Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar/127. The Noun determined by a following Determinate Genitive
|←Determination by means of the Article||Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (1909)
, translated by Arthur Ernest Cowley
Determination of Nouns in general. Determination of Proper Names
|The Indication of the Genitive Relation by means of the Construct State→|
127a When a genitive, determined in any way, follows a nomen regens, it also determines the nomen regens, which, according to §89a, is always in the construct state. Moreover, every pronominal suffix attached to a substantive is, according to §33c, to be considered as a genitive determinate by nature. An independent genitive may be determinate—
(a) By its character as a proper name (according to §125a), e.g. דְּבַר יְהֹוָה the word of the Lord.
(b) By having the article, e.g. אִישׁ הַמִּלְחָמָה (prop. the man of the war) the soldier (but אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה Jos 171, a soldier); אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה Nu 3149, the soldiers; דְּבַר הַנָּבִיא the word of the prophet, Jer 289 (but e.g., on the other hand, מִצְוַת אֲנָשִׁים מְלֻמָּדָה a commandment of men which hath been taught, Is 2913; דְּבַר־שָׁ֑קֶר word of falsehood, Pr 2912).
(c) By the addition of a pronominal suffix (see above), e.g. בֵּֽית־אָבִי my father’s house.
(d) By construction with another genitive determined in some way, e.g. Gn 32 מִפְּרִי עֵֽץ־הַגָּן of the fruit of the trees of the garden. Thus in Is 1012 four, and in 21:17 even five, members of a series are determined by a concluding determinate genitive.
127b Rem. 1. The above explains also the various meanings of כֹּל (prop. a substantive in the sense of aggregate, whole), according as it is followed by a determinate or indeterminate genitive. In the former case כֹּל has the meaning of the entirety, i.e. all, the whole (like the French tous les hommes, toute la ville), e.g. כָּל־הָאָרֶץ the whole (prop. the entirety of the) earth, כָּל־הָֽאָדָם all men; Ex 1822, Nu 1513, Jer 429, and cases like Nu 423, 47, 21:8 where כָּל is followed by a singular participle with the article. On the other hand, before an indeterminate genitive כֹּל is used in the more indefinite (individualizing) sense of of all kinds, any (cf. tout homme, à tout prix), or distributively each, every, e.g. כָּל־עֵץ every (kind of) tree, Gn 29; cf. 4:22, 24:10, 1 Ch 292; כָּל־דָּבָר any thing, Ju 1919; בְּכָל־יוֹם every day, every time, ψ 712.
127c It is, however, to be observed—
(b) That the meaning every is frequent even before singulars used collectively; afterwards the idea of quisque passes naturally into that of totality, e.g. כָּל־חַי each living thing, i.e. every (not every kind of) living thing; כָּל־בָּשָׂר all flesh, i.e. all men or all living creatures (with the article only in Gn 715 before a relative clause, and in Is 406); sometimes also כָּל־עֵץ all trees, כָּל־עוֹף all birds; finally—
(c) That before the names of members of the human body, כָּל־ frequently (as being determinate in itself) denotes the entirety, e.g. Is 15 the whole head, the whole heart (the sense required by the context, not every head, &c., which the expression in itself might also mean); 9:11, 2 K 233, Ez 297 all (i.e. the whole of) their shoulders... all (the whole of) their loins; 36:5.—On כֹּל with a suffix when it follows a noun in apposition (e.g. Is 98 הָעָם כֻּלּוֹ the people, all of it, i.e. the whole nation, more emphatic than כָּל־הָעָם, cf. Driver on 2 S 29), as well as when it follows absolutely in the genitive (= all men, every one, e.g. Gn 1612), see the Lexicon, pp. 481b, 482b.
127d 2. Gentilic names (or patronymics), derived from compound proper names (consisting of a nomen regens and genitive), are determined by inserting the article before the second part of the compound (since it contains the original genitive), e.g. בֶּן־יְמִינִי (see §86h) a Benjamite, בֶּן־הַיְמִינִי Ju 315, &c., the Benjamite; בֵּֽית־הַלַּחְמִי the Bethlehemite, 1 S 161, &c. (cf., however, 1 Ch 2712 Qerê לַבֵּן יְמִינִי); בֵּֽית־הַשִּׁמְשִׁי the Beth-shemite, 1 S 614; אֲבִי הָֽעֶזְרִי the Abiezrite, Ju 611, &c., cf. 1 K 1634.
127e 3. In a few instances the nomen regens appears to be used indefinitely notwithstanding a following determinate genitive; it is not so, however, in Gn 167, where the reference is to a well-known fountain; 21:28, where in the original context there must have been some reason for the seven ewe lambs of the flock; 2 S 1230 the spoil found in the city; but it often is so before a proper name, as in Ex 109 חַג יְהֹוָה a feast of the Lord (unless it is the spring festival), Dt 725, and frequently תּֽוֹעֲבַת יְהֹוָה an abomination unto the Lord; cf. also Gn 4634, Dt 2219 a virgin of Israel; 1 S 412 a man of Benjamin; Pr 251, Ct 21, 39; similarly before appellatives with the article (or before a genitive determined by a suffix, as in Lv 1434), 1 S 2020 three arrows; 2 S 2311 חֶלְקַת הַשָּׂדֶה a plot of the ground (but see Gn 3319, Jos 2432); Ju 136, Jer 134, 4116, Ct 111, 13 f., 5:13, 7:3, 8:2. On the other hand, שִׁיר הַמַּֽעֲלוֹת in the titles of Psalms 120 to 134 (except 121:1, שִׁיר לַמַּֽעֲלוֹת) was most probably originally the title of a collection, in the sense of ‘the pilgrimage-songs’ (according to §124r), and was subsequently added to these Psalms severally.—In Ex 2024 בְּכָל־הַמָּקוֹם in all the place, sc. of the sanctuary, is a dogmatic correction of בְּכָל־מָקוֹם, in every place, to avoid the difficulty that several holy-places are here authorized, instead of the one central sanctuary. In Gn 2013 also כָּל־הַמָּקוֹם (unless it means in the whole place) is remarkable, since elsewhere every place is always (8 times) כָּל־מָקוֹם.
127f 4. The deviations mentioned under e, from a fundamental rule of syntax, are in some cases open to suspicion on textual grounds, but much more doubtful are the instances in which the article is found before a noun already determined in some other way, as—
(a) Before a noun which appears to be determined by a following independent determinate genitive. The least questionable are the instances in which the genitive is a proper name, since these may be elliptical forms of expression like the apparent construction of proper names with a genitive, noticed in §125h, e.g. Nu 2114 הַנְּחָלִים אַרְנוֹן the valleys, namely the valleys of Arnon; 2 K 2317 הַמִּזְבַּח בֵּית־אֵל the altar, namely the altar of Bethel (i.e. with the suppression of the real nomen regens, מִזְבַּח without the article; by the pointing הַמִּזְבַּח the Masora evidently intends to allow the choice either of reading הַמִּזְבֵּחַ or correcting it to מִזְבַּח); הָאֵל בֵּית־אֵל the God of Beth-el (equivalent to הָאֵל אֵל בּ׳), Gn 3113 (the LXX read הָאֵל הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלֶיךָ כַמָּקוֹם the God who appeared to thee in the holy place); הַמֶּלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר the king of Assyria, Is 3616 (probably a scribal error due to verse 13; it does not occur in the parallel passage, 2 K 1831), cf. Jos 135, 2 K 2511, Jer 386, Ez 4715; in the vocative, Jer 4832, La 213. On the other hand, שָׂרָה אִמּוֹ Gn 2467 is no doubt only a subsequent insertion; so also יִשְׂרָאֵל Jos 833b (cf. LXX), 2 S 2023, 2 K 713, הַמֶּ֫לֶךְ 1 S 2622 after הַחֲנִיה (simplified by the Masora to חֲנִית Qerê); עֲלִיַּת אָחָז 2 K 2312, אַשּׁוּר Is 368 (cf. 2 K 1823), הַקֹּדֶשׁ Ez 4619 (unless the article with לשכות is to be omitted), also הַתָּמִיד Dn 813, and עֹדֵד הַנָּבִיא 2 Ch 158. In Ex 918 read with the Samaritan לְמִיּוֹם; in 2 S 1925 לֶ֫כֶת might possibly be taken in apposition to לְמִן הַיּוֹם; in 2 K 101 restore אֶת־בְּנֵי, with the LXX and Lucian, before אַחְאָב; in 2 K 2519 omit the article, as in Jer 5225, before סֹפֵר.
127g A similar ellipse must also be assumed in 2 K 2317 the sepulchre is the sepulchre of the man of God (but most probably קֶבֶר has dropped out after הַקֶּבֶר) and ψ 1234 (cf., however, the LXX, and observe that in the parallel member the genitive is paraphrased by לְ).—In Jos 314 הַבְּרִית (verse 17 בְּרִית יהוה) has been added to the original הָֽאָרוֹן by a redactor; cf. similar syntactically impossible additions in verse 11 (also in 1 S 43, &c., where the LXX still had simply אֲרוֹן יהוה); in הַיְחַד Ju 1614 the Masora evidently combines two different readings הַיָּחֵד and יְתַד הָאֶרֶג; and similarly in Jer 2526 (where הָאָ֫רֶץ was only subsequently introduced into the text), the two readings הַמַּמְלָכוֹת and מַמְלְכוֹת הָא׳ are combined.—In Jos 811, 1 K 1424, Jer 3140, Ez 4516 the article, being usual after כָּל־, has been mechanically added, and so also in 2 Ch 816 after עַד־; in 2 K 94 the second הַנַּ֫עַד (instead of נַ֫עַר) is occasioned by the first; in Ez 77 מְהוּמָה belongs as a nominative to what follows; in Ez 829 the meaning perhaps is in the chambers, in the house of the Lord, or the article is to be omitted; in 1 Ch 1527 the text is manifestly corrupt.
127h Of another kind are the instances in which a determinate noun is followed by a definition of the material in apposition (hence, not in the genitive; cf. § 131), e.g. Zc 410 הָאֶ֫בֶן הַבְּדִיל the weight, the lead, i.e. the leaden weight; Ex 3917, 2 K 1614 (הַנְּח֫שֶׁת, both here and in verse 17, is probably only a later addition, while המסגרות המכנות in verse 17 has arisen from a confusion of two readings, מסגרות המכנות and המסגרות מֵהמכנות). In Jer 3212 also הַמִּקְנָה (unless the article is simply to be omitted) is in apposition to הַסֵּפֶר.
127i (b) Before a noun with a suffix (which likewise represents a determinate genitive; see above, at the beginning of this section). This does not apply to cases in which a verbal (i.e. accusative) suffix is affixed to a participle which has the article, e.g. הַמַּכֵּ֫הוּ Is 912, the one smiting him; in Dt 815, 136 also ךָ is a verbal suffix, but hardly the וֹ in הָֽעֹשׂוֹ for הָֽעֹשֵׂ֫הוּ Job 4019, nor the ־ָהּ in הַיֹּֽלְדָהּ Dn 116; §116g. For הָֽעֶרְכְּךָ Lev 2723, read עֶרְכְּךָ as in verses 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, &c., twelve times (but cf. also the note on §128d).—Of the remaining examples כַּגְּבִרְתָּהּ Is 242 (probably an intentional alliteration with the eleven other words beginning with כַּ), לַמַּֽעֲנֵ֫הוּ Pr 164, and בֶּֽעָרֵ֫ינוּ (so Baer, following the best authorities) Ezr 1014, rest only on the authority of the Masoretes, not of the authors. So also in הָאָֽהֳלִי Jos 721, הַֽחֶצְיוֹ Jos 833 (previously חֶצְיוֹ), הֶהָֽרוֹתֶ֫יהָ 2 K 1516 (dittography of the ה), the article is simply to be omitted as syntactically impossible; the ו of הַדָּבְרוֹ Mi 212 is the copula belonging to the next word.
- הָֽאָדָם being a collective, cf. כָּל־הָאִישׁ 2 S 152, all men, כָּל־הַכֵּן Ex 122 all sons, כָּל־הַבַּת all daughters; in itself כָּל־הָֽאָרָם could also mean the whole man.
- In Ezr 1017 instead of בַּכֹּל אֲנָשִׁים read simply בְּכָל־הָֽאֲנָשִׁים.
- According to Philippi (st. constr., p. 38) בית־אל is rather a case of ‘sub-position’ in the accusative, as also הַדֶּ֫רֶךְ חֶתְלוֹן Ez 4715 (for which, however, in 48:1 there is the correct reading דֶּ֫רֶךְ חֶתְלוֹן) by the way to Hethlon; and in fact, Ez 4715 may without difficulty be explained in this way; so שֵׁשׁ Ex 3927 as an accusative of the material.