledge about the accused's character, performance of duty, moral fiber, determination to be rehabilitated, and nature and severity of the offense or offenses.

(C)Bases for opinion. An opinion regarding the accused's rehabilitative potential must be based upon relevant information and knowledge possessed by the witness or deponent, and must relate to the accused's personal circumstances. The opinion of the witness or deponent regarding the severity or nature of the accused's offense or offenses may not serve as the principal basis for an opinion of the accused's rehabilitative potential.

(D)Scope of opinion. An opinion offered under this rule is limited to whether the accused has rehabilitative potential and to the magnitude or quality of any such potential. A witness may not offer an opinion regarding the appropriateness of a punitive discharge or whether the accused should be returned to the accused's unit.

(E)Cross-examination. On cross-examination, inquiry is permitted into relevant and specific instances of conduct.

(F)Redirect. Notwithstanding any other provision in this rule, the scope of opinion testimony permitted on redirect may be expanded, depending upon the nature and scope of the cross-examination.".

f. R.C.M. 1003(b)(2) is amended to read as follows:

"(2)Forfeiture of pay and allowances. Unless atotal forfeiture is adjudged, a sentence to forfeiture shall state the exact amount in whole dollars to be forfeited each month and the number of months the forfeitures will last. Allowances shall be subject to forfeiture only when the sentence includes forfeiture of all pay and allowances. The maximum authorized amount of a partial forfeiture shall be determined by using the basic pay, retired pay, or retainer pay, as applicable, or, in the case of reserve component personnel on inactive-duty, compensation for periods of inactive-duty training, authorized by the cumulative years of service of the accused, and, if no confinement is adjudged, any sea or foreign duty pay. If the sentence also includes reduction in grade, expressly or by operation of law, the maximum forfeiture shall be based on the grade to which the accused is reduced.".

g. R.C.M. 1004(c) (4) is amended to read as follows:

"(4) That the offense was committed in such a way or under circumstances that the life of one or more persons other than the victim was unlawfully and substantially endangered, except that this factor shall not apply to a violation of Articles 104, 106a, or 120.".

h. R.C.M. 1004(c) (7) (B) is amended to read as follows:

"(B) The murder was committed: while the accused was engaged in the commission or attempted commission of any robbery, rape, aggravated arson, sodomy, burglary, kidnapping, mutiny, sedition, or piracy of an aircraft or vessel; or while the accused was engaged in the commission or attempted commission of any offense involving the wrongful distribution, manufacture, or introduction or possession, with intent to distribute, of a controlled substance; or while the accused was engaged in flight or attempted flight after the commission or attempted commission of any such offense.".

i. R.C.M. 1004(c) (7) (I) is amended to read as follows:

"(I) The murder was preceded by the intentional infliction of substantial physical harm or prolonged, substantial mental or physical pain and suffering to the victim. For purposes of this section, "substantial physical harm" means fractures or dislocated bones, deep cuts, torn members of the body, serious damage to internal organs or other serious bodily injuries.

The term "substantial physical harm" does not mean minor injuries, such as a black eye or a bloody nose. The term "substantial mental or physical pain and suffering" is accorded its common meaning and includes torture.".

j. R.C.M. 1102(b) (2) is amended to read as follows:

"(2)Article 39(a) sessions. An Article 39(a) session under this rule may be called for the purpose of inquiring into, and, when appropriate, resolving any matter which arises after trial and which substantially affects the legal sufficiency of any findings of guilty or the sentence. The military judge may also call an Article 39(a) session, upon motion of either party or sua sponte, to reconsider any trial ruling that substantially affects the legal sufficiency of any findings of guilty or the sentence.".

k. R.C.M. 1105(c)(1) is amended to read as follows:

"(1)General and special courts-martial. After a general or special court-martial, the accused may submit matters under this rule within the later of 10 days after a copy of the authenticated record of trial, or, if applicable, the recommendation of the staff judge advocate or legal officer, or an addendum to the recommendation containing new matter is served on the accused. If, within the 10-day period, the accused shows that additional time is required for the accused to submit such matters, the convening authority or that authority's staff judge advocate may, for good cause, extend the 10-day period for not more than 20 additional days; however, only the convening authority may deny a request for such an extension.".

l. R.C.M. 1106(f)(7) is amended to read as follows:

"(7)New matter in addendum to recommendation. The staff judge advocate or legal officer may supplement the recommendation after the accused and counsel for the accused have been served with the recommendation and given an opportunity to comment. When new matter is introduced after the accused and counsel for the accused have examined the recommendation, however, the accused and counsel for the accused must be served with the new matter and given ten days from service of the addendum in which to submit comments. Substitute service of the accused's copy of the addendum upon counsel for the accused is permitted in accordance with the procedures outlined in subparagraph (f)(1) of this rule.".

Sec. 2. Part III of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984, is amended as follows:

a. Mil. R. Evid. 305(d)(1)(B) is amended to read as follows:

"(B) The interrogation is conducted by a person subject to the code acting in a law enforcement capacity or the agent of such a person, the interrogation is conducted subsequent to the preferral of charges, and the interrogation concerns the offenses or matters that were the subject of the preferral of charges.".

b. Mil. R. Evid. 305(e) is amended to read as follows:

"(e)Presence of counsel.

(1)Custodial interrogation. Absent a valid waiver of counsel under subdivision (g)(2)(B), when an accused or person suspected of an offense is subjected to custodial interrogation under circumstances described under subdivision (d)(1)(A) of this rule, and the accused or suspect requests counsel, counsel must be present before any subsequent custodial interrogation may proceed.

(2)Post-preferral interrogation. Absent a valid waiver of counsel under subdivision (g)(2)(C), when an accused or person suspected of an offense is subjected to interrogation under circumstances described in subdivision (d)(1)(B) of this rule, and the accused or suspect either requests counsel or has an appointed or retained counsel, counsel must be present before any subsequent interrogation concerning that offense may proceed.".

c. Mil. R. Evid. 305(f) is amended to read as follows:

"(f)Exercise of rights.

(1)The privilege against self-incrimination. If a person chooses to exercise the privilege against self-incrimination under this rule, questioning must cease immediately.

(2)The right to counsel. If a person subjected to interrogation under the circumstances described in subdivision (d)(1) of this rule chooses to exercise the right to counsel, questioning must cease until counsel is present.".

d. Mil. R. Evid. 305(g)(2) is amended to read as follows:

"(2)Counsel.

(A) If the right to counsel in subdivision (d) is applicable and the accused or suspect does not decline affirmatively the right to counsel, the prosecution must demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that the individual waived the right to counsel.

(B) If an accused or suspect interrogated under circumstances described in subdivision (d)(1)(A) requests counsel, any subsequent waiver of the right to counsel obtained during a custodial interrogation concerning the same or different offenses is invalid unless the prosecution can demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that-

(i) the accused or suspect initiated the communication leading to the waiver; or

(ii) the accused or suspect has not continuously had his or her freedom restricted by confinement, or other means, during the period between the request for counsel and the subsequent waiver.

(C) If an accused or suspect interrogated under circumstances described in subdivision (d)(1)(B) requests counsel, any subsequent waiver of the right to counsel obtained during an interrogation concerning the same offenses is invalid unless the prosecution can demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that the accused or suspect initiated the communication leading to the waiver.".

e. Mil. R. Evid. 314(g)(3) is amended to read as follows:

"(3) Examination for other persons.

(A)Protective sweep . When an apprehension takes place at a location in which other persons might be present who might endanger those conducting the apprehension and others in the area of the apprehension, a reasonable examination may be made of the general area in which such other persons might be located. A reasonable examination under this rule is permitted if the apprehending officials have a reasonable suspicion based on specific and articulable facts that the area to be examined harbors an individual posing a danger to those in the area of the apprehension.

(B)Search of attack area. Apprehending officials may, incident to apprehension, as a precautionary matter and without probable cause or reasonable suspicion, look in closets and other spaces immediately adjoining the place of apprehension from which an attack could be immediately launched.".

f. Mil. R. Evid. 404(b) is amended to read as follows:

"(b)Other crimes, wrongs, or acts. Evidence of other crimes, wrongs, or acts is not admissible to prove the character of a person in order to show action in conformity therewith. It may, however, be admissible for other purposes, such as proof of motive, opportunity, intent, preparation, plan, knowledge, identity, or absence of mistake or accident, provided, that upon request by the accused, the prosecution shall provide reasonable notice in advance of trial, or during trial if the military judge excuses pretrial notice on good cause shown, of the general nature of any such evidence it intends to introduce at trial.".

Sec. 3. Part IV of the Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984, is amended as follows:

a. Paragraph 44e(1) is amended to read as follows:

"(1)Voluntary manslaughter. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 15 years."

b. Paragraph 44e(2) is amended to read as follows:

"(2)Involuntary manslaughter. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 10 years.".

c. Paragraph 45e is amended to read as follows:

"e.Maximum punishment.

(1)Rape. Death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct.

(2)Carnal knowledge with a child who, at the time of the offense, has attained the age of 12 years. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 20 years.

(3)Carnal knowledge with a child under the age of 12 years at the time of the offense. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for life.".

d. Paragraph 51e is amended to read as follows:

"e.Maximum punishment.

(1)By force and without consent. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for life.

(2)With a child who, at the time of the offense, has attained the age of 12 years, but is under the age of 16 years. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 20 years.

(3)With a child under the age of 12 years at the time of the offense. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for life.

(4)Other cases. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 5 years.".

e. Paragraph 85e is amended to read as follows:

"e.Maximum punishment. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 3 years.".

Sec. 4. These amendments shall take effect on December 9, 1994, subject to the following:

(a) The amendment made to Rule for Courts-Martial 1004(c) (4) shall apply only to offenses committed on or after December 9, 1994.

(b) Nothing contained in these amendments shall be construed to make punishable any act done or omitted prior to December 9, 1994, which was not punishable when done or omitted.

(c) The maximum punishment for an offense committed prior to December 9, 1994, shall not exceed the applicable maximum in effect at the time of the commission of such offense.

(d) Nothing in these amendments shall be construed to invalidate any nonjudicial punishment proceeding, restraint, investigation, referral of charges, trial in which arraignment occurred, or other action begun prior to December 9, 1994, and any such restraint, investigation, referral of charges, trial, or other action may proceed in the same manner and with the same effect as if these amendments had not been prescribed.

Sec. 5. The Secretary of Defense, on behalf of the President, shall transmit a copy of this order to the Congress of the United States in accord with section 836 of title 10, United States Code.

Signature of William J. Clinton
William J. Clinton 
The White House,
November 10, 1994.
[Filed with the Office of the Federal Register, 12:16 p.m., November 14, 1994]
Billing code 3195–01–P

Notes[edit]

  Amends       
Manual for Courts-Martial, United States, 1984
Amendments

  


This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).