History of Russia

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History of Russia  (1898) 
by Alfred Nicolas Rambaud, translated by Leonora Blanche Lang
with a supplementary chapter of recent events by Edgar Saltus.


Preface[edit]

This translation of M. Alfred Rambaud's “Histoire de la Russie” (Paris, 1878) contains a number of emendations by the Author. M. Rambaud has also written many additional pages: on Russian ethnography; on the Esthonian Epic; on the early relations of England and Russia; and on the Emperor Paul's project of attacking England in India. The Translator has to express a grateful sense of M. Rambaud's constant and courteous aid. In whatever is hasty or inaccurate in these volumes, he has no share. The Translator has compiled Genealogical Tables, of which M. Rambaud has approved. The French book has no index, and an attempt has been made to supply this deficiency. The Translator regrets that, by a too close following of the French spelling of the ancient tribal names, new varieties have been introduced, where variety was already too plentiful and confusing. There seem, for example, to be about thirteen ways of spelling “Patzinak.” A list of some of these names as here printed, and of the forms used by Dr. Latham (“Russian and Turk”, London, 1878), is subjoined:

                               Dr. Latham.
  Tchouvach  -  -  -  -  -  Tshuvash.
  Tcheremiss   -  -  -  -   Tsherimis.
  Mordvians  -  -  -  -  -  Mordvins (otherwise Mordwa).
  Tchoud  -  -  -  -  -  -  Tshud.
  Dregovitch   -  -  -  -   Dragovitsae, Dregoviczi.
  Polovtsi  -  -  -  -  -   Polovcszi.
  Iatvegues  -  -  -  -  -  Yatshvings.
  Patzinaks  -  -  -  -  -  Petshinegs.
  Zaporogues   -  -  -  -   Zaporogs.

Contents[edit]

See also the expanded table of contents.

List of illustrations[edit]

See also the expanded list of illustrations (in Wikimedia Commons) to view all the images at once.

Volume 1[edit]

Volume 2[edit]

Observations[edit]

In spelling the Russian names I have adhered to the rational orthography, of which the first example was given by Schnitzler. Thus the Russian k (the Greek kappa) has been rendered by k, the letter x (aspirated k, the Greek khi) by kh, and the letter w by ch. The bi or dumb i has been rendered by the French y, and the other Russian i by I. The letters tch and chtch have been kept to express the tchèrve and the chtcha. The Russian vowel y, pronounced ou, is translated by the French diphthong ou, not by the German u.

I have sought to relieve the Russian names of their redundant s (the Germans employ seven letters, s c h t s c h, to express the single Russian chtcha), and of the f f and the double w, which give them such a repulsive appearance. Only in a few names, sanctioned by usage, I have conformed to the usual orthography; instead of Chouvalof and Chakovskoï, diplomacy and literature have familiarized Schouvalof and Schakovskoï.

In the same way I write Moscow and Moskowa, instead of Moskva, which designates both the river and the town.

I have tried to reproduce the orthography of the Russian names, though not their pronunciation, which is still more fantastic than in English. We print Orel, Potemkine, but they must be pronounced Ariol, Patiomkine.

The terminations in vitch and vna indicate filiation: Peter Alexiévitch, Peter son of Alexis; Elizabeth Pétrovna, Elizabeth daughter of Peter.

The Russian calendar has not adopted the Gregorian reform; it is, therefore, behind it, and for every date it is necessary to indicate whether it is after the old or new style. For important dates, both styles are generally given. In the eighteenth century the Russian style is eleven days behind ours: in the nineteenth century it is twelve days. Thus the date of the death of Catherine II. has been given as 6th–17th of November, a difference of eleven days, since the event happened in the eighteenth century. But we say the revolution of the 14th–26th of December, 1825, as we are speaking of the nineteenth century.


The Translator has retained the orthography of M. Rambaud where it appeared to her to convey to English ears the correct pronunciation. A list of variations in the spelling of ethnographic names will be found in the Preface.

Bibliographical notes[edit]

I.[edit]

Among the Russian books not translated into French which I have consulted for this history, I will cite the most important.

General Histories.— ‘History of Russia from the most ancient Times,’ by M. Serge Solovief (26 vols. have already appeared, up to Catherine II.), Moscow, 1851–1878. ‘Russian History,’ by M. Bestoujef-Rioumine (only 1 vol., up to Ivan III.), St. Petersburg, 1872. ‘History of the Russian Nation,’ by Polévoï. ‘Russian History contained in the Biographies of the principal Actors,’ by M. Kostomarof, 4 vols., St. Petersburg, 1873–1877; by the same, ‘Historical Monographs and Researches,’ 11 vols., St. Petersburg, 1868. The little school histories of M. Solovief and M. Ilovaïski I have found most useful.

First Period.— ‘Chronicle’ (of Nestor and his continuators), edited by Miklosich, Vienna, (1860, in the ‘Monumenta historica Poloniæ’ of Biàlovski, Lemberg, 1869, and by the Archæological Commission, St. Petersburg, 1872, after the Laurentian MSS). M. Samokvassof, ‘Ancient Towns and Gorodichtche of Russia,’ Moscow, 1874. Dorn, ‘The Caspian,’ St. Petersburg, 1875. M. Gedeonof, ‘Varangians and Russians,’ 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1876. M. Ilovaîski, ‘Researches on the Origin of Russia,’ and the ‘History of Russia,’ Kievian period, Moscow, 1872; both contrary to the Varangian-Norman theory. Pogodine, ‘Ancient Russian History to the time of the Mongol Yoke,’ Moscow, 1871, 2 vols., with a valuable atlas of prints, ancient maps, and miniatures. M. Biélaef, ‘Accounts of Russian History (Novgorod),’ Moscow, 1866. M. Zabiéline, ‘History of Russian Life from the earliest Times,’ Moscow, 1876.

Period of Ivan the Terrible.— ‘Narrative of Prince Kourbski,’ published by Oustriélof, 3rd edition, St. Petersburg, 1868. ‘Life and Historic Rôle of Prince Kourbski,’ by Serge Gorski, Kazan, 1858. ‘Russia and England’ (1553–1593), by M. Iouri Tolstoï, St. Petersburg, 1875. ‘Private Life of the Tzarinas,’ and ‘Private Life of the Russian Tzars,’ by M. Zabiéline, Moscow, 1869 and 1872. The ‘Domostroï’ edited by M. Iakovlef, St. Petersburg, 1867. ‘Essays and Historico-Literary Researches on the Domostroï,’ by M. Nékrassof, Moscow, 1878. The ‘Stoglaf,’ edit. Kojantchikof, St. Petersburg, 1868. ‘Laws of the Grand Prince Ivan III., Vassiliévitch, and of the Tzar Ivan IV., Vassiliévitch,’ edited by Kalaïdovitch and Stroéf, Moscow, 1819. ‘Songs’ collected by Kiriéevski, Ivan the Terrible.

Seventeenth Century.— Bantych-Kamenski, ‘History of Little Russia.’ M. Kostomarof, ‘Bogdan, Khmelnitski.’ M. Koulich ‘History of the Reunion of the Rouss,’ 3 vols., St. Petersburg and Moscow, 1874, 1877; by the same, ‘Memoirs on Southern Russia,’ St. Petersburg, 1856–57. M. Zabiéline ‘Studies of Russian Antiquaries,’ 2 vols., Moscow, 1872–73. ‘The Russian Empire in the middle of the Seventeenth Century,’ by Krijanitch, edited by M. Bezsonof, Moscow, 1860. M. Aristof, ‘Troubles in Moscow under the Regency of Sophia Alexiévna,’ Warsaw, 1871. M. Lechkof, ‘The People and the Russian State; History of Russian Public Law up to the Eighteenth Century,’ Moscow, 1858. M. Tchitchérine, ‘Provincial Institutions of Russia up to the Eighteenth Century,’ Moscow, 1856. M. Zagoskine, ‘History of Law in the Russian State,’ Kazan, 1877.

Peter the Great.— Oustriélof, ‘History of the Reign of Peter the Great,’ 6 vols., St. Petersburg, 1858–63. M. Grote, ‘Peter the Great, Civilizer of Russia,’ St. Petersburg, 1872. M. Solovief, ‘Public Lectures on Peter the Great,’ Moscow, 1872. M. Guerrier, ‘The Last of the Varangians’ in ‘Old and New Russia.’ Bytchkof, ‘Letters of Peter the Great,’ St. Petersburg, 1872. Pékarski, ‘Science and Literature under Peter the Great.’

Successors of Peter the Great.— M. Andréef, ‘Representatives of the Sovereign Power in Russia after Peter I.,’ St. Petersburg, 1871. Pékarski, ‘The Marquis de la Chétardie in Russia’ (1740–42), St. Petersburg, 1862. Weidemayer, ‘Review of the Principal Events,’ &c., and the ‘Reign of Elizabeth Pétrovna,’ 1835 and 1849. Chtchébalski, ‘Political System of Peter III.,’ Moscow, 1870. Bolotof, ‘Memoirs,’ edited by the Rousskaïa Starina, 4 vols., St. Petersburg, 1871–75; and ‘Recollections of Past Times,’ Moscow, 1875. M. Choubinski, ‘Historical Sketches and Narratives,’ St. Petersburg, 1869. M. Bestoujef-Rioumine on Tatichtchef, and M. Korsakof on Biren, in ‘Old and New Russia.’

Catherine II.— M. Tratchevski, ‘The Fürstenbund and the German Policy of Catherine II.,’ St. Petersburg, 1877. M. Solovief, ‘History of the Fall of Poland,’ Moscow, 1863. M. Kostomarof, ‘Last Years of the Polish Pospolite,’ St. Petersburg, 1870. ‘Journal of Khrapovitski,’ edited by M. Barsoukof, St. Petersburg, 1874. ‘Memoirs of G. R. Derjavine,’ edited by the Rousskaïa Bésiéda, Moscow, 1860. ‘Memoir of the Life and Services of Alexander Bibikof,’ edited by his son, Moscow, 1865. M. Melnikof, ‘Princess Tarakanof,’ St. Petersburg, 1868. Papers relative to the great legislative commission, published, with a preface, by M. Poliénof, in the Coll. of the Imp. Soc. of Russian History, 3 vols., St. Petersburg, 1869, and following.

Paul I.— General Milioutine, ‘History of the Russian War with France in 1799,’ 5 vols., St. Petersburg, 1852–53. Polévoï, ‘History of Souvorof-Rymniski, Prince of Italy,’ Moscow, 1811. ‘Accounts of Souvorof, by an Old Soldier,’ published by the Muscovite, Moscow, 1847. ‘Memoirs of L. N. Engelhardt,’ published by the Archive Russe, Moscow, 1868.

Alexander I.— M. Bogdanovitch, ‘History of the War of Patriotism,’ 3 vols., and ‘History of the Reign of Alexander I.,’ 6 vols., St. Petersburg, 1869–71. Pypine, ‘Progress of Ideas under Alexander I.’ Korff, ‘Life of Count Speranski,’ Kief, 1873. M. Ikonikof, ‘Count Mordvinof,’ St. Petersburg, 1873. Mikhaïlovski Danilevski, ‘Description of the first War with Napoleon,’ St. Petersburg, 1844, and all the wars of Alexander I. M. Alex. Popof, ‘Moscow in 1812; the French at Moscow,’ Moscow, 1875–76. ‘Relations of Russia with the European Governments before the War of 1812,’ St. Petersburg, 1876. Madame Tolytchéva, ‘Account by Eye-witnesses of the year 1872,’ Moscow, 1872–73.

Nicholas and Alexander II.— M. Bogdanovitch, ‘History of the Eastern War,’ 5 vols., 1876–77. ‘Collection of MSS. about the Defence of Sebastopol,’ published under the auspices of the Tzarévitch, 3 vols., St. Petersburg, 1872–73. Kovalevski, ‘War with Turkey and Rupture with the European Governments in 1853–54,’ St. Petersburg, 1871.

Berg, ‘Essays on the Polish Insurrections and Conspiracîes,’ Moscow, 1873. M. Kropotof, ‘Life of Count M. N. Mourovief,’ St. Petersburg, 1874. Likhoutine, ‘Memorials of the Hungarian Campaign in 1849,’ Moscow, 1875. M. Nil Popof, ‘Russia and Servia,’ 2 vols., Moscow, 1869.

M. Golovatchef, ‘Ten Years of Reforms, 1861–1871,’ St. Petersburg, 1872. M. Mordovtsof, ‘Ten Years of the Russian Zemstvo,’ St. Petersburg, 1877.

To these works we must add the ‘Archives of Prince Voronzof,’ published by M. Barténief, 12 vols., Moscow, 1870–78. The Coll. of the Imp. Soc. of Russian History, 20 vols., St. Petersburg, 1867–78. Numerous articles in the ‘Russian Archives’ of M. Barténief (Moscow, 1862–77, 22 vols.). ‘The Eighteenth Century’ (14 vols.) and ‘The Nineteenth Century’ (2 vols.), by the same. ‘Russian Antiquity,’ St. Petersburg, 1870–77, 20 vols. ‘Ancient and Modern Russia,’ St. Petersburg, 1875–77, 9 vols. The immense collection of the ‘Tchénia,’ or ‘Lectures,’ &c. The Transactions of archæological societies and archæological meetings.

Bantych-Kamenski has left a bibliographical dictionary of Russian personages.

The archaeology, ethnography, geography, and separate history of the Baltic provinces, of Little Russia, and of the ancient kingdom of Kazan, popular literature, and cultivated literature, would require a far more extensive bibliography. Polévoï has given us a ‘History of Russian Literature’; likewise M. Porphyrief, 2 vols., Kazan, 1876.

For geography consult the ‘Geographical-Statistical Dictionary of the Russian Empire,’ by M. Semenof, St. Petersburg, 1863–72; the ‘Tentative Statistical Atlas of Russia,’ by Colonel Iline; the small school atlas of Russian history, by M. Dobriakof.

II.[edit]

It will, no doubt, be more useful to indicate to the reader the French books, or books translated into French, that help to complete the former list.

General History.— The following may always be consulted with profit:—Karamsin, ‘Histoire de l'Empire de Russie’ (to the 17th century), translated by Saint Thomas and Jauffret, 11 vols., Paris, 1819–26. Lévêque, ‘Histoire de Russie et des principales nations de l'Empire Russe,’ continued, by Malte-Brun and Depping, 8 vols., Paris, 1812. Esneaux and Chennechot, ‘Histoire philosophique et politique de Russie,’ 5 vols., Paris, 1830. Choppin, ‘Russie,’ in ‘L'Univers Pittoresque,’ 2 vols., Paris, 1838–46. M. Geffroy, ‘Histoire des états scandinaves,’ Collection Duruy, Paris, 1851. Lélével, ‘Histoire de Pologne,’ 2 vols., Paris, 1844.

In German: ‘Geschichte des Russischen Staates,’ by Strahl and M. Hermann., 7 vols., Hamburg and Gotha, 1832–66; and ‘Geschichte Russlands,’ by M. Bernhardi, 4 vols., Leipzig.

General Studies.— Baron de Haxthausen, ‘Etudes sur la situation intérieure, la vie nationale et les institutions nationales de la Russie,’ 3 vols., Hanover, 1847–53. Schnitzler, ‘L'Empire des Tsars,’ 4 vols., Paris and Strasburg, 1862–69. The excellent articles of M. Anatole Leroy Beaulieu in the Revue des Deux Mondes, since 1873. Mackenzie Wallace, ‘Russia,’ translated into French by M. Henri Bellenger, 2 vols., Paris, 1877. Herbert Barry, ‘Contemporary Russia,’ translated into French, Paris, 1873. Dixon, ‘Free Russia,’ translated into French, Paris, 1872. M. Léouzon le Duc, ‘Etudes sur la Russie et le Nord de l'Europe, la Baltique, la Russie contemporaine.’ M. X. Marmier, ‘Lettres sur la Russie, la Finlande et la Pologne.’ Madame Hommaire de Hell, ‘Les Steppes de la Mer Caspienne.’ M. Anatole Demidof, ‘La Crimée.’ Prince Galitsyne, ‘La Finlande.’ M. Louis Leger, ‘Le Monde Slave,’ and ‘Etudes slaves,’ Paris, 1873 and 1875. M. Legrelle, ‘Le Volga,’ Paris, 1877.

Ancient Period.— M. Bergmann, ‘Les Scythes, les ancetres des peuples germaniques et slaves,’ Halle, 1860. M. Georges Perrot, ‘Le Commerce des céréales en Attique au 4e siècle avant notre ère’ (Revue Historique, May 1877). ‘La Chronique de Nestor,’ translated into French by Louis Paris, 2 vols., Paris, 1834. M. L. Leger, ‘De Nestore rerum russicarum scriptore,’ Paris, 1868; by the same, ‘Cyrille et Méthode,’ historical study of the conversion of the Slavs to Christianity, Paris, 1868. M. A. Rambaud, ‘L'Empire Grec au 10e siècle,’ Paris, 1870.

In English: Mr. Ralston, ‘Early Russian History,’ London, 1874.

From the 16th to the 18th century.— In the Russo-Polish library of Franck: Meyerberg, ‘Voyage en Moscovie.’ Giles Fletcher, ‘Russia in the Sixteenth Century.’ Korb, ‘Récit de la Révolte des Strélitz’; ‘Journal du boyard Chérémétief, une ambassade Russe à la cour de Louis XIV.’; ‘Mémoires’ of Manstein, Princess Dachkof and Tchitchagof.

Prince Emmanuel Galitsyne, ‘La Russie au 17e siècle, récit du voyage du prince Potemkine,’ Paris, 1855. Augustin Galitsyne, ‘La Russie au 18e siècle; mémoires inédits sur la règne de Pierre I.,’ Paris, 1865. Prosper Mérimée, ‘Episodes de l'Histoire de Russie.’ ‘Histoires des Guerres de Moscovie (1601–11),’ by Isaac Massa of Haarlem, Brussels, 1876. Serge Galitsyne, ‘La Régence de la Tzarine Sophie,’ translated from the Russian of Chtchébalski, Carlsruhe, 1857. ‘Mémoires du prince Pierre Dolgoroukof,’ 2 vols., Geneva, 1867–71.

Voltaire, ‘L'Histoire de Charles XII.,’ and ‘L'Histoire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand.’ Johann Gotthilf Vockerodt and Otto Pleyer, ‘Russland unter Peter dem Grossen,’ published by M. Hermann, Leipzig, 1872. M. Mintzlof, ‘Pierre le Grand dans la littérature étrangère,’ St. Petersburg, 1872. Posselt, ‘Der General und Admiral Franz Lefort,’ 2 vols., Frankfort, 1866. Bachoutski, ‘Panorama de Saint-Pétersbourg,’ translated from the Russian, St. Petersburg, 1831–34. M. Saint-René Taillandier, ‘Maurice de Saxe,’ Paris, 1870. M. Boutaric, ‘Correspondance secrète de Louis XV.,’ 2 vols., Paris, 1866. ‘Mémoires of Lady Rondeau,’ the Chevalier d'Eon, &c. Rathery, ‘Le Comte de Plélo,’ Paris, 1876. Salvandy, ‘Histoire de Jean Sobieski et du royaume de Pologne,’ 2 vols., Paris, 1855.

Catherine II. and Paul I.— Rulhière, ‘Histoire et anecdotes sur la révolution de Russie en 1762,’ Paris, 1797. Tooke, ‘History of the Empire of Russia under the Reign of Catherine II.,’ translated from the English, 6 vols., Paris, 1801. Jauffret, ‘Catherine II. et son règne,’ 2 vols., Paris, 1860. Augustin Galitsyne, ‘Le faux Pierre III.’ translated from Pouchkine, Paris, 1858. ‘Mémoires,’ by the Comte de Ségur. ‘Memoires secrets,’ by Major Masson. ‘Histoire de Catherine II.,’ Castéra, &c. ‘Mémoires de l'impératrice Catherine II.,’ published by Herzen, London, 1857. Sabathier de Cabres, ‘Catherine II., sa Cour et la Russie,’ Berlin, 1869. ‘La Cour de Russie, il y a cent ans, extraits des dépêches des ambassadeurs anglais et français,’ Leipzig and Paris, 1860. M. A. Rambaud, ‘Catherine II. dans sa Famille’; ‘Catherine II. et ses Correspondants français,’ in the Revue des Deux Mondes of the 1st of February, 1874, and the 1st of February and 1st of March, 1877. M. A. Geffroy, ‘Gustave III. et la Cour de France,’ 2 vols., Paris, 1867. ‘Mémoires’ or ‘Récits’ of Smith, Fuchs, Laverne, Anthing, and Gillaumanches, on Souvorof.

Epoch of Alexander I.— Besides the ‘Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire,’ by Thiers, ‘L'Histoire de France depuis le 18 Brumaire,’ by Bignon, there exist numerous ‘Mémoires’ of the campaigns, and especially that of 1812, the most important of which I have indicated in vol. ii. p. 275. Consult particularly the ‘Mémoires’ of Savary, Duke of Rovigo; ‘Mémoires et Histoire du général Philippe de Ségur,’ 6 vols., Paris, 1873; ‘Souvenirs militaires de 1804 à 1814,’ by M. le Duc de Fezensac, Paris, 1870; Schnitzler, ‘La Russie en 1812,’ Rostopchine et Koutouzof, Paris, 1863; A. de Ségur, ‘Vie du Comte Rostopchine,’ Paris, 1872; M. Albert Sorel, ‘Histoire du Traité de Paris,’ Paris, 1873.

Nicholas and Alexander II.— ‘Documents servant a eclaircir l'histoire des provinces occidentales de la Russie’ (in French and Russian), St. Petersburg, 1865. Schnitzler, ‘Histoire intime de la Russie,’ 2 vols., Paris, 1847. Nicholas Tourguénief, ‘La Russie et les Russes,’ 3 vols., Paris, 1847. Baron Korff ‘Avènement au trône de l'empereur Nicholas,’ translated from the Russian, Paris, 1857. Balleydier, ‘Histoire de l'empereur Nicolas,’ 2 vols., Paris, 1857; a somewhat second-rate though useful book. Peter Dolgoroukof, ‘La Vérité sur la Russie,’ Paris, 1860. M. Lacroix (Bibliophile Jacob), ‘Histoire de la vie et du règne de Nicolas I.,’ Paris, 1864 and following years. Admiral Jarien de la Gravière, ‘Les missions extérieures de la marine,’ Revue des Deux Mondes of 1873.

There is no definite history of these two reigns.

To the writings of the historiographer M. de Bazancourt, to the works of Niel and Todleben, and to the accounts of eye-witnesses or tourists, we must now add ‘L'Histoire de la Guerre de Crimée,’ by M. Camille Bousset, 2 vols., Paris, 1877. M. J. de la Gravière, ‘La Marine d'aujourd'hui,’ Paris, 1872. See also ‘Français et Russes, Moscou et Sévastopol,’ by M. Alfred Rambaud, Paris, 1877.

On the Russian policy in the Franco-German war, consult the excellent work of M. Albert Sorel, ‘Histoire diplomatique de la guerre France-Allemande,’ 2 vols., Paris, 1875, and the ‘Deux Chanceliers,’ by M. Klaczko. On the progress of the Russians in Asia, M. M. Weil, ‘L'Expédition de Khiva’; ‘Khiva, rapports de Hugo Stumm,’ translated from the German, Paris, 1874; some articles in the Revue des Deux Mondes, especially that of M. Cucheval-Clarigny (15th May, 1877); the ‘Annuaires’ of the same review, &c.

For Literature.— M. Courrière, ‘Hist. de la litt. contemporaine en Russie,’ Paris, 1875; M. Rambaud, ‘La Russie épique,’ 1876; Mr. Ralston's ‘Tales of the Russian People,’ translated into French, Paris, 1876; tolerably numerous translations of Pouchkine, and of M. Ivan Tourguénief, by M. Louis Viardot; of Gogol, by M. Ernest Charrière; of Gontcharof (oblomof) by M. Charles Deulin; and of Alexis Tolstoï (‘Le prince Sérébrannyi, ou Ivan le Terrible’), by Prince Augustin Galitsyne.

For the Fine Arts.— M. Viollet-le-Duc, ‘L'Art Russe,’ Paris, 1877.

Table of measures, weights, &c.[edit]

(Abridged from Mr. Murray's ‘Handbook of Russia.’)

Length[edit]

   1 dium          = 1 inch
  12 dium          = 1 foot
   1 vershok       = 1.75 inch
  16 vershoks      = 1 arshin, or 28 inches English
   3 arshins       = 1 sajen, or fathom
 500 sajens        = 1 verst = 2/3 of a mile
2400 sajens square = 2.86 acres

Money[edit]

   1 grivna = 10 kopeks
 100 kopeks = 1 rouble
   1 rouble = 32 pence, or from 25d. to 38d.
One English sovereign is worth about 7.50 roubles.

Capacity[edit]

   8 shtofs = 1 vedro = 3.25 gallons wine measure

Dry Measure[edit]

   1 garnets    = 0.34 peck
   8 garnets    = 1 chetverik = 0.68 bushel
   8 chetveriks = 1 chetvert  = 5.46 bushels

Weight[edit]

  96 zolotniks = 1 funt      = 14.43 oz.
  40 pounds    = 1 pùd       = 36.08 lbs.
  10 pùds      = 1 berkovets = 360.80 lbs.
This is a translation and has a separate copyright status from the original text. The license for the translation applies to this edition only.
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Translation:
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The author died in 1933, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.