Final Act of the Congress of Vienna/General Treaty

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The General Treaty of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna, 9 June 1815.  (1815) 
The plenipotentiaries of the high powers who signed the treaty
The General Treaty was signed 9 days before the Battle of Waterloo. It was drawn up in French, the lingua franca of diplomacy at that time. (See Article CXX).



GENERAL TREATY.[2][3]
(Translation.)
In the name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity.

The Powers who signed the Treaty concluded at Paris on the 30th of May 1814, having assembled at Vienna, in pursuance of the 32d Article of that Act, with the princes and states their Allies, to complete the provisions of the said Treaty, and to add to them the arrangements rendered necessary by the state in which Europe was left at the termination of the last war, being now desirous to embrace, in one common transaction, the various results of their negociations, for the purpose of confirming them by their reciprocal ratifications, have authorized their Plenipotentiaries to unite, in a general instrument, the regulations of superior and permanent interest, and to join to that act, as integral parts of the arrangements of Congress, the Treaties, Conventions, Declarations, Regulations, and other particular acts, as cited in the present Treaty. And the above-mentioned powers having appointed Plenipotentiaries to the Congress, that is to say:[4]

His majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia:

The Sieur Clement-Venceslas-Lolhaire, Prince de Metternich-Winnebourg-Ochsenhausen, Knight of the Golden Fleece, Grand-Cross of the Royal Order of St. Stephen, Knight of the Orders of St. Andrew, of St. Alexander-Newsky, and of St. Anne of the First Class, Grand Cordon of the Legion of Honour, Knight of the Order of the Elephant, of the Supreme Order of the Annunciation, of the Black Eagle and the Red Eagle, of the Seraphim, of St. Joseph of Tuscany, of St. Hubert, of the Goldon Eagle of Wurtemberg, of Fidelity of Baden, of St. John of Jerusalem, and of several others; Chancellor of the military Order of Maria-Theresa, a Trustee of the Academy of the Fine Arts, Chamberlain, Privy Councillor of his Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, his Minister of State, of Conferences, and of Foreign Affairs; and the Sieur John-Philip, Baron de Wessenberg, Knight Grand-Cross of the Military and Religious Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus, Grand-Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle of Prussia, and of the Crown of Bavaria, Chamberlain, and Privy Councillor of his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty.

His Majesty the King of Spain, and the Indies:

Don Peter Gomez Labrador, Knight of the Royal and distinguished Order of Charles 3; his Counsellor of State.[5]

His Majesty the King of France and Navarre:

The Sieur Charles Maurice de Talley-rand-Perigord, Prince of Talleyrand, Peer of France, Minister, Secretary of State in the Department of Foreign Affairs, Grand-Cordon of the Legion of Honour, Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen of Hungary, of the Order of St. Andrew, of the Orders of the Black Eagle and the Red Eagle, of the Order of the Elephant, of the Order of St. Hubert, of the Crown of Saxony, of the Order of St. Joseph, of the Order of the Sun of Persia, &c. &c. &c.;

The Sieur Duke d'Alberg, Minister of State to his Majesty the King of France and Navarre, Grand-Cordon of the Legion of Honour, of that of Fidelity of Baden, and Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem;

The Sieur Count Gouvernet de Latour du Pin, Knight of the Royal and Military Order of St. Louis, and of the Legion of Honour, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister plenipotentiary of his said Majesty to his Majesty, the King of the Netherlands; and, the Sieur Alexis Count de Noailles, Knight of the Royal and Military Order of St. Louis, Grand-Cross of the Royal and Military Order of St Maurice and St. Lazarus, Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Leopold of St. Wolodimir, of Merit of Prussia, and Colonel in the service of France.

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland:

The Right Honourable Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, Privy Counsellor of his said Majesty, Member of Parliament, Colonel of the Londonderry Regiment of Militia, his principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and Knight of the most noble Order of the Garter, &c. &c. &c.;

The most excellent and most illustrious Lord Arthur Wellesley, Duke, Marquess, and Earl of Wellington, Marquess Douro, Viscount Wellington of Talavera and of Wellington, and Baron Douro of Wellesley, Privy Councillor of his said Majesty, Marshal of his armies, Colonel of the Royal Regiment of Horse-Guards, Knight of the most noble Order of the Garter, and Knight Grand-Cross of the most honourable Military Order of the Bath: Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo, and Grandee of Spain of the First Class, Duke of Vittoria, Marquess of Torres Vedras, Conde de Vimeira in Portugal; Knight of the most illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece, of the Military Order of St. Ferdinand of Spain, Knight Grand-Cross of the Imperial and Military Order of Maria-Theresa, Knight Grand-Cross of the Military Order of St. George of Russia of the First Class; Knight Grand-Cross of the Royal and Military Order of the Tower and Sword of Portugal; Knight Grand-Cross of the Royal and Military Order of the Sword of Sweden, &c. &c. &c;[6]

The right honourable Richard Le Poer Trench, Earl of Clancarty, Viscount Dunlo, Baron Kilconnel, Privy Councillor of his said Majesty, President of the Committee of Council for the Affairs of Trade and Colonies, Post-Master-General, Colonel of the Galway Regiment of Militia, and Knight Grand-Cross of the most honourable Order of the Bath;

The right honourable William Shaw, Earl Cathcart, Viscount Cathcart, Baron Cathcart and Greenock, Peer of Parliament, Privy Councillor of his said Majesty, Knight of the most ancient and most honourable Order of the Thistle, and of the Orders of Russia, General of his armies, Vice-admiral of Scotland, Colonel of the second regiment of Life-Guards, his Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias;

And the right honourable Charles William Stewart, Lord Stewart, a Lord of his Majesty's bed-chamber, Privy Councillor of his said Majesty, Lieutenant-general of his armies, Colonel of the twentieth Regiment of Light Dragoons, Governor of Fort Charles in Jamaica, Knight Grand-Cross of the most honourable military Order of the Bath, Knight Grand-Cross of the Orders of the Black and Red Eagle of Prussia, Knight Grand-Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword of Portugal, and Knight of the Order of St. George of Russia.

His royal highness the Prince Regent of the kingdoms of Portugal and the Brazils:

The Sieur Von Peter de Sousa Holstein, Count of Palmella, a member of his council, Commander of the Order of Christ, captain of the German Company of Body Guards, Grand Cross of the royal and distinguished Order of Charles 3 of Spain;

The Sieur Antonio de Saldanha da Gama, a member of his Council and of the Finances, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to his majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, Commander of the Military Order of St. Benedict of Avez, first Equerry to her royal highness the Princess of Brazil;

And the Sieur Don Joachim Lobo da Silveira, a member of his Council, Commander of the Order of Christ.

His majesty the King of Prussia:

The Prince Hardenberg, his Chancellor of State, Knight of the Grand Orders of the Black Eagle and the Red Eagle, of St. John of Jerusalem, and of the Iron Cross of Prussia, of the Orders of St. Andrew, of St. Alexander Newsky, and of St. Anne of the first class of Russia, Grand Cross of the Royal Order of St. Stephen of Hungary, Grand Cordon of the Legion of Honour, Grand Cross of the Order of Charles 3 of Spain, of St. Hubert of Bavaria, of the Supreme Order of the Annunciation of Sardinia, Knight of the Order of the Seraphim of Sweden, of the Elephant of Denmark, of the Golden Eagle of Wurtemberg, and of several others;

And the Sieur Charles William, Baron de Humboldt, his Minister of State, Chamberlain, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, Knight of the Grand Order of the Red Eagle, and of the Iron Cross of Prussia of the first class, Grand Cross of the Order of St. Anne of Russia, of the Order of Leopold of Austria, and of the Crown of Bavaria.

His majesty the Emperor of all the Russias:

The Sieur Andrew, Prince de Rasoumoffsky, his Privy Councillor, Senator, Knight of the Orders of St. Andrew, of St. Wolodimir, of St. Alexander Newsky, and of St. Anne of the first class, Grand Cross of the Royal Order of St. Stephen, and of those of the Black Eagle and the Red Eagle of Prussia;

The Sieur Gustavus Count de Stackelberg, his Privy Counsellor, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, Chamberlain, Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Newsky, Grand Cross of the Order of St. Wolodimir and of St. Anne of the first class, Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen, of the Black Eagle and the Red Eagle of Prussia;

And the Sieur Charles, Count de Nesselrode, his Privy Councillor, Chamberlain, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Knight of the Order of St. Alexander Newsky, Grand Cross of the Order of St Wolodimir of the second class, of St. Stephen of Hungary, of the Red Eagle of Prussia, of the Polar Star of Sweden, and of the Golden Eagle of Wurtemberg.

His majesty the King of Sweden and Norway:

The Sieur Charles Axel, Count de Lowenhielm, Major-general of his Armies, Colonel of a regiment of Infantry, Chamberlain, his Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to his majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, Vice Chancellor of his Orders, Commander of his Order of the Polar Star, and Knight of the Order of the Sword; Knight of the Orders of Russia, of St. Anne of the first class, and of St. George of the fourth class; Knight of the Prussian Order of the Red Eagle of the first class, and Commander of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.

Such of the above Plenipotentiaries as have assisted at the close of the negociations, after having produced their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed to place in the said general Instrument, the following Articles, and to affix to them their signatures:

ARTICLE I. The duchy of Warsaw,[7] with the exception of the provinces and districts which are otherwise disposed of by the following Articles, is united to the Russian empire, to which it shall be irrevocably attached by its constitution, and be possessed by his majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, his heirs and successors in perpetuity. His Imperial Majesty reserves to himself to give to this State, enjoying a distinct Administration,[8] the interior improvement which he shall judge proper. He shall assume with his other titles that of Czar, King of Poland, agreeably to the form established for the titles attached to his other possessions.

The Poles, who are respective subjects of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, shall obtain a representation, and national institutions, regulated according to the degree of political consideration, that each of the governments to which they belong shall judge expedient and proper to grant them.

ART. II. The part of the duchy of Warsaw which his majesty the King of Prussia shall possess in full sovereignty and property, for himself, his heirs, and successors, under the title of the Grand Duchy of Posen,[9] shall be comprised within the following line:

Proceeding from the frontier of Eastern Prussia to the village of Neuhoff, the new limit shall follow the frontier of Western Prussia, such as it subsisted from 1772 to the Peace of Tilsit, to the village of Leibitsch, which shall belong to the duchy of Warsaw; from thence shall be drawn a line, which, leaving Kompania, Grabowiec, and Szczytno to Prussia, passes the Vistula, near the last-mentioned place, from the other side of the river, which falls into the Vistula opposite Szczytno, to the ancient limit of the district of the Netze, near Gross Opoczko, so that Sluzewo shall belong to the duchy, and Przylranowa, Hollander, and Maciejewo, to Prussia. From Gross Opoczkzo it shall pass by Chlewiska, which shall remain to Prussia, to the village of Przyhyslaw, and from thence by the villages of Piaski, Chebmce, Witowiczki, Kobylinka, Woyezyn, Orchowo, to the town of Powidz.

From Powidz it shall continue by the town of Slupee to the point of confluence of the rivers Wartha and Prosna.

From this point it shall re-ascend the course of the river Prosna to the village of Koscielnawies, to within one league to the town of Kalisch.

Then leaving to that town (on the side of the left bank of the Prosna) a semi-circular territory measured by the distance from Koscielnawies to Kalisch, the line shall return to the course of the Prosna, and shall continue to follow it, re-ascending by the towns of Grabow, Wieruszow, Boleslawice, so as to terminate near the village of Gola, upon the frontier of Silesia opposite Pitschin.

ART. III. His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty shall possess, in full property and sovereignty, the salt-mines of Wieliczka, and the territory thereto belonging.[10]

ART. IV. The way or bed of the Vistula shall separate Gallicia from the territory of the free town of Cracow. It shall serve at the same time as the frontier between Gallicia and that part of the ancient duchy of Warsaw united to the states of his majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, as far as the vicinity of the town of Zavichost.[11]

From Zavichost to the Bug, the dry frontier shall be determined by the line drawn in the Treaty of Vienna of 1809,[12] excepting such modifications as by common consent may be thought necessary to be introduced.

The frontier from the Bug shall be re-established on this side between the two empires, such as it was before the said Treaty.

ART. V. His majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, cedes to his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty the districts which have been separated from Eastern Gallicia,[13] in consequence of the Treaty of Vienna of 1809,[14][15] from the circles of Zloozow, Brzezan, Tarnopole, and Zalesczyk, and the frontiers on this side shall be re-established, such as they were before the date of the said Treaty.

ART. VI. The town of Cracow, with its territory, is declared to be for ever a free, independent, and strictly neutral city, under the protection of Austria, Russia, and Prussia.[16]

ART. VII. The territory of the free town of Cracow shall have for its frontier upon the left bank of the Vistula, a line which, beginning at the spot near the village of Wolica, where a stream falls into the Vistula, shall ascend this stream by Clo, and Koscielniki as far as Czulice, so that these villages may be included in the district of the free town of Cracow: from thence passing along the frontiers of these villages, the line shall continue by Dziekanovice, Garlice, Tomaszou, Karniowice, which shall also remain in the territory of Cracow, to the point where the limit begins which separates the district of Krzeszowice from that of Olkusz; from thence it shall follow this limit between the two said provinces, till it reaches the frontiers of Silesian Prussia.[17]

ART. VIII. His majesty the Emperor of Austria, wishing particularly to facilitate as much as possible on his part, the commercial relations and good neighbourhood between Galicia and the free towns of Cracow, grants for ever to the town of Podgorze, the privileges of a free commercial town, such as are enjoyed by the town of Brody. This liberty of commerce shall extend to a distance of 500 from the barrier of the suburbs of the town of Podgorze.[18]

In consequence of this perpetual concession, which nevertheless shall not affect the rights of sovereignty of his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, the Austrian custom-houses shall be established only in places situated beyond that limit. No military establishment shall be formed that can menace the neutrality of Cracow, or obstruct the liberty of commerce which his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty grants to the town and district of Podgorze.

ART. IX. The Courts of Russia, Austria, and Prussia engage to respect, and to cause to be always respected, the neutrality of the free town of Cracow and its territory.[19]

No armed force shall be introduced upon any pretence whatever. On the other hand it is understood and expressly stipulated that no asylum shall he afforded in the free town and territory of Cracow, to fugitives, deserters and persons under prosecution, belonging to the country of either of the High Powers aforesaid; and in the event of the demand of their surrender by the competent authorities, such individuals shall be arrested and given up without delay, and conveyed, under a proper escort, to the guard appointed to receive them at the frontier.

ART. X. The dispositions of the constitution of the free town of Cracow, concerning the Academy, the Bishopric and Chapter of that town, such as they are specified in the 7th, 15th, 16th and 17th Articles of the additional Treaty relative to Cracow, which is annexed to the present General Treaty, shall have the same force and validity as it they were textually inserted in this Act.[20]

ART. XI. A full, general, and special amnesty shall be granted in favour of all individuals, of whatever rank, sex, or condition they may be.[21]

ART. XII. In consequence of the preceding Article, no person in future shall be prosecuted or disturbed, in any manner, by reason of any participation, direct or indirect, at any time, in the political, civil, or military events in Poland. All proceedings, suits, or prosecutions are considered as null, the sequestrations and provisional confiscations shall be taken off, and every Act promulgated on this ground shall be of no effect.[22]

ART. XIII. From these general regulations on the subject of confiscations are excepted all those cases in which edicts or sentences, finally pronounced have already been fully executed, and have not been annulled by subsequent events.[23]

ART. XIV. The principles established for the free navigation of rivers and canals, in the whole extent of ancient Poland, as well as for the trade to the ports, for the circulation of articles the growth and produce of the different Polish provinces, and tor the commerce, relative to goods in transitu, such as they are specified in the 24th, 25th, 26th, 28th and 29th Articles of the Treaty between Austria and Russia, and in the 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th, 28th and 29th Articles of the Treaty between Russia and Prussia, shall be invariably maintained.[24]

ART. XV. His Majesty the King of Saxony renounces in perpetuity for himself and all his descendants and successors, in favour of his Majesty the King of Prussia, all his right and title to the provinces, districts, and territories, or parts of territories, of the kingdom of Saxony, hereafter named; and his Majesty the King of Prussia shall possess those countries in complete sovereignty and property, and shall unite them to his monarchy. The districts and territories thus ceded, shall be separated from the rest of the kingdom of Saxony by a line, which henceforth shall form the frontier between the Prussian and Saxon territories, so that all that is comprised in the limit formed by this line, shall be restored to his Majesty the King of Saxony; but his Majesty renounces all those districts and territories that are situated beyond that line, and which belonged to him before the war.[25]

The line shall begin from the frontiers of Bohemia near Wiese, in the neighbourhood of Seidenberg, following the stream of the river Wittich, until its junction with the Neisse.

From the Neisse it shall pass to the circle of Eigen, between Tauchntz, which shall belong to Prussia, and Bertschoff, which shall remain to Saxony; then it shall follow the northern frontier of the circle of Eigin, to the angle between Pulsdorf and Ober-Schland; thence it shall be continued to the limits that separate the circle of Gorlitz from that of Bautzen, in such a manner that Ober-Mettel and Neider-Schland-Olich, and Radewitz, remain in the possession of Saxony.

The great post-road between Gorlitz and Bautzen shall belong to Prussia, as far as the limits of the said circles. Then the line shall follow the frontier of the circle to Dubraucke, it shall then extend upon the heights to the right of the Lobauer-Wasser, so that this rivulet, with its two banks, and the places upon them, as far as Neudorf, shall remain, with this village, to Saxony.

The line shall then fall again upon the Spree, and the Schwarz-Wasser, Liska, Hermsdorf, Ketten, and Solahdorf, are assigned to Prussia.

From the Schwarze-Elster, near Solchdorf, a right line shall be drawn to the frontier of the lordship of Konigsbruck, near Grossgrabchen. This lordship remains to Saxony, and the line shall follow its northern boundary as far as the Bailiwick of Grossenhayn, in the neighbourhood of Ortrand. Ortrand, and the road from that place by Merzdorf, Stolzenhayn, and Grobein, to Muhlberg (with the villages on that road, so that no part of it remain beyond the Prussian Territory), shall be under the government of Prussia.The frontier from Grobeln shall be traced to the Elbe near Fichtenberg, and then shall follow the bailiwick of Muhlberg. Fichtenberg shall be the property of Prussia.

From the Elbe to the frontier of the country of Merseburg, it shall be so regulated that the bailiwicks of Torgau, Eilenburg, and Delitsch, shall pass to Prussia, while those of Oschatz, Wurzen, and Leipsic, shall remain to Saxony. The line shall follow the frontier of these bailiwicks, dividing some inclosures and demi-inclosures. The road from Muhlberg to Eilenburg shall be wholly within the Prussian territory.

From Podelwitz (belonging to the bailiwick of Leipsic, and remaining to Saxony) as far as Eylra, which also remains to her, the line shall divide the country of Merseburg in such a manner that Breitenfeld, Haenichen, Gross and Klein-Dolzig, Mark-Ranstadt and Knaut-Nauendorf, remain to Saxony; and Modelwitz, Skenditz, Klein-Liebenau, Alt-Ramstadt, Schkohlen and Zietschen, pass to Prussia.

From thence the line shall divide the bailiwick of Pegau, between the Floss-graben and the Weisse-Elster; the former, from the point where it separates itself above the town of Crossen (which forms part of the bailiwick of Haynsburg) from the Weisse-Elster, to the point where it joins the Saale below the town of Merseburg, shall belong, in its whole course between those two towns, with both its banks, to the Prussian territory.

From thence, where the frontier touches upon that of the country of Zeitz, the line shall follow it as far as the boundary of the country of Altenburg, near Luckau.

The frontiers of the circle of Neustadt,[26] which wholly falls under the dominion of Prussia, remain untouched.

The inclosures of Voigtland, in the district of Reuss, that is to say Gefall, Blintendorf, Sparenberg, and Blankenberg, arc comprised in the share of Prussia.

ART. XVI.[27] The provinces and districts of the kingdom of Saxony, which are transferred to the dominion of his Majesty the King of Prussia, shall be distinguished by the name of the duchy of Saxony, and his Majesty shall add to his titles those of duke of Saxony, Landgrave of Thuringia, Margrave of the two Lusatias, and count of Henneberg.

His Majesty the King of Saxony shall continue to bear the title of Margrave of Upper Lusatia. His Majesty shall also continue, with relation to, and in virtue of his right of eventual succession to the possessions of the Ernestine branch, to bear the title of Landgrave of Thuringia and count of Henneberg.

ART. XVII. Austria, Russia, Great Britain, and France, guarantee, to his Majesty the King of Prussia, his descendants and successors, the possession of the countries marked out in the 15th Article, in full property and sovereignty.

ART. XVIII. His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, wishing to give to the King of Prussia a fresh proof of his desire to remove every object of future discussion between their two courts, renounces for himself and his successors, his rights of sovereignty over the Margraviates of Upper and Lower Lusatia, which belonged to him as King of Bohemia, as far as these rights concern the portion of these provinces placed under the dominion of his Majesty the King of Prussia, by virtue of the Treaty with his Majesty the King of Saxony, concluded at Vienna on, the 18th of May, 1815.[28]

As to the right of reversion of his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty to the said portion of the Lusatias united to Prussia, it is transferred to the House of Brandenburg now reigning in Prussia, his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, reserving to himself and his successors, the power of resuming that right in the event of the extinction of the said reigning House.

His imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty renounces also, in favour of his Prussian Majesty, the districts of Bohemia inclosed within the part of Upper Lusatia ceded by the Treaty of the 18th of May 1815, to his Prussian Majesty, which districts comprehend the places of Güntersdorf, Taubentränte, Neukretschen, Nieder-Gerlachsheim, Winkel, and Ginkel, with their territories.

ART. XIX. His Majesty the King of Prussia and his Majesty the King of Saxony, wishing particularly to remove every object of future contest or dispute, renounce, each on his own part, and reciprocally in favour of one another, all feudal rights or pretensions, which they might exercise or might have exercised, beyond the frontiers fixed by the present Treaty.

ART. XX. His Majesty the King of Prussia promises to direct that proper care be taken relative to whatever may affect the property and interests of the respective subjects, upon the most liberal principles.[29]

The present Article shall be observed, particularly, regard to the concerns of those individuals who the who possess property both under the Prussian and Saxon Governments, to the commerce of Leipsic, and to all other objects of the same nature; and, in order that the individual liberty of the inhabitants, both of the ceded and other provinces, may not be infringed, they shall be allowed to emigrate from one territory to the other, without being exempted, however, from military service, and after fulfilling the formalities required by the laws. They may also remove their property without being subject to any fine or drawback (Abzugsgeld).

ART. XXI. The communities, corporations and religious establishments,[30] and those for public instruction in the provinces ceded by his Majesty the King of Saxony to Prussia, or in the provinces and districts remaining to his Saxon Majesty, shall preserve their property, whatever changes they may undergo, as well as the rents becoming due to them, according to the act of their foundation, or which they have acquired by a legal title since that period under Prussian and Saxon Governments; and neither party shall interfere in the administration and in the collection of the revenues provided that they be conducted in a manner conformable to the laws, and that the charges be defrayed, to which all property or rents of the like nature are subjected, in the territory in which, they occur.

ART. XXII. No individual domiciliated in the provinces which are under the dominion of his Majesty the King of Saxony, any more than an individual domiciliated in those which by the present Treaty pass under the dominion of the King of Prussia, shall be molested in his person, his property, rents, pensions or revenues of any kind, in his rank or dignities, nor be prosecuted or called to account in any manner, for any part which he, either in a civil or military capacity, may have taken in the events that have occurred since the commencement of the war, terminated by the Peace concluded at Paris on the 30th of May 1814.[31]

This Article equally extends to those who, not being domiciliated in either part of Saxony, may possess in it landed properly, rents, pensions or revenues of any kind.

ART. XXIII.[32] His Majesty the King of Prussia having in consequence of the last war, reassumed the possession of the provinces and territories which had been ceded by the Peace of Tilsit,[33] it is acknowledged and declared by the present Article that his Majesty, his heirs and successors, shall possess anew, as formerly, in full property and sovereignty, the following countries, that is to say:

Those of his ancient provinces of Poland specified by Article II;[34]
the city of Dantzic and its territory, as the latter was determined by the Treaty of Tilsit;[35][34]
the circle of Cottbus;
the Old March;
the part of the circle of Magdeburg situated on the left bank of the Elbe, together with the circle of the Saale;
the principality of Halberstadt, with the lordships of Derenbourg, and of Hassenrode; the town and territory of Quedlinburg (save and except the rights of her royal highness the princess Sophia Albertine of Sweden, Abbess of Quedlinburg, conformably to the arrangements made in 1803;
the Prussian part of the county of Mansfield;
the Prussian part of the county of Hohenstein;
the Eichsfeld;
the town ot Nordhausen with its territory; the town of Mulhausen with its territory;
the Prussian part of the district of Treffurt with Dosla;
the town and territory of Erfurth,[36] with the exception of Klein-Brembach and Balstedt, inclosed in the principality of Weimar, ceded to the Grand Duke of Saxe Wiemar by the 29th Article;
the bailiwick of Wandersleben,[37] belonging to the county of Untergleichen;
the principality of Paderporn, with the Prussian part of the bailiwicks of Schwallenberg, Oldenberg and Stoppelberg, and the jurisdictions (Genclite) of Hagendorn and Odenhausen, situated in the territory of Lippe;
the county of Mark, with the part of Lippstadt belonging to it;[38]
the county of Werden;
the county of Essen;
the part of the duchy of Cleves on the right bank of the Rhine, with the town and fortress of Wesel, the part of the duchy, situated on the left bank, specified in Article 25th;
the secularized Chapter of Elten; the principality of Munster, that is to say, the Prussian part of the former Bishopric of Munster, with the exception of that part which has been ceded to his Britannic Majesty, King of Hanover, in virtue of the 28th Article;
the secularized Provostship of Cappenburg;
the county of Teckledberg;
the county of Lingen, with the exception of that part ceded to the kingdom of Hanover by Article 27th;
the principality of Minden;
the county of Ravensberg;
the secularised Chapter of Herford;
the principality of Neufchatel,[39] with the county of Valengen, such as their frontiers are regulated by the Treaty of Paris, and by the 76th Article of this General Treaty.

The same disposition extends to the rights of sovereignty and suzeraineté over the county of Wernigerode, to that of high protection over the county of Hohen-Limbourg, and to all the other rights or pretensions whatsoever which his Prussian Majesty possessed and exercised, before the Peace of Tilsit, and which he has not renounced by other treaties, Acts or Conventions.

ART. XXIV. His Majesty the king of Prussia shall unite to his monarchy in Germany, on this side of the Rhine,[40] to be possessed by him and his successors in full property and sovereignty, the following countries:—

The provinces of Saxony designated in Article 15, with the exception of the places and territories ceded, in virtue of Article 29, to his highness the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar;

the territories ceded to Prussia, by his Britannic Majesty, King of Hanover, by Article 29;

part of the department of Fulda, and such of the territories comprehended therein as are specified in Article 40;

the town and territory of Wetzlar, according to Article 12;

the Grand Duchy of Berg with the lordships of Hardenberg, Brock, Styrum, Schöller and Odenthal, formerly belonging to the said Duchy under the Palatine Government;

the districts of the ancient archbishopric of Cologne, lately belonging to the Grand Duchy of Berg;

the Duchy of Westphalia, as lately possessed by his royal highness the Grand Duke of Hesse;

the county of Dortmund;

the principality of Corbey;

the mediatised districts specified in Article 43.

The ancient possessions of the House of Nassau-Dietz having been ceded to Prussia by his Majesty the King of the Netherlands, and a part of these possessions having beeh exchanged for the districts belonging to their Serene Highnesses the Duke and Prince of Nassau, the King of Prussia shall possess them, in sovereignty and property, and unite them to his monarchy.

1. The principality of Siegen with the bailiwicks of Burbacn send Neunkirchett, with the exception of a part containing 12,000 inhabitants, to belong to the Duke and Prince of Nassau.[41]

2. The bailiwicks of Hohen-Solms, Greifenstein, Braunfels, Freusberg, Friedewald, Schönstein, Schönberg, Altenkirchen, Altenwied, Dierdorf, Neuerburg, Linz, Hammerslein, with Engers and Heddcsdorf; the town and territory (Banlieur Gemarkung) of Newied; the parishes of Hamm, belonging to the bailiwick of Hackenberg; the parish of Horhausen, constituting part of the bailiwick of Horsbach, and the parts of the bailiwicks of Vallendar and Ehrenbreitstein, on the right bank of the Rhine, designated in the Convention concluded between his Majesty the King of Prussia and their Serene Highnesses the Duke and Prince of Nassau, annexed to the present Treaty.[42]

ART. XXV. His Majesty the King of Prussia shall also possess, in full property and sovereignty, the countries on the left bank of the Rhine, included in the frontier herein-after designated:—

This frontier shall commence on the Rhine at Bingen: it shall thence ascend the course of the Nahe to the junction of this river with the Glan, and along the Glan to the village of Medarf, below Lauterecken; the towns of Kreutznach and Meisenheim, with their territories, to belong entirely to Prussia; but Lauterecken and its territory to remain beyond the Prussian frontier. From the Glan the frontier shall pass by Medart, Merzweiler, Langweiler, Neideer and Ober Fechenbach, Ellenbach, Chreunchenborn, Ausweiler, Cronwciler, Niederbrambach, Burbach, Boschweiler, Heubweiler, Hambach, and Rintzenberg, to the limits of the Canton of Hermcs-Keil; the above places shall be included within the Prussian frontiers, and shall, together with their territories, belong to Prussia.

From Rintzenberg to the Sarre the line of demarcation shall follow the cantonal limits, so that the cantons of Hermeskiel and Conz (in which latter, however, are excepted the places on the left bank of the Sarre) shall remain wholly to Prussia, while the cantons of Wadern, Merzig, and Sarrebourg are to be beyond the Prussian frontier.

From the point where the limit of the canton of Conz, below Gomlingen, traverses the Sarre, the line shall descend the Sarre till it falls into the Moselle, thence it shall reascend the Moselle to its junction with the Sarre, from the latter river to the mouth of the Our, and along the Our to the limits of the ancient department of the Ourthe. The places traversed by these rivers shall not at all be divided, but shall belong, with their territories, to the power in whose state the greater part of these places shall be situated; the rivers themselves, in so far as they form the frontier, shall belong in common to the two powers bordering on them.

In the old department of the Ourthe, the five cantons of Saint-Vith, Malmedy, Cronenbourg, Schleiden, and Eupen, with the advanced point of the canton of Aubel, to the south of Aix-la-Chapelle, shall belong to Prussia, and the frontier shall follow that of these cantons, so that a line, drawn from north to south, may cut the said point of the canton of Aubel, and be prolonged as far as the point of contact of the three old departments of the Ourthe, the Lower Meuse, and the Roer; leaving that point, the frontier shall follow the line which separates these two last departments till it reaches the river Worm, which falls into the Roer, and shall go along this river to the point where it again touches the limits of these two departments; when it shall pursue that limit to the south of Hillensberg. shall ascend from thence towards the north, and leaving Hillensberg to Prussia, and cutting the canton of Sittard in two parts, nearly equal, so that Sittard, and Susteren remain on the left, shall reach the old Dutch territory; then following the old frontier of that territory, to the point where it touched the old Austrian principality of Gueldres, on the side of Ruremonde, and directing itself towards the most eastern point of the Dutch territory, to the north of Swalmen, it shall continue to inclose this territory.

Then, setting out from the most eastern point, it joins that other part of the Dutch territory in which Venloo is situated, without including the latter town and its district: thence to the old Dutch frontier near Mook, situated below Cenep, it shall follow the course of the Meuse, at such a distance from the right bank, as that all the places situated within a thousand Rhenish yards (Rheinlandische Ruthen) of this bank,[43] shall, with their territories, belong to the kingdom of the Netherlands; it being well understood, however, in regard to the reciprocity of this principle, that no point of the bank of the Meuse shall constitute a portion of the Prussian territory, unless such point approach to within eight hundred Rhenish yards of it.

From the point where the line just described joins the old Dutch frontier, as far as the Rhine, this frontier shall remain essentially as it was in 1795, between Cleves and the United Provinces. It shall be examined by the commission, which shall be appointed without delay, by the two governments, to proceed to the exact determination of the limits, both of the kingdom of the Netherlands, and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg designated in Articles 66 and 68, and this commission shall regulate with the aid of experienced persons, whatever concerns the hydrotechnical constructions, and other analogous points, in the most equitable manner, and conformably to the mutual interests of the Prussian states and of those of the Netherlands. This same disposition extends to the regulation of the limits, in the districts of Kyfwaerd, Lobith, and all the territory to Kekerdom.

The places named Huissen, Malburg, le Lyniers, with the town of Sevenaer, and the lordship of Weel, shall form a part of the kingdom of the Netherlands, and his Prussian Majesty renounces them in perpetuity or himself, his heirs and successors.

His majesty the King of Prussia, in uniting to us states the provinces and districts designated in the present Article, enters into all he rights and takes upon himself all the charges and engagements stipulated with, respect to the countries dismembered from France, by the Treaty of Paris of the 30th May, 1814.

The Prussian provinces upon the two banks of the Rhine, as far as above the town of Cologne, which shall also be comprised within this district, shall bear: the name of Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine, and his Majesty shall assume the title of it.

ART. XXVI. His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, having substituted to his ancient title of Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, that of King of Hanover, and this title having seen acknowledged by all the Powers of Europe, and by the Princes and free towns of Germany, the countries which have till now composed the Electorate of Brunswick Lunehurg, according as their limits have been recognized and fixed for the future, by the following Articles, shall henceforth form the kingdom of Hanover.

ART. XXVII. His Majesty the King of Prussia cedes to his Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of Hanover, to be possessed by his Majesty and his successors, in full property and sovereignty;[44]

1. The principality of Hildesheim, which shall pass under the government of his Majesty, with all the rights and all the charges with which the said principality was transferred to the Prussian government.

2. The town and territory of Goslar.

3. The principality of East Frieseland, including the country called Harlinger-Land, under the conditions reciprocally stipulated in the 30th Article for the navigation of the Ems and the commerce of the port of Embden. The states of the principality shall preserve their rights and privileges.

4. The lower county (Nieder Graftschaft) of Lingen, and the part of the principality of Prussian Munster, which is situated between this county and the part of Rheina Wolbeck occupied by the Hanoverian Government; but as it has been agreed that the kingdom of Hanover shall obtain by this cession an accession of territory, comprising a population of 22,000 souls, and, as the lower county of Lingen and the part of the principality of Munster here mentioned might not come up to this condition, his Majesty the King of Prussia engages to cause the line of demarcation to be extended into the principality of Munster, as far as may be necessary to contain that population. The commission, which the Prussian and Hanoverian governments shall name without delay, to proceed to the exact regulation of the limits, shall be particularly charged with the execution of this provision.

His Prussian Majesty renounces in perpetuity, for himself, his descendants and successors, the provinces and territories mentioned in the present article, as well as all the rights which have any relation to them.

ART. XXVIII. His Majesty the King of Prussia renounces in perpetuity, for himself, his descendants and successors, all right and claim whatever, that his Majesty in his quality of Sovereign of Eichsfefd, might advance to the chapter of St. Peter, in the borough of Nörten, or to its dependencies, situated in the Hanoverian territory.

ART. XXIX. His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of Hanover, cedes to his Majesty the King of Prussia, to be possessed by him and his successors, in full property and sovereignty.

1. That part of the duchy of Lauenbourg situated upon the right bank of the Elbe, with the villages of Lunebourg situated on the same bank. The part of the duchy upon the left bank remains to the kingdom of Hanover. The states of that part of the duchy which passes under the Prussian government shall preserve their rights and privileges; especially those founded upon the provincial recess of the 15th September 1702, and confirmed by the King of Great Britain, now reigning, under date of June 21, 1765.

2. The bailiwick of Klötze;

3. The bailiwick of Elbingesode;

4. The villages of Rudigershagen and Gänseteich;

5. The bailiwick of Reckeberg.

His Britannic Majesty, king of Hanover, renounces for himself, his descendants and successors for ever, the provinces and districts specified in the present Article, and all the rights which have reference to them.[45]

ART. XXX. His Majesty the King of Prussia, and his Britannic Majesty, King of Hanover, animated with the desire of entirely equalising the advantages of the commerce of the Eras and of the Port of Embden, and of rendering them common to their respective subjects, have agreed on this head to what follows:

1. The Hanoverian government engages to cause to be executed, at its expense, in the years 1815 and 1816, the works which a commission, composed partly of artists, and to be immediately appointed by Prussia and Hanover, shall deem necessary to render navigable that part of the river of Ems which extends from the Prussian frontier to its mouth, and to keep it after the execution of such works, always in the same state in which those works shall have placed it for the benefit of navigation.

2. The Prussian subjects shall be allowed to import and export, by the port of Embden, all kinda of provisions, productions and goods, whether natural or artificial, and to keep in the town of Embden, warehouses, wherein to place the said goods for two years, dating from their arrival in the towns, without their being subject to any other inspection than that to which those of the Hanoverian subjects are liable.

3. The Prussian vessels and merchants of the same nation, shall not pay for navigation, for exportation or importation of merchandize, or for warehousing, any other tolls or duties than those charged upon the Hanoverian subjects. These tolls and duties shall be regulated by agreement between Prussia and Hanover, and no alteration shall be introduced into the tarif hereafter, but by mutual consent. The privileges and liberties just specified extend equally to those Hanoverian subjects who navigate that part of the river Ems which remains to the King of Prussia.

4. Prussian subjects shall not be compellable to employ the merchants of Embden for the trade they carry on with that port; they shall be at liberty to dispose of their commodities either to the inhabitants of the town or to foreigners, without paying any other duties than those to which the Hanoverian subjects are subjected, and which cannot be raised but by mutual consent.

His Majesty the King of Prussia, on his part, engages to grant to Hanoverian subjects the free navigation of the canal of the Stecknitz, so as not to exact from them any other duties than those which shall be paid by the inhabitants of the duchy of Lauenburg. His Prussian Majesty engages, besides, to insure these advantages to Hanoverian subjects, should he hereafter cede the duchy of Lauenburg to another sovereign.

ART. XXXI. His Majesty the King of Prussia and his Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King of Hanover, mutually agree to three military roads through their respective dominions.

1. One from Halberstadt, through the country of Hildesheim to Minden.

2. A second from the Old March, through Gihorn and Noustadt to Minden.

3. A third from Osnabruck, through Ippenbüren and Rheina to Bentheim.

The two first in favour of Prussia, and the third in favour of Hanover.

The two Governments shall appoint, without delay, a commission to prepare, by common consent, the necessary regulations for the establishment of the said roads.

XXXII. The bailiwick of Meppen, belonging to the Duke of Aremberg, as well at the part of Rheina Wolbeck, belonging to the Duke of Looz-Corswaren, which at this moment are provisionally occupied by the Hanoverian government, shall be placed in such relations with the kingdom of Hanover, as the Federative Constitution of Germany shall regulate for the mediatised territories. The Prussian and Hanoverian governments having nevertheless reserved to themselves to agree hereafter, if necessary, to the fixing of another line of frontier with regard to the county belonging to the Duke of Looz-Corswaren; the said governments shall charge the commission they may name for fixing the limits of the part of the county of Lingen ceded to Hanover, to deliberate thereupon, and to adjust definitively the frontiers of that part of the county belonging to the Duke of Looz-Corswaren, which as aforesaid, is to be possessed by the Hanoverian government.

The relations between the Hanoverian government and the county of Bentheim shall remain as regulated by the Treaties of Mortgage existing between his Britannic Majesty and the Count of Bentheim; and when the lights derived from this Treaty shall have expired, the relations of the county of Bentheim towards the kingdom of Hanover shall be such as the Federative Constitution of Germany shall regulate for the mediatised territories.

ART. XXXIII. His Britannic Majesty, King of Hanover, in order to meet the wishes of his Prussian Majesty to procure a suitable arrondissement of territory for his Serene Highness the Duke of Oldenburg, promises to cede to him a district containing a population of 5,000 inhabitants.

ART. XXXIV. His Serene Highness the Duke of Holstein-Oldenburg shall assume the title of Grand Duke of Oldenburg.

ART. XXXV. Their Serene Highnesses the Dukes of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Schwerin, shall assume the titles of Grand Dukes of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Strelitz.

ART. XXXVI. His Highness the Duke of Saxe-Weimar shall assume the title of Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar.

ART. XXXVII. His Majesty the King of Prussia shall cede from the mass of his states, as they have been fixed and recognised by the present Treaty, to his Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar, districts containing a population of 50,000 inhabitants, contiguous to, or bordering unon, the principality of Weimar.[46]

His Prussian Majesty engages also to cede to his Royal Highness out of that part of the principality of Fulda which has been given up to him in virtue of the same stipulations, districts containing a population of 27,000 inhabitants.

His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Weimar shall possess the above districts in full property and sovereignty, and shall unite them in perpetuity to his present states.

ART. XXXVIII. The Districts and Territories which are to be ceded to his Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar, in virtue of the preceding Article, shall be determined by a particular Convention;[47] and his Majesty the King of Prussia engages to conclude this Convention, and to cause the above districts and territories to be given up to his Royal Highness, within two months from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of the Treaty concluded at Vienna, June 1, 1815, between his Prussian Majesty and his Royal Highness the Grand Duke.

ART. XXXIX. His Majesty the King of Prussia, however, cedes immediately, and promises to give up to his Royal Highness, in the space of a fortnight, reckoning from the signature of the above mentioned Treaty, the following districts and territories; viz.

The Lordship of Blankenhayn, with the reservation of the bailiwick of Wandersleben,[48] belonging to Unter-Gleichen, which is not to bt comprised in this cession.

The lower lordship (Niedere-Herrschaft) of Kranichfeld, the commanderies of the Teutonic order Zwaetzen, Lehesten, and Liebstedt, with their demesnial revenues, which, constituting a part of the bailiwick of Eckartsberga, are inclosed in the territory of Saxe-Weimar, as well as all the other territories inclosed within the principality of Weimar, and belonging to the said bailiwick; the bailiwick of Tautenburgh, with the exception of Droizen, Gorschen, Wethalung, Wetterscheid, and Möllschütz, which shall remain to Prussia. The village of Remssla, as well as the villages of Klein-Brembach and Berlstedt, inclosed within the principality of Weimar, and belonging to the territory of Erfurth.

The property of the villages of Bisschoffsroda and Probsteizella, inclosed within the territory of Eisenach; the sovereignty of which already belongs to his Royal Highness the Grand Duke.

The population of these different districts is understood to form part of that of 50,000 souls, secured to his Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar, by Art. 37, and shall be deducted from it.

ART. XL. The department of Fulda, together with the territories of the neighbouring ancient Noblesse, comprised, at this moment, under the provisional administration of this department; viz. Mansbach, Buchenau, Werda, Lengsfeld, excepting, however, the following bailiwicks and territories; viz. the bailiwicks of Hammelburg, with Thulba and Saleck, Brückenau, with Motten, Saalmünster, with Urzel and Sonnerz; also the part of the bailiwick of Biberstein, which contains the villages of Batten, Brand, Dietges, Findlos, Liebharts, Melperz, Ober-Bernharst, Saifferts, and Thaiden, as well as the domain of Holzkirchen, inclosed in the Grand Duchy of Wurzburg, is ceded to his Majesty the King of Prussia, and he shall be put in possession of it within three weeks from and after the 15th June of this year.

His Prussian Majesty engages to take upon himself in proportion to that part of the territory whith he obtains by the present Article, his share of the obligations which all the new possessors of the heretofore Grand Duchy of Frankfort will have to fulfil, and to transfer such engagements to the Princes with whom bis Majesty may hereafter make exchanges or cessions of these districts and territories of the department of Fulda.

ART. XLI. The domains of the principality of Fulda and of the county of Hanau having been sold to purchasers, who have not as yet made good all their instalments, a Commission shall be named by the Princes to whom the said domains are transferred, to regulate, in a uniform manner, whatever has any reference to this transaction, and to do justice to the claims of the purchasers of the said domains.

This Commission shall pay particular attention to the Treaty concluded at Frankfort, December 2, 1813, between the Allied Powers and his Royal Highness the Elector of Hesse;[49] and it is laid down as a principle, that in case the sale of these domains should not be considered as binding, the purchasers shall receive back the sums already discharged, and they shall not be obliged to quit before such restitution shall have had its full and entire effect.

ART. XLII. The town and territory of Wetzlar passes, in all property and sovereignty, to his Majesty the King of Prussia.[50]

ART. XLIII. The following mediatised districts; viz. the possessions which the Princes of Salm-Salm, and Salm-Kyrburg, the Counts called the Rheimund, Wildgraten, and the Duke of Croy, obtained by the principal Rescript of the extraordinary Deputation of the Empire, of the 25th February 1803,[51] in the old Circle of Westphalia, as well as the Lordships of Anholt and Gehmen, the possessions of the Duke of Looz-Corzwaren, which are in the same, situation (in so far as they are not placed under the Hanoverian Government), the county of Steinfurt, belonging to the Count of Bentheim-Bentheim, the county of Recklingshausen, belonging to the Duke of Aremberg, the lordships of Rheda, Gütersloh, and Gronau, belonging to the Count of Bentheim-Tecklenburg, the county of Rittberg, belonging to the Prince of Kaunitz, the lordships of Neustadt and Gunborn, belonging to the Count of Walmoden, and the lordship of Homburg, belonging to the Princes of Saxe-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, shall be placed in such relations with the Prussian Monarchy as the Federative Constitution of Germany shall regulate for the mediatised territories.

The possessions of the ancient and immediate nobility within the Prussian territory, and particularly the lordship of Wildenberg, in the Grand Duchy of Berg, and the barony of Schaucn, in the principality of Halberstadt, shall belong to the Prussian Monarchy.[52]

ART. XIV. His Majesty the King of Bavaria shall possess, for himself, his heirs and successors, in full property and sovereignty, the Grand Duchy of Wurtzburg, as it was held by his Imperial Highnesss the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, and the principality of Aschaffenburg, such as it constituted part of the Grand Duchy of Frankfort, under the denomination of Department of Aschaffenburg.

ART. XLV. With respect to the rights and prerogatives, and the maintenance of the Prince Primate as an ancient ecclesiastical Prince, it is determined:

1. That he shall be treated in a manner analogous to the Articles of the Rescript, which, in 1803, regulated the situation of the secularized Princes, and to the practice observed with regard to them.

2. He shall receive for this purpose, dating from June 1, 1814, the sum of 100,000 florins, by payments of three months, in good specie, at the rate of 24 florins to the mark, as an annuity.

This annuity shall be paid by the Sovereigns under whose Governments the provinces or districts of the Grand Duchy of Frankfort pass, in proportion to the part which each of them shall possess.

3. The advances made by the Prince Primate, from his private purse, to the general chest of the principality of Fulda, such as they have been liquidated and proved, shall be refunded to him, his heirs, or executors. This expenditure shall be defrayed in proportions by the Sovereigns who shall possess the provinces and districts composing the principality of Fulda.

4. The furniture and other objects which may be proved to belong to the private property of the Prince Primate, shall be restored to him.

5. The officers of the Grand Duchy of Frankfort, as well civil and ecclesiastical as military and diplomatic, shall be treated conformably to the principles of the 59th Article of the Protocol of the Empire, dated the 25th February 1803, and from the 1st of June the pensions shall be proportionably paid by the Sovereigns who enter on the possession of the States which formed the said Grand Duchy since the 1st of June 1814.

6. A Commission shall be established without delay, composed of members appointed by the said Sovereigns, to regulate whatever relates to the execution of the dispositions comprised in this Article.

7. It is understood, that in virtue of this arrangement, any claim that might be advanced against the Prince Primate, in his character of Grand Duke of Frankfort, shall be annulled, and that he shall not be molested on account of any reclamation of this nature.

ART. XLVI. The city of Frankfort, with its territory, such as it was in 1803, is declared free, and shall constitute a part of the Germanic League.[53] Its institutions shall be founded upon the principle of a perfect equality of rights for the different sects of the Christian religion. This equality of rights shall extend to all civil and political rights, and shall be observed in all matters of government and administration.

The disputes which may arise, whether in regard to the establishment of the Constitution, or in regard to its maintenance, shall be referred to the Germanic Diet, and can only be decided by the same.

ART. XLVII. His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Hesse, in exchange for the Duchy of Westphalia, ceded to his Majesty the King of Prussia,[54] obtains a territory on the left bank of the Rhine, in the ancient department of Mount Tonnerre, comprising a population of 140,000 inhabitants. His Royal Highness shall possess this territory in full sovereignty and property. He shall likewise, obtain the property of that part of the Salt Mines of Kreusznach which is situated on the left bank of the Nahe, but the sovereignty of them shall remain to Prussia.[55]

ART. XLVIII. The Landgrave of Homhurg is reinstated in his possessions, revenues, rights, and political relations, of which he was deprived in consequence of the Confederation of the Rhine.[56]

ART. XLIX.[57] In the ci-devant department of the Sanre, on the frontiers of the states of his Majesty the King of Prussia, there is reserved a district, containing a population of 69,000 souls, to be disposed of in the following manner:

the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and the Duke of Oldenburg shall obtain each a territory comprising 20,000 inhabitants. The Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and the Landgrave of Ilesse-Homburg, each a territory comprising 10,000 inhabitants; and the Count of Pappenheim a territory comprising 9,000 inhabitants.[58]

The territory of the Count of Pappenheim shall be under the sovereignty of his Prussian Majesty.

ART. L.[59] The acquisitions assigned by the preceding Article to the Dukes of Saxe-Coburg, Oldenburg, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and the Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, not being contiguous to their respective states, their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, the Emperor of all the Russias, and the Kings of Great Britain and Prussia, promise to employ their good offices, at the close of the present war, or as soon as circumstances shall permit, in order to procure for the said Princes, either by exchanges or any other arrangements, the advantages that they are disposed to insure to them; and that the administration of the said districts may be rendered less complicated, it is agreed that they shall be provisionally under the Prussian administration for the benefit of the new proprietors.

ART. LI.[60] All the territories and possessions, as well on the left bank of the Rhine, in the old departments of the Sarre and Mont-Tonnere, as in the former departments of Fulda and Frankfort, or inclosed in the adjacent countries, placed at the disposal of the Allied Powers, by the Treaty of Paris of the 30th May 1814, and not disposed of by other Articles of the present Treaty, shall pass in full sovereignty and property, under the Government of his Majesty the Emperor of Austria.[61]

ART. LII. The principality of Issenburg is placed under the sovereignty of his Imperial and Koyal Apostolic Majesty,[62] and shall belong to him, under such limitations as the Federative Constitution of Germany shall regulate for the mediatised States.

ART. LIII. The Sovereign Princes and Free-towns of Germany, under which denomination, for the present purpose, are comprehended their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, the Kings of Prussia, of Denmark, and of the Netherlands; that is to say,

the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia for all their possessions which anciently belonged to the German Empire,

the King of Denmark for the Duchy of Holstein,

and the King of the Netherlands for the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, establish among themselves a perpetual Confederation, which shall be called the "Germanic Confederation."[63]

ART. LIV. The object of this Confederation is the maintenance of the external and internal safety of Germany, and of the independance and inviolability of the confederated States.

ART. LV. The Members of the Confederation, as such, are equal with regard to their rights; and they all equally engage to maintain the Act which constitutes their union.

ART. LVI. The affairs of the Confederation shall be confided to a Federative Diet, in which all the Members shall vote by their Plenipotentiaries, either individually or collectively, in the following manner, without prejudice to their rank:

Vote.
1. Austria 1
2. Prussia 1
3. Bavaria 1
4. Saxony 1
5. Hanover l
6. Wurtemburg 1
7. Baden 1
8. Electoral Hesse 1
9. Grand Duchy of Hesse 1
10. Denmark, for Holstein 1
11. The Netherlands, for Luxembourg 1
12. Grand-Ducal and Ducal Houses of Saxony 1
13. Brunswick and Nassau 1
14. Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Strelitz 1
15. Holstein-Oldenburg, Anhall and Schwartzburg 1
16. Hohenzollern, Lichtenstein, Reuss, Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe and Waldeck 1
17. The Free Towns of Lubeck, Frankfort, Bremen and Hamburgh 1
Total Votes 17

ART. LVII. Austria shall preside at the Federative Diet. Each State of the Confederation has the right of making propositions, and the presiding State shall bring them under deliberation within a definitive time.[64]

ART. LVIII. Whenever fundamental laws are to be enacted, changes made in the fundamental laws of the Confederation, measures adopted relative to the Federative Act itself, and organic institutions or other arrangements made for the common interest, the Diet shall form itself into a General Assembly, and, in that case, the distribution of votes shall be as follows, calculated according to the respective extent of the individual states:

Votes
Austria[65] shall have 4
Prussia 4
Saxony 4
Bavaria[66] 4
Hanover 4
Wurtemburg 4
Baden 3
Electoral Hesse[67][68] 3
Grand Duchy of Hesse[69][70] 3
Holstein[71] 3
Luxembourg 3
Brunswick 2
Mecklenburg-Schwerin 2
Nassau 2
Saxe-Weimar 1
Saxe-Gotha 1
Saxe-Coburg 1
Saxe-Meiningen 1
Saxe-Hildburghausen 1
Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1
Holstein-Oldenburg 1
Anhalt-Dessau 1
Anhalt-Bernburg[72] 1
Anhalt-Kotthen[73] 1
Schwartzbourg-Sondershausen 1
Schwartzbourg-Rudplstadt 1
Hohenzollern-Heckingen 1
Lichtenstein 1
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 1
Waldeck[74] 1
Reuss, (Elder Branch) 1
Reuss, (Younger Branch) 1
Schaumburg-Lippe 1
Lippe 1
The Free Town of Lubeck 1
————————Frankfort[75] 1
————————Bremen 1
————————Hamburgh[76] 1
Total Votes 69

The Diet in deliberating on the organic laws of the Confederation, shall consider whether any collective votes ought to be granted to the ancient mediatised States of the empire.

ART. LIX. The question, whether a subject is to be discussed by the General Assembly, conformably to the principles above established, shall be decided in the ordinary assembly by a majority of votes.

The same Assembly shall prepare the drafts of resolutions which are to be proposed to the General Assembly, and shall furnish the latter with all the necessary information, either for adopting or rejecting them. The plurality of votes shall regulate the decisions, both in the Ordinary and General Assemblies, with this difference, however, that, in the Ordinary Assembly, an absolute majority shall be deemed sufficient, while, in the other, two-thirds of the votes shall be necessary to form the majority. When the votes are even in the Ordinary Assembly, the President shall have the casting vote; but when the Assembly is to deliberate on the acceptance or change of any of the fundamental laws, upon organic institutions, upon individual rights, or upon affairs of religion, the plurality of votes shall not be deemed sufficient, either in the Ordinary or in the General Assembly.

The Diet is permanent: it may, however, when the subjects submitted to its deliberation are disposed of, adjourn for a fixed period, which shall not exceed four months.

All ulterior arrangements relative to the postponement or the dispatch of urgent business, which may arise during the recess, shall be reserved for the Diet, which- will consider them when engaged in preparing the organic laws.

ART. LX. With respect to the order in which the members of the Confederation shall vote, it is agreed, that while the Diet shall be occupied in framing organic laws, there shall be no fixed regulation; and whatever may be the order observed on such an occasion, it shall neither prejudice any of the members, nor establish a precedent for the future. After framing the organic laws, the Diet will deliberate upon the manner of arranging this matter by a permanent regulation, for which purpose it will depart as little as possible from those which have been observed in the ancient Diet, and more particularly according to the Recess of the Deputation of the Empire in 1803. The order to be adopted shall in no way affect the rank and precedence of the members of the Confederation, except in as far as they concern the diet.

ART. LXI. The Diet shall assemble at Frankfort on the Maine. Its first meeting is fixed for the 1st of September 1815.

ART. LXII. The first object to be considered by the Diet after its opening, shall be the framing of the fundamental laws of ths Confederation, and of its organic institutions, with respect to its exterior, military, and interior relations.

ART. LXIII. The States of the Confederation engage to defend not only the whole of Germany, but each individual State of the Union, in case it should be attacked, and they mutually guarantee to each other such of their possessions as are comprised in this Union.

When war shall be declared by the Confederation, no member can open a separate negotiation with the enemy, nor make peace, nor conclude an armistice, without the consent of the other members.

The confederated States engage, in the same manner, not to make war against each other, on any pretext, nor to pursue their diffeiences by force of arms, but to submit them to the Diet, which will attempt a mediation by means of a Commission. If this should not succeed, and a juridical sentence becomes necessary, recourse shall be had to a well-organized Austregal Court (Austregal instanz), to the decision of which the contending parties are to submit without appeal.

ART. LXIV. The Articles comprised under the title of Particular Arrangements, in the Act of the Germanic Confederation, as annexed to the present General Treaty, both in original and in a French translation, shall have the same force and validity as if they were textually inserted herein.

ART. LXV. The ancient United Provinces of the Netherlands and the late Belgic provinces, both within the limits fixed by the following Article, shall form, together with the countries and territories designated in the same article, under the sovereignty of his Royal Highness the Prince of Orange-Nassau, sovereign prince of the United Provinces, the kingdom of the Netherlands, hereditary in the order of succession already established by the Act of the constitution of the said United Provinces. The title and the prerogatives of the royal dignity are recognised by all the Powers in the house of Orange-Nassau.

ART. LXVI. The line comprising the territories which compose the kingdom of the Netherlands, is determined in the following manner:—It leaves the sea, and extends along the frontiers of France on the side of the Netherlands as rectified and fixed by Article III. of the Treaty of Paris of the 30th May, 1814, to the Meuse; thence along the tame frontiers to the old limits of the duchy of Luxembourg. From this point it follows the direction of the limits between that duchy and the ancient Bishoprick of Liege, till it meets (to the south of Deiffelt) the western limits of that canton, and of that of Malmedy, to the point where the latter reaches the limits between the old departments of the Ourthe and the Roer; it then follows these limits, to where they touch those of the former French canton of Eupen, in the duchy of Limburg, and following the western limit of that canton, in a northerly direction, leaving to the right a small part of the former French canton of Aubel, joins the point of contact of the three old departments of the Ourthe, the Lower Meuse, and the Roer; parting again from this point, this line follows that which divides the two latter departments, until it reaches the Worm (a river falling into the Roer), and goes along this river to the point where it again reaches the limit of these two departments, pursues this limit to the south of Hillensberg, (the old department of the Roer), from whence it reascends to the north, and leaving Hillensberg to the right, and dividing the canton of Sittard into two nearly equal parts, so that Sittard and Susteren remain on the left, it reaches the old Dutch territory; from whence, leaving this territory to the left, it goes on following its eastern frontier to the point where it touches the old Austrian principality of Gueldres, on the side of Ruremonde, and directing itself towards the most eastern point of the Dutch territory, to the north of Swalmen, continues to inclose this territory.[77]

Lastly, setting out from the most eastern point, it joins that part of the Dutch territory in which Venlpo is situated; that town and its territory being included within it. From thence to the old Dutch frontier near Mook, situated above Genep, the line follows the course of the Meuse, at such a distance from the right bank, that all the places within a thousand Rhenish yards (Rheinlandische Ruthen) from it shall belong, with their territories, to the kingdom of the Netherlands; it being understood however, as to the reciprocity of this principle, that the Prussian territory shall not at any point touch the Meuse, or approach it within the distance of a thousand Rhenish yards.

From the point where the line just described reaches the ancient Dutch frontier, as far as the Rhine, this frontier shall remain essentially the same as it was in 1795, between Cleves and the United Provinces. This line shall be examined by a commission, which the governments of Prussia and the Netherlands shall name without delay, for the purpose of proceeding to the exact determination of the limits, as well of the kingdom of the Netherlands, as of the grand duchy of Luxembourg, specified in Art. LXVIII.; and this commission, aided by professional persons, shall regulate every thing concerning the hydrotecnnical constructions, and other similar points, in the most equitable manner, and the most conformable to the mutual interests of the Prussian states, and of those of the Netherlands. This same arrangement refers to the fixing of limits in the districts of Kyfwaerd, Lobith and in the whole territory as far as Kekerdom.

The enclaves of Huissen, Malburg, Lymers, with the town of Sevenaer and lordship of Weel, shall form a part of the kingdom of the Netherlands; and his Prussian Majesty renounces them in perpetuity for himself, his heirs and successors.

ART. LXVII. That part of the old Duchy of Luxembourg which is comprised in the in the limits specified in the following Article, is likewise ceded to the sovereign prince of the United Provinces, now King of the Netherlands, to be possessed in perpetuity by him and his successors, in full property and sovereignty. The Sovereign of the Netherlands shall add to his titles that of Grand Duke of Luxembourg. His Majesty reserving to himself the privilege of making such family arrangement between the princes his sons, relative to the succession to the Grand Duchy, as he shall think conformable to the interests of his monarchy, and to his paternal intentions.

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, serving as a compensation for the principalities of Nassau Dillenburg, Siegen, Hadamar and Dietz, shall form one of the States of the Germanic Confederation; and the Prince, King of the Netherlands, shall enter into the system of this Confederation, as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, with all the prerogatives and privileges enjoyed by the other German Princes.

The town of Luxembourg, in a military point of view, shall be considered as a fortress of the Confederation: the Grand Duke shall, however, retain the right of appointing the governor and military commandant of this fortress, subject to the approbation of the executive power of the Confederation, and under such other conditions as it may be judged necessary to establish, in conformity with the also renounces the principality of Fulda, and future constitution of the said Confederation

ART. LXVIII. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg shall consist of all the territory situated between the kingdom, of the Netherlands, as it has been designated by Art. LXVI, France, the Moselle, as far as the mouth of the Sure, the course of the Sure, as far as the junction of the Our, course of this last river, as far as the limits of the former French canton of St. Vith, which shall not belong to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

ART. LXIX. His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, shall possess in perpetuity, for himself and his successors, the full and entire sovereignty; of that part of the duchy of Bouillon, which is not ceded to France by the Treaty of Paris; and which, therefore, shall be united to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

Disputes, having arisen with respect to the said duchy of Bouillon, the competitor who shall legally establish his right, in the manner shall possess, in full property, the said part of the duchy, as it was enjoyed by the last duke, under the sovereignty of his Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

This decision shall be made by arbitration, and be without appeal. For this purpose there shall be appointed a certain number of arbitrators, one by each of the two competitors, and others, to the number of three, by the courts of Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia. They shall assemble at Aix-la-Chapelle, as soon as the state of the war and other circumstances may admit of it, and their determination shall be made known within six months from their first meeting.

In the interim, his Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxemburgh, shall hold in trust the property of the said part of the Duchy of Bouillon, in order that he may restore it, together with the revenues of the provisional administration, to the competitor in whose favour the arbitrators shall decide; and his said Majesty shall indemnify him for the loss of the revenues arising from the rights of sovereignty, by means of some equitable arrangement. Should the restitution fall to Prince Charles of Rohan, this property, when in his possession, shall be regulated by the laws of the substitution which constitutes his title thereto.

ART. LXX. His Majesty the King of the Netherlands renounces, in perpetuity for himself his heirs and successors, in favour of his Majesty the King of Prussia, the sovereign possessions which the house of Nassau-Orange held in Germany, namely, the principalities of Dillenburg, Dietz, Siegen, and lludamar, with the lordships of Beilsteiu, such as those possessions have been definitively arranged between the two branches of the house of Nassau, by the Treaty concluded at the Hague on the 14th July 1814.[78] His Majesty also renounces the principality of Fulda, and the other districts and territories which were secured to him by the 12th Article of the principal recess of the Extraordinary Deputation of the Empire of the 25th of February 1803.[79]

ART. LXXI. The right and order of succession, established between the two branches of the house of Nassau, by the Act of 1783,[80] called Nassauischer Erbverein, is confirmed, and transferred from the four principalities of Orange Nassau, to the grand duchy of Luxembourg.

ART. LXXII. His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, in uniting under his sovereignty, the countries designated in the 66th and 68th Articles, enters into all the rights, and takes upon himself all the charges and all the stipulated engagements, relative to the Provinces and districts detached from France by the Treaty of Peace concluded at Paris the 30th May 1814.

ART. LXXIII. His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, having recognised and sanctioned under date of the 21st July 1814, as the basis of the union of the Belgic Provinces with the United Provinces, the eight Articles contained in the document annexed to the present Treaty,[81] the said Articles shall have the same force and validity as if they were inserted, word for word, in the present Instrument.[82]

ART. LXXIV. The integrity of the nineteen Cantons,[83] as they existed in a political body, from the signature of the Convention of the 29th December 1813,[84][85] is recognised as the basis of the Helvetic system.

ART. LXXV. The Vallais, the territory of Geneva,[86] and the principality of Neufehatel,[87] are united to Switzerland, and shall form three new cantons. The valley of Dappes, having formed part of the canton of Vaud, is restored to it.[88]

ART. LXXVI. The bishoprick of Basle and the city and territory of Bienne shall be united to the Helvetic Confederation, and shall form part of the canton of Berne. The following districts, however, are excepted from this last arrangement:

1. A district of about three square leagues in extent, including the communes of Altschweiler, Schonbuch, Oberweiler, Terweiler, Ettingen, Fürsteintein, Plotten, Pfeffingen, Aesch, Bruck, Reinach, Arlesheim; which district shall be united to the canton of Basle.

2. A small enclave, situated near the village of Neufchatel de Lignieres,[89] which is at present, with respect to civil jurisdiction, dependant upon the canton of Neufchatel, and with respect to criminal jurisdiction, upon that of the bishoprick of Basle, shall belong in full sovereignty to the principality of Neufchatel.

ART. LXXVII. The inhabitants of the bishoprick of Basle and those of Bienne, united to the cantons of Berne and Basle, shall enjoy, in every respect, without any distinction of religion (which shall be maintained in its present state) the same political and civil rights which are enjoyed, or may be enjoyed, by the inhabitants of the ancient parts of the said cantons: they shall, therefore, be equally competent to become candidates for the places of representatives, and for all other appointments, according to the constitution of the cantons. Such municipal privileges as are compatible with the constitution and the general regulations of the canton of Berne, shall be preserved to the town of Bienne, and to the villages that formed part of its jurisdiction.

The sale of the national domains shall be confirmed, and the feudal rights and tithes cannot be reestablished.

The respective Acts of the Union shall be framed, conformably to the principles above declared, by commissions, composed of an equal number of deputies from each of the directing parties concerned. Those from the bishopric of Basle, shall be chosen by the canton, from amongst the most eminent citizens of the country. The said Acts shall be guaranteed by the Swiss Confederation. All points upon which the parties cannot agree, shall be decided by a court of arbitration, to be named by the Diet.

ART. LXXVIII. The cession, made by the 3d Article of the Treaty of Vienna of the 14th October 1809,[12] of the lordship of Raziins, inclosed in the country of the Grisons, having expired; and his Majesty the Emperor of Austria, being restored to all the rights attached to the said possession, confirms the disposition which he made of it, by a declaration, dated the 20th March 1815, in favour of the canton ef the Grisons.

ART. LXXIX. In order to ensure the commercial and military communications of the town of Geneva with the canton of Vaud, and the rest of Switzerland; and with a view to fulfil, in that respect, the 4th Article of the Treaty of Paris of the 30th May 1814, his Most Christian Majesty consents so to place the line of custom-houses, that the road which leads from Geneva into Switzerland by Versoy, shall, at all times, be free, and that neither the post nor travellers, nor the transport of merchandize, shall be interrupted by any examination of the officers of the customs, nor subjected to any duly. It is equally understood, that the passage of Swiss troops on this road shall not, in any manner, be obstructed.

In the additional regulations to be made on this subject, the execution of the Treaties relative to the free communication between the town of Geneva and the jurisdiction of Peney, shall be assured in the manner most convenient to the inhabitants of Geneva. His Most Christian Majesty also consents that the gendarmerie and militia of Geneva, after having communicated on the subject with the nearest military post of the French gendarmerie, shall pass on the high, road of Meyrin, to and from the said jurisdiction, and the town of Geneva.

ART. LXXX.[90] His Majesty the King of Sardinia cedes, that part of Savoy which is situated between the river Arve, the Rhone, the limits of that part of Savoy ceded to France, and the mountain of Salive, as far as Veiry inclusive, together with that part which lies between the high road called that of the Simplon, the lake of Geneva, and the present territory of the canton of Geneva, from Venezas to the point where the river of Hermance crosses the said road, and from thence, following the course of that river to where it enters the lake of Geneva, to the east of the village of Hermance (the whole of the road of the Simplon continuing to be possessed by his Majesty the King of Sardinia) in order that these countries shall be re-united to the canton of Geneva; with the reservation, however, of determining more precisely, by commissioners respectively, their limits, particularly of that part which relates to the demarcation above Veiry, and on the mountain of Saleve; his said Majesty renouncing for himself and his successors, in perpetuity without exception or reservation, all rights of sovereignty, or other rights which may belong to him in the places and territories comprised within this demarcation.

His Majesty the King of Sardinia also agrees, that the communication between the canton of Geneva and the Vallais, by the road of the Simplon, shall be established, in the same manner as it has been agreed to by France, between Geneva and the canton of Vaud, by the route of Versoy.[91] A free communication shall also be at all limes granted for the Genevese troops, between the territory of Geneva and the jurisdiction of Jussy, and such facilities shall be allowed as may be necessary for proceeding by the lake to the road of the Simplon.

On the other hand, an exemption from all duties of transit shall be granted for all merchandize and goods which, coming from the states of his Majesty the King of Sardinia and the free port of Genoa, shall traverse the road called the Simplon in its whdle extent, through the Vallais and the state of Geneva, This exemption, shall, however, be confined to the transit, and shall extend neither to the tolls established for the maintenance of the road, nor to duties levied on merchandize or goods intended to be sold or consumed in the interior. The same reservation shall apply to the communication granted to the Swiss between the Vallais and the canton of Geneva; and the different governments, shall for this purpose take such measures as, by common agreement, they shall judge necessary, either for taxation or for preventing contraband trade in their territories, respectively.[92]

ART. LXXXI. With a view to the establishing of reciprocal compensations, the cantons of Argovia, Vaud, Tessin, and St. Gall, shall furnish to the ancient cantons of Schwitz, Unterwald, Uri, Claris, Zug and Appenzell (Rhode Interior) a sum of money to be applied to purposes of public instruction, and to the expenses of general administration, but principally to the former object, in the said cantons.

The quota, manner of payment, and division of this pecuniary compensation, are fixed as follows:

The cantons of Argovia, Vaud, and St. Gall, shall furnish to the cantons of Schwitz, Unterwald, Uri, Zug, Claris, and Appenzell (Rhode Interior) a fund of 500,000 Swiss livres.

Each of the former cantons shall pay the interest of its quota, at the rate of five per cent, per annum, or have the option of discharging the principal either in money or funded property.

The division, either of the payment or receipt of these funds, shall be made according to the scale of contributions laid down for providing the federal expenses.

The canton of Tessin shall pay every year to the canton of Uri, a moiety of the produce of the tolls in the Levantine valley.

ART. LXXXII. To put an end to the discussions which have arisen, with respect to the funds placed in England by the cantons of Zurich and Berne, it is determined;

1. That the cantons of Berne and Zurich shall preserve the property of the funded capital as rt existed in 1803, at the period of the dissolution of the Helvetic government, and shall receive the interest thereof from January 1st, 1815.

2. That the accumulated interest due since the year 1798, up to the year 1814, inclusive, shall be applied to the payment of the remaining capital of the national debt, known under the denomination of the Helvetic debt.

3. That the surplus of the Helvetic debt shall remain at the charge of the other cantons, those of Berne and Zurich being exonerated by the above arrangement. The quota of each of the cantons, which remain charged with this surplus, shall be calculated and paid according to the proportion fixed for the contributions destined to defray federal expenses. The countries incorporated with Switzerland since 1813, shall not be assessed on account of the old Helvetic debt.

If it shall happen that an overplus remains after discharging the above debt, that overplus shall be divided between the cantons of Berne and Zurich, in the proportion of their respective capitals.

The same regulations shall be observed with regard to those other debts the documents concerning which are deposited in the Custody of the president of the Diet.

ART. LXXXIII. To conciliate disputes respecting lauds abolished without indemnification, an indemnity shall be given to persons who are owners of such lauds; and for the purpose of avoiding all further differences on this subject between the cantons of Berne and Vaud, the latter shall pay to the government of Berne, the sum of 300,000 Swiss livres, which shall lie shared between the Bernese claimants, propietors of lauds. The payments shall be made at the rale of a fifth part each year, commencing from January 1, 1816.

ART. LXXXIV. The Declaration of the 20th March,[93] addressed by the Allied Powers who signed the Treaty of Paris, to the Diet of the Swiss Confederation, and accepted by the Diet through the Act of Adhesion of May 27th, is confirmed in the whole of its tenor; and the principles established, as also the arrangements agreed upon, in the said Declaration, shall be invariably maintained.

ART. LXXXV. The frontiers of the states of his Majesty the King of Sardinia shall be:

On the side of France, such as they were on the 1st of January 1792, with the exception of the changes effected by the Treaty of Paris of 30th May 1814.[94]

On the side or the Helvetic Confederation, such as they existed on the 1st of January 1792, with the exception of the change produced by the cession in favour of the canton of Geneva, as specified by the 80th Article of the present Act.

On the side of the states of his Majesty the Emperor of Austria, such as they existed on the 1st of January 1792; and the Convention concluded between their Majesties the Empress Maria Theresa, and the King of Sardinia, on the 4th of October 1751,[95] shall be reciprocally confirmed in all its stipulations.

On the side of the states of Parma and Placentia, the frontier, as far as it concerns the ancient states of the King of Sardinia, shall continue to be the same as they were on the 1st of January 1792.

The borders of the former states of Genoa, and of the countries called Imperial Fiefs, united to the states of his Majesty the King of Sardinia, according to the following Articles, shall be the same as those, which on the 1st of January 1792, separated those countries from the states of Parma and Placentia, and from those of Tuscany and Massa.

The island of Capraja, having belonged to the ancient republic of Genoa, is included in the cession of the states of Genoa, to his Majesty the King of Sardinia.

ART. LXXXVI. The states which constituted the former republic of Genoa, are united in perpetuity to those of his Majesty the King of Sardinia; to be, like the latter, possessed by him in full sovereignty and hereditary property; and to descend, in the male line, in the order of primogeniture, to the two branches of his house, viz.; the royal branch, and the branch of Savoy Carignan.

ART. LXXXVII. The King of Sardinia shall add to his present titles, that of Duke of Genoa.[96]

ART. LXXXVIII. The Genoese shall enjoy all the rights and privileges, specified in the Act, intituled "Conditions which are to serve as the bases of the union of the Genoese states to those of his Sardinian Majesty," and the said Act,[97] such as it is annexed to this General Treaty, shall be considered as an integral part thereof, and shall have the same force and validity, as if it were textually inserted in the present Article.

ART. LXXXIX. The countries called Imperial Fiefs, formerly united to the ancient Ligurian republic, are definitively united to the states of his Majesty the King of Sardinia, in the same manner as the rest of the Genoese states; and the inhabitants of these countries shall enjoy the same rights and privileges as those of the states of Genoa, specified in the preceding Article.

ACT. XC. The right that the Powers who signed the Treaty of Paris of the 30th May 1814, reserved to themselves by the 3d Art. of that Treaty, of fortifying such points of their states as they might judge proper for their safely, is equally reserved, without restriction, to his Majesty the King of Sardinia.

ART. XCI. His Majesty the King of Sardinia cedes to the canton of Geneva, the districts of Savoy, designated in the 80th Article above recited, according to the conditions specified in the Act, intituled "Cession made by his Majesty the king of Sardinia to the canton of Geneva."[98] This Act shall be considered as an integral part of this General Treaty, to which it is annexed, and shall have the same force and validity as if it were textually inserted in the present Article.[99]

ART. XCII. The provinces of Chablais and Faucigny, and the whole of the territory of Savoy to the North of Ugine, belonging to his Majesty the King of Sardinia, shall form a part of the neutrality of Switzerland, as it is recognised and guaranteed by the Powers.[100]

Whenever, therefore, the neighbouring powers to Switzerland are in a stale of open or impending hostility, the troops of his Majesty the King of Sardinia which may be in those provinces, shall retire, and may for that purpose pass through the Vallais, if necessary. No other armed troops of any other power shall have the privilege of passing through or remaining in the said territories and provinces, excepting those which the Swiss Confederation shall think proper to place there; it being well understood, that this state of things shall not in any manner interrupt the administration of these countries, in which the civil agents of his Majesty the King of Sardinia may likewise employ the municipal guard, for the preservation of good order.

ART. XCIII. In pursuance of the renunciations agreed upon by the Treaty of Paris of the 30th May 1814, the Powers who sign the present Treaty, recognize his Majesty the emperor of Austria, his heirs and successors, as legitimate Sovereign of the provinces and territories which had been ceded, either wholly or in part, by the Treaties of Campo-Formio of 1797,[101] of Luneville of 1801,[102] of Presburg of 1805,[103] by the additional Convention of Fontainbleau of 1807,[104] and by the Treaty of Vienna of 1809;[105][12] the possession of which provinces and territories his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty obtained in consequence of the last war; such as, Istria, Austrian as well as heretofore Venetian, Dalmatia, the ancient Venetian isles of the Adriatic, the mouths of the Cattaro, the city of Venice,[106] with its waters, as well as all the other provinces and districts of the formerly Venetian States of the Terra Firma, upon the left bank of the Adige, the duchies of Milan and Mantua, the principalities of Brixen and Trente, the county of Tyrol, the Voralberg, the Austrian Frioul, the ancient Venetian Frioul, the territory of Montefalcone, the government and town of Trieste, Carniola, Upper Carinthia, Croatia on the right of the Save, Fiume, and the Hungarian Littorale, and the district of Castua.

ART. XCIV. His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty shall unite to his monarchy, to be possessed by him and his successors, in full property and sovereignty;

1. Besides the portions of the Terra-Firma in the Venetian states mentioned in the preceding Article, the other parts of those states, as well as all other territory situated between the Tessin, the Po, and the Adriatic sea.

2. The vallies of the Valtcline, of Bormio, and of Chiavenna.

3. The territories which formerly composed the republic of Ragusa.

ART. XCV.[107] In consequence of the stipulations agreed upon in the preceding Articles, the frontiers of the states of his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, in Italy shall be;

1. On the side of the states of his Majesty the King of Sardinia, such as they were on the 1st of January 1792.

2. On the side of the states of Parma,[108] Placentia, and Guastalla, the course of the Po, the line of demarcation following the Thalweg of the river.

3. On the side of the states of Modena, such as they were on the 1st of January 1792.

4. On the side of the Papal states, the course of the Po, as far as the mouth of the Gozo.

5. On the side of Switzerland, the ancient frontier of Lombardy, and that which separates the vallies of the Valteline, of Bormio, and Chiavenna, from the cantons of the Grisons, and the Tessino.

In those places where the Thalweg of the Po forms the frontier, it is agreed, that the changes which the course of the river may undergo shall not, in future, in any way affect the property of the islands therein contained.

ART. XCVI. The general principles, adopted by the Congress at Vienna, for the navigation of rivers, shall be applicable to that of the Po.[109]

Commissioners shall be named by the states bordering on rivers, within three months at latest after the termination of the Congress, to regulate all that concerns the execution of the present Article.

ART. XCVII. As it is indispensable to preserve, to the establishment known by the name of the Mont-Napoleon at Milan, the means of fulfilling its engagements towards its creditors; it is agreed, that the landed and other immovable property of this establishment, in countries which formed part of the ancient kingdom of Italy, and have since passed under the government of different princes of Italy, as well as the capital belonging to the said establishment placed out at interest in these different countries, shall be appropriated to the same object.

The unfunded and unliquidated debts of the Mont-Napoleon, such as those arising from the arrears of its charges, or from any other increase of the outgoings of this establishment, shall be divided between the territories which composed the late kingdom of Italy; and this division shall be regulated according to the joint bases of their population and revenue.—The Sovereigns of the said countries shall appoint commissioners, within the space of three months, dating from the termination of the Congress, to arrange with Austrian commissioners whatever relates to this object.

This Commission shall assemble at Milan.

ART. XCVIII. His royal highness the Archduke Francis d'Este, his heirs and successors, shall possess, in full sovereignty, the duchies of Modena, Reggio, and Mirandola, such as they existed at the signature of the Treaty of Campo Formio.

The Archduchess Maria Beatrice d'Este, her heirs and successors, shall possess in full sovereignty and property, the duchy of Massa, and the principality of Carrara, as well as the Imperial Fiefs in La Lunigiana. The latter may be applied to the purpose of exchanges, or other arrangements made by common consent, and according to mutual convenience, with his imperial highness the Grand Duke of Tuscany.[110]

The rights of succession and reversion, established in the branches of the Archducal Houses of Austria, relative to the duchies of Modena, Reggio, and Mirandola, and the principalities of Massa and Carrara, are preserved.

ART. XCIX. Her Majesty the Empress Maria Louisa shall possess, in full property and sovereignty, the duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla, with the exception of the districts lying within the states of his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty on the left bank of the Po.[111]

The reversion of these countries, shall be regulated by common consent, with the Courts of Austria, Russia, France, Spain, England and Prussia; due regard being had to the rights of reversion of the House of Austria, and of his Majesty the King of Sardinia to the said countries.[112]

ART. C. His Imperial Highness the archduke Ferdinand of Austria, is re-established, himself, his heirs and successors, in all the rights of sovereignty and property, in the grand duchy of Tuscany and its dependencies, which he possessed previous to the Treaty of Luneville.[113]

The stipulations of the 2d Article of the Treaty of Vienna, of the 3d of October, 1735,[114] between the Emperor Charles 6 and the King of France, to which the other powers acceded, are fully renewed in favour of his Imperial Highness and his descendants, as well as the guarantees resulting from those stipulations.[115]

There shall be likewise united to the said grand duchy, to be possessed in full property and sovereignty by the Grand Duke Ferdinand, his heirs and descendants;

1. The state of the Prcsidii.

2. That part of the island of Elba, and its appurtenances, which were under the suzerainete of his Majesty the King of the Two Sicilies before the year 1801.

3. The suzerainete and sovereignty of the principality of Piombino and its dependencies.

Prince Ludovisi Buoncompagni shall retain, for himself and his legitimate successors, all the property which his family possessed in the principality of Piombino, and in the island of Elba and its dependencies, previously to the occupation of those countries by the French troops in 1799, together with the mines, founderies, and salt mines. The Prince Ludovisi shall likewise preserve his right of fishery, and enjoy an entire exemption from duties, as well for the exportation of the produce of his mines, founderies, salt-mines, and domains, as for the importation of wood and other articles necessary for working the mines: he shall be also indemnified by his Imperial Highness the Grand duke of Tuscany, for all the revenues the family of the latter derived from the crown duties, before the year 1801. In case any difficulties should arise in the valuation of this indemnity, the parties concerned shall refer the decision to the courts of Vienna and Sardinia.

4. The late Imperial fiefs of Vernio, Montanto, and Monte Santa Maria, lying within the Tuscan states.

ART. CI. The principality of Lucca shall be possessed in full sovereignty by her Majesty the Infant Maria Louisa, and her descendants, in the direct male line. The principality is erected into a duchy, and shall nave a form of government founded upon the principles of that which it received in 1805.[116][117]

An annuity of 500,000 francs shall be added to the revenue of the principality of Lucca, which his Majesty the Emperor of Austria, and his Imperial Highness the Grand Duke of Tuscany, engage to pay regularly, as long as circumstances do not admit of procuring another establishment for her Majesty the Infant Maria Louisa, her son, and his descendants.

This annuity shall be specially mortgaged upon the lordships in Bohemia, known by the name of Bavaro Palatine; which, in case of the duchy of Lucca reverting to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, shall be freed from this charge, and shall again form a part of the private domain of his Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty.[118]

ART. CII. The duchy of Lucca shall revert to the Grand Duke of Tuscany; either in case of its becoming vacant by the death of her Majesty the Infant Maria Louisa, or of her son Don Carlos, and of their direct male descendants; or in case the Infant Maria Louisa or her direct heirs should obtain any other establishment, or succeed to another branch of their dynasty.

The Grand Duke of Tuscany however, engages, should the said reversion fall to him, to cede to the Duke of Modena, as soon as he shall have entered into possession of the principality of Lucca, the following territories:

1. The Tuscan districts of Tivizano, Pietra Santa, and Barga.

2. The Lucca districts of Castiglione, and Gllicano, lying within the states of Modena, as well as those of Minucciano and Monte-Icnose, contiguous to the country of Massa.

ART. CIII The Marches, with Camerino, and their dependencies, as well as the duchy of Benevento and the principality of Poote-Corvo, are restored to the Holy See.[119]

The Holy See shall resume possession of the legations of Ravenna, Bologna, and Ferrara, with the exception of that part of Ferrara which is situated on the left bank of the Po.

His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty and his successors shall have the right of placing garrisons at Ferrara and Commachio.

The inhabitants of the countries who return under the government of the Holy See, in consequence of the stipulations of Congress, shall enjoy the benefit of the 16th Article of the Treaty of Paris of the 30th May 1814. All acquisitions made by individuals, in virtue of a title acknowledged as legal by the existing laws, are to be considered as good, and the arrangements necessary for the guarantee rf the public debt, and the payment of pensions, shall be settled by a particular Convention between the courts of Rome and Vienna.

ART. CIV. His Majesty King Ferdinand 4, his heirs and successors, is restored to the throne of Naples, and his Majesty is acknowledged by the Powers as King of the Two Sicilies.

ART. CV. The Powers, recognizing the justice of the claims of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal and the Brazils, upon the town of Olivenru, and the other territories ceded to Spain by the Treaty of Badajos of 1801,[120] and viewing the restitution of the same as a measure necessary to insure that perfect and constant harmony between the two kingdoms of the Peninsula, the preservation of which in all parts of Europe, has been the constant object of their arrangements, formally engage to use their utmost endeavours, by amicable means, to procure the retrocession of the said territories, in favour of Portugal. And the Powers declare, as far as depends upon them, that this arrangement shall take place as soon as possible.[121]

ART. CVI. In order to remove the difficulties which opposed the ratification on the part of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent of the kingdoms of Portugal and the Brazil, of the Treaty signed on the 30th of May 1814, between Portugal and France; it is determined, that the stipulations contained in the 10th Article of that Treaty,[122] and all those which relate to it, shall be of no effect, and that with the consent of all the Powers, the provisions contained in the following Article shall be substituted for them, and which shall alone be considered as valid: with this exception, all the other clauses of the above Treaty of Paris shall be maintained, and regarded as mutually binding on the two courts.[123]

ART. CVII. His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of the kingdoms of Portugal and the Brazils, wishing to give an unequivocal proof of his high consideration for nis Most Christian Majesty, engages to restore French Guiana to his said Majesty, as far as the river Oyapock, the mouth of which is situated between the fourth and fifth degree of north latitude, and which has always been considered by Portugal as the limit appointed by the Treaty of Utrecht.[124]

The period for giving up this colony shall be determined, as soon as circumstances shall permit, by a particular Convention between the two Courts;[125] and they shall enter into an amicable arrangement, as soon as possible, with regard to the definitive demarcation of the limits of Portuguese and French Guiana, conformably to the precise meaning of the 8th Article of the Treaty of Utrecht.

ART. CVIII. The Powers whose states are separated or crossed by the same navigable river, engage to regulate, by common consent, all that regards its navigation. For this purpose they will name Commissioners, who shall assemble, at latest, within six months after the termination of the Congress, and who shall adopt as the basis of their proceedings, the principles established by the following Articles.[126]

ART. CIX. The navigation of the rivers, along their whole course, refered to in the preceding Article, from the point where each of them becomes navigable, to its mouth, shall be entirely free, and shall not, in respect to commerce, be prohibited to any one; it being understood that the regulations established with regard to the police of this navigation, shall be respected; as they will be framed alike for all, and as favourable as possible to the commerce of all nations.

ART. CX. The system that shall be established both for the collection of the duties and for the maintenance of the police, shall i be, as nearly as possible, the same along the whole course of the river; and shall also extend, unless particular circumstances prevent it, to those of its branches and junctions, which, in their navigable course, sepantte or traverse different states.

ART. CXI. The duties on navigation shall be regulated in an uniform and settled manner, and with as little reference as possible to the different quality of the merchandize, in order that a minute examination of the cargo may be rendered unnecessary, except with a view to prevent fraud and evasion. The amount of the duties, which shall in no case exceed those now paid, shall be determined by local circumstances, which scarcely allow of a general rule in this respect. The tarif shall however, be prepared in such a manner as to encourage commerce by facilitating navigation; for which purpose the duties established upon the Rhine, and now in force on that river, may serve as an approximating rule for its construction.

The tarif once settled, no increase shall take place therein, except by the common consent of the states bordering on the rivers; nor shall the navigation be burthened with any other duties than those fixed in the regulation.

ART. CXII. The offices for the collection of duties, the number of which shall be reduced as much as possible, shall be determined upon in the above regulation, and no change shall afterwards be made, but by common consent, unless any of the states bordering on the rivers should wish to diminish the number of those which exclusively belong to the same.

ART. CXIII. Each state bordering on the rivers is to be at the expense of keeping in good repair the towing paths, which pass through its territory, and of maintaining the necessary works through the same extent in the channels of the river, in order that no obstacle may be experienced to the navigation.

The intended regulation shall determine the manner in which the states bordering on the rivers are tq participate in these latter works, where the opposite banks belong to different governments.

ART. CXIV. There shall no where be established store-house, port, or forced harbour-duties. Those already existing shall be preserved for such time only as the states bordering on rivers (without regard to the local interest of the place or the country where they are established) shall find them necessary or useful to navigation and commerce in general.

ART. CXV. The custom-houses belonging to the states bordering on rivers shall not interfere in the duties of navigation. Regulations shall be established to prevent officers of the customs, in the exercise of their functions, throwing obstacles in the way of the navigation; but care shall be taken, by means of a strict police on the bank, to preclude every attempt of the inhabitants to smuggle goods, through the medium of boatmen.

ART. CXVI. Every thing expressed in the preceding Articles shall be settled by a general arrangement, in which there shall also be comprised whatever may need an ulterior determination. The arrangement once settled, shall not be changed, but by and with the consent of all the states bordering on rivers, and they shall take care to provide for its execution with due regard to circumstances and locality.

ART. CXVII. The particular regulations relative to the navigation of the Rhine, the Necker, the Maine, the Moselle, the Meuse, and the Scheldt,[127] such as they are annexed to the present Act, shall have the same force and validity as if they were textually inserted herein.

ART. CXVIII.[128] The Treaties, Conventions, Declarations, Regulations, and other particular Acts which are annexed to the present Act, viz.

1. The Treaty between Russia and Austria of the 21st April (3d May) 1815.[129]
2. The Treaty between Russia and Prussia of the 21st April (3d May) 1815.
3. The additional Treaty relative to Cracow, between Austria, Prussia, and Russia, of the 21st April (3d May) 1815.
4. The Treaty between Prussia and Saxony of the 18th May 1815.
5. The Declaration of the King of Saxony respecting the rights of the House of Schoenburg, of the 18th May 1815.
6. The Treaty between Prussia and Hanover of the 29th May 1815.
7. The Convention between Prussia and the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar of the 1st June 1815.
8. The Convention between Prussia and the Duke and Prince of Nassau of the 31st May 1815.
9. The Act concerning the Federative Constitution of Germany of the 8th June 1815.
10. The Treaty between the King of the Netherlands, and Prussia, England, Austria, and Russia, of the 31st May 1815.
11. The Declaration of the Powers on the Affairs of the Helvetic Confederation of the 20th March, and the Act of Accession of the Diet of the 28th May 1815.
12. The Protocol of the 29th March 1815, on the cessions made by the King of Sardinia to the Canton of Geneva.
13. The Treaty between the king of Sardinia, Austria, England, Russia, Prussia, and France, of the 21st May 1815.
14. The Act intituled "Conditions which are to serve as the bases of the Union of the States of Genoa with those of his Sardinian Majesty."
15. The Declaration of the Powers on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, of the 8th February 1815.
16. The Regulations respecting the free navigation of Rivers.
17. The Regulation concerning the precedence of Diplomatic agents,—Shall be considered as integral parts of the arrangements of the Congress, and shall have, throughout, the same force and validity as if they were inserted, word for word, in the General Treaty.

ART. CXIX. All the Powers assembled in Congress, as well as the Princes and free towns, who have concurred in the arrangements specified, and in the Acts confirmed, in this General Treaty, are invited to accede to it.

ART. CXX. The French language having been exclusively employed in all the copies of the present Treaty, it is declared, by the powers who have concurred in this Act, that the use made of that language shall not be construed into a precedent for the future; every power, therefore, reserves to itself the adoption in future Negotiations and Conventions, the language it has heretofore employed in its diplomatic relations; and this Treaty shall not be cited as a precedent contrary to the established practice.

ART. CXXI. The present Treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications exchanged in six months, and by the Court of Portugal in a year, or sooner if possible.

A copy of this General Treaty shall be deposited, in the Archives of the Court and State of his .Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, at Vienna, in case any of the Courts of Europe shall think proper to consult the original text of this instrument.

In faith of which the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Act, and have affixed thereunto the seals of their arms.

Done at Vienna the 9th of June, in the year of our Lord 1815.

(The Signatures follow in the alphabetical order of the Courts.)

Austria, (L. S.)The Prince de Metternich.
(L. S.) The Baron de Weaenberg.
Spain,[130]
France,[131] (L. S.) The Prince de Talleyrand,
(L. S.) The Duke de Dalberg.
(L. S.) The Count Alexiide Noailles
Great
Britain,
(L. S.) Clancarty.
(L. S.) Cathcart.
(L. S.) Stewart, L. G.
Portugal, (L. S.) The Comte de Palmella.
(L. S.) Antonio de Saldanha da Gania.
(L. S.) D.Joaquim Leboda Siltxira.
Prussia, (L. S.) The Prince de Hardenberg.
(L. S.) The Baron de Humboldt.
Russia, (L. S.) The Prince de Rasoumoffsky
(L. S.) The Count de Stackelberg.
(L. S.) The Count de Ncsselrode.
Sweden, (L. S.) The Count Charlet-Axei de Loaienhieim.

Save and except the reservation made to the Articles 101,103, and 104, of the Treaty.[132]

References[edit]

  • British Foreign Office British and Foreign State Papers. 1814—1815 Volume II. Compiled by the librarian and keeper of the papers, Foreign Office-London: James Rigway and Sons, Piccadilly, H.M.S.O., 1839. pp.7-56. Original French. The formatting of this treaty is from this document.
  • Hansard, The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time ..., Volume 32. 1 February to 6 March 1816, T.C. Hansard, 1816. pp. 71,113. The translation is from this document.
  • Hertslet, Edward. The map of Europe by treaty; showing the various political and territorial changes which have taken place since the general peace of 1814, London, Butterworths, 1875.
  • Georg Friedrich von Martens "Supplement au recueil des principaux traités d'Alliance, de Paix, de Trêve, de Neutralité, de Commerce, de Limites, d'Echange etc. et de plusieurs autres actes servant a la connaissance des relations étrangères des Puissances et Etats de l'Europe"
  • Georg Friedrich von Martens "Recueil des principaux traites d'Alliance, de Paix, de Trêve, de Neutralité, de Commerce, de Limites, d'Echange etc. conclus par les puissances de l'Europe"

Footnotes[edit]

  1. Hertslet, Edward (1875). The map of Europe by treaty; showing the various political and territorial changes which have taken place since the general peace of 1814, London, Butterworths. p. 208
  2. Hansard, The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time ..., Volume 32. 1 February to 6 March 1816, T.C. Hansard, 1816. pp. 71,113. The translation is from this document.
  3. Foreign Office pp.7-56. The original French version of the Treaty. So that the paragraphs in this English translation match those in the original French, the formatting is taken from the French original and not from the Hansard translation.
  4. The names here are listed by state in French alphabetical order: (Spain is Espagne)
  5. Spain did not sign this Treaty, but acceded to it by an Act of Accession dated 7th June, 1817. See also Treaty between the 5 Powers and Spain of 10th June, 1817 (Hertslet, p. 212).
  6. The Duke of Wellington did not sign this Treaty, having left Vienna on the 29th March, to take command of the army in the Netherlands (Hertslet, p. 213).
  7. See Separate Treaty between Austria and Russia of 3rd May, 1815 (Hertslet, p. 216).
  8. The distinct Administration was abolished by an Organic Statute promulgated by the Emperor of Russia on the 26th February, 1832 (Hertslet, p. 216).
  9. See Separate Treaty between Prussia and Russia of 3rd May, 1815 (Hertslet, p. 217).
  10. See Treaty between Austria and Russia of 3rd May, 1815, Art. II (Hertslet, p. 217).
  11. See Treaty between Austria and Russia of 3rd May, 1815, Art. III (Hertslet, p. 217).
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Treaty between Austria and France of 14th October, 1809, Art. III. Annulled under Treaty of Paris (1814): Additional article to the treaty with Austria (Hertslet, p. 23,218,256).
  13. Restitution by Russia to Austria of Districts separated from Eastern Galieia. See Treaty between Austria and Russia of 3rd May, 1815, Art. I (Hertslet, p. 218).
  14. Footnote in the French version published by the British Foreign Office:

    Extrait du Traité de J'aix entre l'Autriche et La France.—Vienne, le 14 Octoàre',1809.

    Art. III. § 5. Sa Majesté L'Empereur d'Autriche cède et abandonne à Sa Majesté l'Empereur de Russie, dans la partie la plus orientale de l'ancienne Gallicie, an Territoire renfermant 400,000 âmes de Population, dans lequel la Ville de Brody ne pourra être comprise.

    Ce Territoire sera déterminé à l'amiable entre les Commissaires des 2 Empires

  15. See Treaty between Austria and Prussia of 3rd May, 1815, Art. IV; and Treaty between Austria, Prussia, and Russia of 6th November, 1846 (Hertslet, p. 218).
  16. By a Treaty between Austria, Prussia, and Russia, of the 6th November, 1846, the Independent existence of the Free City of Cracow was put an end to, and the City and its Territory were incorporated with the Austrian Dominions. The British Government protested against this infraction of the Vienna Congress Treaty, on the 23rd November, 1846. The French Government also protested against it, on the 3rd December, 1846 (Hertslet, pp. 127,218).
  17. See Treaty between Prussia and Russia of 3rd May, 1815, Art. II ; and Additional Treaty between Austria, Prussia, and Russia of the same date, Arts. II and III (Hertslet, p. 218).
  18. See Additional Treaty between Austria, Prussia, and Russia of 3rd May, 1815, Art. III (Hertslet, pp. 219).
  19. See Additional Treaty between Austria, Prussia, and Russia of 3rd May, 1815, Art. VI (Hertslet, pp. 219).
  20. See Additional Treaty between Austria, Prussia, and Russia, of 3rd May, 1815, Art, VI (Hertslet, p. 220).
  21. See Treaty between Prussia and Russia of 3rd May, 1815, Art. V, and Treaty between Austria and Russia, same date, Art, VII (Hertslet, p. 220).
  22. See Treaty between Prussia and Russia of 3rd May, 1815, Art, VI; and Treaty between Austria and Russia, same date, Art, VIII (Hertslet, p. 220).
  23. See Treaty between Prussia and Russia of 3rd May, 1815, Art, VII ; and Treaty between Austria and Russia, same date, Art. IX (Hertslet, p. 220).
  24. See Treaty between Austria, Prussia, aud Russia of 18th May, 1815 (Hertslet, p. 221).
  25. See Treaties between Austria, Prussia, and Russia, and Saxony of I8th May, 1815 ; Prussia and Schwartzburg-Sondershausen of 15th June, 1816; and Prussia and Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt of 19th June, 1816 (Hertslet, p. 221).
  26. Neustadt was ceded to the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar by the Treaty of 22nd September, 1815 (Hertslet, p. 223).
  27. See Treaty between Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Saxony of 18th May, 1815, Art, IV. (Hertslet p. 223).
  28. See Treaties between Prussia and Sehwartzburg-Sondershausen of 15th June, 1816, and Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt of 19th June, 1816 (Hertslet, p. 223).
  29. See Treaty between Prussia, Saxonv, &c, of 18th May, 1815, Art. XIII (Hertslet, p. 224).
  30. See Treaty between Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Saxony of 18th May, 1815, Art. XVI (Hertslet, p. 225).
  31. See Treaty between Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Saxony of 18th May, 1815, Art. XXI. (Hertslet, p. 225).
  32. See Treaty between Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Saxony of 18th May, 1815, Art, LXXVI, § 2 (Hertslet, p. 226).
  33. Treaty of Tilsit between Prussia, France, and Russia of 7th July, 1807. Annulled (Hertslet, p. 225).
  34. 34.0 34.1 Treaty of Tilsit between France and Russia of 7th July, 1807, Art, VI. Annulled (Hertslet, p. 225).
  35. Extrait du Traité de Paix entre la France et la Rassie. Tilsit, le 7 Juillet, 1807. Art. VI. (Extrait.) La Ville de Danzig avec nn Territoire de 2 Lieues de Rayon autour de son enceinte. (Foreign Office p. 18)
  36. See Art, XXXIX (Hertslet, p. 226).
  37. See Art . XXXIX (Hertslet, p. 226).
  38. See Treaty between Prussia and Lippe of 17th May 1850. (Hertslet, p. 227).
  39. The King of Prussia renounced his Sovereign Rights over the Principality of Neufchatel and the County of Valengin, by the Treaty between Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, and Switzerland of 26th May, 1857, by which Treaty it was also declared that the Principality should continue to form part of the Swiss Confederation in conformity with Article LXXV, of the Vienna Congress Treaty of 9th June 1815 (Hertslet, p. 227)
  40. See also Arts. XXIX and XLII (Hertslet, p. 225)
  41. See Treaty between Prussia and Nassau of 31st May, 1815. (Hertslet, p. 228)
  42. Annexed as VIII to this treaty (Foreign Office p. 102)
  43. A Rheinlandische Ruthen is ~376.6 cm
  44. See Treaty between Hanover and Prussia, 29th May, 1815, Arts. I and II.(Hertslet, p. 231) By a Decree of the King of Prussia dated 20th September, 1866, the Kingdom of Hanover was annexed to the Prussian Dominions. The King of Hanover, on the 23rd September, 1860, protested against this Annexation. (Hertslet, 231)
  45. See also Arts. XXIV and XLII (Hertslet, p. 233)
  46. See Art. XXXIX (Hertslet p. 236)
  47. 22nd September, 1815 (Hertslet p.236)
  48. See Art. XXIII (Hertslet p.237)
  49. Foreign Office p. 28. Citing Martens Supplement Vol. V, Librairie de Dieterich, 1817. page 651.
  50. See also Art. XXIV (Hertslet p. 238)
  51. Foreign Office p. 28: cites Martens Supplement Vol. III. 1807. p. 231
  52. See also Art. XXIV (Hertslet, p. 239)
  53. The Free Town of Frankfort was annexed to Prussia by Decree dated 20th September, 1866. (Hertslet, p. 240)
  54. See Art. XXIV (Hertslet, p. 241).
  55. By the Treaty between Prussia and Hesse-Darmstadt of 3rd September, 1866, various Districts were ceded to the Grand Duke (Hertslet, p. 241).
  56. See also Treaty 20th July, 1819, Art. XXVI. On the extinction of the Male Line of the reigning House of Hesse-Homburg, the Landgraviate was annexed to Hesse-Darmstadt by Patent dated 24th March, 1866; and by the Treaty of Peace of the 3rd September, 1866, Art. XIV, the Grand Duke of Hesse ceded all his Sovereign and Domanial Rights over the Landgraviate of Hesse-Homburg to the King of Prussia. (Hertslet, p. 241)
  57. See Treaties between Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Prussia of 18th September, 1816; 20th July, 1819; and 31st May, 1834. (Hertslet, p. 241)
  58. By the Treaty between Prussia and Saxe-Coburg of 31st May, 1834, Lichtenberg was ceded to Prussia (Hertslet, p. 242).
  59. See Treaty between Prussia and Mecklenburg-Strelitz of 18th September, 1816 (Hertslet, p. 242).
  60. See Definitive Treaty between Great Britain, &c, and France of 20th November, 1815, Art. VI ; and Convention between Austria and Prussia of 1st July, 1816. (Hertslet, p. 242)
  61. See Art. XXXVII; Protocol between the 4 Powers of 3rd November, 1815; and Treaties of 22nd September and 16th October, 1816 (Hertslet, p. 242).
  62. This Principality was ceded by Austria to Hesse-Darmstadt by the Treaty of 20th July, 1819 (Hertslet p. 242).
  63. See also Protocol between 4 Powers of 3rd November, 1815, and Final Act of 15th May, 1820. In June, 1866, the Austro-Prussian War ensued between Prussia and Italy on the one side, and Austria on the other. On the 23rd August, 1866, a Treaty of Peace was signed at Prague, by Art. IV of which Austria acknowledged that the Germanic Confederation was dissolved ; and on the 14th June, 1867, the Constitution of the North German Confederation was promulgated. On the 19th July, 1870, War was formally declared by France against Prussia, the other States of Germany subsequently taking part in the Franco-Prussian War. On the 16th April, 1871, a new Constitution for the German Empire was promulgated. (Hertslet, p. 243)
  64. Altered by subsequent Constitutions of 1th June, 1867, and 16th April, 1871. (Hertslet, p. 244)
  65. Austria consented to be excluded from the New Organisation of Germany by her Treaty with Prussia, signed at Prague, 23rd August, 1866 (Hertslet, p. 244).
  66. Certain districts belonging to Bavaria were ceded to Prussia by the Treaty of 22nd August, 1866 (Hertslet, p. 245).
  67. Hesse-Cassel (Hertslet, p. 245).
  68. Hesse-Cassel was annexed to Prussia by Decree dated 20th September, 1866. The King of Hanover protested against this annexation, on the 23rd September, 1866 (Hertslet, p. 245).
  69. Hesse-Darmstadt (Hertslet, p. 245).
  70. Certain districts belonging to the Grand Duchy of Hesse were ceded to Prussia by the Treaty of 3rd September, 1866 (Hertslet, p. 245).
  71. In January, 1864, war broke out between Austria, Prussia, and Denmark (Second Schleswig War); and by the Treaty of Peace signed at Vienna on the 30th October, 1864, certain Rights over the Duchies of Holstein and Schleswig were secured to Austria. In June, 1866, war ensued between Prussia and Italy against Austria, and by the Treaty of Peace, signed at Prague on the 23rd August, 1866, the Duchies of Holstein and Schleswig were annexed to Prussia, "on the condition that the Populations of the northern districts of Schleswig should be ceded to Denmark, if, by free vote, they expressed a wish to be united to Denmark." By the Law of 24th December, 1866, those Duchies were united with the Prussian Monarchy. (Hertslet, p. 245)
  72. Anhalt-Bernburg became extinct on the death of the Duke of Anhalt-Bernburg on the 19th August, 1863, when all the territories of Anhalt were united under one head as the Duchy of Anhalt. (Hertslet, p. 245)
  73. Anhalt-Kotthen became extinct on the death of the Duke of Anhalt-Kothen, 23rd November, 1847, its territories were united to Anhalt-Dessau by Patent of 22nd May, 1853. (Hertslet, p. 245)
  74. The Administration of the Principalities of Waldeck and Pyrmont was transferred to Prussia by the Treaty of 18th July, 1867 (Hertslet, p. 246).
  75. Annexed to Prussia by Decree of 20th September, 1866, and Patent of 3rd October, 1866 (Hertslet, p. 246).
  76. The Constitution of the North German Confederation of 14th June, 1867, was officially published as Law by the Senate of Hamburgh, to take effect from the 1st July, 1867 (Hertslet, p. 246).
  77. The Union between Holland and Belgium was dissolved by the Treaties of 15th November, 1831, and 19th April, 1839. (Hertslet, p. 248)
  78. See Martens Supplement Vol 6. Page 23.(Foreign Office p. 38)
  79. See Martens Supplement Vol 3. p. 231.(Foreign Office p. 38)
  80. See Martens Vol 2. Page 405.(Foreign Office p. 39)
  81. Annex X Treaty between the King of the Low Countries and Prussia, England, Austria, and Russia (Foreign Office p. 39)
  82. The Union between Holland and Belgium was dissolved by the Treaty between the 5 Powers and Belgium of the 15th November, 1831. The King of the Netherlands, however, refused to consent to the arrangement, and it was subsequently cancelled by the Treaties between the 5 Powers and Belgium, the 5 Powers and the Netherlands, and between the Netherlands and Belgium, which were all signed on the 19th April, 1839 (Hertslet, p. 254).
  83. See Treaty between Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Netherlands of 31st May, 1815, Art. VIII (Hertslet, p. 254).
  84. Convention entre les Cantons formant la Confídíration Helvétique.—Zurich, le 29 Décembre, 1813. (Foreign Office 39,40)

    Les Députés des vieux Cantons Suisses, Uri, Schwiz, Lucerne, Zarich, Claris, Zog, Fribourg, Bue, Schafhonse et les 2 Rhodes d'Appenzel, assemblés à Zurich, après avoir mûrement réfléchi à la position critique de la Patrie, se sont unanimement convaincus que, d'après les événemens arrivés tant au dehors qu'au dedans de la Suisse, la Constitution Fédérale actuelle, telle qu'elle est contenue dans l'Acte de médiation, ne peut pas subsister plus longtems; qu'il est de nécessité urgente pour le bien de la Patrie, non seulement de maintenir l'ancien lien Fédéral, mais même de lui donner plus de solidité; et qu'en conséquence ils soumettront à leurs hauts commettans respectifs la Convention qui suit, pour qu'elle soit ratifiée dans le plus bref délai possible.

    Art. I. Les Cantons qui accèdent à ce Projet, fidèles à l'esprit de l'ancienne Constitution, et aux heureux résultats qu'elle a produits parmi les Confédérés pendant des siècles, se promettent de nouveau, conseil, soutien fraternel, et fidèle assistance.

    II. Non seulement les autres anciens Cantons, mais aussi ceux qui depuis une longue suite d'Années ont été Membres de la Confédération, sont formellement invités à ce renouvellement du Pacte Fédéral.

    III. Pour maintenir l'Union et la Paix dans la Patrie, les Cantons reconnoissent unanimement le principe qu'il ne sera établi aucun rapport de sujétion incompatible avec les droits d'un Peuple libre.

    IV. Jusqu'à ce que les relations des Cantons entre eux, et que la direction des affaires de la Confédération soient fixées plus positivement et plus solidement, Zurich, un des vieux Cantons dirigeans, est prié de se charger de cette direction.

    V. Pénétrés de l'obligation de faire une Réponse convenable à la Déclaration des Hautes Puissances Alliées du 20 Décembre dernier, relative à l'attitude que prendra la Suisse jusqu'à la Paix générale, les Cantons soussignés sont prêts à entrer en négociation à ce sujet.

  85. See Appenix IXa DECLARATION of the 8 Powers, on the Affairs of the Helvetic Confederacy. Signed at Vienna, 20th March, 1815.
    Zurich. Unterwald. Basle. Argovia.
    Berne. Glaris. Schaffhausen. Thurgovia.
    Lucerne. Zug. Appenzell. Tessin.
    Uri. Friburg. St. Gall. Vaud.
    Schweitz. Soleure Grisons.  
    (Hertslet. pp.65, 254)
  86. See Convention between the Swiss Cantons of 29th December, 1813 (Hertslet, p. 254).
  87. See Treaty between Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, and Switzerland, 26th May, 1857 (Hertslet, p. 254).
  88. On the 8th December, 1862, a Treaty was concluded between France and Switzerland for an exchange of territory in the Vallee des Dappes. (Hertslet, p. 255).
  89. See also Art. XXIII (Hertslet, p. 255).
  90. See also Art. XCI (Hertslet, p. 257).
  91. See Art. LXXIX. (Hertslet, p. 257).
  92. See also Arts. LXXXV and XCI (Hertslet, p. 258).
  93. See Annexes XI A. and XI B. (Foreign Office p. 44)
  94. See Treaty between Austria and Sardinia of 6th August, 1849 (Hertslet, p. 260).
  95. See. Appendix (Hertslet, p. 260).
  96. See Art. XIV. Conditions, &c. (Hertslet, p. 261)
  97. See Annex XIV (Foreign Office p. 45)
  98. See Annex XIII (Foreign Office p. 45)
  99. By the Treaty between France and Sardinia of 24th March, 1860, Savoy and Nice were united to France ; but by Art. II of that Treaty it was declared to be understood that the King of Sardinia could only transfer the neutralised parts of Savoy on the conditions upon which he himself possessed them, and that it belonged to the Emperor of the French to come to an understanding both with the Powers represented at the Congress of Vienna, and with the Swiss Confederation, respecting the necessary guarantees to be given in consequence of the stipulations of that Treaty. See also notes of 14th March, 1859, and 18th and 29th July, 1870. (Hertslet, p. 261)
  100. Protocol of 4 Powers, 3rd November, 1815. (Hertslet, p. 262)
  101. 17th October, 1797. (Martens, Recueil Vol. 7, p. 208 (Foreign Office p. 46))
  102. 9th February, 1801 (Martens, Recueil Vol. 7, p. 538 (Foreign Office p. 46))
  103. 26th December, 1805.(Martens, Supplement, Vol 4. p. 212. (Foreign Office p. 46))
  104. 10th October, 1807 (Martens, Supplement, Vol 4. p. 468. (Foreign Office p. 46))
  105. 14th October, 1809.(Martens, Supplement, Vol 5. p. 210. (Foreign Office p. 46))
  106. Treaty between Austria and Sardinia of 20th May, 1815 (Hertslet, p. 263).
  107. See Treaties of 10th November, 1859, and 3rd October, 1866 (Hertslet, p. 263).
  108. A Protocol was signed between Austria and Parma on the 25th April, 1820, defining this Boundary, which Protocol was converted into a Convention on the 25th May, 1821 (Hertslet, p. 263).
  109. See Treaty between Austria, Modena, and Parma, of 3rd July, 1849 (Hertslet, p. 264).
  110. See Treaty between Austria, Sardinia, Lucca, Modena, and Tuscany, of 28th November, 1844, by which certain exchanges of territory were made (Hertslet, p. 265).
  111. Parma was united to the Kingdom of Sardinia by Decree dated 18th March, 1860. The reigning Duchess protested against this contemplated annexation on the 20th June, 1859 (Hertslet, p. 265).
  112. See Treaty of 10th June, 1817 (Hertslet, p. 265).
  113. Tuscany was united to the Kingdom of Sardinia by Decree dated 22nd March, 1860. The Grand Duke protested against this annexation on the 26th March, 1860. (Hertslet, p. 265).
  114. Foreign Office p.48 quotes:

    (Extrait.) Article! Préliminairet de Paix entre l'Empereur et le Roi de France.— Vienne, le 3 Octobre, 1735.

    Аrт. II. Le Grand-Duché de Toscane, après la mort du présent Possesseur, appartiendra à la Maison de Lorraine, pour l'indemniser des Duchez, qu'elle possède aujourd'huy.

    Toutes les Puissances, qui prendront part à la pacification, luy en garantiront la succession éventuelle. Les Troupes Espagnoles seront retirées des Places Fortes de ce Grand-Duché, et en leur place introduit un pareil nombre de Troupes Impériales, uniquement pour la sûreté de la succession éventuelle susdite, et de la mème manière, qu'il a esté stipulé à l'égard des garnisons neutres, par la Quadruple Alliance.

    Jusqu'à ce que la Maison de Lorraine se trouve en possession du Grand-Duché de Toacane, elle restera dans celle du Duché de Lorraine, et de ses Dépendances, conformément an Traité de Paix de Riswick. Et pour accélérer un ouvrage aussi salutaire, que celai de la Paix, et en considération des engagemens que la France contracte, pour rendre plus stable la tranquillité publique, Sa Majesté Impériale se charge de bonifier pendant cet intervalle à la Maison de Lorraine, les revenus du Dache de Bar et de ses Dépendances, sur le pied de l'évaluation, qui en sera faite dam« le terme le pins court qu'il se pourra, en décomptant auparavant les charges attachées à leur Administration.

    Livourne demeurera Port-Franc, comme il est.

  115. See Treaty between the 5 Powers and Spain of 10th June, 1817. (Hertslet, p. 266).
  116. See subsequent part of the Foreign office volume (Foreign Office p. 50)
  117. Lucca was ceded to Tuscany by the Treaty of 4th October, 1847; and Tuscany was annexed to Sardinia by Decree of 22nd March, 1860 (Hertslet, p. 266).
  118. See Art. CII, and Treaty between the 5 Powers and Spain of 10th June, 1817 (Hertslet, p. 267).
  119. The Provinces of the Marches were annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia by Decree of 17th December, 1860 (Hertslet, p. 267).
  120. Foreign Office p. 51:

    Extrait du Traité de Paix et d'Amitié entre l'Espagne et le Portugal.—

    Badajoz, le 6 Juin, 1801.

    Аrt. III. (Extrait.) Cependant Sa Majesté Catholique gardera comme Conquête, et joindra à ses Domaines, la Forteresse d'Olivença, avec son Territoire, et les Places situées sur la Guadiana, en sorte que cette Fleuve soit la Frontière des 2 Royaumes de ce côté.

  121. This restitution had not taken place by 1875 and at that time the town was still held by Spain (Hertslet, p. 268).
  122. See Commercial Treaties. Vol. I. Page 251. (Foreign Office p.51)
  123. See Art. CXXI, respecting Ratifications (Hertslet, p. 269).
  124. 11th April, 1713. See State Papers Vol. 1816-17 Page 818. (Foreign Office p. 52)
  125. Treaty 28th August, 1817 (Hertslet, p. 269).
  126. Arts. CVIII to CXVI are the same as the Regulations of March, 1815. These Articles were referred to in the Preamble to the Treaty between Prussia, Hanover, &c, of 10th September, 1823, relative to the navigation of the Weser; in the Treaty between Austria, &c, and Hanover, of 13th April, 1844, and in the Treaty between Great Britain and Hanover, of 22nd July, 1844, relative to the Brunshausen or Stade Toll. They were also applied to the Danube by Art. XV of the General Treaty of 30th March, 1856 (Hertslet, p. 269).
  127. The Scheldt Toll was redeemed by the Treaties between Great Britain and Belgium of 16th July and 3rd August, 1863 (Hertslet, p. 272).
  128. See Treaties between Prussia and Schwartzburg-Sondershausen of 15th June, 1815, and between Prussia and Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt of 19th June 1816 (Hertslet, p. 272).
  129. Russian Empire used the Julian Calendar (see Old Style)
  130. Spain did not sign this Treaty, but she acceded to it by an Act of Accession dated 7th June, 1817. See also Treaty between 5 Powers and Spain, 10th June, 1817 (Hertslet, p. 208).
  131. This Treaty was confirmed by the Treaty between the 5 Powers and France of 20th November, 1815 Art. XI (Hertslet, p. 208).
  132. Protocol, 18th June, 1815 (Hertslet, 274).