Hay-Herbert Treaty

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Hay-Herbert Treaty  (1903) 
Governments of the United Kingdom, Canada and the United Stated of America
Convention between His Majesty and the United States of America, for the adjustment of the Boundary between the Dominion of Canada and the Territory of Alaska.

Convention between His Majesty and the United States of America, for the adjustment of the Boundary between the Dominion of Canada and the Territory of Alaska.[edit]

--Signed at Washington, January 24, 1903

(Ratifications exchanged at Washington, March 3, 1903)

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, and the United States of America, equally desirous for the friendly and final adjustment of the differences which exist between them in respect to the true meaning and application of certain clauses of the Convention between Great Britain and Russia, signed under date of the 28th (16th February), A.D. 1825, which clauses relate to the delimitation of the boundary line between the territory of Alaska, now in possession of the United States, and the British possessions in North America, have resolved to provide for the submission of the questions as hereinafter stated to a Tribunal and to that end have appointed their respective Plenipotentiaries, as follows:--

His Britannic Majesty, the Right Honourable Sir Michael H. Herbert, K.C.M.G., C.B., His Britannic Majesty's Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary; and

The President of the United States of America, John Hay, Secretary of State of the United States;

Who, after an exchange of their full powers, which were found to be in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles:

Article I[edit]

A Tribunal shall be immediately appointed to consider and decide the questions set forth in Article IV of this Convention. The Tribunal shall consist of six impartial jurists of repute, who shall consider judicially the questions submitted to them, each of whom shall first subscribe an oath that he will impartially consider the arguments and evidence presented to the Tribunal, and will decide thereupon according to his true judgment. Three members of the Tribunal shall be appointed by His Britannic Majesty and three by the President of the United States. All questions considered by the Tribunal, including the final award, shall be decided by a majority of all the members thereof.

In case of the refusal to act, or of the death, incapacity, or abstention from service of any of the persons so appointed, another impartial jurist of repute shall be forthwith appointed in his place by the same authority which appointed his predecessor.

The Tribunal may appoint a Secretary and a Bailiff to perform such duties as they may prescribe, and may employ scientific experts if found to be necessary, and may fix a reasonable compensation for such officers. The Tribunal shall keep an accurate record of all its proceedings.

Each of the High Contracting Parties shall make compensation for the services of the members of the Tribunal of its own appointment and of any agent, counsel, or other person employed in its behalf, and shall pay all costs incurred in the preparation of its Case. All expenses reasonably incurred by the Tribunal in the performance of its duties shall be paid by the respective Governments in equal moieties.

The Tribunal may, subject to the provisions of this Convention, establish all proper rules for the regulation of its proceedings.

Article II[edit]

Each of the High Contracting Parties shall also name one person to attend the Tribunal as its Agent.

The written or printed case of each of the two parties, accompanied by the documents, the official correspondence, and all other evidence in writing or print on which each Party relies, shall be delivered in duplicate to each member of the Tribunal and to the Agent of the other Party as soon as may be after the organization of the Tribunal but within a period not exceeding two months from the date of the exchange of ratifications of this Convention.

Within two months after the delivery on both sides of the written or printed Case, either Party may, in like manner, deliver in duplicate to each member of the Tribunal, and to the Agent of the other Party, a Counter-Case, and additional documents, correspondence and evidence, in reply to the Case, documents. correspondence and evidence so presented by the other Party. The Tribunal may however, extend this last mentioned period when in their judgment it becomes necessary, by reason of special difficulties which may arise in the procuring of such additional papers and evidence.

If in the Case submitted to the Tribunal either Party shall have specified or referred to any report or document in its own exclusive possession without Annexing a copy, such Party shall be bound, if the other Party shall demand it, within thirty days after the delivery of the Case, to furnish to the Party applying for it a duly certified copy thereof: and either Party may call upon the other, through the Tribunal, to produce the original or certified copies of any papers adduced as evidence, giving in each instance such reasonable notice as the Tribunal may require; and the original or copy so requested shall be delivered as soon as may be and within a period not exceeding forty days after receipt of notice.

Each Party may present to the Tribunal all pertinent evidence, documentary, historical, geographical, or topographical, including maps and charts, in its possession or control and applicable to the rightful decision of the questions submitted; and if it appears to the Tribunal that there is evidence pertinent to the case in the possession of either Party, and which has not been produced, the Tribunal may in its discretion order the production of the same by the Party having control thereof.

It shall be the duty of each Party, through its Agent, or Counsel, within two months from the expiration of the time limited for the delivery of the Counter-Case on both sides, to deliver in duplicate to each member of the said Tribunal and to the Agent of the other Party a written or printed argument showing the points and referring to the evidence upon which his Government relies, and either Party may also support the same before the Tribunal by oral argument of Counsel. The Tribunal may, if they shall deem further elucidation with regard to any point necessary, require from either Party a written, printed, or oral statement or argument upon the point; but in such case the other Party shall have the right to reply thereto.

Article III[edit]

It is agreed by the High Contracting Parties that the Tribunal shall consider in the settlement of the questions submitted to its decisions the Treaties respectively concluded between His Britannic Majesty and the Emperor of All the Russias under date of the 28th (16th) February, A.D. 1825, and between the United States of America and the Emperor of All the Russias, concluded under date of the 18th (30th) March, A.D. 1867, and particularly the Articles III, IV and V of the first-mentioned Treaty, which in the original text are, word for word, as follows:--

" III. La ligne de démarcation entre les possessions des Hautes Parties Contractantes sur la côte du Continent et les Iles de l'Amérique Nord-ouest, sera tracée ainsi qu'il suit:--

" A partir du point le plus méridional de l'île dite Prince of Wales, lequel point se trouve sous la parallèle du 54º 40' de latitude nord, et entre le 131e et le 133e degré de longitude ouest (méridien de Greenwich), la dite ligne remontera au nord le long de la passe dite Portland Channel, jusqu'au point de la terre ferme où elle atteint le 56e degré de latitude nord; de ce dernier point la ligne de démarcation suivra la crête des montagnes situées parallèlement à la côte, jusqu'au point d'intersection du 141e degré de longitude ouest (même méridien); et, finalement, du dit point d'intersection, la même ligne méridienne du 141e degré formera, dans son prolongement jusqu'à la mer glaciale, la limice entre les possessions Russes et Britanniques sur le Continent de l'Amérique Nord-ouest.

" IV. Il est entendu par rapport à la ligne de démarcation déterminée dans l'Article précédent:--

" 1. Que l'île dite Prince of Wales appartiendra tout entière à la Russie.

" 2. Que partout où la crête des montagnes qui s'étendent dans une direction parallèle à la côte depuis le 56e degré de latitude nord au point d'intersection du 141e degré de longitude ouest se trouverait à la distance de plus de dix lieues, marines de l'Océan, la limite entre les possessions Britanniques et la lisière de côte mentionnée ci-dessus comme devant appartenir à la Russie sera formée par une ligne parallèle aux sinuosités de la côte, et qui ne pourra jamais en être éloignée que de dix lieues marines.

" V. Il est convenu, en outre, que nul établissement ne sera formé par l'une, des deux Parties dans les limites que les deux Articles précédents assignent aux possessions de l'autre. En conséquence, les sujets britanniques ne formeront aucun établissement soit sur la côte, soit sur la lisière de terre ferme comprise dans les limites des possessions Russes, telles qu'elles sont désignées dans les deux articles précedents; et, de même, nul établissement ne sera formé par des sujets Russes au delà des dites limites."

The Tribunal shall also take into consideration any action of the several Governments or of their respective Representatives preliminary or subsequent to the conclusion of said Treaties, so far as the same tends to show the original and effective understanding of the Parties in respect to the limits of their several territorial jurisdictions under and by virtue of the provisions of said Treaties".

Article IV[edit]

Referring to Articles III, IV, and V of the said Treaty of 1826, the said Tribunal shall answer and decide the following questions:--

1. What is intended as the point of commencement of the line?

2. What channel is the Portland channel?

3. What course should the line take from the point of commencement to the entrance to Portland Channel?

4. To what point on the 56th parallel is the line to be drawn from the head of the Portland Channel, and what course should it follow between these points?

5. In extending the line of demarcation northward from said point on the parallel of the 56th degree of north latitude, following the crest of the mountains situated parallel to the coast until its intersection with the 141st degree of longitude west of Greenwich, subject to the condition that if such line should anywhere exceed the distance of 10 marine leagues from the ocean then the boundary between the British and the Russian territory should be formed by a line parallel to the sinuosities of the coast and distant therefrom not more than 10 marine leagues, was it the intention and meaning of said Convention of 1825 that there should remain in the exclusive possession of Russia a continuous fringe or strip of coast on the mainland, not exceeding 10 marine leagues in width, separating the British possessions from the bays, ports, inlets, havens, and waters of the ocean, and extending from the said point on the 56th degree of latitude north to a point where such line of demarcation should intersect the 141st degree of longitude west of the meridian of Greenwich?

6. If the foregoing question should be answered in the negative, and in the event of the summit of such mountains proving to be in places more than 10 marine leagues from the coast, should the width of the lisière which was to belong to Russia be measured (1) from the mainland coast of the Ocean, strictly so-called, along a line perpendicular thereto, or (2) was it the intention and meaning of the said Convention that where the mainland coast is indented by deep inlets forming part of the territorial waters of Russia, the width of the lisière was to be measured (a) from the line of the general direction of the mainland coast or (b) from the line separating the waters of the Ocean from the territorial waters of Russia, or (e) from the heads of the aforesaid inlets?

7. What, if any exist, are the mountains referred to as situated parallel, to the coast, which mountains, when within ten marine leagues from the coast, are declared to form the eastern boundary?

Article V[edit]

The Tribunal shall assemble for their first meeting at London as soon as practicable after receiving their commissions, and shall themselves fix the times and places of all subsequent meetings.

The decision of the Tribunal shall be made so soon as possible after the conclusion of the arguments in the Case, and within three months thereafter, unless His Britannic Majesty and the President of the United States shall by common accord extend the time therefor. The decision shall be made in writing and dated, and shall be signed by the members of the Tribunal assenting to the same. It shall be signed in duplicate, one copy whereof shall be given to the Agent of His Britannic Majesty for his Government, and the other to the Agent of the United States of America for his Government. Article VI

When the High Contracting Parties shall have received the decision of the Tribunal upon the questions submitted as provided in the foregoing Articles, which decision shall be final and binding upon all Parties, they will at once appoint, each on its own behalf, one or more scientific experts, who, shall with all convenient speed, proceed together to lay down the boundary-line in conformity with such decision.

Should there be, unfortunately, a failure by a majority of the Tribunal to agree upon any of the points submitted for their decision, it shall be their duty to so report In writing to the respective Governments through their respective Agents. Should there be an agreement by a majority upon a part of the, questions submitted, it shall be their duty to sign and report their decision upon the points of such agreement in the manner hereinbefore prescribed.

Article VII[edit]

The present Convention shall be ratified by His Britannic Majesty, and by the President of the United States, by and with the advice, and consent of the Senate, and the ratifications shall be exchanged in London or in Washington so soon as the same may be effected.

In faith whereof we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have signed this Convention, and have hereunto affixed our seals.

Done at Washington, in duplicate, this 24th day of January, A.D. 1903.

(L.S.) MICHAEL H. HERBERT.

(L.S.) JOHN HAY.


Award of the Alaska boundary Tribunal (Question between the Governments of Great Britain and the United States)[edit]

October 20, 1903.

Whereas by a Convention signed at Washington on the 24th day of January, 1903, by Plenipotentiaries of and on behalf of His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, and of and on behalf of the United States of America, it was agreed that a Tribunal should be appointed to consider and decide the questions hereinafter set forth, such Tribunal to consist of six impartial Jurists of repute, who should consider judicially the questions submitted to them, each of whom should first subscribe an oath that he would impartially consider the arguments and evidence presented to the said Tribunal, and would decide thereupon according to his true judgment, and that three members of the said Tribunal should be appointed by His Britannic Majesty and three by the President Of the United States;

And whereas it was further agreed by the said Convention that the said Tribunal should consider, in the settlement of the said questions submitted to its decision, the Treaties respectively concluded between His Britannic Majesty and the Emperor of All the Russias, under date of the 28th (16th) February, A.D. 1825, and between the United States of America and the Emperor of All the Russias, concluded under date of the 18th (30th) March, A.D. 1867, and particularly the Articles III, IV, and V of the first-mentioned Treaty, and should also take into consideration any action of the several Governments or of their respective representatives, preliminary or subsequent to the conclusion of the said Treaties, so far as the same tended to show the original and effective understanding of the parties in respect to the limits of their several territorial jurisdictions under and by virtue of the provisions of the said Treaties;

And whereas it was further agreed by the said Convention, referring to Articles III, IV, and V of the said Treaty of 1825, that the said Tribunal should answer and decide the following questions:--

1. What is intended as the point of commencement of the line?

2. What channel is the Portland Channel?

3. What course should the line take from the point of commencement to, the entrance to the Portland Channel?

4. To what point on the 56th parallel is the line to be drawn from the head of the Portland Channel, and what course should it follow between these points?

5. In extending the line Of demarcation northward from said point on the parallel of the 56th degree of north latitude, following the crest of the mountains situated parallel to the coast until its intersection with the 141st degree of longitude west of Greenwich, subject to the conditions that if such line should anywhere exceed the distance of 10 marine leagues from the ocean, then the boundary between the British and the Russian territory should be formed by a line parallel to the sinuosities of the coast and distant therefrom not more than 10 marine leagues, was it the intention and meaning of the said Convention of 1825 that there should remain in the exclusive possession of Russia a continuous fringe, or strip, of coast on the mainland, not exceeding 10 marine leagues in width, separating the British Possessions from the bays, ports, inlets, havens, and waters of the ocean, and extending from the said point on the 56th degree of latitude north to a Point where such line of demarcation should intersect the 141st degree of longitude west of the meridian of Greenwich?

6. If the foregoing question should be answered in the negative, and in the event of the summit of such mountains proving to be in places more than 10 marine leagues from the coast, should the width of the lisière, which was to belong to Russia, be measured (1) from the mainland coast of the ocean, strictly so-called, along a line perpendicular thereto, or (2) was it the intention and meaning of the said Convention that where the mainland coast is indented by deep inlets forming part of the territorial waters of Russia, the width of the lisière was to be measured (a) from the line of the general direction of the mainland coast, or (b) from the line separating the waters of the ocean from the territorial waters of Russia, or (c) from the heads of the aforesaid inlets?

7. What, if any exist, are the mountains referred to as situated parallel to the coast, which mountains, when within 10 marine leagues from the coast, are declared to form the eastern boundary?

And whereas His Britannic Majesty duly appointed Richard Everard, Baron Alverstone, G.C.M.G., Lord Chief Justice of England, Sir Louis Amable Jetté, K.C.M.G., Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Quebec, and Allen Bristol Aylesworth, one of His Majesty's Counsel; and the President of the United States of America duly appointed the Honourable Elihu Root, Secretary Of War of the United States, the Honourable Henry Cabot Lodge, Senator of the United States from the State of Massachusetts, and the Honourable George Turner, of the State of Washington, to be members of the said Tribunal:

Now, therefore, we, the Undersigned, having each of us first subscribed an oath, as provided by the said Convention, and having taken into consideration the matters directed by the said Convention to be considered by us, and having Judicially considered the said questions submitted to us, do hereby make Answer and Award as follows:--

In answer to the 1st question--

The Tribunal unanimously agrees that the point of commencement of the line is Cape Muzon.

In answer to the 2nd question--

The Tribunal unanimously agrees that the Portland Channel is the channel which runs from about 55º 56' north latitude, and passes to the north of Pearse and Wales Islands.

A majority of the Tribunal, that is to say, Lord Alverstone, Mr. Root, Mr. Lodge, and Mr. Turner, decides that the Portland Channel, after passing to the north of Wales Island, is the channel between Wales Island and Sitklan Island, called Tongass Channel. The Portland Channel above mentioned is marked throughout its length by a dotted red line from the point B to the point marked C on the map signed in duplicate by the members of the Tribunal at the time of signing their decision.

In answer to the 3rd question--

A majority of the Tribunal, that is to say, Lord Alverstone, Mr. Root, Mr. Lodge, and Mr. Turner, decides that the course of the line from the point of commencement to the entrance to Portland Channel is the line marked A B in red on the aforesaid map.

In answer to the 4th question--

A majority of the Tribunal, that is to say, Lord Alverstone, Mr. Root, Mr. Lodge, and Mr. Turner, decides that, the point to which the line is to be drawn from the head of the Portland Channel is the point on the 56th parallel of latitude marked D on the aforesaid map, and the course which the line should follow is drawn from C to D on the aforesaid map.

In answer to the 5th question--

A majority of the Tribunal, that is to say, Lord Alverstone, Mr. Root, Mr. Lodge, and Mr. Turner, decides that the answer to the above question is in the affirmative.

Question 5 having been answered in the affirmative, question 6 requires no answer.

In answer to the 7th question--

A majority of the Tribunal, that is to say, Lord Alverstone, Mr. Root, Mr. Lodge, and Mr. Turner, decides that the mountains marked S on the aforesaid map are the mountains referred to as situated parallel to the coast on that part of the coast where such mountains marked S are situated, and that between the points marked P (mountain marked S, 8,000) on the north, and the point marked T (mountain marked S, 7,950) in the absence of further survey, the evidence is not sufficient to enable the Tribunal to say which are the mountains parallel to the coast within the meaning of the Treaty.

In witness whereof we have signed the above-written decision upon the questions submitted to us.

Signed in duplicate this 20th day of October, 1903.

ALVERSTONE.

ELIHU ROOT.

HENRY CABOT LODGE.

GEORGE TURNER.

Witness:

REGINALD TOWER, Secretary.

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).