Public Law 105-298

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105TH UNITED STATES CONGRESS
2ND SESSION


An Act
To amend the provisions of Title 17, United States Code, with respect to the duration of copyright, and for other purposes.


Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

Title I—Copyright Term Extension[edit]

Sec. 101. Short Title.[edit]

This title may be referred to as the ``Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act´´.

Sec. 102. Duration of Copyright Provisions.[edit]

(a) Preemption With Respect to Other Laws.—
Section 301(c) of title 17, United States Code, is amended by striking ``February 15, 2047´´ each place it appears and inserting ``February 15, 2067´´.
(b) Duration of Copyright: Works Created on or After January 1, 1978.—
Section 302 of title 17, United States Code, is amended—
(1) in subsection (a) by striking ``fifty´´ and inserting ``70´´;
(2) in subsection (b) by striking ``fifty´´ and inserting ``70´´;
(3) in subsection (c) in the first sentence—
(A) by striking ``seventy-five´´ and inserting ``95´´; and
(B) by striking ``one hundred´´ and inserting ``120´´; and
(4) in subsection (e) in the first sentence—
(A) by striking ``seventy-five´´ and inserting ``95´´;
(B) by striking ``one hundred´´ and inserting ``120´´; and
(C) by striking ``fifty´´ each place it appears and inserting ``70´´.
(c) Duration of Copyright: Works Created but Not Published or Copyrighted Before January 1, 1978.—
Section 303 of title 17, United States Code, is amended in the second sentence by striking ``December 31, 2027´´ and inserting ``December 31, 2047´´.
(d) Duration of Copyright: Subsisting Copyrights.—
(1) In General.—
Section 304 of title 17, United States Code, is amended—
(A) in subsection (a)—
(i) in paragraph (1)—
(I) in subparagraph (B) by striking ``47´´ and inserting ``67´´; and
(II) in subparagraph (C) by striking ``47´´ and inserting ``67´´;
(ii) in paragraph (2)—
(I) in subparagraph (A) by striking ``47´´ and inserting ``67´´; and
(II) in subparagraph (B) by striking ``47´´ and inserting ``67´´; and
(iii) in paragraph (3)—
(I) in subparagraph (A)(i) by striking ``47´´ and inserting ``67´´; and
(II) in subparagraph (B) by striking ``47´´ and inserting ``67´´;
(B) by amending subsection (b) to read as follows:
``(b) Copyrights in Their Renewal Term at the Time of the Effective Date of the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act.—Any copyright still in its renewal term at the time that the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act becomes effective shall have a copyright term of 95 years from the date copyright was originally secured.´´;
(C) in subsection (c)(4)(A) in the first sentence by inserting ``or, in the case of a termination under subsection (d), within the five-year period specified by subsection (d)(2),´´ after ``specified by clause (3) of this subsection,´´; and
(D) by adding at the end the following new subsection:
``(d) Termination Rights Provided in Subsection (c) Which Have Expired on or Before the Effective Date of the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act.—In the case of any copyright other than a work made for hire, subsisting in its renewal term on the effective date of the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act for which the termination right provided in subsection (c) has expired by such date, where the author or owner of the termination right has not previously exercised such termination right, the exclusive or nonexclusive grant of a transfer or license of the renewal copyright or any right under it, executed before January 1, 1978, by any of the persons designated in subsection (a)(1)(C) of this section, other than by will, is subject to termination under the following conditions:
``(1) The conditions specified in subsections (c) (1), (2), (4), (5), and (6) of this section apply to terminations of the last 20 years of copyright term as provided by the amendments made by the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act.
``(2) Termination of the grant may be effected at any time during a period of 5 years beginning at the end of 75 years from the date copyright was originally secured.´´.
(2) Copyright Amendments Act of 1992.—
Section 102 of the Copyright Amendments Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-307; 106 Stat. 266; 17 U.S.C. 304 note) is amended—
(A) in subsection (c)—
(i) by striking ``47´´ and inserting ``67´´;
(ii) by striking ``(as amended by subsection (a) of this section)´´; and
(iii) by striking ``effective date of this section´´ each place it appears and inserting ``effective date of the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act´´; and
(B) in subsection (g)(2) in the second sentence by inserting before the period the following: ``, except each reference to forty-seven years in such provisions shall be deemed to be 67 years´´.

Sec. 103. Termination of Transfers and Licenses Covering Extended Renewal Term.[edit]

Sections 203(a)(2) and 304(c)(2) of title 17, United States Code, are each amended—
(1) by striking ``by his widow or her widower and his or her children or grandchildren´´; and
(2) by inserting after subparagraph (C) the following:
``(D) In the event that the author’s widow or widower, children, and grandchildren are not living, the author’s executor, administrator, personal representative, or trustee shall own the author’s entire termination interest.´´.

Sec. 104. Reproduction by Libraries and Archives.[edit]

Section 108 of title 17, United States Code, is amended—
(1) by redesignating subsection (h) as subsection (i); and
(2) by inserting after subsection (g) the following:
``(h)(1) For purposes of this section, during the last 20 years of any term of copyright of a published work, a library or archives, including a nonprofit educational institution that functions as such, may reproduce, distribute, display, or perform in facsimile or digital form a copy or phonorecord of such work, or portions thereof, for purposes of preservation, scholarship, or research, if such library or archives has first determined, on the basis of a reasonable investigation, that none of the conditions set forth in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (2) apply.
``(2) No reproduction, distribution, display, or performance is authorized under this subsection if—
``(A) the work is subject to normal commercial exploitation;
``(B) a copy or phonorecord of the work can be obtained at a reasonable price; or
``(C) the copyright owner or its agent provides notice pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Register of Copyrights that either of the conditions set forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B) applies.
``(3) The exemption provided in this subsection does not apply to any subsequent uses by users other than such library or archives.´´.

Sec. 105. Voluntary Negotiation Regarding Division of Royalties.[edit]

It is the sense of the Congress that copyright owners of audiovisual works for which the term of copyright protection is extended by the amendments made by this title, and the screenwriters, directors, and performers of those audiovisual works, should negotiate in good faith in an effort to reach a voluntary agreement or voluntary agreements with respect to the establishment of a fund or other mechanism for the amount of remuneration to be divided among the parties for the exploitation of those audiovisual works.

Sec. 106. Effective Date.[edit]

This title and the amendments made by this title shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act.


Title II—Music Licensing Exemption for Food Service or Drinking Establishments[edit]

Sec. 201. Short Title.[edit]

This title may be cited as the ``Fairness In Music Licensing Act of 1998´´.

Sec. 202. Exemptions.[edit]

(a) Exemptions for Certain Establishments.—
Section 110 of title 17, United States Code, is amended—
(1) in paragraph (5)—
(A) by striking ``(5)´´ and inserting ``(5)(A) except as provided in subparagraph (B),´´; and
(B) by adding at the end the following:
``(B) communication by an establishment of a transmission or retransmission embodying a performance or display of a nondramatic musical work intended to be received by the general public, originated by a radio or television broadcast station licensed as such by the Federal Communications Commission, or, if an audiovisual transmission, by a cable system or satellite carrier, if—
``(i) in the case of an establishment other than a food service or drinking establishment, either the establishment in which the communication occurs has less than 2,000 gross square feet of space (excluding space used for customer parking and for no other purpose), or the establishment in which the communication occurs has 2,000 or more gross square feet of space (excluding space used for customer parking and for no other purpose) and—
``(I) if the performance is by audio means only, the performance is communicated by means of a total of not more than 6 loudspeakers, of which not more than 4 loudspeakers are located in any 1 room or adjoining outdoor space; or
``(II) if the performance or display is by audiovisual means, any visual portion of the performance or display is communicated by means of a total of not more than 4 audiovisual devices, of which not more than 1 audiovisual device is located in any 1 room, and no such audiovisual device has a diagonal screen size greater than 55 inches, and any audio portion of the performance or display is communicated by means of a total of not more than 6 loudspeakers, of which not more than 4 loudspeakers are located in any 1 room or adjoining outdoor space;
``(ii) in the case of a food service or drinking establishment, either the establishment in which the communication occurs has less than 3,750 gross square feet of space (excluding space used for customer parking and for no other purpose), or the establishment in which the communication occurs has 3,750 gross square feet of space or more (excluding space used for customer parking and for no other purpose) and—
``(I) if the performance is by audio means only, the performance is communicated by means of a total of not more than 6 loudspeakers, of which not more than 4 loudspeakers are located in any 1 room or adjoining outdoor space; or
``(II) if the performance or display is by audiovisual means, any visual portion of the performance or display is communicated by means of a total of not more than 4 audiovisual devices, of which not more than one audiovisual device is located in any 1 room, and no such audiovisual device has a diagonal screen size greater than 55 inches, and any audio portion of the performance or display is communicated by means of a total of not more than 6 loudspeakers, of which not more than 4 loudspeakers are located in any 1 room or adjoining outdoor space;
``(iii) no direct charge is made to see or hear the transmission or retransmission;
``(iv) the transmission or retransmission is not further transmitted beyond the establishment where it is received; and
``(v) the transmission or retransmission is licensed by the copyright owner of the work so publicly performed or displayed;´´; and
(2) by adding after paragraph (10) the following:
``The exemptions provided under paragraph (5) shall not be taken into account in any administrative, judicial, or other governmental proceeding to set or adjust the royalties payable to copyright owners for the public performance or display of their works. Royalties payable to copyright owners for any public performance or display of their works other than such performances or displays as are exempted under paragraph (5) shall not be diminished in any respect as a result of such exemption.´´.
(b) Exemption Relating to Promotion.—
Section 110(7) of title 17, United States Code, is amended by inserting ``or of the audiovisual or other devices utilized in such performance,´´ after ``phonorecords of the work,´´.

Sec. 203. Licensing by Performing Rights Societies.[edit]

(a) In General.—
Chapter 5 of title 17, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:
``§ 512. Determination of Reasonable License Fees for Individual Proprietors
``In the case of any performing rights society subject to a consent decree which provides for the determination of reasonable license rates or fees to be charged by the performing rights society, notwithstanding the provisions of that consent decree, an individual proprietor who owns or operates fewer than 7 non-publicly traded establishments in which nondramatic musical works are performed publicly and who claims that any license agreement offered by that performing rights society is unreasonable in its license rate or fee as to that individual proprietor, shall be entitled to determination of a reasonable license rate or fee as follows:
``(1) The individual proprietor may commence such proceeding for determination of a reasonable license rate or fee by filing an application in the applicable district court under paragraph (2) that a rate disagreement exists and by serving a copy of the application on the performing rights society. Such proceeding shall commence in the applicable district court within 90 days after the service of such copy, except that such 90-day requirement shall be subject to the administrative requirements of the court.
``(2) The proceeding under paragraph (1) shall be held, at the individual proprietor’s election, in the judicial district of the district court with jurisdiction over the applicable consent decree or in that place of holding court of a district court that is the seat of the Federal circuit (other than the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit) in which the proprietor’s establishment is located.
``(3) Such proceeding shall be held before the judge of the court with jurisdiction over the consent decree governing the performing rights society. At the discretion of the court, the proceeding shall be held before a special master or magistrate judge appointed by such judge. Should that consent decree provide for the appointment of an advisor or advisors to the court for any purpose, any such advisor shall be the special master so named by the court.
``(4) In any such proceeding, the industry rate shall be presumed to have been reasonable at the time it was agreed to or determined by the court. Such presumption shall in no way affect a determination of whether the rate is being correctly applied to the individual proprietor.
``(5) Pending the completion of such proceeding, the individual proprietor shall have the right to perform publicly the copyrighted musical compositions in the repertoire of the performing rights society by paying an interim license rate or fee into an interest bearing escrow account with the clerk of the court, subject to retroactive adjustment when a final rate or fee has been determined, in an amount equal to the industry rate, or, in the absence of an industry rate, the amount of the most recent license rate or fee agreed to by the parties.
``(6) Any decision rendered in such proceeding by a special master or magistrate judge named under paragraph (3) shall be reviewed by the judge of the court with jurisdiction over the consent decree governing the performing rights society. Such proceeding, including such review, shall be concluded within 6 months after its commencement.
``(7) Any such final determination shall be binding only as to the individual proprietor commencing the proceeding, and shall not be applicable to any other proprietor or any other performing rights society, and the performing rights society shall be relieved of any obligation of nondiscrimination among similarly situated music users that may be imposed by the consent decree governing its operations.
``(8) An individual proprietor may not bring more than one proceeding provided for in this section for the determination of a reasonable license rate or fee under any license agreement with respect to any one performing rights society.
``(9) For purposes of this section, the term ‘industry rate’ means the license fee a performing rights society has agreed to with, or which has been determined by the court for, a significant segment of the music user industry to which the individual proprietor belongs.´´.
(b) Technical and Conforming Amendment.—
The table of sections for chapter 5 of title 17, United States Code, is amended by adding after the item relating to section 511 the following:
``512. Determination of Reasonable License Fees for Individual Proprietors.´´.

Sec. 204. Penalties.[edit]

Section 504 of title 17, United States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following:
``(d) Additional Damages in Certain Cases.—In any case in which the court finds that a defendant proprietor of an establishment who claims as a defense that its activities were exempt under section 110(5) did not have reasonable grounds to believe that its use of a copyrighted work was exempt under such section, the plaintiff shall be entitled to, in addition to any award of damages under this section, an additional award of two times the amount of the license fee that the proprietor of the establishment concerned should have paid the plaintiff for such use during the preceding period of up to 3 years.´´.

Sec. 205. Definitions.[edit]

Section 101 of title 17, United States Code, is amended—
(1) by inserting after the definition of ``display´´ the following:
``An ‘establishment’ is a store, shop, or any similar place of business open to the general public for the primary purpose of selling goods or services in which the majority of the gross square feet of space that is nonresidential is used for that purpose, and in which nondramatic musical works are performed publicly.
``A ‘food service or drinking establishment’ is a restaurant, inn, bar, tavern, or any other similar place of business in which the public or patrons assemble for the primary purpose of being served food or drink, in which the majority of the gross square feet of space that is nonresidential is used for that purpose, and in which nondramatic musical works are performed publicly.´´;
(2) by inserting after the definition of ``fixed´´ the following:
``The ‘gross square feet of space’ of an establishment means the entire interior space of that establishment, and any adjoining outdoor space used to serve patrons, whether on a seasonal basis or otherwise.´´;
(3) by inserting after the definition of ``perform´´ the following:
``A ‘performing rights society’ is an association, corporation, or other entity that licenses the public performance of nondramatic musical works on behalf of copyright owners of such works, such as the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP), Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI), and SESAC, Inc.´´; and
(4) by inserting after the definition of ``pictorial, graphic and sculptural works´´ the following:
``A ‘proprietor’ is an individual, corporation, partnership, or other entity, as the case may be, that owns an establishment or a food service or drinking establishment, except that no owner or operator of a radio or television station licensed by the Federal Communications Commission, cable system or satellite carrier, cable or satellite carrier service or programmer, provider of online services or network access or the operator of facilities therefor, telecommunications company, or any other such audio or audiovisual service or programmer now known or as may be developed in the future, commercial subscription music service, or owner or operator of any other transmission service, shall under any circumstances be deemed to be a proprietor.´´.

Sec. 206. Construction of Title.[edit]

Except as otherwise provided in this title, nothing in this title shall be construed to relieve any performing rights society of any obligation under any State or local statute, ordinance, or law, or consent decree or other court order governing its operation, as such statute, ordinance, law, decree, or order is in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act, as it may be amended after such date, or as it may be issued or agreed to after such date.

Sec. 207. Effective Date.[edit]

This title and the amendments made by this title shall take effect 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act.


Approved October 27, 1998.


Legislative History[edit]

  • HOUSE REPORTS:
    • No. 105–452 accompanying H.R. 2589 (Comm. on the Judiciary).
  • CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 144 (1998):
    • Oct. 7, considered and passed House and Senate.