Hand-book of Volapük/24

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THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS[edit]

In English we often use one of the common prepositions in several different meanings, which may not coincide with the meanings of any one Volapük preposition. In Volapük it is intended that each preposition should have only two meanings, the literal and the figurativ.

The following list is intended for reference in case of doubt :

It must be remembered also that there are many words in English which are used sometimes as prepositions, sometimes as adverbs : to run down the hill; to tear down the house.

By, the doer, fa by, beside, nebü by, past, bei by, by means of, dub by, each, a a del, day by day ; a tel, two by two.

At, close to, len at, in a town, in at, o'clock, not translated.

Among Between bevü In English we use between in speaking of two objects, and among of more than two; in Volapük there is no distinction.

Before, speaking of place, bifu speaking of time, büfü.

After, in time, pos ; after, behind, po.

Ago ; where we use this adverb of time, for example "two years ago," the Volapük expression is, "before two years." Similarly, for "two years hence," after two years.

Of, belonging to, translated by the kimafal ; of, concerning (I speak of this subject),  ; of, composed of, containing, originating from, coming from (a glass of water, Schleyer of Constance), de.

To, the indirect object of a verb, generally meaning in relation to, translated by the kimefal ; to, denoting progress to a place, al.

From, departure from, de from, on account of, dem or demü.

For, in favor of, in exchange for, plo ; for, instead of, pla ; for, during (for years), du for, on account of dem or demü.

Towards, direction of movement, äl; towards, disposition tovards, kol towards, nearly (towards three o'clock), za.

With, in company with, ko with, as an instrument, me.

But, except, plä, sesumü but, only, te.

Till, until; jü al, jü in, jü su, jü len, etc.

Without, deprived of, nen without, outside of, plö, mofü.

About, surrounding, zi about, concerning, about, approximately, za.