Flora Australiensis/Volume 5/Proteaceae/Banksia

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28. BANKSIA, Linn. f.

Flowers hermaphrodite. Perianth regular or nearly so, straight or curved, the slender tube opening equally or along the lower side only, the limb ovoid oblong or linear, the lamini remaining long coherent, or rarely separating as the tube opens. Anthers narrow, sessile in the concave laminæ, the connective thick, usually very shortly produced beyond the cells. Hypogynous scales 4, very thin and membranous (rarely deficient?). Ovary very small and sessile; style usually longer than the perianth, rigid, curved and protruding from the slit in the perianth-tube until the end is set free by the separation of the laminæ, and then either straightened or remaining hooked or curved, rarely straight from the first and not exceeding the perianth; the stigmatic end on a level with the anthers, of a different texture but smooth, or striate and furrowed, continuous with the style or with a prominent rim at the base, the real stigma small and terminal; ovules 2, collaterally attached about the middle. Fruit a compressed capsule, opening at the broad end (or rather outer margin, for the scar of the style is lateral) in two hard often woody horizontal valves. Seeds usually 2, compressed, with a terminal membranous wing broad and rounded like the valves, the seeds separated by a plate of the same shape (the consolidated outer integuments of the inner side of the two seeds) free from the ripe seeds, simple (completely consolidated) between the nuclei, double (remaining distinct) between the wings.—Trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate or rarely verticillate or nearly so, usually narrow, entire toothed pinnatifid or pinnate, with numerous (rarely few) short teeth lobes or segments, the primary veins numerous and transverse, rarely inconspicuous or irregular and the minute reticulations numerous on the under surface, with a minute tomentum rarely wanting in the areolæ and sometimes white and covering the whole under surface, the upper surface almost always glabrous and smooth. Flowers sessile in pairs, in dense terminal cylindrical oblong or globular spikes, either terminal and sessile above the last leaves or rarely lateral or on short lateral branches ; each pair of flowers subtended by one bract and two lateral rather smaller bracteoles, both bracts and bracteoles densely woolly-villous on the sides, the tips glabrous tomentose or villous, either clavate and obtuse or truncate, or shortly acuminate, always densely imbricate in parallel spiral or rarely vertical lines. Perianth-tube very slender and entire within the bracts, ultimately splitting beyond them. In fruit the bracts and bracteoles become consolidated with the rhachis into a thick woody cone, either covered with the withered remains of the perianths amongst which the capsules are entirely concealed, or, where the flowers are wholly deciduous, the valves of the capsules protrude more or less beyond the bracts, the lower indehiscent portion containing the nuclei of the seeds remaining imbedded among the bracts. The proportion of perfect capsules is usually very small in relation to the number of flowers, of which there are often from 500 to above 1000 in the same spike.

The genus is endemic in Australia, and the greater number of species are Western, two only of the Eastern species penetrate into the tropics, besides one which is exclusively tropical, if it be really more than a variety of the most widely diffused of the Eastern species.

Sect. 1. Oncostylis.Leaves linear or rarely lanceolate, with revolute margins or nearly flat but very white underneath, entire denticulate or pinnate with small numerous regular segments. Style remaining hooked after the perianth-limb has opened, the stigmatic end very small.

Perianth-tube villous, less than half as long as the style, the limb glabrous. Leaves small, entire. Western species.

Perianth-tube about 4 lines long. Leaves incurved or erect, ¼ to ½ in. long.

1. B. pulchella.

Perianth-tube about 3 lines long. Leaves spreading or reflexed, not exceeding in ¼ in.

2. B. Meissneri.

Perianth-tube more than half as long as the style, silky as well as the limb.

Leaves linear with closely revolute entire margins and not truncate at the end. Western species.

Leaves mostly short. Perianth under 1 in. long. Bracts with glabrous tips.

3. B. nutans.

Leaves mostly long. Perianth above 1 in. long. Bracts entirely woolly-villous.

4. B. sphærocarpa.

Leaves linear, truncate or notched at the end and often denticulate, especially near the end.

Western species, leaves long.

Leaves (2 to 4 in.) very narrow, with closely revolate entire margins. Bracts villous to the end.

5. B. tricuspis.

Leaves (2 to 4 in.) with revolute or recurved margins, entire or denticulate towards the end. Bracts with glabrous tips.

6. B. occidentalis.

Leaves (4 to 8 in.) more open, showing the tomentose under surface. Bracts tomentose at the end.

7. B. littoralis.

Eastern species.

Leaves (about ½ in.) very narrow with closely revolute entire margins

8. B. ericifolia.

Leaves (1½ to 3 in.) narrow-linear with closely revolute entire or denticulate margins

9. B. spinulosa.

Leaves (1½ to 3 in.) linear, more open, showing the white under surface, denticulate to the base or rarely entire.

10. B. collina.

Leaves mostly verticillate, oblong-lanceolate or broadly linear, entire or rarely toothed at the end, white underneath. Western species.

11. B. verticillata.

Leaves pinnate with numerous small regular contiguous but distinct segments.

Leaf-segments broad, triangular. Spikes small, globular or ovoid

12. B. dryandroides.

Leaf-segments narrow, falcate. Spikes large, oblong or cylindrical

13. B. Brownii.
Sect. 2. Cyrtostylis.—Leaves flat or undulate, the margins not revolute, toothed, pinnatifid or pinnate. Style arched or nearly straight and turned upwards after flowering, not hooked, the stigmatic end small, not striate. Western species.

Perianth obtuse or acute, not aristate.

Leaves narrow regularly serrate, usually white underneath.

Spikes narrow. Perianth glabrous, under ¾ in. long.

14. B. attenuata.

Spikes broad. Perianth 1 in. long, the tube villous, the limb at length glabrous.

15. B. media.

Leaves large, on long petioles, irregularly toothed or lobed.

Tree. Outer bracts short.

16. B. Solandri.

Low prostrate shrubs. Outer bracts linear-subulate.

Leaves closely surrounding the spike and not along the prostrate stem.

17. B. Goodii.

Leaves erect along the prostrate stem, white underneath, none round the spike.

18. B. petiolaris.

Leaves large, on long petioles, deeply and irregularly pinnatifid. Low prostrate shrubs. Spikes oblong.

Perianth 1 in. long, the limb hirsute with loose usually persistent hairs

19. B. repens.

Perianth scarcely ¾ in. long, the limb clothed with intricate loose ferruginous very deciduous hairs

20. B. prostrata.

Leaves large, pinnate, with triangular distinct but contiguous segments. Spikes cylindrical.

21. B. grandis.

Perianth acuminate with long awn-like points. Leaves nearly sessile, not very large, irregularly toothed or lobed.

Spikes 3 to 4 in. long, rather narrow. Bracts with glabrous tips.

22. B. quercifolia.

Spikes 4 to 8 in. long, very thick. Bracts villous at the end.

23. B. Baueri.
Sect 3. Eubanksia.Leaves linear-lanceolate, oblong or cuneate, with recurved or revolute, entire or dentate margins, white underneath. style at first curved, straight and very spreading or reflexed after the perianth-limb has opened, the stigmatic end small, not striate. Eastern or tropical species.

Leaves (mostly 1 to 2 in.) entire or rarely toothed, reticulate underneath, without any or with few and irregular primary transverse veins.

24. B. marginata.

Leaves (mostly 3 to 6 in.) entire or rarely toothed, with transverse primary veins underneath, usually numerous but not much more prominent than the reticulations and white like them.

25. B. integrifolia.

Leaves (mostly 4 to 8 in.) broad, coarsely toothed, the transverse primary veins prominent underneath and not so white as the reticulations.

26. B. dentata.
(B. latifolia, has nearly the flowers and style of Eubanksia, but flat leaves not white underneath).
Sect. 4. Orthostylis.leaves flat or undulate (irregularly in B. Caleyi and B. coccinea), serrate, pinnatifid or pinnate, with short lobes or segments. Perianth usually straight. Style, after the perianth-limb has opened, curved upwards near the base, there straight and erect, the stigmatic end prominently angled and furrowed or striate.

Eastern species.

Leaves 2 to 3 in. long, broad, irregularly toothed. Style end of Eubanksia.

27. B. latifolia.

Leaves 3 to 6 in. long, ¾ to 1. in. broad, regularly serrate. Style-end thickened at the base.

Style-end cylindrical.

28. B. serrata.

Style-end ovoid, very short.

29. B. æmula.

Leaves 2 to 4 in. long, ½ to ¾ in. broad, regularly serrate. Style-end oblong.

30. B. ornata.

Western species.

Perianth villous.

Leaves ¾ in. broad or more, very shortly sinuate, toothed.

Leaves 1½ to 2½ in. long, very broad, often cordate. Perianths, before opening, in double-straight rows alternating with double rows of styles.

31. B. coccinea.

Leaves 1½ to 2½ in. long. Spikes long, the perianths and styles alternating in single rows.

32. B. sceptrum.

Leaves 6 in. to 1 ft. long.

33. B. Menziesii.

Leaves under ½ in. broad, regularly serrate, the veins inconspicuous underneath.

Leaves 2 to 4 in. long. Spikes globular. Style-end small and slender.

34. B. lævigata.

Leaves 4 to 8 in. long. Spikes oblong. Style-end long, with a thickened base.

35. B. Hookeriana.

Leaves deeply and regularly serrate or lobed, the transverse veins connivent in each lobe. Style-end stipitate above its thickened base.

Leaf-lobes short and broad, not reaching halfway to the midrib.

36. B. prionotes.

Leaf-lobes triangular, acuminate, reaching more than halfway to the midrib.

37. B. Victoriæ.

Leaves pinnate with contiguous broad acute segments. Style hairy.

Spikes oblong. Perianth-limb obtuse. Leaves often 1 ft. long.

38. B. speciosa.

Spikes globular. Perianth-limb acute. Leaves under 6 in. long.

39. B. Baxteri.

Perianth glabrous.

Leaves 1 to 1½ in. long, oblong, truncate, sinuate-toothed. Spikes oblong cylindrical.

40. B. marcescens.

Leaves 1½ to 3 in. long, obovate-oblong, toothed. Spikes large, nearly globular.

41. B. Lemanniana.

Leaves 3 to 6 in. long, narrow, sinuate and prickly-toothed. Spikes nearly globular. Perianth-limb half as long as the tube

42. B. Caleyi.

Leaves 2 to 4 in. long, regularly serrate. Perianth-limb not half as long as the tube.

43. B. Lindleyana.

Leaves 6 in. to 1 ft. long or more, with numerous regular triangular lobes or segments.

Leaves lobed only.

44. B. elegans.

Leaves divided to the midrib.

45. B. Candolleana.
Sect. 5. Isostylis.Spikes reduced to depressed-globular heads. Perianths straight, the limb opening as soon as the tube and style straight as in most Dryandræ, but the outer bracts few as in Banksiæ

Leaves 1 to 3 in. long, obovate-oblong or cuneate, undulate and prickly-toothed.

46. B. ilicifolia.

B. Huegelii, Br., B. longifolia, Desf., B. mimosoides, Don, B. rubra, Don, and B. virens, Don, are names only of plants which, if true Banksiæ, belong probably to some of the species above enumerated.

Sect. 1. Oncostylis.—Leaves linear or rarely lanceolate, with revolute margins or nearly flat but very white underneath, entire denticulate or pinnate with small numerous regular segments. Style remaining hooked after the perianth-limb has opened, the stigmatic end very small and not distinctly furrowed.

1. B. pulchella, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 202, Prod. 391. A shrub with villous or tomentose branches. Leaves crowded, erect or incurved, linear, sometimes very narrow or almost terete, obtuse or almost acute, the margins entire and closely revolute, narrowly grooved or more broadly channelled underneath, the midrib not prominent, ¼ to ½ in. long. Spikes ovoid-globular, the rhachis 1 to 1½ in. long. Bracts villous. Perianth-tube densely villous, about 4 lines long, the limb acute, glabrous. Ovary villous. Style nearly 1 in. long, remaining hooked, with a very small broad stigmatic end. Fruiting cone globular, about 2 in. diameter, the capsules usually very numerous and closely packed, very flat, projecting but slightly, the margin becoming glabrous, nearly 1 in. broad when perfect.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. ii. 264, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 452.

W. Australia. Lucky Bay, R. Brown, and probably from the same neighbourhood, Baxter, Drummond, n. 24, and 2nd coll. n. 338.

2. B. Meissneri, Lehm.; Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 582, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 452. A spreading shrub of 2 or 3 ft., or sometimes low and straggling, the branches slightly hoary. Leaves linear, rather crowded, very spreading or reflexed, obtuse or scarcely acute, with revolute margins, singly grooved or channelled underneath, not above ¼ in. long and thicker than in B. pulchella. Spikes ovoid and flowers smaller than in that species. Perianth-tube loosely villous, scarcely 3 lines long, the glabrous limb very small. Ovary glabrous? Style about ¾ in. long, remaining hooked with the small depressed stigmatic end of B. pulchella. Fruiting cone not seen.

W. Australia. Between Swan river and King George's Sound, Drummond, n. 109, 2nd coll. n. 282, Preiss n. 488, Harvey; near Arthur, Oldfield; Beaufort and Gordon plains, Maxwell; and with more erect leaves, Phillips river to Esperance Bay, Maxwell. F. Mueller thinks that this is a variety only of B. pulchella, with small thick spreading leaves. The ovary appeared to me to be glabrous, but that character may require further confirmation. Both species differ from all other Banksia in their small perianth, very short in proportion to the style.

3. B. nutans, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 203, Prod. 391. A shrub, glabrous or nearly so except the inflorescence. Leaves crowded, very narrow-linear, almost terete, very shortly mucronate, the margins closely revolute and entire, singly grooved underneath, ½ to 1 in. long. Spikes globular or shortly oblong, erect or nodding, the rhachis from under 1 to near 2 in. long. Bracts with small glabrous tips. Perianth tube ¾ in. long, silky-villous as well as the limb. Ovary glabrous. Style remaining hooked, with a short thick stigmatic end not distinctly furrowed. Fruiting cone globular, 2 to 4 in. diameter; capsules very thick and scarcely protruding, the end in some specimens above 1 in. broad and nearly 1 in. thick, smooth and at first raised along the suture, at length depressed the thick almost turgid backs of the valves very rugose; in some specimens the capsules smaller and smoother, but perhaps not full-grown.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 581, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 453 ; F. Muell. Fragm. iv. 108.

W. Australia. Lucky Bay, R. Brown; King George's Sound or adjoining districts, Baxter, Drummond, n 168, 3rd coll. n. 281, Oldfield, Maxwell. Meissner describes the capsules as somewhat tomentose all over and not turgid on the top; but he had probably either mismatched fruit or a distinct variety from any I have seen, for I have always found the capsules perfectly glabrous, and more deserving the character of turgid at the top than any other species.

4. B. sphærocarpa, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 208, Prod. 391. A shrub of 3 or 4 ft., minutely silvery or hoary-tomentose. Leaves linear, obtuse or scarcely mucronate, with closely revolute entire margins, under 1 in. long in the typical specimens, in others 2 to 3 in. long. Spikes globular or nearly so, 2 to 3 in. diameter. Perianth silky, varying from a little above 1 in. to fully 1½ in. long, the limb narrow, obtuse. Style longer than the perianth, hooked, with a small cylindrical stigmatic end. Fruiting cone globular, dense; capsules slightly prominent, glabrous, thick, with a prominent ridge at the suture, nearly 1 in. broad when perfect.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 581, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 452; B. pinifolia, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 453.

W. Australia. King George's Sound, R. Brown, Baxter and others, and thence to Swan river, Drummond, n. 99, 100, 1st coll. n. 648, 649, 2nd coll. n. 336, Preiss, n. 486, 487, 494, 497, and others; Murchison river, Oldfield; between Moore and Murchison rivers, Drummond, 6th coll. n 199.

Some of the northern specimens which constitute the B. pinifolia, have larger flower-heads and flowers and longer leaves, and a fruit of Drummond's which, from his notes, may belong to this B. pinifolia is also much larger, with more prominent and thinner capsules. Other specimens from the same district have precisely the flowers of the common form. In some specimens the bracts have conical tomentose tips, in others they are quite flat. It is possible therefore that two species may be here confounded, but the specimens are insufficient for their distinction.

Var. glabrescens, Meissn. Flower-heads and flowers smaller, not so villous, the fulvous hairs of the bracts not so prominent.—W. Australia, Drummond 2nd coll. n. 337.

Var. latifolia, F. Muell. Leaves short, 1 to l¼ lines broad. Flowers large, silky-villous with long rather loose hairs.—Perongerup Range, Maxwell.

5. B. tricuspis, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 118, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 453. Branches rather slender, glabrous or very slightly hoary. Leaves narrow-linear, truncate or almost notched, with a small callous point, the margins entire and closely revolute, 2 to 4 in. long. Spikes oblong-cylindrical, 5 to 6 in. long Bracts obtuse, fulvous-villous. Perianths silky-villous but all withered and revolute in our specimens. Style above 1½ in long, hooked, with a very small ovoid stigmatic end. Fruiting cone with very closely imbricate obtuse bracts, capsules very prominent, not thick, becoming glabrous, 9 to 10 lines broad.

W. Australia. Mount Lesueur and Gardner's Range, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 205.

6. B. occidentalis, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 204, Prod. 392. An erect shrub of 4 or 5 ft., the branches glabrous or minutely hoary. Leaves linear, truncate notched or 3-toothed at the end, otherwise entire or with a few small teeth towards the end, the margins recurved only, showing the white under surface and prominent midrib, 2 to 4 in. long. Spikes from ovoid and 3 in. to cylindrical and twice as long. Bracts with small glabrous tips. Perianth silky-villous, about ¾ in. long, the limb narrow. Ovary villous; style about 1 in. long, hooked, the stigmatic end scarcely distinct. Fruiting cone tomentose with the closely packed bracts; capsules prominent, not very thick, rounded, tomentose-villous, becoming glabrous at the suture, about ¾ in. broad. —Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 582, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 454, Bot. Mag. t. 3535; Lindl. and Paxt. Mag. i. t. 35, copied into Flora des Serres vi. 636, and into Lem. Fl. Jard. t. 119.

W. Australia. King George's Sound and adjoining districts, R. Brown, Baxter, Drummond, 3rd coll. n. 283, Preiss, n. 491, and others.

7. B. littoralis, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 204, Prod. 392. A tree of 20 to 40 ft., the branches closely tomentose. Leaves scattered or irregularly whorled, linear, broadly and distantly serrate or rarely entire, tapering into a petiole, 4 to 8 in. long, the margins recurved or nearly flat, the under surface hoary-tomentose or white. Spikes oblong or cylindrical, 6 to 10 in. long. Bracts truncate and tomentose at the end. Perianth silky, nearly 1 in. long. Style rather longer than the perianth, remaining hooked, with a very small ovoid stigmatic end. Fruiting cones tomentose with the closely packed bracts after the perianths have fallen away; capsules shortly protruding, rounded, not thick, tomentose, ½ to ¾ in. broad.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 583, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 454.

W. Australia. King George's Sound and adjoining districts, R. Brown, Author:Charles Fraser, Drummond, n. 109, 1st coll. n. 647, Preiss, n. 479, 499, Oldfield, Maxwell, F. Mueller. Very near in many respects to the eastern B. collina, but at once distinguished by the long leaves.

8. B. ericifolia, Linn. f. Suppl. 127. A tall shrub or small tree of 12 to 14 ft., glabrous except the inflorescence. Leaves crowded, narrow-linear, truncate or notched at the end and sometimes with an intermediate point, otherwise entire with closely revolute margins, rarely exceeding ½ in. Spikes cylindrical, 6 to 10 in. long. Bracts with broad shortly acuminate silky-pubescent tips. Perianth yellow, silky, the tube about ¾ in. long, the limb ovoid. Style about 1 in. long, hooked, with a very short thick stigmatic end. Fruiting cones long and cylindrical. Capsules scarcely protruding, villous but often becoming glabrous, the flat top to 1 in. broad and 4 or 5 lines thick.—R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 203, Prod. 391; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 453; Cav. Ic. vi. t. 538; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 156; Bot. Mag. t. 738; Baill. Hist. Pl. ii. 393, f. 227 to 229.

N. S. Wales. Port Jackson, R. Brown, Sieber, n. 7, and many others; Hastings river, Beckler.

9. B. spinulosa, Sm. Specim. Bot. N. Holl. 13, t. 4. A tall shrub, glabrous or the young branches minutely pubescent. Leaves narrow-linear, notched at the end with a prominent point in the notch and often bordered towards the end with 2 or 3 small teeth on each side, otherwise entire, with revolute margins and the midrib prominent underneath, 1½ to 3 in. long. Spikes ovoid and 2 to 3 in. lông, or rarely cylindrical and twice as long. Bracts with broad shortly acuminate silky-pubescent tips. Flowers yellow, larger than in B. ericifolia. Perianth silky, the tube nearly 1 in. long. Style 1¼ to 1½ in. long, often purple, with a very short stigmatic end not thicker than the style. Fruiting cone cylindrical. Capsules scarcely protruding, glabrous, thick, smooth.—R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 203, Prod. 392; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 453; Cav. Ic. t. 537; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 457; B. denticulata, Dum. Cours. (Meissn.).

N. S. Wales. Port Jackson, R. Brown, Sieber, n. 1, Woolls, and many others; near Richmond Wilhelmi; southward to Twofold Bay, F. Mueller.

10. B. collina, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 204, Prod. 392. A tall erect shrub attaining 8 to 12 ft., the young branches tomentose or villous. Leaves linear, much broader than in B. spinulosa, and always showing the white under surface, the margins only slightly recurved, more or less denticulate or rarely quite entire, 1½ to 3 in. long. Spikes oblong or cylindrical, 3 to 6 in. long. Bracts with broad flat or scarcely acuminate ends. Perianths silky, the tube above 1 in. long, the limb narrow-ovoid. Style longer than the perianth, hooked, with a very small stigmatic end. Fruiting cone cylindrical like that of B. ericifolia or longer. Capsules thick and scarcely protruding as in that species but quite glabrous.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 454; B. ledifolia, A. Cunn. Herb; B. Cunninghamii, Seib. in Spreng Syst. Cur. Post. 47, and in Roem. and Schult. Syst. iii. Mant. 289; R. Br. Prot. Nov. 35; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 454 ; Reich. Iconogr. Exot. t. 81; B. littoralis, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1363, Grah. in Bot. Mag. t. 3060, not of R. Br.; B. prionophylla, F. Muell. 1st Gen. Rep. 17; B. marginata var. macrostachya, Hort. Petrop.

Queensland. Glasshouses, Moreton Bay, C. Moore.

N. S. Wales. Hunter's river, Caley; Blue Mountains? Sieber, n. 6; western descent of the Blue Mountains, A. Cunningham; New England, C. Stuart; Richmond, Clarence and Hastings rivers, Beckler; Sydney woods, Paris Exhibition, 1855, McArthur, n. 215.

Victoria. Wilson's Promontory, Baxter; Sealer's Cove and towards Mount Ararat, F. Mueller; Upper Yarra river, C. Walter.

When the leaves are small and rather broad, they are somewhat like those of B. marginata, but the species is readily distinguished by the large flowers, hooked style and thick capsules.

11. B. verticillata, R. Br. in. Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 207, Prod. 394. A small tree, the young branches tomentose and sometimes villous. Leaves in whorls of 4 to 6 sometimes irregular or broken on luxuriant branches, shortly petiolate, oblong-lanceolate or broadly linear, with recurved margins, white underneath, those of the flowering stems 1½ to 3 in. long, obtuse, entire or slightly toothed, but in some specimens without flowers (from young trees?) longer, narrower and more or less serrate. Spikes oblong-cylindrical, 4 to 8 in. long. Bracts truncate or very shortly acuminate with woolly-villous ends. Perianth yellow, silky, nearly 1 in. long. Style scarcely longer, hooked, with a very small stigmatic end. Fruiting cones long and narrow, the perianths deciduous leaving the closely packed bracts in hoary areolæ with a more glabrous centre, or with slightly protruding flat capsules, ½ to ¾ in. broad, the valves not thickened.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 583, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 457; Hook. Exot. Fl. t. 96.

W. Australia. King George's Sound, R. Brown, Baxter, Drummond, n. 167 (with smaller flowers), 4th coll. n. 304, Preiss, n. 493, 495 (the latter a barren specimen with denticulate leaves).

12. B. dryandroides, Baxt. in Sw. Fl. Austral. t. 56. A shrub of 2 or 3 ft., with very spreading tomentose branches. Leaves sessile, 3 to 6 in. long, flexuose, divided nearly or quite to the midrib into numerous contiguous triangular lobes or segments, the largest of which are 3 to 4 lines long and broad, thick, with revolute margins, white or ferruginous-tomentose underneath. Spikes globular or rarely ovoid, about 1½ in. diameter, shortly pedunculate, more lateral than in most species. Perianth-tube silky-villous, about ½ in. long, the limb hirsute with longer deciduous hairs, about 1 line long, acute. Style scarcely longer than the perianth, remaining hooked, with a very small almost capitate stigmatic end. Fruiting cone globular, about 2 in. diameter. Capsules protruding, rounded at the end, rather flat, ¾ in. broad, at first villous, at length glabrous.—R. Br. Prot. Nov. 36; Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 588, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 465.

W. Australia. Towards Cape Riche, Drummond 3rd coll. n. 287, Preiss, n. 490, Maxwell; Mount Gardner, Baxter; sand plains, Kalgan river, Oldfield.

13. B. Brownii, Baxt. in R. Br. Prot. Nov. 37. A small tree of 10 to 20 ft. Leaves very shortly petiolate, 3 to 5 in. long, divided to the midrib into very numerous lanceolate falcate regular segments, the largest scarcely above 3 lines long, with recurved margins, white underneath. Spikes oblong-cylindrical, very thick, 6 to 8 in. long. Perianth silky-villous, about 1 in. long, the limb small narrow and acute. Style longer than the perianth, hooked with a very small stigmatic end. Fruiting cone oblong or cylindrical, thick. Capsules protruding, rounded, not thick, shortly villous or at length glabrous, about ¾ in. broad.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 588, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 465.

W. Australia. Towards Cape Riche, Baxter, Preiss, n. 478, Drummond, 5th coll. n. 415.

Sect. 2. Cyrtostylis.—Leaves flat or undulate, the margins not revolute, toothed pinnatifid or pinnate. Style arched or nearly straight and turned upwards or curved, but not hooked after flowering, the stigmatic end small, not furrowed.

The foliage is that of Orthostylis but the style less rigid and erect, and the stigmatic end that of Oncostylis and Eubanksia.

14. B. attenuata, R. Br. in. Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 209, Prod. 395. A tree of 40 ft. with tomentose branches. Leaves linear or oblanceolate, serrate, tapering into a short petiole, 3 to 6 in. long, 3 to 5 lines broad towards the end, rather thick, flat, hoary-tomentose underneath with transverse veins and reticulations. Spikes cylindrical, 4 to 8 in. long. Bracts densely hirsute at the end. Perianth glabrous, the tube about ½ in., the limb 2 lines long, obtuse. Style remaining arched but not hooked, with a small slender stigmatic end. Fruiting cone thick. Capsule scarcely protruding from the remains of the flowers, villous, above 1 in. broad and ½ in. thick, showing the scar or even the base of the style on the right margin.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. ii. 264, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 458; F. Muell. Fragm. vii. 55; B. cylindrostachya, Lindl. Swan Riv. App. 34; Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 583, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 455.

W. Australia. King George's Sound, R. Brown; Stirling Range, F. Mueller; thence to Swan river Author:Charles Fraser, Drummond, 1st coll. suppl. n. 114, 3rd coll. n. 286, Preiss. n. 475; Serpentine and Murchison rivers, Oldfield.

15. B. media, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 35. A tall shrub or small tree, the branches hoary-tomentose. Leaves lanceolate-cuneate, truncate, serrate, tapering into a short petiole, 2 to 3 in. long in some specimens, twice as long in others, ½ to ¾ in. broad, flat, tomentose underneath with parallel transverse veins and reticulate between them. Spikes oblong or cylindrical, 3 to 6 in. long. Bracts hirsute at the end. Perianth about 1 in. long, the tube shortly silky-pubescent, the limb at first pubescent but soon becoming glabrous. Fruiting cone thick. Capsules immersed in the persistent remains of the flowers, nearly glabrous.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 457; Bot. Mag. t. 3120.

W. Australia. Lucky Bay, Point Malcolm, to Cape Arid, Baxter; interior from Cape Riche, Gardner, Fitzgerald and Phillips Ranges, and away to the eastward, Maxwell.

16. B. Solandri, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 36. A tree, with tomentose branches. Leaves on rather long petioles, oblong, truncate, more or less divided into irregular triangular lobes very rarely reaching the midrib, 6 to 8 in. long, 1½ to 4 in. broad, flat, very rigid, the under surface pale and sometimes white, with numerous prominent transverse veins and conspicuous reticulations. Spikes oblong or cylindrical, 3 to 8 in. long. Perianths very slender, scarcely 1 in. long, the tube loosely silky-hairy, the limb narrow, acute, glabrous or with a very few long fine hairs. Style remaining curved but not hooked, with a small very short stigmatic end. Fruiting cone ovoid or oblong, 2 in. diameter. Capsules quite glabrous, thick with a slightly prominent acute ridge at the suture.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 463; B. Hookeri, Drumm. in Bot. Mag. lxxiv. Comp. 1.

W. Australia. Mountains near King George's Sound, Baxter; summit of Mongerup, Drummond 4th coll. n. 305; Perongerup ranges and sand plains, Kalgan river, Oldfield.

17. B. Goodii, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 36. Stems short, woolly or tomentose, and apparently prostrate as in the three following species, but without leaves excepting close under the inflorescence. Leaves on long petioles, ½ to 1 ft. long, 1 to 3 in. broad, sinuate and irregularly toothed or lobed but the lobes rarely reaching halfway to the midrib and usually very short, very rigid, the under surface tomentose but the tomentum deciduous and never white, the primary transverse veins prominent. Spikes oblong-cylindrical, 3 or 4 in. long, closely surrounded by the floral leaves and a few subulate plumose outer bracts. Perianth-tube not 1 in. long, loosely villous, the limb narrow, acute, at first bearded with long hairs but soon glabrous. Style remaining curved but not hooked, with a very small stigmatic end.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 463; B. barbigera Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. ii. 264, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 463.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or to the eastward, Baxter, Drummond 3rd coll. n. 290.

18. B. petiolaris, F. Muell. Fragm. iv. 109. Stems short, prostrate, thick and tomentose. Leaves erect, on long petioles, above 1 ft. long, truncate, sinuate with short callous teeth, tapering at the base, about 1 in. broad towards the top, flat or undulate, thick, the veins concealed on the under surface by a white tomentum. Spike erect as in B. repens, cylindrical, 5 in. long in the specimen before me. Perianth about ¾ in. long, the tube loosely pubescent, the limb nearly 2 lines long, obtuse, bearing longer more deciduous hairs. Style remaining curved, with a very small stigmatic end.

W. Australia. Sand plains, Cape Le Grand to Cape Arid, Maxwell (a single specimen in Herb. F. Mueller). Possibly a variety of B. repens, as suggested by F. Mueller, Fragm. vii. 58.

19. B. repens, Labill. Voy. i. 411, t. 23. Stems short, prostrate, thick, densely tomentose or woolly. Leaves erect, on long petioles, often a foot long, deeply and irregularly pinnatifid, the lobes varying from lanceolate or falcate entire and 1 to 1½ in. long to oblong-lanceolate or somewhat cuneate entire lobed or pinnatifid and 1 to 4 in. long, or to short broad and almost triangular, all thick and rigid, flat or undulate, the transverse veins prominent underneath and sometimes also on the upper surface. Spikes turned up at the end of the stems, not closely surrounded by leaves, oblong or cylindrical, 3 to 4 in. long. Perianths about 1 in. long, the tube pubescent with short crisped hairs, the limb recurved, nearly 2 lines long, obtuse, villous with much longer crisped hairs sometimes deciduous. Style remaining curved but not hooked, with a very small stigmatic end.—R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 211, Prod. 396; Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 586, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 462; B. polypodifolia Knight, Prot. 113; B. blechnifolia, F. Muell. Fragm. iv. 108; B. pinnatisecta, F. Muell. Fragm. vii. 58 (name only).

W. Australia. King George's Sound or adjoining districts, Labillardière, Baxter, Drummond, 3rd coll. n. 291, Oldfield; sandy plains from Stirling Range to Young river, Maxwell.

20. B. prostrata, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 36. Stems prostrate, tomentose. Leaves erect, on long petioles, often above 1 ft. long and 1 to 1½ in. broad, divided about half way to the midrib into broad ovate or triangular mostly obtuse lobes, thick flat and rigid, the transverse veins scarcely prominent even on the under surface. Spikes turned up at the ends of the stems as in B. repens, not closely surrounded by leaves, oblong or cylindrical, rarely above 3 in. long. Perianth scarcely above ¾ in. long, the tube loosely hirsute, the limb recurved, narrow, obtuse, at first densely bearded with long crisped and intricate ferruginous woolly hairs, but soon becoming glabrous. Style remaining curved but not hooked, with a minute stigmatic end. Capsules slightly prominent, tomentose-villous, thick, 1 in. broad.—Meissn in Pl. Preiss. i. 587, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 462; Bot. Reg. t. 1572.

W. Australia. Sand plains, King George's Sound and neighbouring districts, Baxter, Drummond 3rd coll. n. 289, Preiss, n. 480, and several others.

21. B. grandis, Willd. Spec. Pl. i. 535. A tree attaining about 40 ft., the branches tomentose. Leaves often 1 ft. long or more, divided to the midrib into ovate-triangular contiguous segments, the larger ones 1½ to 2 in. long and 1 in. broad at the base, the lower ones gradually smaller, all flat, with several primary transverse veins impressed above, prominent underneath, the under surface pale, reticulate, tomentose in the areolæ. Spike cylindrical, 8 to 12 in. long. Perianths above 1 in. long, the tube loosely villous, the limb glabrous, obtuse, scarcely 1½ lines long. Style long, remaining curved but not hooked, with a small oblong stigmatic end. "Capsules glabrous, 6 to 8 lines broad."—R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 210, Prod. 396; Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 587, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 464.

W. Australia. King George's Sound, R. Brown, Oldfield, F. Mueller; Cape Riche, Preiss, n. 474, 492; Swan river, Drummond, 1st coll., Oldfield. The foliage is nearly that of B. Baxteri, the spikes and flowers very different.

22. B. quercifolia, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 210, Prod. 396. An erect shrub of 5 or 6 ft., the branches and foliage glabrous. Leaves sessile or nearly so, oblong-cuneate, truncate, deeply and irregularly prickly-toothed or pinnatifid, tapering to the base, 2 to 4 in. long, flat or undulate, the transverse veins and reticulations more or less conspicuous underneath. Spikes oblong-cylindrical, dense but rather narrow, 3 to 4 in. long. Bracts with very short glabrous tips. Perianth-tube about ½ in. long, ferruginous-villous, the limb narrow, reflexed, 2 lines long with an awn-like point at least as long, pubescent with shorter hairs than the tube. Style about ¾ in. long, remaining curved, with a small very narrow stigmatic end. Capsules rounded, thick, glabrous or slightly tomentose, ¾ in. broad.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 585, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 462; Bot. Reg. t. 1430.

W. Australia. King George's Sound, R. Brown, Baxter, Harvey, Preiss, n. 489, Oldfield, and others. The foliage is nearly that of B. Caleyi.

Var. integrifolia, F. Muell. Fragm. vii. 57. Leaves cuneate, truncate, with a small central pungent point, entire or minutely 2- or 3-toothed. Capsules very thick, 1 in. broad.—East Mount Barren and Tulbinup, Maxwell.

23. B. Baueri, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 35. Probably arborescent, the branches tomentose or nearly glabrous. Leaves oblong-cuneate or almost lanceolate, truncate, sinuate-toothed, very shortly petiolate, mostly 3 to 4 in., sometimes 5 in. long, flat, the transverse veins prominent underneath and the reticulations conspicuous, scarcely tomentose. Spikes very thick and dense, globular or oblong, 6 to 8 in. long. Bracts densely villous at the end. Perianth-tube pubescent, the limb densely villous, narrow, abruptly reflexed, about 3 lines long, ending in a plumose awn-like point of ½ in. or more. Style remaining curved, with a narrow acute stigmatic end. Capsules concealed among the dense perianth-remains, very thick, glabrous, smooth, 1¼ to 1½ in. broad.— Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 460; F. Muell. Fragm. iv. 107.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or the neighbouring districts, Baxter, Drummond, 4th coll. n. 303. The long fine points to the perianth-laminæ forming awn-like ends to the limb before it opens, are quite peculiar to this and the preceding species.

Sect. 3. Eubanksia.—Leaves linear-lanceolate oblong or cuneate, with recurved or revolute entire or dentate margins, white underneath. Style at first curved. straight and very spreading or reflexed after the perianth-limb has opened, the stigmatic end very small, not furrowed.

The three species here included, divided into many more by R. Brown, Meissner and others, are so closely allied and so frequently connected by intermediates, that they might almost be considered as varieties of a single one.

24. B. marginata, Cav. Anal. Hist. Nat. i. 227, t. 13. Ic. vi. 29; t. 544. Usually a bushy shrub of 10 to 15 ft., growing out sometimes into a tree of considerable size or sometimes low and straggling or depressed, the branches tomentose or villous. Leaves of the flowering branches very shortly petiolate, oblong-lanceolate or broadly linear, obtuse or retuse, usually entire, with recurved margins, 1 to 2 in. long, in some flowerless branches or even on some flowering specimens some or all rather larger and more or less serrate with short rigid or prickly teeth, all very white underneath, minutely reticulate, without any or with very few of the transverse veins of B. integrifolia. Spikes oblong-cylindrical, 2 to 3 or rarely near 4 in. long, or in the dwarf varieties sometimes nearly globular and small. Bracts tomentose at the end. Perianths silky, 7 to 8 lines long. Style straightening after the perianth-laminæ have separated, and usually very spreading or reflexed, with a small slender stigmatic end. Fruiting cone oblong-cylindrical; capsules prominent above the closely packed bracts, flat, not thick, rounded, ½ in. broad, at first pubescent but the hairs wearing off.—R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 204, Prod. 392, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 455; Bot. Mag. t. 1947; B. microstachya, Cav. Anal. Hist. Nat. i. 224, Ic. vi. 28, t. 541 (specimens with serrate leaves); B. marginata, Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 61, and B. oblongifolia, Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 241, not of others (both with serrate leaves); B. australis, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 206; Prod. 393; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 456; Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 329; Bot. Reg. t. 787; B. depressa, B. patula and B. insularis, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 205, 206, Prod. 393; Meissn. l.c. 456; B. Gunnii, Meissn. l.c.

N. S. Wales. Port Jackson, R. Brown, Sieber, n. 8, and others; Berrima and Mudgee, Woolls.

Victoria. Port Phillip, R. Brown; Wangaratta and Dandenong, F. Mueller; Melbourne, Adamson; Glenelg river, Robertson.

Tasmania. Port Dalrymple, Derwent river, and King's Island, R. Brown. Abundant throughout the is1and, ascending to 3000 ft., J .D. Hooker.

S. Australia. Port Lincoln, R. Brown; Boston Point, Wilhelmi; near Adelaide, Whittaker, Blandowski; Mount Barker and Cook's Creek, Neumann; Kangaroo Island, Waterhouse.

It appears from R. Brown's labels that he had originally referred all his southern specimens to B. marginata, and the characters upon which he afterwards thought he could distinguish four southern species, fail so completely when applied to the large number of specimens we now possess that I have felt obliged to return to his original views. As a whole the species differs from B. integrifolia generally in the smaller leaves and flowers and in the leaves reticulate only without transverse veins. In some specimens however some of the leaves show a few of these veins, especially when toothed there is often one entering into each tooth.

B. præmorsa, Dum. Cours., B. ferrea, Vent., and B. hypoleuca Hoffmsg., are names of garden plants which have been referred by Meissner and others to this species. B. marcescens, Bonpl. Jard. Malm. 116, t. 48, appears to me to represent the toothed-leaved state of B. marginata, and not the true B. marcescens, Br.

25. B. integrifolia, Linn. f. Suppl. 127. A tree attaining sometimes a considerable size, the young branches closely tomentose. Leaves scattered, sometimes irregularly verticillate, oblong cuneate or lanceolate, quite entire or irregularly toothed, tapering into a short petiole, 3 to 4 in. long in some specimens, twice that length in others, especially the northern ones, ½ to near 1 in. broad, white underneath, with numerous transverse veins and reticulations not very prominent; the young shoots are also sometimes tomentose or villous with richly coloured fulvous almost woolly hairs persisting on the under side till the leaves are nearly full grown. Spikes oblong or cylindrical, 3 to 6 in. long. Bracts tomentose at the end. Perianth usually about 1 in. long, silky. Style straightening after the perianth-laminæ have separated and usually very spreading or reflexed as in B. marginata. Fruiting cone oblong, cylindrical, the capsules prominent and not thick, as in that species.—R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 206, Prod. 393; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 456; Cav. Ic. vi. t. 546; Bot. Mag. t. 2770; B. spicata, Gærtn. Fr. i. 221, t. 48; B. oleifolia, Cav. Anal. Hist. Nat. i. 228, t. 14, Ic. vi. 80, t. 545; B. macrophylla, Link. Enum. Hort. Berol. i. 116; B. compar, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 207, Prod. 393; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 457.

Queenland. Keppel Bay, R. Brown, O'Shanesy; Brisbane niver, Moreton Bay, A. Cunningham, F. Mueller, and others; Condamine river, Leichhardt; Mount Archer, Bowman; Rockhampton and Rockingham Bay, Dallachy.—The greater number of these northern specimens have remarkably long leaves, sometimes 8 to 10 in. long and ¾ in. wide, and constitute the B. compar, Br. They have also usually rather larger flowers, but neither character is at all constant, and R. Brown had himself at first referred his specimens to B. integrifolia.

N. S. Wales. Port Jackson, R. Brown, Sieber, n. 4, and many others; northward to Hastings river, Beckler; Richmond river, Fawcett; New England, C. Stuart; Mount Lindsay, W. Hill; southward to Twofold Bay, F. Mueller.

Victoria. Sealer's Cove, Port Phillip, Brighton, F. Mueller.

Var. paludosa. Flowers scarcely larger than in B. marginata, the perianth 7 to 8 lines long, but the leaves of one of the common short-leaved forms of B. integrifolia.—B. paludosa, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 207; Prod. 394; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 457; Bot. Reg. t. 697; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 392.—Port Jackson, R. Brown, Sieber, n. 5. Distributed also from the Botanical Garden, St. Petersburgh as B. integrifolia.

B. oblongifolia, Cav. Anal. Hist. Nat. i. 225, Ic. vi. t. 542; R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 208, Prod. 394; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 461, appears to be referrible to B. integrifolia, the specimens of Sieber, n. 5, and from Mount Lindsay, Author:Charles Fraser, have rather more coriaceous leaves than usual with the transverse veins more prominent, approaching in some degree B. dentata, but not otherwise distinguishable from the typical B. integrifolia. B. glauca, and B. salicifolia, Cav. Anal. Hist. Nat. i. 230, 231, Ic. vi. 31, B. asplenifolia, Salisb. Prod. 51, B. cuneifolia, and B. reticulata, Hoffmsg. in Roem. and Schult. Syst. iii. Mant. 379; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 466, Hakea pubescens Hort. Cels. in Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2, are garden plants which appear to have been correctly referred to B. integrifolia, although several of them have been described only as to their foliage.

26. B. dentata, Linn. f. Suppl. 127. A small tree of 15 to 20 ft. closely allied to B. oblongifolia. Leaves shortly petiolate, cuneate oblong, 4 to 8 in. long, 1 to 2 in. broad, irregularly toothed, the margins slightly recurved, white underneath with the primary transverse veins more prominent than in B. integrifolia and not so white. Spikes oblong or cylindrical, usually larger than in B. integrifolia but the flowers in all other respects as well as the fruits entirely those of B. integrifolia. Styles about 1½ in. long, becoming straight, with a small narrow stigmatic end.—R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 210, Prod. 396; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 462; F. Muell. Fragm. vii. 57.

N. Australia. Islands of the Gulf of Carpentania, R. Brown; Port Hurd, opposite Melville Island, A. Cunningham; Point Pearce, F. Mueller; Glenelg river, N. W. coast, Martin.

Queensland. Endeavour river, Banks and Solander, A. Cunningham.

Sect. 4. Orthostylis.—Leaves flat or undulate, regularly or rarely irregularly serrate pinnatifid or pinnate, with short lobes or segments. Perianth straight or the limb rarely reflexed. Style after the perianth limb has opened curved upwards at the base only, then strait rigid and erect, the stigmatic end prominently angled and furrowed or striate.

The foliage is that of Cyrtostylis but the regular rigid erect often almost imbricate styles give the cones after the flowers have opened a different aspect, and the stigmatic ends of the styles are well marked. A few species have the styles elegantly curved before they are set free from the perianth-limb, and B. latifolia in its flowers and styles is almost intermediate between Eubanksia and Orthostylis.

27. B. latifolia, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 208, Prod. 394. A low but stout shrub, the branches densely tomentose. Leaves shortly petiolate, obovate-oblong, often truncate, irregularly serrate with short usually prickly teeth, contracted at the base, 4 to 8 in. long, 1½ to 3 in. broad, flat, minutely tomentose but not white underneath, with prominent transverse veins and reticulations. Spikes oblong-cylindrical, 3 to 5 in. long. Perianth slender, about 1 in. long, the tube shortly silky-pubescent, the limb glabrous, narrow, acute, scarcely 2 lines long. Style becoming straight and spreading as in Eubanksia, with a very small stigmatic end. Fruiting cones large and thick; capsules villous, not thick, protruding, about 6 or 7 lines diameter.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 4; Bot. Mag. t. 2406; B. robur, Cav. Anal. Hist. Nat. i. 226, Ic. vi. 29, t. 543; B. uncigera and B. dilleniæfolia, Knight, Prot. 112, 113; B. fagifolia, Hoffmsg.; Roem. and. Schult. Syst. iii. Mant. 379 (Meissn.).

Queensland. Moreton Bay, W. Hill, F. Mueller.

N. S. Wales. Marshes about Port Jackson, R. Brown, A. Cunningham, Leichhardt; Hastings river, Beckler.

28. B. serrata, Linn. f. Suppl. 126. A tree, the young shoots tomentose or villous and sometimes densely so with richly coloured ferruginous very deciduous hairs. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute or truncate, regularly and deeply serrate, tapering into a petiole, 3 to 6 in. long, ½ to 1 in. wide, coriaceous, flat, hoary or rarely white underneath, with parallel transverse veins. Spikes oblong or rarely globular, 3 to 6 in. long, very thick. Perianths silky, the tube above 1 in. long, the laminæ narrow, acuminate, nearly 3 lines long, the silky hairs longer than those of the tube. Style at length straight, with a cylindrical somewhat furrowed stigmatic end, about ½ line long and thickened at the base. Capsules very prominent, tomentose, thick and hard, obliquely rounded or ovate, above 1 in. broad.— R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 209, Prod. 395; Sm. in White, Voy. 223 t. 18 to 20; Meissn. in. DC. Prod. xiv. 461; F. Muell. Fragm. vii. 56; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 82; B. conchifera, Gærtn. Fr. i. 221, t. 48; B. mitis, Knight, Prot. 112; B. dentata, Wendl. Hort. Herrenh. t. 8; B. media, Hook. f. Fl. Tasm. i. 329, not of R. Br.

N. S. Wales. Botany Bay, Banks and Solander; Port Jackson, A. Cunningham, also according to Meissner, Sieber n. 2, partly.

Victoria. Port Albert, F. Mueller (I have not seen the specimens).

Tasmania. N. coast on two hills called the Sisters, between Rocky and Table Capes, Bankhouse, Gunn.

The plant figured by Cavanilles as B. serrata appears to be rather B. æmula; Baillon's figure Hist. Pl. ii. 394, f. 230, is most probably taken from B. attenuata.

29. B. æmula, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 210, Prod. 395. A shrub very closely allied to B. serrata and difficult to distinguish from it except by the stigmatic end of the style which is very much shorter and ovoid. The flowers are also said to be of a yellowish green without the bluish grey tinge of B. serrata. The spikes are usually not so thick, the foliage precisely the same. Capsules at least as large as in B. serrata, the tomentum easily wearing off.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 461; Bot. Mag. t. 2671; Bot. Reg. t. 688; B. serrata, Cav. Ic. vi. 27, t. 540, not of Linn. f.; B. serratifolia, Salisb. Prod. 51 or B. serræfolia, Knight, Prot. 112 (R. Br.); B. elatior, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 209, Prod. 395; Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv 458; B. undulata, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1316.

Queensland. Sandy Cape, R. Brown; Stradbrooke Island, Moreton Bay, A. Cunningham. I have not seen Brown's own specimens of 'B. elatior, which have been mislaid, but there seems no doubt that Cunningham was right in his identification.

N. S. Wales. Port Jackson, R. Brown, Sieber, n. 2 (our specimens at least), and others; Hastings river, Beckler, Twofold Bay, L. Morton? (leaves only).

Victoria. Gipps' Land, F. Mueller.

30. B. ornata, F. Muell. Meissn. in Linnæa xxvi. 352, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 460. A shrub of 5 or 6 ft., the branches densely hirsute; Leaves oblong-cuneate, mostly truncate, regularly serrate, tapering into a short petiole, 2 to 4 in. long, ½ to ¾ in. broad, flat, the transverse veins prominent underneath. Spikes globular or oblong-ovoid, 2 to 4 in. long. Bracts obtuse, villous. Perianth slender, villous with spreading hairs, 1 to 1¼ in. long, the limb narrow, 3 lines long. Style curved upwards from the base, then becoming straight, stigmatic end narrow, furrowed. Fruiting cone ovoid; capsules prominent, very thick, tomentose-villous, fully ¾ in. broad.—F. Muell. Fragm. vii. 56.

Victoria. N.W. districts, L. Morton; Wimmera, Dallachy.

S. Australia. Encounter Bay, Whittaker; Onkaparinga river and towards Guichin Bay, F. Mueller.

31. B. coccinea, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 207, Prod. 394. An erect shrub attaining 12 to 15 ft., the branches densely tomentose, with a few long spreading hairs often intermixed. Leaves sessile or very shortly petiolate, from broadly oblong or obovate to almost orbicular or broader than long, truncate or retuse, often cordate at the base, bordered by small irregular prickly teeth, 1½ to 2½ in. long, flat, rigid, prominently penniveined and reticulate underneath. Spikes globular, about 2 in. diameter, the flowers regularly imbricate in vertical (not spiral) rows, the tubes of those of each pair opening inwards for the emission of the style of which the end is retained in the reflexed limb, the spike thus long remaining elegantly striped by double rows of arched richly coloured red styles alternating with double rows of villous perianths. Each perianth about 1 in. long with a limb of about 2 lines. When at length liberated the style straightens; bearing a stigmatic end of about ¾ line, furrowed, with a prominent rim round its base. Fruiting cone after the fall of the perianths ovoid, 1 to 1½ in. diameter, tomentose-villous; capsules very small thin and scarcely protruding, 4 or rarely 5 lines broad.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 585, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 459; Bauer, Illustr. t. 3.

W. Australia. King George's Sound and adjoining districts, R. Brown, Drummond, 3rd coll. n. 284, Preisse, n. 481, and many others.

32. B. sceptrum, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 120, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 459. A tall shrub or small tree of 10 to 15 ft., with thick closely tomentose branches. Leaves petiolate, oblong truncate, shortly sinuate-toothed, 1½ to 2½ in. long, flat, rigid, transversely veined and reticulate underneath. Spike oblong-cylindrical, thick and dense, 6 to 8 in. long, the curved styles protruding before the perianth-limb opens, alternating in single rows with the perianths. Perianth silky-villous, the tube ½ in., the obtuse limb 4 or 5 lines long. Style after it is set free from the perianth straight or flexuose, much longer than the perianth, with a thick furrowed stigmatic end of 1½ to 2 lines. Capsules prominent, very thick, variegated and hirsute, often 1 in. broad.

W. Australia. Hutt river, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 206; Murchison river, Oldfield.

33. B. Menziesii, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 36. A tree of 30 to 40 ft., the branches thick and tomentose. Leaves shortly petiolate, 6 in. to 1 ft. long, to 1 in. wide, truncate, bordered by short broad teeth, more or less ferruginous-tomentose underneath with numerous parallel transverse veins. Spikes thick, oblong, 4 to 5 in. long. Bracts with broad obtuse tomentose pale coloured ends surrounded by the deeply coloured woolly hairs of the sides, marking the spike both in bud and after the perianths have fallen with a lozenge-shaped pattern in numerous spiral rows. Perianth-tube about 1 in. long, silky-pubescent, the limb erect, villous with longer hairs, about 3 lines long. Style incurved at the base, then erect and straight, with a furrowed stigmatic end about 1 to 1½ lines long. Capsules very prominent, oblique, thick, tomentose.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 584, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 459.

W. Australia. Swan river, Collie, Drummond, 1st coll., Preiss, n. 477; Murchison river, Oldfield.

34. B. lævigata, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 458. A shrub ? with tomentose branches. Leaves linear-cuneate, truncate, serrate, contracted into a short petiole, 2 to 4 in. long, thick, flat, with the transverse veins very fine and slightly impressed underneath. Spikes globular, resembling those of B. ornata, 2 to 3 in. diameter. Perianths incurved at the base, erect, hirsute with spreading hairs, scarcely 1 in. long, the narrow limb about 1½ lines long. Style slender, incurved, with a small narrow slightly furrowed stigmatic end. Fruiting cone globular, about 3 in. diameter; capsules slightly prominent, rounded, thick, villous, about ½ in. broad.

W. Australia. Between Swan river and Cape Riche, Drummond, 5th coll. n. 414, or in some herbaria, 415; East Mount Barren, Maxwell.

35. B. Hookeriana, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 119, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 458. A shrub of 5 or 6 ft., with densely tomentose branches. Leaves linear-cuneate, 4 to 8 in. long, 4 to 5 lines broad near the end, tapering into a short petiole, divided nearly half-way to the midrib into numerous broadly triangular teeth or lobes, minutely tomentose underneath, the veins inconspicuous. Spikes oblong, very thick, 4 to 5 in. long. Perianth curved upwards, nearly 1½ in. long, the limb about 3 lines long, densely hirsute with long spreading hairs. Style rigid, incurved at the base, then erect and straight, with a slender furrowed stigmatic end.

W. Australia. Between Tea-tree swamp and Irwin river, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 202.

36. B. prionotes, Lindl. Swan Riv. App. 34. A tree of about 80 ft., with thick tomentose branches. Leaves 8 in. to above 1 ft. long, ½ to 1 in. broad, truncate, pinnatifid with numerous rather regular lobes not reaching half-way to the midrib, broader than long, rounded, flat, with short rigid but not pungent points, the transverse veins numerous and fine, visible underneath and converging at the apex of each lobe. Spikes thick, oblong, 3 to 5 in. long. Perianth incurved and erect, the tube nearly 1 in. long, villous, the limb 3 lines long, very densely villous with spreading hairs. Style rigid, incurved at the base, then erect, with a narrow furrowed stigmatic end of 1 to 1¼ lines. Fruiting cones after the fall of the perianth-remains showing the prominent conical tomentose ends of the bracts; capsules prominent, rounded, rather thick, tomentose or shortly villous, about ¾ in. broad, the lateral base of the style more or less prominent.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 584, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 459.

W. Australia. Between Swan river and King George's Sound, Drummond, 1st coll., 3rd coll. n. 288, Preiss, n. 476, Harvey; Upper Gardner river, Hassell; Murchison river, Oldfield.

37. B. Victoriæ, Meissn. in. Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 119, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 464. A shrub of 12 to 15 ft., nearly allied to B. prionotes but the branches more hirsute, the leaves divided more than halfway to the midrib into broad triangular acute or acuminate lobes, the larger ones fully ½ in. long and broad, and the loose ferruginous wool more persistent although ultimately deciduous. Spike of B. prionotes, but the outer bracts at the base above ½ inch long and plumose with long hairs. Perianth rather longer than in B. prionotes, much more villous, especially the limb. Style the same. Capsules more prominent, 1 in. broad, densely villous with purple hairs.—Bot. Mag. t. 4906; B. speciosa, Lindl. Bot. Reg. t. 1728 not of R. Br.

W. Australia. Hutt river, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 203; Baker's Well, Oldfield.

38. B. speciosa, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 210, Prod. 396. A tall shrub, with thick tomentose branches. Leaves shortly petiolate, 8 in. to above 1 ft. long, divided to the midrib into numerous contiguous rounded or triangular shortly acuminate segments, the larger ones ¾ in. broad at the base and nearly as long, diminishing towards each end of the leaf, flat, rigid, retaining more or less of a white tomentum underneath, with numerous transverse converging veins. Spikes very thick, oblong, 4 to 5 in. long. Perianths incurved upwards, hirsute, the tube about 1 in., the obtuse hirsute limb about 2½ lines long. Style incurved at the base, erect, rigid, hairy; stigmatic end stipitate and furrowed.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 464; Bot. Mag. t. 3052 (the leaves not quite correct); B. grandidentata, Dum. Cours (Meissn).

W. Australia. Lucky Bay, R. Brown, Baxter.

39. B. Baxteri, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 36. A tall shrub, the branches glabrous or hirsute under the spikes with long fine spreading hairs. Leaves mostly 3 to 4 in. long, divided to the middle into ovate-triangular acute contiguous segments, the larger ones 1 in. long and ¾ in. broad at the base but mostly smaller, flat, rigid, pale or whitish underneath with several fine and faint transverse converging veins. Spikes globular, 2 to 3 in. diameter, the outer linear bracts plumose with long fine hairs. Perianths hirsute with long fine hairs, 1½ in. long, the limb narrow, acute or acuminate, about 4 lines long. Sty1e incurved at the base, erect, thick and rigid, densely hairy, the stigmatic end narrow, acute, furrowed. Capsules prominent, very thick and woody, 1½ in. broad.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 587, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 464.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or adjoining districts, Baxter, Drummond, 4th coll., n. 306, Preiss, n. 485; Harvey; flat sandy plains from Stirling Range to Salt river, Maxwell.

40. B. marcescens, R. Br. in. Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 208, Prod. 395. A shrub of 5 or 6 ft. the branches tomentose. Leaves petiolate, oblong, truncate, serrate, almost obtuse at the base, 1 to 1½ in. long and about ½ in. broad, flat, minutely tomentose underneath with faint transverse veins and reticulations. Spikes oblong or cylindrical, dense, 3 to 10 in. long, like those of B. media. Bracts tomentose at the end. Perianth purple, glabrous, scarcely 1 in. long, the limb narrow, obtuse, about 2 lines long. Style erect, about as long as the perianth, the stigmatic end short and sulcate. Capsules usually buried in the persistent remains of the flowers, rather thick, rounded, about ¾ in. broad, quite glabrous and shining but chagrined with raised dots or tubercles.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 586, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 461; Sw. Fl. Austral. t. 14; Bot. Mag. t. 2803; B. præmorsa, Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 258; B. asplenifolia, Knight, Prot. 113, not of Salisb. (R. Br.).

W. Australia. King George's Sound, Menzies, Baxter, Drummond, 3rd coll. n. 285, Preiss, n. 484.

Bonpland's figure and description of B. marcescens, Jard. Malm. 116, t. 48, appear to me to represent rather one of the garden varieties of B. marginata. I have not seen Preiss's specimens above quoted from Meissner.

41. B. Lemanniana, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 462. Branches tomentose or shortly villous. Leaves petiolate, obovate-oblong, less truncate than in most species, almost regularly toothed, cuneate at the base, 1½ to 3 in. long, flat, loosely tomentose underneath when young, the transverse veins and reticulations visible but not prominent. Spikes globular or shortly oblong, very thick, 3 to 4 in. long. Perianths glabrous, above 1 in. long, the narrow obtuse limb about 4 lines. Style slightly curved, erect, the stigmatic end long narrow and furrowed.

W. Australia. Drummond, 4th coll. n. 302.

42. B. Caleyi, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 35. A low shrub, the branches tomentose. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or narrow-cuneate, usually truncate, sinuate and broadly prickly-toothed or almost pinnatifid, tapering into a short petiole, 3 to 6 in. long, flat or undulate, green on both sides, finely and not prominently transversely veined and reticulate underneath. Spikes ovoid-oblong or globular, 2 to 3 in. long. Bracts obtuse, densely villous. Perianths nearly 1 in. long, quite glabrous or with a minute and scanty pubescence on the tube, the limb very angular and obtuse, about 4 lines long. Style incurved, erect, the stigmatic end long narrow and furrowed, with a projecting rim at the base. Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 462.

W. Australia. Baxter, Drummond 4th coll. n. 301.

43. B. Lindleyana, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 120, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 455. A shrub of 3 or 4 ft., differing slightly from B. Caleyi in the narrower serrate leaves and the flowers usually larger. Young shoots tomentose and villous, leafy branches hoary or almost glabrous. Leaves linear-lanceolate, serrate, tapering into a short petiole, 2 to 4 in. long, flat, slightly tomentose, reticulate and pitted underneath. Spikes very thick, ovoid-globular, about 4 in. long. Bracts woolly-tomentose with short obtuse points prominent above the bracteoles. Perianth glabrous, the tube nearly 1 in. long, the obtuse angular limb 3 to 4 lines. Style incurved, erect, the stigmatic end long, narrow and furrowed.

W. Australia. Murchison river, Oldfield, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 204.

44. B. elegans, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 119 and in DC. Prod. xiv. 465. A small tree, the specimens at first sight closely resembling those of B. Candolleana, the leaves of the same size, with numerous broad pungent-pointed lobes, but divided only a little more than half way to the midrib, and the under surface pale or whitish with a minute tomentum, which almost conceals the veins, the smaller reticulations quite inconspicuous. Spikes globular, larger and more dense than in B. Candolleana. Perianth straight, fully 1 in. long, the tube minutely pubescent, the limb narrow, glabrous, fully 2 lines long. Style curved, erect, the stigmatic end fusiform and furrowed.

W. Australia. Valley of the Lakes, Hill river, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 200.

45. B. Candolleana, Meissn. in Hook. Kew Journ. vii. 118, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 465. A shrub with a creeping underground trunk and erect leafy stems of 1 to 2 ft., the flowering ones often short with few leaves, all minutely tomentose or glabrous. Leaves shortly petiolate, often 1 ft. long or more, divided to the midrib into numerous broad ovate-triangular contiguous segments, the larger ones scarcely above 4 lines long and broad, all pungent-pointed, flat, rigid, strongly veined and reticulate underneath. Spikes ovoid-globular, not surrounded by leaves, about 1½ in. long without the perianths, which are not so dense as in most species, straight, about 1 in. long, the tube slender, minutely pubescent or glabrous, the limb oblong, glabrous, striate, about 2 lines long. Style curved, erect; stigmatic end fusiform, sulcate. Capsules very prominent, hard, thick, tomentose, the projecting portion 2 in. long and 1½ in. broad, with a small lateral conical beak or persistent base of the style.—F. Muell. Fragm. vii. 58.

W. Australia. Dundagaran and Hill river, Drummond, 6th coll. n. 201.

Sect. 5. Isostylis.—Spikes reduced to depressed globular heads. Perianth-limb opening as soon as the limb, the style straight, not longer than the perianth, with a small stigmatic end.

46. B. ilicifolia, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 211, Prod. 396, Prot. Nov. 37. A tree attaining from 20 to 40 ft., or sometimes remaining shrubby and 8 to 10 ft. high, the branches tomentose and often hirsute with a few long spreading hairs. Leaves shortly petiolate, oval-oblong obovate or cuneate, truncate, undulate and irregularly prickly-toothed or lobed, 1 to 3 in. long, green on both sides, veined and reticulate underneath, but the veins rarely prominent. Spikes terminal, depressed-globular, sessile amongst the floral leaves, the rhachis with the closely packed villous bracts about ½ in. diameter. Perianths erect, straight, the tube shortly silky-pubescent, 1 to 1¼ in. long, the limb obtuse, glabrous or nearly so, not 2 lines long. Style not longer than the perianth, erect, straight, glabrous, with a small scarcely distinct stigmatic end. Fruiting cone very small. Capsules usually 1 or 2 only, very prominent, obliquely ovoid, thick, tomentose, the projecting portion ½ to ¾ in. long, with a scarcely prominent lateral beak or scar indicating the base of the style.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 589 and in DC. Prod. xiv. 466; B. aquifolium, Lindl. Swan Riv. App. 34.

W. Australia. King George Sound and the neighbouring districts, R. Brown, Baxter, A. Cunningham, Oldfield, F. Mueller; Swan river, Drummond, 1st coll., Preiss, n. 482.

The specimens at first sight closely resemble those of some forms of Dryandra floribunda, to which I find them referred in several herbaria, as also by F. Mueller, Fragm. vi. 92, and vii. 50.

Var. integrifolia. Leaves obovate, entire or scarcely toothed.—Swan river, Preiss, n. 482 (some specimens).