Executive Order 1990

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Signed by President  Woodrow Wilson  Thursday, July 9, 1914 Information about this EO  
Amended by Executive Orders 2037, 2073, and others
Executive Order.
Rules and Regulations for the Operation and Navigation of the Panama Canal and Approaches Thereto, Including All Waters Under Its Jurisdiction.


General Regulations[edit]

1. The following Rules and Regulations pertaining to the Operation and Navigation of the Panama Canal are published for the benefit of all vessels coming within its jurisdiction, and masters of vessels, or their agents, one or both, desiring to use the Canal and terminal ports, or any of the waters, must observe them.


2. Any person violating any of the provisions of the rules and regulations established hereunder shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine of five hundred dollars ($500.00), or by imprisonment not to exceed six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the court.


3. After entering, no vessel shall leave one of the terminal ports for the purpose of passing further into the Canal until authority in proper form has been given by the Captain of the Port.


4. The Canal authorities may deny any vessel the privilege of passing through the Canal the cargo of which is of such a nature that it might, in any way, endanger the locks, wharves, equipment, or any part of the Canal, by being explosive or highly inflammable. The further right is reserved to them to impose such safety regulations as they may see fit upon any such vessel while in Canal waters.


5. Vessels desiring to pass through the Canal, whose cargoes consist of high explosives, should, when practicable, so report and obtain permission from the Canal authorities to use the Canal before leaving their ports of departure.


6. In any case where the condition of the cargo, hull, or machinery is such that it is liable to endanger or obstruct the Canal, permission to pass through may be refused until steps have been taken to remedy the defect.


7. All vessels having a specially dangerous cargo, such as explosives or oils of any kind, shall fly a red flag by day at the masthead and hoist a red lantern at night.


8. The following information must be ready for immediate delivery upon the arrival of the ship in port: name of vessel, nationality, name of master, date and time of arrival, port of departure, date of departure, port of destination, length, draft, beam, registered tonnage, crew and passenger list, and character of cargo; the bill of health should also be ready for presentation.


9. The Canal authorities may dispatch vessels through the Canal in any order and at any time they may see fit; priority of arrival at a terminal does not give any vessel the right to pass through the Canal ahead of another that may arrive later, although this will be a consideration in determining the order of passage.


10. The Canal authorities may hold a vessel for the purpose of investigating any report made against her by the proper persons, for the violation of the rules of the Canal or the laws of the Canal Zone, or of the United States, or for the investigation or adjustment of any claims or disputes that may arise on either side; but no vessel shall have any claim for damages against the Canal for any delay in consequence thereof.


Pilots and Movements of Vessels[edit]

11. Vessels will not be allowed to enter or depart from terminal ports between sundown and sunrise without having obtained permission from the proper authorities. This will not be interpreted to mean that a vessel in danger or distress will be prohibited from entering a terminal port at any time in case of necessity or emergency; but such vessel should, when practicable, give due notice in advance, by radio or otherwise, and obtain a pilot if possible; nor shall this be interpreted to prevent a vessel from anchoring just inside of the breakwater in the outer harbor at the Atlantic terminal, or to seaward of the entrance to the dredged channel on the Pacific side, between sundown and sunrise.


12. Except when exempted from the operation of this rule by the Governor of the Panama Canal, no vessel will be allowed to pass through the Canal, enter or leave a terminal port, maneuver, shift berth, go alongside of or leave any wharf or dock in Canal waters without having a regularly authorized Government pilot on board.


13. Pilotage for vessels in transit through the Canal will be free, nor will they be charged pilotage for entering or leaving a terminal port when it is for the sole purpose of passing through the Canal; but should any such vessel, while in Canal waters, discharge or receive freight or passengers, or take on board supplies, provisions, stores, or fuel, or remain for the purpose of effecting repairs, or make either terminal a port of call, she may be liable for entrance or departure pilotage, as the Canal authorities may direct.


14. Pilotage in and out of the Atlantic and Pacific terminals of the Canal is compulsory, and all vessels, unless otherwise exempted, will he compelled to take a regular Government pilot upon entering or leaving. The fact that the master or any officer of any vessel holds a pilot's license for any of the waters of the Canal Zone will not authorize the vessel to enter without taking a Government pilot.


15. No person, steamer, company, or corporation will be allowed to maintain or employ pilots in Canal waters for the exclusive use of their own or any other vessels; all pilots, without exception, must he duly authorized and licensed by the Canal authorities and be in the employ of the Canal. This shall not be interpreted to mean that the Canal authorities shall be prohibited from issuing restricted pilot licenses for small craft in Canal waters, or any other that they may see fit.


16. Pilots will meet incoming vessels inside of the breakwaters at the Atlantic terminal and outside of the seaward end of the dredged channel at the Pacific terminal; should there be any delay, vessels may anchor just inside of the Atlantic breakwaters or to seaward of the Canal entrance on the Pacific side, make the usual signal for a pilot, and await his arrival. Should a vessel desire a pilot to meet her outside of the Atlantic breakwaters, she should remain there and make signal to this effect.


17. Whenever practicable, vessels should send notification of the probable time of their arrival, by radio or otherwise, so that pilots may meet them promptly.


18. All vessels entering port must take the berths or docks assigned them by the Captain of the Port, and they will not be allowed to shift berths or moorings without the proper permission.


19. Except in the prescribed limits in Gatun Lake and adjacent waters, no vessel will be allowed to anchor in any part of the Canal, nor on any of the marked ranges; should an emergency arise wherein it may be necessary to let go an anchor, whenever practicable the pilot should be consulted before doing so.


20. At all times when a vessel is under way in the terminal ports or in transit through the Canal, except while passing through the locks, with a duly accredited pilot on board, the captain or master of a vessel will be held solely responsible for the safety, handling, and proper navigation of the vessel; the pilot is to be considered as being on board solely in an advisory capacity, but masters of vessels must abide by the rules and regulations of the Canal, as interpreted to them by the pilots.


21. The pilot shall be freely consulted at all times to insure safety in navigation, and that no accident or damage result from ignorance on the part of the master or officers of the vessel in transit; and should any such master, officer, or person connected with the ship give, or cause to be given, any order, or direct any change of speed or direction of the ship on his own initiative, without the knowledge of the pilot, which may result in damage to his own or any other vessel, dredger, or property of any kind, or endanger or block the Canal, or any of its equipment, he will be held strictly responsible, and the vessel itself may be held by legal process until settlement in full shall have been made to cover any loss or damage that may have resulted in consequence thereof.


22. Inasmuch as every vessel has its own individual peculiarities in handling, answering her helm, variation in headway due to speed, it shall be the duty of the master of the vessel, or his qualified representative, to be present at all times on the bridge of the ship to keep the pilot informed in regard to these matters, so that the pilot may be best qualified to give advice in regard to navigating the ship safely.


23. The pilot should not only be freely consulted at all times on matters relating to the navigation of the ship, but to the rules and regulations pertaining to the same, to signals, locks, weather, or other matters of importance relating to the movements of the vessel. While on board he is the properly qualified representative of the Canal authorities in these matters, and should any accident or damage result from failure to consult him, or from not following his advice, the vessel shall be held responsible for such accident or damage.


24. The pilot must inform the master or captain that his (the pilot's) experience and knowledge of the Canal is at his (the master's or captain's) disposal, and that inasmuch as he (the pilot) is not in a position to know the defects, difficulties, or eccentricities of the vessel in maneuvering, while getting underway, or in transit, the responsibility for navigating the vessel is entirely in the hands of the master or captain, except when passing through the locks.


25. When in the opinion of the pilot, the master or captain, or their representatives, shall fail to follow his advice and thereby endanger his own or any other vessel, or any part of the Canal or its equipment, the pilot shall then direct the master or captain of such vessel to stop, anchor, or moor until the facts have been laid before the Canal authorities.


26. Pilots shall conform to such other rules as shall be prescribed for their guidance by the Governor of the Panama Canal.


Preparation For and Transit Through the Canal[edit]

27. Vessels shall, at all times, when under way in Canal waters, when passing through the locks, or moored temporarily in transit through the Canal, keep a full watch on deck and in the engine room, in the same manner in which they are kept at sea.


28. While a vessel is under way in Canal waters, no one shall be allowed on the bridge or in the pilot house except the pilot and other representatives of the Canal, the master and such officers and crew of the ship as may be necessary for her management, direction, and safety. Under no condition will any passenger or any other unauthorized person be allowed on the bridge or in the pilot house.


29. Before beginning the passage of the Canal, vessels will be required to have hawsers, lines, and fenders ready for passing through the locks, for warping, towing, or mooring, as the case may be, and will have both anchors ready for letting go. During the passage, at all times while the vessel is under way or moored against the lock walls, her deck winches, capstans, or other power for handling lines, as well as her mooring bits, deck chocks, cleats, hawse pipes, etc., shall be ready for handling ship to the exclusion of all other work.


30. At least one boat for handling lines shall be kept ready for lowering.


31. Should any part of a vessel's engines, machinery, condensers, boilers, shafts, propellers, steering gear, valves, hull, equipment, or anything else be in such condition that it might, through failure, interfere to prevent or retard a vessel's passage through the Canal, such fact must be presented to the Captain of the Port before a vessel will be allowed to enter.


32. All sailing craft, vessels whose machinery may be in bad condition or disabled, and vessels without motive power, must be towed through all parts of the Canal lying between the entrances, for which service an additional charge will be imposed.


33. When passing through the locks, vessels will habitually be towed by Canal equipment. In exceptional instances, as when such equipment is not available, or in case of very small vessels, special permission to use the vessel's own motive power may be given by the Governor. Without such special permission, the vessel's motive power will not be used while passing the locks.


34. Upon approaching the lock, vessels will moor against the middle approach wall with the bow at least fifty feet from the nearest fender chain. They will then be taken in charge by the lock force and made ready for passage through the locks.


35. When these regulations are complied with in all respects, responsibility for handling vessels through the locks will rest with the Canal operating force, but the crew and officers will be required to render such assistance as may be necessary to supplement the lock force. To assist in insuring safety of passage, the lock force will take complete supervision of the engine room, even to the extent of sealing the engines if the Governor shall so direct.


36. The Governor of the Panama Canal is hereby authorized to issue from time to time orders regulating the procedure in passing vessels through the locks, and the details of the supervision which will be exercised by the lock force. Such orders when issued shall have the force of these regulations.


37. In cases where special permission to use the vessel's own motive power has been given by the Governor, he shall indicate what precautions must be taken to insure safety in passing through the locks. His directions as to such precautions must be observed strictly and in every detail.


38. Vessels will be liable for any damage to Canal structures or equipment while passing through the locks, caused through disregard or noncompliance of these rules and regulations or any orders which may be issued by the Governor to regulate such passage. The Panama Canal will not be held liable for any damage to the vessel occasioned by such disregard or noncompliance.


39. Masters of vessels will not allow anyone to take passage on their ships while passing through the Canal, except the ship's officers, crew, and duly accredited passengers, and such officials and other persons as may be designated by the Canal authorities.


Radio Communication and Report[edit]

40. As soon as radio communication can be established with the Canal, vessels should report their names, nationality, length, draft, tonnage, whether or not they desire to pass through the Canal, require coal, provisions, supplies, repairs, to go alongside of a wharf, the use of tugs, probable time of arrival, length of stay in port, or any other matters of importance or interest. If this information has been previously communicated, through agents or otherwise, to the Captain of the Port, it will not be necessary to report by radio; but the probable time of arrival should always be sent.


41. Control of radio communication is entirely in the hands of the radio shore stations. No vessel will be allowed to interfere in the slightest degree with the Canal radio stations; upon an order being received by a vessel at any time while within the waters under the control of the Canal to discontinue using radio, even if in the midst of transmission of a message, she shall immediately comply.


42. Upon a ship's arriving within the 15-mile limit, and until leaving the 15-mile limit of the Canal Zone, she shall transmit only with low power, not exceeding ½ K. W.


43. Messages to stations will be sent only to Colon station (NAX) when in Gatun locks and to northward thereof, and only to Balboa station (NPJ) when in Miraflores locks and to southward thereof; between these two points ships may work to either station, preferably to the nearer one; the high power station (Darien) at Radio, will not handle commercial work and will not be called for Canal business except in case of emergency.


44. All messages between ships in the Canal Zone and ships at sea must be forwarded through the nearer shore station.


45. Messages from ships in the Caribbean Sea for ships in the Pacific waters, or vice versa, shall be routed through the Canal Zone shore stations.


46. All vessels fitted with radio, after leaving the terminal harbor to pass through the Canal, shall keep an operator on watch until the further terminal harbor has been reached; this applies to the time when they are anchored in Gatun Lake, while passing through the locks, or moored to the lock walls, or to any of the wharves in the Canal proper, as well as when they are under way. Messages relating to the ship's movements and the Canal business shall take precedence over all commercial messages.


47. Pilots on vessels passing through the Canal shall have the right to use a vessel's radio freely for the transaction of the Canal business.


48. Under the direction of the pilots, vessels will from time to time report their progress through the Canal; accidents to machinery, propellers, steering gear, equipment, or anything else that may delay them or require assistance; any sickness or casualties that require medical attendance from Canal officials; or any other matters of importance that may arise.


49. No charges will be imposed against the Canal by vessels receiving or sending messages in relation to Canal business.


50. No vessel will be allowed to communicate with any lock or signal station while in transit through the Canal, except through the pilot; all messages of any kind must be sent through him. This does not apply to vessels moored at the terminals at Cristobal or Balboa, before entering or after having passed through the Canal, which may wish to communicate through the terminal stations.


51. Vessels in transit through the Canal can communicate with the locks and signal stations, through the pilots, both by the international code and special signals; information on this subject may be obtained from the Governor of the Panama Canal.


Accidents or Defects[edit]

52. If any defect in any part of a vessel's hull, machinery, steering gear, or equipment, be discovered while in transit through the Canal, of such a serious nature that it might interfere with the further passage of the vessel, or be liable to block the Canal, the vessel shall stop and, if practicable, be anchored or moored at the first available place. A full report shall immediately be made to the Superintendent of Transportation, through the Captain of the Port, stating fully the cause and nature of the trouble, probable delay, and request for assistance if it be necessary.


53. Under any and all circumstances, whenever a vessel is liable to become unmanageable from any weakness, or damage to her machinery, steering gear, or for any other reason, she shall immediately, through the pilot, request the assistance of a tug.


Firearms[edit]

54. No firearms of any kind shall be discharged while in transit through the Canal or in Canal waters, and every precaution will be taken to prevent this.


Subsistence of Pilots[edit]

55. Pilots and other authorized persons on duty, belonging to the Canal service, shall be subsisted without charge while on board vessels in transit through the Canal.


Maintenance of Tugs and Other Floating Equipment[edit]

56. No vessel, company, nor individual will be authorized to maintain or operate permanently any tugs, launches, lighters, or floating equipment of any kind within the Canal waters without permission from the Governor; nor shall any small craft or boat of any kind be operated without the proper authority from him.


Claims[edit]

57. All claims for damages arising from injury to vessels, cargo, or passengers from the passing of vessels through the locks under the control of those operating them in accordance with the rules and regulations governing the operation of the Panama Canal, shall be adjusted by mutual agreement when practicable, between the Panama Canal and the passengers, owners, agents or underwriters of the vessel, or owners agents or underwriters of the cargo of the vessel, as the respective interests may appear.


58. To facilitate the adjustment of such claims the Board of Local Inspectors, together with an officer or employee detailed from the Accounting Department to assist the Board, shall immediately proceed to investigate and report upon all accidents to vessels in the locks, which may result in claims for damages against the Panama Canal under the provisions of Section 5 of the Panama Canal Act.


59. The Board of Local Inspectors or any member thereof, acting for the Board, shall have authority to summon witnesses and administer oaths to such witnesses at any hearing held by such Board, and the attendance of witnesses may be compelled by process of court on application of the Board to the District Judge.


60. The findings of the Board shall be expressed in writing and reported to the Governor and a certified copy thereof immediately sent to the Auditor. If the finding of the Board is against the Panama Canal, the Auditor may proceed at once to effect a settlement with the claimants, if practicable, but such settlement shall be subject to the approval of the Governor. When the settlement is effected immediate payment of the claim shall be made, if there is an appropriation available for such purpose. In case of disagreement suit may be brought by the claimant in the District Court of the Canal Zone, against the Governor of the Panama Canal, in conformity with Section 5 of the Panama Canal Act.


61. The Governor of the Panama Canal is authorized to issue such detailed rules, not inconsistent with this order, governing the duties of the Board and the adjustment of claims.


Measurement of Vessels[edit]

62. The rules for the measurement of vessels, to determine their tonnage, will be found in the proclamation of the President dated November 21, 1913.


Aids to Navigation[edit]

63. In general, the channels of the Canal, except Culebra Cut, are marked by double ranges, which are set a little to the starboard side of the channel, so that no matter in which direction a vessel may be going, there will be a range available ahead.


64. The sides of the channels are marked by red and black buoys, in accordance with the system in vogue in the United States, with the red buoys on the starboard hand on entering from seaward, and the black buoys on the port. The lock at Pedro Miguel is the dividing line between the Atlantic and Pacific systems; that is to say, that after passing through the locks, red and black buoys will be found on the opposite sides of the channels to those on which they were before reaching the locks.


65. All lighted ranges show flashing or intermittent white lights; the red lighted buoys show flashing or intermittent red lights; the black lighted buoys show flashing or intermittent white lights; beacons show red or white flashing or intermittent lights, depending upon the side of the channel upon which they are situated. Further information in regard to the navigation of the Canal can be obtained upon application to the Superintendent of Transportation or the Captains of the Ports.


Rules of the Road, Whistle and Other Signals, and Speed Regulations Relating to the Navigation of the Canal and Approaches Thereto[edit]

66. In the following rules every steam vessel which is under sail and not under steam is considered a sailing vessel; and every vessel under her own motive power, whether under sail or not, is to be considered a steam vessel.


67. The words "steam vessel" and "steamer" shall include every vessel propelled by machinery.


68. A vessel is under way, within the meaning of these rules, when she is not at anchor, moored, or aground.


69. Risk of collision can, when circumstances permit, be determined by carefully watching the bearings of an approaching vessel by compass, or otherwise; if the courses be converging and the bearing does not appreciably change, such risk should be deemed to exist.


70. A steam vessel shall be provided with an efficient whistle or siren, sounded by sound or some substitute for steam, so placed that the sound may not be intercepted by any obstruction, and a sailing vessel with an efficient fog horn; both shall be supplied with an efficient bell.


71. A sailing vessel of twenty tons gross tonnage or upward shall be provided with a similar fog horn and bell.


72. Motor boats shall be divided into classes as follows, according to the length, which shall be measured from end to end:

Class I. Less than 26 feet.
Class II. 26 feet or over, but less than 40 feet.
Class III. 40 feet or over, but less than 65 feet.


73. All motor boats shall be provided with a whistle or other mechanical sound-producing device, capable of making a blast of at least two seconds' duration, and in addition, classes II and III shall be provided with an efficient fog horn and fog bell, the latter to be at least eight inches across the mouth.


74. A short blast of the whistle shall mean a blast of about one second's duration, and a prolonged blast of the whistle shall mean a blast of from four to six seconds' duration.


75. One short blast of the whistle signifies intention of or assent to steamer first giving the signal to direct course to her own starboard, except when two steamers are approaching each other at right angles or obliquely, when it signifies intention of steamer which is to starboard of the other to hold course and speed.


76. Two short blasts of the whistle signify intention of or assent to steamer first giving the signal to direct course to her own port, except when steamers are approaching each other at right angles or obliquely, when the signal signifies desire of or assent to steamer which is to the port of the other to cross the bow of the steamer to starboard.

77. Three short blasts of the whistle shall mean: "My engines are going at full speed astern."


78. When vessels are in sight of one another a steam vessel under way whose engines are going at full speed astern shall indicate that fact by three short blasts of the whistle.


79. If, when vessels are approaching each other, either vessel fails to understand the course or intention of the other, from any cause, the vessel so in doubt shall immediately signify the same by making the danger signal, namely: several short and rapid blasts, not less than four, on the steam whistle.


80. Whenever the danger signal is given, the engines of both steamers shall be stopped and backed until the headway of the steamers has been fully checked; nor shall the engines of either steamer be again started ahead until the steamers can safely pass each other, and the proper signals for passing have been given, answered, and understood.


81. Steam vessels are forbidden to use what has become technically known among pilots as "cross signals"; that is, answering one whistle with two, and answering two whistles with one. In all cases, and under all circumstances, a pilot receiving either of the whistle signals provided in these rules, which for any reason he deems injudicious to comply with, instead of answering it with a cross signal, shall at once sound the danger signal and observe the rule applying thereto.


82. The signals for passing, by blowing the whistle, shall be given and answered by vessels, in compliance with these rules, not only when meeting head on, or nearly so, but at all times when the vessels are in sight of each other, when passing or meeting at a distance within a half mile of each other, and whether passing to starboard or port.


83. The whistle signals provided in the rules for steam vessels meeting, passing, or overtaking, are never to be used except when steamers are in sight of each other, and the course and position of each can be determined in the daytime by a sight of the vessel itself, or at night by seeing its signal lights, except in cases hereafter mentioned, where vessels are approaching a turn in the Canal. In fog, mist, or heavy rainstorms, when vessels can not see each other, fog signals only must be given.


84. When steam vessels are approaching each other head on, or nearly so, it shall be the duty of each to pass on the port side of the other; and either vessel shall give, as a signal of her intention, one short and distinct blast of her whistle, and thereupon they shall pass upon the port side of each other. But if their courses be so far to starboard of each other as not to be considered as meeting head on, either vessel shall immediately give two short, distinct blasts of her whistle, which the other vessel shall answer promptly with two similar blasts, and they shall pass to starboard of each other; but vessels going in opposite directions, in transit through the Canal, shall make it an invariable rule to pass to port of each other, unless there be some special reason to the contrary.


85. When they sight each other in the straight reaches of the Canal, going in opposite directions, they shall, when within a mile of each other, be slowed down and each placed upon its respective range, which is marked by the two light towers to the starboard side of the middle line, and should not be allowed to approach closer than this to the center line until they have passed each other; this will obviate any risk of collision and prevent a vessel from approaching too close to the sides of the Canal.


86. Self-propelling Canal craft, at work on their stations or under way, will give way and leave the center of the channels clear to seagoing vessels in transit; nothing in this rule shall be construed to warrant a violation of the rules of the road, but shall be interpreted to mean that tugs, launches, and small self-propelling craft shall keep close to the sides of the Canal and out of mid-channel when large vessels are passing, whenever practicable, without involving any danger to themselves.


87. The foregoing applies only to cases where vessels are meeting end on, or nearly so, in such manner as to involve risk of collision; in other words, to cases in which, by day, each vessel can see the masts of the other in a line, or nearly so, with her own, and at night to cases in which each vessel can see the other's side lights, and each can see the range lights of the other in line, or nearly so. It does not apply to cases in which a vessel can see another ahead crossing her own course, or by night to cases where the red light of one vessel is opposed to the red light of the other, or where the green light of one vessel is opposed to the green light of the other, or where a red light without a green light or a green light without a red light is seen ahead, or where both green and red lights are seen anywhere but ahead.


88. Vessels approaching the sharper bends in the Canal, particularly when the next reach may be obscured, and all bends in Culebra Cut, shall, when at a distance of at least half a mile from such bend, slow down and blow one prolonged blast as a notification to other vessels which may be coming from the opposite direction; if there be no reply, the vessel may proceed, but vessels shall not pass each other in the bends of the Canal; if there be a reply to the blast first sounded, both vessels shall stop and proceed cautiously, following the rules of the road, but the vessel which has the turn of the bend on her port bow shall have the right to first proceed and make the turn.


89. When steam vessels are moved from their docks, or berths, and other vessels are liable to pass from any direction toward them, they shall sound a prolonged blast, but immediately after clearing their berths so as to be fully in sight, they shall be governed by the steering and sailing rules.


90. A prolonged blast shall also be sounded when approaching all signal stations or locks and when leaving the latter.


91. When steam vessels are running in the same direction, and the vessel astern desires to pass on the starboard hand of the vessel ahead, she shall give one short blast, and if the vessel ahead answers with one blast, they shall maneuver accordingly, but if the vessel ahead does not think it safe for the vessel astern to attempt to pass at that point, she shall immediately signify the same by giving several short and rapid blasts of the whistle, not less than four, and under no circumstances shall the vessel astern attempt to pass the vessel ahead until such time as they have reached a point where it can be safely done, when the vessel ahead shall signify her willingness by blowing the proper signals; the vessel ahead shall in no case attempt to cross the bow or crowd upon the course of the passing vessel.


92. Every vessel coming up with another vessel from any direction more than two points abaft her beam; that is, in such a position with reference to the vessel which she is overtaking that at night she would be unable to see either of that vessel's side lights, shall be deemed to be an overtaking vessel, and no subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these rules, or relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel until she is finally passed and clear. As by day the overtaking vessel can not always know with certainty whether she is forward of or abaft this direction from the other vessel, she should, if in doubt, assume that she is an overtaking vessel and keep out of the way.


93. After whistle signals have been made and answered, Canal craft must haul close out to the sides of the Canal and leave the center of the channels unrestricted for seagoing vessels; this applies particularly to the 500-foot channels and the Culebra Cut.


94. Unless specially authorized by the Governor, no owner, master, or operator of floating craft, except such as may belong to or be chartered by The Panama Canal, or such as may be engaged in passage of the Canal under charge of a Government pilot, shall cause or permit such craft to enter, navigate, or be present within that portion of the Panama Canal known as the Culebra Cut which lies between Gamboa and the Pedro Miguel lock.


95. For the better enforcement of this regulation, the officers and agents of the Canal, and the assistant engineers, superintendents, and supervisors employed under them by the authority of the Governor, shall have power and authority to arrest and take into custody, with or without process, any person or persons who may violate this rule.


96. Speed exceeding six knots per hour is prohibited in the Cut; large vessels, particularly when approaching a turn, shall go at the slowest speed that will enable them to keep their steerageway. This rule does not apply to vessels owned by the Canal.


97. The movement of vessels in the Culebra Cut will be regulated by orders to be issued by the Governor, which orders will be communicated to the masters of vessels by the pilots.


98. The Canal authorities may require any vessel to take a tug through the Cut, on approaching the locks, or in any other part of the Canal, when in their opinion it may be necessary to insure the safety of the vessel or to prevent accident or grounding.


99. Should a vessel be unwieldy, steer badly, or be hard to handle, the captain or master should so report and request the services of a tug to assist him through the Cut, should he deem it necessary.


100. On approaching another vessel under way in the narrow reaches, or before passing a vessel that has been tied up, or lighters, scows, dredgers, piledrivers, or anything that is afloat, whether moored, anchored, or under way, vessels shall blow a prolonged blast and slow down in plenty of time to pass at the slowest speed at which they can be steered.


101. The following speeds shall not be exceeded by vessels in transit through the Canal:

Knots per hour.
Colon to Gatun locks..................................... 6
Gatun Lake, in the 1,000-foot channels........... 15
Gatun Lake, in the 800-foot channels.............. 12
Gatun Lake, in the 500-foot channels.............. 10
Culebra Cut.................................................. 6
Miraflores Lake............................................. 6
Miraflores locks to Pacific entrance to Canal... 6
Steamers entering or leaving a port................ 6


102. The Governor may change the rules in regard to speed and the use of tugs at any time that he may see fit, but will give due notice in case any changes be made.


103. Under no condition will steamers be allowed to run side by side in any part of the Canal proper, terminal port, or adjacent waters, both going in the same direction, except for the time necessary for one steamer to pass ahead of another, after the proper signals have been made and answered; nor shall such passing take place in any of the bends of the Canal; should an occasion arise, however, where steamers may find themselves running side by side, or nearly so, in the same direction, in the open waters or elsewhere, the steamer on the right or starboard side shall have the right of way, and the steamer on the left or port side shall check her way, drop astern, and keep at a safe distance until the bend shall have been passed or there is no further danger of collision.


104. When two steamers are approaching each other at right angles or obliquely so as to involve risk of collision, other than when one steamer is overtaking another, the steamer which has the other on her port side shall hold her course and speed; and the steamer which has the other on her starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other by directing her course to starboard so as to cross the stern of the other steamer, or, if necessary to do so, slacken her speed, or stop, or reverse. The steamer having the other on her own port bow shall blow one blast of her whistle as a signal of her intention to cross the bow of the other, holding her course and speed, which signal shall be promptly answered by the other steamer by one short blast of her whistle as a signal of her intention to direct her course to starboard so as to cross the stern of the other steamer or otherwise keep clear.


105. If, from any cause whatever, the conditions covered by this situation are such as to prevent immediate compliance with each others' signals, the misunderstanding or objection shall at once be made apparent by blowing the danger signal, and both steamers shall be stopped and backed, if necessary, until signals for passing with safety are made and understood.


106. Every vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another vessel, shall, if the circumstances of the case permit, avoid crossing ahead of the other.


107. Every vessel which is directed by these rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, on approaching her, if necessary, slacken her speed, or stop, or reverse.


108. When a steam vessel and a sailing vessel are proceeding in such directions that they may involve the risk of collision, the steam vessel shall keep out of the way of the sailing vessel.


109. When two sailing vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the other, as follows:

(a) A vessel which is running free shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close-hauled.
(b) A vessel which is close-hauled on the port tack shall keep out of the way of a vessel which is close-hauled on the starboard tack.
(c) When both are running free, with the wind on different sides, the vessel which has the wind on the port side shall keep out of the way of the other.
(d) When both are running free, with the wind on the same side, the vessel which is to the windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to the leeward.
(e) A vessel which has the wind aft shall keep out of the way of the other vessel.


110. Where, by any of these rules, one of two vessels is to keep out of the way, the other shall keep her course and speed.


111. Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules, every vessel overtaking another shall keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel.


112. Sailing vessels underway shall keep out of the way of sailing vessels or boats fishing with nets, or lines, or trawls. This rule shall not give to any vessel or boat engaged in fishing the right of obstructing a fairway used by vessels other than fishing vessels or boats.


113. Nothing in these rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner, or master, or crew thereof, from all the consequences of any neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special circumstances of the case.


114. In obeying and construing these rules due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision, and to any special circumstances which may render a departure from the above rules necessary in order to avoid immediate danger.


115. In fog, mist, or heavy rainstorms, whether by day or night, signals shall be given as follows:

(a) A steam vessel underway, except when towing other vessels or being towed, shall sound, at intervals of not more than one minute, on the whistle or siren, a prolonged blast.
(b) A vessel when towing other vessels shall sound, at intervals of not more than one minute, on the whistle or siren, three blasts in succession, namely: One prolonged blast followed by two short blasts.
(c) Seagoing dredges, when dredging in a fog, shall give four blasts in succession: One prolonged blast followed by three short blasts.
(d) A vessel towed may give, at intervals of not more than one minute, on the fog horn, a signal of three blasts in succession, namely: One prolonged blast followed by two short blasts, and she shall not give any other.
(e) A sailing vessel underway shall sound, at intervals of not more than one minute, when on the starboard tack one blast, when on the port tack two blasts in succession, and when the wind is abaft the beam three blasts in succession.
(f) All rafts or other water craft, not herein provided for, navigated by hand power, horsepower, or by the current of the river, shall sound a blast on the fog horn, or equivalent signal, at intervals of not more than one minute.
(g) A vessel at anchor shall, at intervals of not more than one minute, ring the bell rapidly for about five seconds.


116. Every vessel shall, in fog, mist, or heavy rainstorm, go at a moderate speed slow down, or stop, having due regard to the existing circumstances and conditions.


117. A steam vessel hearing, apparently forward of her beam, the fog signal of a vessel the position of which is not ascertained, shall, as far as the circumstances of the case admit, stop her engines, and then navigate with caution until the danger is over.


118. In thick and foggy weather vessels will not be allowed to enter the Canal or leave the locks or mooring station, until the weather has cleared. Vessels in transit, when overtaken by thick or foggy weather, must immediately take every precaution and make preparation to anchor or moor at the first available place, and so remain until the weather clears. Vessels equipped with radio, when overtaken by thick or foggy weather, should immediately so report, in order that the proper fog signal may be made at the mooring stations on the approach of such vessels.


119. In order further to assure safe navigation in thick or foggy weather, masters of vessels shall have prepared accurate tables showing their compass error, before they will be allowed to enter the Canal. The general direction of the Canal and its reaches is southeasterly and northwesterly, and it would be well, if an opportunity offers, for vessels to obtain an accurate deviation table on these courses, while in the approximate latitude and vicinity of the Canal.


120. Upon the first approach of thick weather of any kind, the position of the ship must be accurately checked and the closest possible reckoning be kept until the weather clears, or she shall have been moored or anchored.


121. Unnecessary sounding of the steam whistle, except as a danger signal or in case of fire or emergency, is prohibited within the waters of the Canal Zone; and any licensed officer in charge of a steamer who authorizes or permits such unnecessary whistling shall, upon conviction thereof before the Board of Local Inspectors having jurisdiction, be suspended from acting under his license, if the inspectors trying the case so decide.


122. The word "visible" in these rules, when applied to lights, shall mean visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere.


123. The rules concerning lights shall be complied with in all weathers from sunset to sunrise, and during such time no other lights which may be mistaken for the prescribed lights shall be exhibited.


124. A steam vessel when under way shall carry:

(a) On or in front of the foremast, or, if a vessel without a foremast, then in the fore part of the vessel, a bright white light so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 20 points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light 10 points on each side of the vessel, namely, from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on either side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least five miles.
(b) On the starboard side a green light so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 10 points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the starboard side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least two miles.
(c) On the port side a red light so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 10 points of the compass, so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on the port side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least two miles.
(d) The said green and red side lights shall be fitted with inboard screens projecting at least three feet forward from the light, so as to prevent these lights from being seen across the bow.
(e) A seagoing steam vessel shall carry an additional white light similar in construction to the light mentioned in subdivision "a." These two lights shall be so placed in line with the keel that one shall be at least 15 feet higher than the other, and in such a position with reference to each other that the lower light shall be forward of the upper one. The vertical distance of these lights shall be less than the horizontal distance.


125. A steam vessel when towing another vessel shall, in addition to her side lights, carry two white bright lights in a vertical line, one over the other, not less than three feet apart, and when towing more than one vessel, shall carry an additional bright white light three feet above or below such lights, if the length of the tow measuring from the stern of the towing vessel to the stem of the last vessel towed exceeds 600 feet. Each of the lights shall be of the same construction and character, and shall be carried in the same position as the white light "a," previously mentioned for steamers.


126. Such steam vessel may carry a small white light abaft the funnel, aftermast, or at the stern, for the vessel towed to steer by, but such light shall not be visible forward of the beam.


127. A sailing vessel under way or being towed shall carry the same lights "b" and "c" as are prescribed for a steam vessel under way, with the exception of the white lights mentioned, which they shall never carry.


128. Whenever, as in the case of vessels of less than 10 gross tons under way during bad weather, the green and red side lights can not be fixed, these lights shall be kept at hand lighted and ready for use, and shall, on the approach of or to other vessels be exhibited on their respective sides in sufficient time to prevent collision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side nor the red light on the starboard side, nor, if practicable, more than two points abaft the beam on their respective sides. To make the use of these portable lights more certain and easy, the lanterns containing them should each be painted outside with the color of the light which they respectively contain, and shall be provided with proper screens.


129. Pilot vessels when engaged on their station on pilotage duty shall not show the lights required for other vessels, but shall carry a white light at the masthead, visible all around the horizon, and shall also exhibit a flare-up light or flare-up lights at short intervals, which shall never exceed 15 minutes.


130. A steam pilot vessel when engaged on pilotage duty and not at anchor shall, in addition to the lights required for all pilot vessels, carry at a distance of eight feet below her white masthead light, a red light visible all around the horizon and of such a character as to be visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere at a distance of at least two miles, and also the colored side lights required to be carried by vessels when under way.


131. When engaged on her station on pilotage duty and at anchor she shall carry, in addition to the lights required for all pilot boats, the red light above mentioned, but not the colored side lights.


132. Fishing vessels less than 10 gross tons, when under way, and not having their nets, dredges or lines in the water, shall carry the usual white light eight feet above the deck and shall have ready at hand a lantern with a green glass on one side and a red glass on the other side, and on approaching or being approached by another vessel, such lantern shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision, so that the green light shall not be seen on the port side nor the red light on the starboard side.


133. All fishing vessels and fishing boats of 10 gross tons or upward, when under way and not haying their nets, trawls, dredges, or lines in the water, shall carry and show the same lights as other vessels under way.


134. All vessels; when trawling, dredging, or fishing with any kind of dragnets or lines, shall exhibit, from some part of the vessel where they can be best seen, two lights. One of these lights shall be red and the other shall be white. The red light shall be above the white light, and shall be at a vertical distance from it of not less than 6 feet and not more than 12 feet; and the horizontal distance between them, if any, shall not be more than 10 feet. These two lights shall be of such a character and contained in lanterns of such construction as to be visible all around the horizon, the white light at a distance not less than three miles and the red light not less than two miles.


135. A vessel which is being overtaken by another shall show from her stern to such last-mentioned vessel a white light or a flare-up light.


136. A vessel under 150 feet in length when at anchor shall carry forward, where it can best be seen, but at a height not exceeding 20 feet above the hull, a white light, in a lantern constructed so as to show a clear, uniform and unbroken light visible all around the horizon at a distance of at least one mile.


137. A vessel of 150 feet or upward in length when at anchor shall carry in the forward part of the vessel, at a height of not less than 20 feet and not exceeding 40 feet above the hull, one such light, and at or near the stern of the vessel, and at such a height that it shall not be less than 15 feet lower than the forward light, another such light.


138. The length of the vessel shall be deemed to be the length appearing in her certificate of registry.


139. Every vessel may, if necessary in order to attract attention, in addition to the lights which she is by these rules required to carry, use a flare-up light or use any detonating signal that cannot be mistaken for a distress signal.


140. Every barge, lighter, canal boat, or scow that is moored alongside of any ship or another barge, or to the side of the Canal, or to any wharf, or lying at anchor on the navigable waters of the Canal Zone, shall show, between the hours of sunset and sunrise, a white light on the bow and stern, at least three feet above the deck of said vessel, and not less than eight feet from the bow and stern thereof.


141. Nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of any special rules made by the government of any nation with respect to additional station and signal lights for two or more ships of war or for vessels sailing under convoy, or with the exhibition of recognition signals adopted by shipowners, which have been authorized by their respective governments, and duly registered and published, unless specific instructions are given by the Canal authorities to discontinue the use of such lights while in transit through the Canal.


142. A steam vessel proceeding under sail only, but having her funnel up, may carry in daytime, forward, where it can best be seen, one black ball or shape two feet in diameter.


143. Seagoing suction dredges, when under way and dredging, shall carry, beside the lights prescribed for steamers under way, between the two masts where they can best be seen, two red lights approximately the same height as the masthead light of a steamer, in a vertical line one over the other, not less than six feet apart, and of such a character as to be visible all around the horizon at a distance of at least two miles; and they shall, by day, carry between the two masts where they can best be seen, in a vertical line one over the other not less than six feet apart, two black balls or shapes, each two feet in diameter.


144. Seagoing suction dredges, when dredging is stopped and the dredge is proceeding either to or from her dumping ground, either loaded or light, shall, at night, extinguish the two red lights and, by day, lower the black balls.


145. Seagoing suction dredges, while actually engaged in dredging, as shown by the black balls or red lights, above, shall have the right of way over all other vessels, but in the narrower reaches and the Culebra Cut shall give way to seagoing ships; but when not dredging, as shown by the absence of the black balls or red lights, shall observe all the rules, and have no special privilege.


146. Ferryboats, propelled by machinery and navigating the waters of the Canal Zone, shall carry the range lights and the side lights required by law to be carried on steam vessels.


147. Barges, canal boats, scows, and lighters being towed astern of steam vessels, when towing singly or what is known as tandem towing, shall each carry a white light on the bow and a white light on the stern.


148. When towed with a hawser two or more abreast, when in one tier, they shall carry a white light on the bow and a white light on the stern of each of the outside boats; when in more than one tier, each of the outside boats shall carry a white light on its bow; and the outside boats in the last tier shall each carry, in addition, a white light on the outer after part of the stern.


149. Barges, etc., towed alongside a steam vessel, if on the starboard side of said steam vessel, shall display a white light on her own starboard bow, and if on the port side of said steam vessel, shall display a white light on her own port bow; and if there be more than one barge or canal boat alongside, the white light shall be displayed from the outboard side of the outside barge or canal boat.


150. When barges, etc., are in tiers and towed at a hawser, there shall be carried on the forward port side of each tier a white light, and on the forward starboard side of the starboard boat in each tier a white light, and on the after port side of the port boat in the stern tier a white light, and on the after starboard side of the starboard tier a white light.


151. Rafts propelled by hand power, or by the current of the river or tide, or which shall be anchored in or near the channel or fairway, or proceeding in tow of a steam vessel, shall carry one white light on each outside corner of the raft, making four lights in all.


152. Row boats and cayucos, whether under oars or sail, shall carry a white light, visible all around the horizon, at an elevation above the surface of the water of at least three feet.


153. The white light required by these rules for rafts and other water craft shall be carried from sunset to sunrise, in a lantern so constructed as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken light, visible all around the horizon, and of such intensity as to be visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere at a distance of at least one mile. The lights for rafts shall be suspended so that the lights shall not be less than eight feet above the surface of the water.


154. Any piece of plant, whether dredge, rock-breaker, or drill barge, that is operated by means of fore, aft, and side chains, shall carry, when said fore, aft, and side chains are taut, a black ball on each side of the dredge, in some conspicuous place at least eight feet above the deck, and near the position of the side chains; at night these balls shall be replaced by a red light and which shall show all around the horizon and be plainly visible at a distance of one mile.


155. When a steamer wishes to pass the dredge, drill boat, or rock-breaker, at a point where it might foul its side chains, it should ask permission to pass, by using the signal for port or starboard, as provided in the foregoing rules, and the dredge, drill boat, or rock-breaker shall immediately lower its chain on the side asked for by the steamer, indicating its fulfillment of this by, in the daytime, lowering the ball; in the night, putting out the red light.


156. If the dredge, drill boat, or rock-breaker is unable to lower its side chain, or should consider it dangerous for the steamer to pass on the side asked for, the dredge, drill boat, or rock-breaker will blow the danger signal, when the steamer will stop until the ball or light signal given above shall be shown.


157. Any master or pilot of any steam vessel who shall flash or cause to be flashed the rays of the searchlight into the pilot house of a passing vessel shall be deemed guilty of misconduct and shall be liable to have his license suspended or revoked; in general, searchlights shall not be used for navigation purposes in transit through the Canal, since the aids to navigation are sufficiently abundant to obviate any danger or necessity for using them.


158. When a vessel is in distress and requires assistance from other vessels, or from the shore, the following shall be the signals to be used or displayed by her, either together or separately, namely:

First: Flames on a vessel, as from a burning tar barrel, oil-barrel, etc.
Second: A continuous sounding with any fog-signal apparatus, or firing a gun.
Third: Rockets or shells showing stars, fired one at a time, at short intervals.


159. In connection with these, vessels may use the international code and special signals with shapes, hereafter described.


160. When lighters, barges, scows, or canal boats are tied or moored along any wharf, or along the shore in the channel in the navigable waters of the Canal Zone, including the Canal and approaches thereto, it shall be unlawful to moor them more than two deep, thereby obstructing the channel.


161. Except in the terminal harbors or the authorized anchorages, vessels shall not moor alongside one another in any part of the Panama Canal. In the terminal harbors and authorized anchorages more than two vessels shall not be moored alongside each other, except that additional power hoists may be moored alongside two vessels so connected, while actually engaged in transshipping cargo.


162. Nothing in this rule shall be construed as affecting the right of The Panama Canal to moor barges used by Canal construction and maintenance in any manner that may be deemed proper.


163. Every piece of plant, except seagoing suction dredges, whether dredge, rock breaker, or drill barge, that is engaged in excavating or preparing to excavate the Canal, whose position is stationary, or moving from time to time over the face of the shoal that it is working on or removing, shall have the prior right to such position, and it shall be unlawful for any person or persons, navigating a ship or otherwise, to foul above-named plant or its moorings in any way whatever.


164. All barges moved from berth to berth along wharves or banks of the Canal shall be moved by being handled by proper towboat for same, and it shall be unlawful to move barges by hand power in the navigable fairways of the Canal, unless to preserve life or property in peril.


General Regulations[edit]

165. While in a terminal port or in transit through the Canal no vessel will be allowed to throw overboard any ashes, cinders, ballast, solid matter of any kind, boxes, paper, or anything that will float, heavy slops, or anything that will tend to deface or make the waters of the Canal unsanitary. This does not apply to water-closet chutes, nor to the water used in cooking or in cleaning tableware, but does prohibit the throwing overboard of bones, pieces of meat, vegetable and fruit parings, or any heavy slops that can be carried until the open water of the sea can be reached.


166. No vessel shall make fast or run any lines to any marking buoy, beacon, or aid to navigation; this does not prohibit the use of mooring buoys for the purpose for which they were intended; vessels must use every precaution to guard against injury to any of the aids to navigation in Canal waters; should any damage or injury be inflicted, it shall be immediately reported to the Captain of the Port.


167. Any vessel arriving at the ports with gunpowder or other explosives on board will not be admitted to the wharves or allowed to land the same until a report is made to the proper authority and an arrangement entered into for the immediate disposal of the explosives.


168. Vessels are not allowed to anchor in the channel of the Canal or its approaches, unless in case of distress, when assistance should at once be requested.


169. If for any reason not an emergency, a vessel must anchor, she must do so in such a location that it will not interfere with the navigation of the channels.


170. All vessels upon entering port will be assigned to anchorage or wharves by the Captain of the Port.


171. Vessels must not anchor on the range line of any range lights.


172. Vessels will be held liable for all damage done to the Canal or any part of its plant or equipment, of any character or description whatsoever, whether the damage be done to the floating equipment, wharves, locks, or banks of the Canal; and in the case of the sinking of any floating or other equipment belonging to private persons or corporations in the channel of the Canal, or its approaches, side channels, or along its wharves, that create or tend to create an obstruction in the Canal or its approaches, side channels, or along its wharves, the person or company owning the sunken equipment may be given thirty days to remove the same. Should he or they fail to do so, the Canal authorities may remove the obstruction and the person or corporation owning the same shall pay all the expense of the removal of the obstruction, to be collected by a civil suit in the Zone courts and a levy and sale of any property of the persons or corporations found in the Canal Zone or its harbors.


173. The Canal authorities may order the removal of the obstruction at once, or remove it without waiting for action by the owners, and the cost of such removal shall be taxed and collected as mentioned above.


174. Should a vessel go aground, collide, be in imminent danger, or meet with any serious accident while in Canal waters, the Canal authorities shall have the right to supervise and direct all operations in relation thereto that may be necessary to float her or clear the wreckage; but the master and all others under him, as well as every appliance on board the ship which may be of use, shall be placed at the disposal of the Canal authorities without additional charge or claim against the Canal.


175. Vessels wishing to unload or load ballast will be assigned anchorage by the Captain of the Port, and must have a proper chute, so arranged as to prevent ballast from falling overboard.


176. No warp or line shall be passed across any channel or dock so as to obstruct the passage of vessels or cause any interference with the discharging of cargoes.


177. If any damages shall be caused by vessels or their mooring cables to the works of any harbor, the parties responsible for same shall pay the costs for necessary repairs, and the same may be recovered in the courts of the Canal Zone.


178. If a vessel occupying a berth at a wharf or pier, with or without the consent of the Captain of the Port, fails to vacate such berth when ordered by him, or when not loading or unload ing fails to make way for another vessel that wishes to load or unload, the Captain of the Port shall then cause such vessel to be moved to some other berth, or be anchored in the stream, and the expense of such removal shall be paid by the master, agents, or owners of such vessel, and in case of their neglect or refusal to pay such expense upon demand, it may be recovered in an action before any court having jurisdiction.


179. No vessel shall be entitled to a berth until application has been made by the master, owner, or consignee of the vessel, to the Captain of the Port, and such application must state the length, draft, and kind of cargo. No one but the Captain of the Port has authority to assign berths to vessels. No vessel, whether at anchor or lying at a wharf, shall shift its berth, without permission from the Captain of the Port.


180. All goods, merchandise, and material of every kind, landed or placed on any pier, bulkhead, or other wharf property, or upon reclaimed land, must be removed therefrom within 36 hours, provided, that the Captain of the Port for good cause may extend the time. All goods, merchandise and materials of every kind encumbering any pier, bulkhead, or other wharf structure or reclaimed land, after the time designated for the removal thereof shall have expired, will be liable to be removed by the Captain of the Port to any warehouse or yard, at the sole risk and expense of the owner of such goods, merchandise, or materials, and all expense incurred for such removal and storage, or otherwise, shall be and become a lien thereon, and such goods, merchandise, and materials will not be delivered to the owner until the expense of such removal and storage has been paid.


181. It shall not be lawful for the owners, lessees, or occupants of any pier, wharf, or bulkhead, which has been covered with a shed, to use such shedded pier, wharf, or bulkhead for the permanent storage of goods, merchandise, cargo, or material of any kind which may be discharged or placed thereon.


182. Piers, wharves, and bulkheads thus shedded are designated for the protection of merchandise and cargo in transit, and such merchandise and cargo must be removed therefrom within 36 hours; provided, that the Captain of the Port may for good cause extend the time.


183. No accumulation of material upon the piers, wharves, bulkheads and reclaimed land will be allowed, and whenever any pier, wharf, bulkhead or reclaimed land shall be encumbered or obstructed in its free use by any vessel, merchandise or material, or by any structure, encumbrance, or obstruction not authorized or permitted, the Captain of the Port may require the owner, agent, consignee, or person occupying or in charge of such merchandise or obstruction, to remove the same without delay. Upon receiving said order the owner, agent, consignee, or person in charge of the vessel, merchandise, material, structure, encumbrance, or obstruction, in reference to which said order or direction was given shall comply with the same without delay and upon his refusal or failure to do so, shall be punished by a fine or imprisonment as hereinbefore provided.


184. No fishing nets will be allowed in any place in the Canal, along its wharves, or in its channels, whenever in the opinion of the Superintendent of Transportation such nets interfere or might interfere with navigation, and it shall be the duty of the owner thereof, upon notification, to remove them immediately.


185. Anyone finding any buoy out of position, or lights not working properly, should immediately report the same to the Captain of the Port.


186. Steamers while within a harbor must take all precautions to avoid the issue of sparks, and vessels will be held liable for all damage resulting from neglect of this rule.


187. No pitch, tar, turpentine, or other combustible, shall be boiled on any wharf, or on board any vessel without permission from the Captain of the Port.


188. In case of fire on board a vessel, all masters of other vessels shall render such assistance as may be in their power.


189. A vessel anchored or moored in the harbor or lying at a dock must at all times, night or day, have on board a sufficient number of men to take care of the vessel.


190. No vessel shall unload lumber, timber, or piles in the waters of a harbor without permission of the Captain of the Port, who shall designate where such lumber shall be rafted, so as to avoid obstructing or hindering the movements of vessels.


191. Lighters, barges, scows, and other vessels belonging to persons or corporations of any and all descriptions shall be anchored in such places as the Captain of the Port may direct, and shall be at all times under his supervision and direction.


192. The Captain of the Port shall keep in his office records of all his proceedings with statements of the result of all examinations and inquiries made by him, which records may be inspected by interested parties.


193. All notifications and requests to the Captain of the Port shall be made at his office, in writing, and shall be duly entered and filed by him.


194. It shall be unlawful for any person, without first having secured a pilot's license from the Government of the Canal Zone, to navigate any steam vessel with a net tonnage of more than 15 tons burden in Canal Zone waters.


195. All privately owned boats of every description must be registered and numbered, and the number must be obtained before they will be allowed to operate in any part of the Canal waters.


196. When numbers have been assigned, they shall be displayed in a conspicuous place, in the prescribed form.


197. All vessels moored to wharves, whether loading or unloading cargo or in the ordinary way of business, shall be moored to the wharves with rope hawsers only, and it shall be unlawful for any chain or wire hawsers to be used on any public wharf in the Canal Zone without the specific permission of the Captain of the Port.


198. All vessels, whether commercial or otherwise, moored to wharves in the Canal Zone, shall be compelled to keep watch at night and to have suitable fire-fighting apparatus on hand.


199. Whenever it shall become necessary to remove any especially inflammable cargo from commercial ships, or ships at public wharves of the Canal Zone, such as oils, gasoline, naphtha, petroleum, etc., it shall be necessary for notice to be given to the Captain of the Port at least two hours before such cargo shall be discharged upon the wharf, so that proper means can be provided to dispose of this class of material at the earliest possible moment.


200. It shall be unlawful for any person or persons, whether navigating a vessel or otherwise, to take possession of or use for any purpose, to make fast to or build upon, to alter, deface, destroy, move or injure any part of the plant or equipment, whether floating or otherwise, belonging to the Canal.


201. These rules shall apply to and govern the navigation and use of the waters of the Panama Canal, as the Canal is now or may hereafter be constituted, as well as all Canal channels, lakes, harbors, and other auxiliary waters as may now or hereafter be deemed necessary for Canal purposes, or which may now or hereafter be under the jurisdiction of the Canal Zone Government.

Signature of Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson.

The White House, 9 July, 1914.

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).