History of Utah, 1540-1886/Table of Contents

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History of Utah, 1540-1886 by Hubert Howe Bancroft
Table of Contents
  • Author's preface
  • Chapters:
    1. Discoveries of the Spaniards, 1540–1777
      Francisco Vazquez de Coronado at Cíbola—Expedition of Pedro de Tobar and Father Juan de Padilla—They Hear of a Large River—García Lopez de Cárdenas Sent in Search of It—The First Europeans to Approach Utah—Route of Cárdenas—Mythical Maps—Part of the Northern Mystery—Journey of Dominguez and Escalante—The Course They Followed—The Rivers They Crossed—The Comanches—Region of the Great Lakes—Rivers Timpanogos, San Buenaventura, and Others—The Country of the Yutas—Route from Santa Fé to Monterey—The Friars Talk of the Lake Country—Return of the Spaniards to Zuñi and March to Santa Fé.
    2. Advent of Trappers and Travellers, 1778–1846
      Invasion by Fur Hunters—Baron la Hontan and his Fables—The Popular Geographic Idea—Discovery of the Great Salt Lake—James Bridger Deciding a Bet—He Determines the Course of Bear River, and Comes upon the Great Lake—Henry, Ashley, Green, and Beckwourth on the Ground—Fort Built at Utah Lake—Peter Skeen Ogden—Journey of Jedediah S. Smith—A Strange Country—Pegleg Smith—Wolfskill, Yount, and Burton Traverse the Country—Walker's Visit to California—Some Old Maps—The Bartleson Company—Statements of Bidwell and Belden Compared—Whitman and Lovejoy—Frémont—Pacific Coast Immigrations of 1845 and 1846—Origin of the Name Utah.
    3. The Story of Mormonism, 1820–1830
      A Glance Eastward—The Middle States Sixty Years Ago—Birth and Parentage of Joseph Smith—Spiritual Manifestations—Joseph Tells his Vision—And is Reviled—Moroni Appears—Persecutions—Copying the Plates—Martin Harris—Oliver Cowdery—Translation—The Book of Mormon—Aaronic Priesthood Conferred—Conversions—The Whitmer Family—The Witnesses—Spaulding Theory—Printing of the Book—Melchisedec Priesthood Conferred—Duties of Elders and Others—Church of Latter-day Saints Organized—First Miracle—First Conference—Oliver Cowdery Ordered to the West.
    4. The Story of Mormonism, 1830–1835
      Parley Pratt's Conversion—Mission to the Lamanites—The Missionaries at Kirtland—Conversion of Sidney Rigdon—Mormon Success at Kirtland—The Missionaries in Missouri—Rigdon Visits Smith—Edward Partridge—The Melchisedec Priesthood Given—Smith and Rigdon Journey to Missouri—Bible Translation—Smith's Second Visit to Missouri—Unexampled Prosperity—Causes of Persecutions—Mobocracy—The Saints are Driven from Jackson County—Treachery of Boggs—Military Organization at Kirtland—The Name Latter-day Saints—March to Missouri.
    5. The Story of Mormonism, 1835–1840
      President Smith at Kirtland—First Quorum of Twelve Apostles—The Kirtland Temple Completed—Kirtland Safety Society Bank—In Zion Again—The Saints in Missouri—Apostasy—Zeal and Indiscretion—Military Organization—The War Opens—Depredations on Both Sides—Movements of Atchison, Parks, and Doniphan—Attitude of Boggs—Wight and Gilliam—Death of Patten—Danite Organization—Order Lodge—Haun Mill Tragedy—Mobs and Militia—The Tables Turned—Boggs' Extermination Order—Lucas and Clark at Far West—Surrender of the Mormons—Prisoners—Petitions and Memorials—Expulsion—Gathering at Quincy—Opinions.
    6. The Story of Mormonism, 1840–1844
      The City of Nauvoo—Its Temple and University—The Nauvoo Legion—The Mormons in Illinois—Evil Reports—Revelation on Polygamy—Its Reception and Practice—The Prophet a Candidate for the Presidency—The ‘Nauvoo Expositor’—Joseph Arrested—Governor Ford and his Measures—Joseph and Hyrum Proceed to Carthage—Their Imprisonment—The Governor's Pledge—Assassination of the Prophet and his Brother—Character of Joseph Smith—A Panic at Carthage—Addresses of Richards and Taylor—Peaceful Attitude of the Mormons.
    7. Brigham Young succeeds Joseph, 1844–1845
      The Question of Succession—Biography of Brigham Young—His Early Life—Conversion—Missionary Work—Made President of the Twelve—His Devotion to the Prophet—Sidney Rigdon and Brigham Young Rival Aspirants for the Presidency—Rigdon's Claims—Public Meetings—Brigham Elected President of the Church—His Character—Temple-building—Fresh Disasters—The Affair at Morley—The Men of Quincy and the Men of Carthage—The Mormons Consent to Abandon their City.
    8. Expulsion from Nauvoo, 1845–1846
      A Busy City—Meeting in the Temple—Sacrifice of Property—Detachments Move Forward—A Singular Exodus—The First Encampment—Cool Proposal from Brother Brannan—The Journey—Courage and Good Cheer—Swelling of their Numbers—The Remnant of the Saints in Nauvoo—Attitude of the Gentiles—The Mormons Attacked—Continued Hostilities—The Final Departures—The Poor Camp—A Deserted City.
    9. At the Missouri, 1846–1847
      Native Races of the Missouri—The Pottawattamies and the Omahas—The Mormons Welcomed as Brethren—War with Mexico—California Territory—Mexican Boundaries—Application to the United States Government for Aid—An Offer to Serve as Soldiers Accepted—Organization of the Mormon Battalion—Departure of the Battalion—Bounty Money—March across the Continent—The Battalion in California—Matters on the Missouri.
    10. Migration to Utah, 1847
      Camp Near the Missouri—Preparations at Winter Quarters—Departure of the Pioneer Band—Elkhorn Rendezvous—Route and Routine—Incidents of Journey—Approach to Zion—In the Cañon—Hosanna! Hallelujah!—Entry into the Valley of the Great Salt Lake—Ploughing and Planting—Praying and Praising—Site for a City Chosen—Temple Block Selected—Return of Companies to Winter Quarters—Their Meeting with the Westward-bound—General Epistle of the Twelve.
    11. In the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, 1848
      Food and Raiment--Houses--Home Manufactures--The Fort--Wild Beasts--Cannon from Sutter's Fort--Indian Children for Sale--Measles--Population--Mills and Farming Machinery--The Plague of Crickets--They are Destroyed by Gulls--Scarcity of Provisions--The Harvest Feast--Immigration--Five Thousand Saints Gathered in the Valley--Fencing and Farming--Distribution of Lots--Organization of County Government--Association for the Extermination of Wild Beasts.
    12. In the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, 1849
      Food Supply and Shelter--Building Lots--Currency Issue--Bank Notes and Coinage--Private and Public Buildings--Wide Area of the City--Second Anniversary of the Pioneers--Festivals and Amusements--Labor a Duty among the Saints--Effect of the California Gold Discovery--Immigration--Carrying Company--California-bound Emigrants--Their Traffic with the Mormons--Products and Prices--Gold-hunting Frowned upon by the Church.
    13. Settlement and Occupation of the Country, 1847–1852
      Founding of Centreville--Bountiful--Ogden--Lynne--Easton--Marriotsville--San Pete--Provo--Indian War--Walled Cities--Evansville--Lehi--Battle Creek--Pleasant Grove--American Fork--Payson--Nephi--Manti--Chief Walker--Fillmore--Site Chosen for the Capital--Tooele--Grantsville--Kaysville--Little Salt Lake--Parowan--Cedar City--Paragoonah--Forts Walker and Harmony--Box Elder Creek--Brigham City--Willard City--San Bernardino in California.
    14. Education, Manufactures, Commerce, Agriculture, Society, 1850–1852
      Boundaries and Extent of Utah--Configuration and Physical Features of the Country--Its Lands and Waters--Flora and Fauna--State University--Curriculum--Educational Ideas--Library--Periodicals--Tabernacle and Temple--New Fort--Progress of the Useful Arts--Mills, Factories, and Manufactures--Farm Products--Traffic--Population--Revenue--Mortality--Healthful Airs and Medicinal Springs.
    15. Mormonism and Polygamy
      What is Mormonism?--Tenets of the Church--Sacred Books and Personages--Organization--Priesthood--First Presidency--The Twelve Apostles--Patriarchs--Elders, Bishops, Priests, Teachers, and Deacons--The Seventies--Stakes and Wards--Marriage--Temple-building--Tabernacle--Political Aspect--Polygamy as a Church Tenet--Celestial Marriage--Attitude and Arguments of Civilization--Polygamy's Reply--Ethics and Law--The Charge of Disloyalty--Proposed Remedies.
    16. Missions and Immigration, 1830–1883
      Mormon Missionaries--Parley Pratt and his Colleagues--Missionary Labor in Canada--In Great Britain--Missionaries in Europe--And in Other Parts of the World--The Perpetual Emigration Fund--A General Epistle of the Twelve--From Liverpool to Salt Lake City for Fifty Dollars--Emigrant Ships--Report of a Liverpool Manager--The Passage to New Orleans--Overland Travel--Classes of Emigrants--George A. Smith's Companies at South Pass--The Handcart Emigration--Biographical.
    17. Utah as a Territory, 1849–1853
      Need of Civil Government--The State of Deseret Organized--Memorials for Admission into the Union--Proposed Consolidation with California--Administration of Justice--Proceedings of the Legislature--Babbit's Reception at Washington--The State of Deseret before Congress--Act to Establish a Territorial Government--Appointment of Officials--Ill Feeling between Them and the Mormons--The Officials Depart for Washington--Measures of the Legislative Assembly--Stansbury's Survey--The Gunnison Massacre--Indian Outbreaks--The Walker War--Mexican Slave-traders.
    18. The Government in Arms, 1853–1857
      Brigham as Dictator--Utah Seeks Admission as a State--Dissatisfaction among the Saints--Conflicting Judiciaries--The New Federal Officials--Disputes with Judge Drummond--Colonel Steptoe--An Expedition Ordered to Utah--Official Blunders--The Troops Assemble at Fort Leavenworth--Hockaday and Magraw's Mail Contract--The Brigham Young Express--Celebration of the Pioneer Anniversary--News of the Coming Invasion--Its Effect on the Mormons--Arrival of Major Van Vliet--The Nauvoo Legion--Mormon Tactics.
    19. The Utah War, 1857–1858
      Opening of the Campaign--Burning of Supply Trains--Strategic Movement of Colonel Alexander--His Retreat--Arrival of Albert Sidney Johnston--The March to Fort Bridger--Winter at Camp Scott--Mission of Colonel Kane--Governor Cumming at Salt Lake City--Pardon Proclaimed--The Peace Commissioners--The Army of Utah Advances on Zion--The City Deserted--The Mormons Return to Their Homes--The Troops Cantoned at Camp Floyd--Conduct of the Soldiery and Camp Followers--Judges Sinclair and Cradlebaugh--The Reformation in Utah.
    20. The Mountain Meadows Massacre, 1857
      An Arkansas Emigrant Party Arrives at Salt Lake City--Assassination of Parley P. Pratt--Ill Feeling against the Emigrants--Alleged Outrages--Their Arrival at Mountain Meadows--They are Attacked by Indians--A Flag of Truce--Plan of the Massacre--Surrender of the Judge Cradlebaugh's Investigation--The Aiken Massacre--John D. Lee on Trial--The Jury Disagree--The Second Trial--Lee Convicted and Sentenced--His Confession and Execution.
    21. Political, Social, and Institutional, 1859–1862
      Brigham Threatened with Arrest--The Federal Judges Reproved--Departure of Governor Cumming--And of the Army of Utah--Population of the Territory--Mortality--Wealth--Industries--Prices--Wages--Trade--Salt Lake City in 1860--The Temple Block--Social Gatherings--Theatricals--Scientific and Other Institutions--Character of the Population--Carson Valley--San Bernardino--Summit County and Its Settlements--Purchase of Fort Bridger--Wasatch County--Morgan County--Cache Valley--Settlements in Southern Utah.
    22. Progress of Events, 1861–1869
      Governor Dawson's Gallantry--Utah Refused Admission as a State--Passage of a Bill against Polygamy--Measures of the Legislature--Arrival of Governor Harding--Disputes between Brigham and the Federal Officials--Arrival of the California Volunteers--A False Alarm--The Morrisite Troubles--Governors Doty and Durkee--The Limits of Utah Curtailed--Celebration of Lincoln's Second Inauguration--The Brassfield and Robinson Murders--Indian Outbreaks--The Battle of Bear River--Disturbances in Southern Utah--Treaties with Indian Tribes--The Uintah Valley Reservation--Bibliographical.
    23. Schisms and Apostasies, 1844–1869
      The Strangites--The Gatherers--Brannan's Followers--The Gladdenites--The Reorganized Church of Latter-day Saints--Alexander and David Hyrum Smith--The Utah Magazine--Trial of Godbe and Harrison--Success of the Godbeite Movement--The Struggle for Commercial Control--Persecution of Gentile Merchants--Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution--Extent of its Operations--Disastrous Effect on Gentile Trade--Reaction in Favor of the Reformers.
    24. The Last Days of Brigham Young, 1869–1877
      Visit of Schuyler Colfax--Godbe's Interview with President Grant--Governor Shaffer--Military Riot at Provo--Governor Woods--Judge McKean--Burlesque of Justice--Arrest of Brigham Young and Others--George Q. Cannon Chosen Delegate--Axtell's Administration--Governor Emery--Death of Brigham--His Obsequies--His Character--His Will.
    25. Church and State, 1877–1885
      Conference of the Church--Reorganization of the First Presidency--John Taylor Appointed President--His Appearance and Mien--The Edmunds Bill--Its Penalties--An Ex Post Facto Law--Polygamists Disenfranchised--Utah again Refused Admission as a State--Operations of the Utah Commission--Governor Murray's Message--His Administration.
    26. Settlement, Society, and Education, 1862–1886
      Population and Statistics--Salt Lake City--The Temple--The New Tabernacle--The Museum--Condition of the Inhabitants--Distinctive Features--Salt Lake County--Davis County--Ogden--Cache County--Rich County--Summit County--Brigham City--Nephi--Provo--Uintah, Emery, San Juan, Garfield, and Piute Counties--Sanpete and Sevier Counties--Iron, Kane, and Washington Counties--Schools--The University of Deseret--The Deseret Alphabet--Libraries--Journals and Journalism.
    27. Agriculture, Stock-raising, Manufactures, and Mining, 1852–1886
      Agricultural Products and Yield per Acre--Irrigation--Character of the Soil--Fruit Culture--Viticulture--Sericulture--Timber and Timberlands--Bunch-grass--Cattle-raising--Dairy Products--Horses--Sheep--Woollen Manufactures--Leather--Other Manufactures--Iron-mining--Coal-mining--Copper--Sulphur--Gypsum and Mica--Other Minerals--Building Stone--Gold and Silver--The West Mountain District--The Rush Valley District--The Cottonwood District--The American Fork District--The Tintic District--The Ontario Mine--Other Mining Districts--Mining Products--Milling, Smelting, and Reduction-works.
    28. Commerce and Communication, 1852–1885
      Common Roadways--Railroads--The Union and Central Pacific--The Utah Central--The Utah Southern--The Utah and Northern--The Utah Eastern--The Salt Lake and Western--The Utah and Nevada--The Denver and Rio Grande Western--Imports and Exports--Commerce and Trade--Banking--Insurance--Taxation and Revenue--Mails and Mail Services--The First Telegraphic Message--The Deseret Telegraph Company.
  • Authorities consulted