History of the United States (Beard)

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History of the United States  (1921) 
by Charles A. Beard
History of the United States is a 1921 book by American historian Charles A. Beard.

PART I. THE COLONIAL PERIOD

PART II. CONFLICT AND INDEPENDENCE

PART III. THE UNION AND NATIONAL POLITICS

PART IV. THE WEST AND JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY

PART V. SECTIONAL CONFLICT AND RECONSTRUCTION

PART VI. NATIONAL GROWTH AND WORLD POLITICS

PART VII. PROGRESSIVE DEMOCRACY AND THE WORLD WAR


APPENDIX[edit]


POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, BY STATES: 1920, 1910, 1900[edit]

States Population
1920 1910 1900
United States 105,708,771 91,972,266 75,994,575
Alabama 2,348,174 2,138,093 1,828,697
Arizona 333,903 204,354 122,931
Arkansas 1,752,204 1,574,449 1,311,564
California 3,426,861 2,377,549 1,485,053
Colorado 939,629 799,024 539,700
Connecticut 1,380,631 1,114,756 908,420
Delaware 223,003 202,322 184,735
District of Columbia 437,571 331,069 278,718
Florida 968,470 752,619 528,542
Georgia 2,895,832 2,609,121 2,216,331
Idaho 431,866 325,594 161,772
Illinois 6,485,280 5,638,591 4,821,550
Indiana 2,930,390 2,700,876 2,516,462
Iowa 2,404,021 2,224,771 2,231,853
Kansas 1,769,257 1,690,949 1,470,495
Kentucky 2,416,630 2,289,905 2,147,174
Louisiana 1,798,509 1,656,388 1,381,625
Maine 768,014 742,371 694,466
Maryland 1,449,661 1,295,346 1,188,044
Massachusetts 3,852,356 3,366,416 2,805,346
Michigan 3,668,412 2,810,173 2,420,982
Minnesota 2,387,125 2,075,708 1,751,394
Mississippi 1,790,618 1,797,114 1,551,270
Missouri 3,404,055 3,293,335 3,106,665
Montana 548,889 376,053 243,329
Nebraska 1,296,372 1,192,214 1,066,300
Nevada 77,407 81,875 42,335
New Hampshire 443,407 430,572 411,588
New Jersey 3,155,900 2,537,167 1,883,669
New Mexico 360,350 327,301 195,310
New York 10,384,829 9,113,614 7,268,894
North Carolina 2,559,123 2,206,287 1,893,810
North Dakota 645,680 577,056 319,146
Ohio 5,759,394 4,767,121 4,157,545
Oklahoma 2,028,283 1,657,155 790,391
Oregon 783,389 672,765 413,536
Pennsylvania 8,720,017 7,665,111 6,302,115
Rhode Island 604,397 542,610 428,556
South Carolina 1,683,724 1,515,400 1,340,316
South Dakota 636,547 583,888 401,570
Tennessee 2,337,885 2,184,789 2,020,616
Texas 4,663,228 3,896,542 3,048,710
Utah 449,396 373,351 276,749
Vermont 352,428 355,956 343,641
Virginia 2,309,187 2,061,612 1,854,184
Washington 1,356,621 1,141,990 518,103
West Virginia 1,463,701 1,221,119 958,800
Wisconsin 2,632,067 2,333,860 2,069,042
Wyoming 194,402 145,965 92,531



APPENDIX[edit]

TABLE OF PRESIDENTS[edit]

Num. Name State Party Year in Office Vice-President
1 George Washington Va. Fed. 1789-1797 John Adams
2 John Adams Mass. Fed. 1797-1801 Thomas Jefferson
3 Thomas Jefferson Va. Rep. 1801-1809 Aaron Burr

George Clinton

4 James Madison Va. Rep. 1809-1817 George Clinton

Elbridge Gerry

5 James Monroe Va. Rep. 1817-1825 Daniel D. Tompkins
6 John Q. Adams Mass. Rep. 1825-1829 John C. Calhoun
7 Andrew Jackson Tenn. Dem. 1829-1837 John C. Calhoun

Martin Van Buren

8 Martin Van Buren N.Y. Dem. 1837-1841 Richard M. Johnson
9 Wm. H. Harrison Ohio Whig 1841-1841 John Tyler
10 John Tyler[20] Va. Whig 1841-1845
11 James K. Polk Tenn. Dem. 1845-1849 George M. Dallas
12 Zachary Taylor La. Whig 1849-1850 Millard Fillmore
13 Millard Fillmore[20] N.Y. Whig 1850-1853
14 Franklin Pierce N.H. Dem. 1853-1857 William R. King
15 James Buchanan Pa. Dem. 1857-1861 J.C. Breckinridge
16 Abraham Lincoln Ill. Rep. 1861-1865 Hannibal Hamlin

Andrew Johnson

17 Andrew Johnson[20] Tenn. Rep. 1865-1869
18 Ulysses S. Grant Ill. Rep. 1869-1877 Schuyler Colfax

Henry Wilson

19 Rutherford B. Hayes Ohio Rep. 1877-1881 Wm. A. Wheeler
20 James A. Garfield Ohio Rep. 1881-1881 Chester A. Arthur
21 Chester A. Arthur[20] N.Y. Rep. 1881-1885
22 Grover Cleveland N.Y. Dem. 1885-1889 Thomas A. Hendricks
23 Benjamin Harrison Ind. Rep. 1889-1893 Levi P. Morton
24 Grover Cleveland N.Y. Dem. 1893-1897 Adlai E. Stevenson
25 William McKinley Ohio Rep. 1897-1901 Garrett A. Hobart

Theodore Roosevelt

26 Theodore Roosevelt[20] N.Y. Rep. 1901-1909 Chas. W. Fairbanks
27 William H. Taft Ohio Rep. 1909-1913 James S. Sherman
28 Woodrow Wilson N.J. Dem. 1913-1921 Thomas R. Marshall
29 Warren G. Harding Ohio Rep. 1921- Calvin Coolidge

--

POPULATION OF THE OUTLYING POSSESSIONS: 1920 AND 1910[edit]

{| cellspacing="0" cellpadding="1" border="1"

| align="center" | AREA | align="center" | 1920 | align="center" | 1910 |- | United States with outlying possessions | align="right" | 117,857,509 | align="right" | 101,146,530 |- | Continental United States | align="right" | 105,708,771 | align="right" | 91,972,266 |- | Outlying Possessions | align="right" | 12,148,738 | align="right" | 9,174 264 |- | Alaska American Samoa Guam Hawaii Panama Canal Zone Porto Rico Military and naval, etc., service abroad Philippine Islands Virgin Islands of the United States | align="right" | 54,899

8,056

13,275

255,912

22,858

1,299,809

117,238

10,350,640[22] 26,051[24] | align="right" | 64,356

7,251[21] 11,806

191,909

62,810[21] 1,118,012

55,608

7,635,426[23] 27,086[25] |}


A TOPICAL SYLLABUS[edit]

As a result of a wholesome reaction against the purely chronological treatment of history, there is now a marked tendency in the direction of a purely topical handling of the subject. The topical method, however, may also be pushed too far. Each successive stage of any topic can be understood only in relation to the forces of the time. For that reason, the best results are reached when there is a combination of the chronological and the topical methods. It is therefore suggested that the teacher first follow the text closely and then review the subject with the aid of this topical syllabus. The references are to pages.

Immigration
I. Causes: religious (1-2, 4-11, 302), economic (12-17, 302-303), and political (302-303).
II. Colonial immigration.
1. Diversified character: English, Scotch-Irish, Irish, Jews, Germans and other peoples (6-12).
2. Assimilation to an American type; influence of the land system (23-25, 411).
3. Enforced immigration: indentured servitude, slavery, etc. (13-17).
III. Immigration between 1789-1890
1. Nationalities: English, Irish, Germans, and Scandinavians (278, 302-303).
2. Relations to American life (432-433, 445).
IV. Immigration and immigration questions after 1890.
1. Change in nationalities (410-411).
2. Changes in economic opportunities (411).
3. Problems of congestion and assimilation (410).
4. Relations to labor and illiteracy (582-586).
5. Oriental immigration (583).
6. The restriction of immigration (583-585).
Expansion of the United States
I. Territorial growth.
1. Territory of the United States in 1783 (134 and color map).
2. Louisiana purchase, 1803 (188-193 and color map).
3. Florida purchase, 1819 (204).
4. Annexation of Texas, 1845 (278-281).
5. Acquisition of Arizona, New Mexico, California, and other territory at close of Mexican War, 1848 (282-283).
6. The Gadsden purchase, 1853 (283).
7. Settlement of the Oregon boundary question, 1846 (284-286).
8. Purchase of Alaska from Russia, 1867 (479).
9. Acquisition of Tutuila in Samoan group, 1899 (481-482).
10. Annexation of Hawaii, 1898 (484).
11. Acquisition of Porto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam at close of Spanish War, 1898 (493-494).
12. Acquisition of Panama Canal strip, 1904 (508-510).
13. Purchase of Danish West Indies, 1917 (593).
14. Extension of protectorate over Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Nicaragua (593-594).
II. Development of colonial self-government.
1. Hawaii (485).
2. Philippines (516-518).
3. Porto Rico (515-516).
III. Sea power.
1. In American Revolution (118).
2. In the War of 1812 (193-201).
3. In the Civil War (353-354).
4. In the Spanish-American War (492).
5. In the Caribbean region (512-519).
6. In the Pacific (447-448, 481).
7. The rôle of the American navy (515).
The Westward Advance of the People
I. Beyond the Appalachians.
1. Government and land system (217-231).
2. The routes (222-224).
3. The settlers (221-223, 228-230).
4. Relations with the East (230-236).
II. Beyond the Mississippi.
1. The lower valley (271-273).
2. The upper valley (275-276).
III. Prairies, plains, and desert.
1. Cattle ranges and cowboys (276-278, 431-432).
2. The free homesteads (432-433).
3. Irrigation (434-436, 523-525).
IV. The Far West.
1. Peculiarities of the West (433-440).
2. The railways (425-431).
3. Relations to the East and Europe (443-447).
4. American power in the Pacific (447-449).
The Wars of American History
I. Indian wars (57-59).
II. Early colonial wars: King William's, Queen Anne's, and King George's (59).
III. French and Indian War (Seven Years' War), 1754-1763 (59-61).
IV. Revolutionary War, 1775-1783 (99-135).
V. The War of 1812, 1812-1815 (193-201).
VI. The Mexican War, 1845-1848 (276-284).
VII. The Civil War, 1861-1865 (344-375).
VIII. The Spanish War, 1898 (485-497).
IX. The World War, 1914-1918 [American participation, 1917-1918] (596-625).
Government
I. Development of the American system of government.
1. Origin and growth of state government.
a. The trading corporation (2-4), religious congregation (4-5), and proprietary system (5-6).
b. Government of the colonies (48-53).
c. Formation of the first state constitutions (108-110).
d. The admission of new states (see Index under each state).
e. Influence of Jacksonian Democracy (238-247).
f. Growth of manhood suffrage (238-244).
g. Nullification and state sovereignty (180-182, 251-257).
h. The doctrine of secession (345-346).
i. Effects of the Civil War on position of states (366, 369-375).
j. Political reform—direct government—initiative, referendum, and recall (540-544).
2. Origin and growth of national government.
a. British imperial control over the colonies (64-72).
b. Attempts at intercolonial union—New England Confederation, Albany plan (61-62).
c. The Stamp Act Congress (85-86).
d. The Continental Congresses (99-101).
e. The Articles of Confederation (110-111, 139-143).
f. The formation of the federal Constitution (143-160).
g. Development of the federal Constitution.
(1) Amendments 1-11—rights of persons and states (163).
(2) Twelfth amendment—election of President (184, note).
(3) Amendments 13-15—Civil War settlement (358, 366, 369, 370, 374, 375).
(4) Sixteenth amendment—income tax (528-529).
(5) Seventeenth amendment—election of Senators (541-542).
(6) Eighteenth amendment—prohibition (591-592).
(7) Nineteenth amendment—woman suffrage (563-568).
3. Development of the suffrage.
a. Colonial restrictions (51-52).
b. Provisions of the first state constitutions (110, 238-240).
c. Position under federal Constitution of 1787(149).
d. Extension of manhood suffrage (241-244).
e. Extension and limitation of negro suffrage (373-375, 382-387).
f. Woman suffrage (560-568).
II. Relation of government to economic and social welfare.
1. Debt and currency.
a. Colonial paper money (80).
b. Revolutionary currency and debt (125-127).
c. Disorders under Articles of Confederation (140-141).
d. Powers of Congress under the Constitution to coin money (see Constitution in the Appendix).
e. First United States bank notes (167).
f. Second United States bank notes (257).
g. State bank notes (258).
h. Civil War greenbacks and specie payment (352-353, 454).
i. The Civil War debt (252).
j. Notes of National Banks under act of 1864 (369).
k. Demonetization of silver and silver legislation (452-458).
l. The gold standard (472).
m. The federal reserve notes (589).
n. Liberty bonds (606).
2. Banking systems.
a. The first United States bank (167).
b. The second United States bank—origin and destruction (203, 257-259).
c. United States treasury system (263).
d. State banks (258).
e. The national banking system of 1864 (369).
f. Services of banks (407-409).
g. Federal reserve system (589).
3. The tariff.
a. British colonial system (69-72).
b. Disorders under Articles of Confederation (140).
c. The first tariff under the Constitution (150, 167-168).
d. Development of the tariff, 1816-1832 (252-254).
f. Tariff and nullification (254-256).
g. Development to the Civil War—attitude of South and West (264, 309-314, 357).
h. Republicans and Civil War tariffs (352, 367).
i. Revival of the tariff controversy under Cleveland (422).
j. Tariff legislation after 1890—McKinley bill (422), Wilson bill (459), Dingley bill (472), Payne-Aldrich bill (528), Underwood bill (588).
4. Foreign and domestic commerce and transportation (see Tariff, Immigration, and Foreign Relations).
a. British imperial regulations (69-72).
b. Confusion under Articles of Confederation (140).
c. Provisions of federal Constitution (150).
d. Internal improvements—aid to roads, canals, etc. (230-236).
e. Aid to railways (403).
f. Service of railways (402).
g. Regulation of railways (460-461, 547-548).
h. Control of trusts and corporations (461-462, 589-590).
5. Land and natural resources.
a. British control over lands (80).
b. Early federal land measures (219-221).
c. The Homestead act (368, 432-445).
d. Irrigation and reclamation (434-436, 523-525).
e. Conservation of natural resources (523-526).
6. Legislation advancing human rights and general welfare (see Suffrage).
a. Abolition of slavery: civil and political rights of negroes (357-358, 373-375).
b. Extension of civil and political rights to women (554-568).
c. Legislation relative to labor conditions (549-551, 579-581, 590-591).
d. Control of public utilities (547-549).
e. Social reform and the war on poverty (549-551).
f. Taxation and equality of opportunity (551-552).
Political Parties and Political Issues
I. The Federalists versus the Anti-Federalists [Jeffersonian Republicans] from about 1790 to about 1816 (168-208, 201-203).
1. Federalist leaders: Hamilton, John Adams, John Marshall, Robert Morris.
2. Anti-Federalist leaders: Jefferson, Madison, Monroe.
3. Issues: funding the debt, assumption of state debts, first United States bank, taxation, tariff, strong central government versus states' rights, and the Alien and Sedition acts.
II. Era of "Good Feeling" from about 1816 to about 1824, a period of no organized party opposition (248).
III. The Democrats [former Jeffersonian Republicans] versus the Whigs [or National Republicans] from about 1832 to 1856 (238-265, 276-290, 324-334).
1. Democratic leaders: Jackson, Van Buren, Calhoun, Benton.
2. Whig leaders: Webster and Clay.
3. Issues: second United States bank, tariff, nullification, Texas, internal improvements, and disposition of Western lands.
IV. The Democrats versus the Republicans from about 1856 to the present time (334-377, 388-389, 412-422, 451-475, 489-534, 588-620).
1. Democratic leaders: Jefferson Davis, Tilden, Cleveland, Bryan, and Wilson.
2. Republican leaders: Lincoln, Blaine, McKinley, Roosevelt.
3. Issues: Civil War and reconstruction, currency, tariff, taxation, trusts, railways, foreign policies, imperialism, labor questions, and policies with regard to land and conservation.
V. Minor political parties.
1. Before the Civil War: Free Soil (319) and Labor Parties (306-307).
2. Since the Civil War: Greenback (463-464), Populist (464), Liberal Republican (420), Socialistic (577-579), Progressive (531-534, 602-603).
The Economic Development of the United States
I. The land and natural resources.
1. The colonial land system: freehold, plantation, and manor (20-25).
2. Development of the freehold in the West (220-221, 228-230).
3. The Homestead act and its results (368, 432-433).
4. The cattle range and cowboy (431-432).
5. Disappearance of free land (443-445).
6. Irrigation and reclamation (434-436).
7. Movement for the conservation of resources (523-526).
II. Industry.
1. The rise of local and domestic industries (28-32).
2. British restrictions on American enterprise (67-69, 70-72).
3. Protective tariffs (see above, 648-649).
4. Development of industry previous to the Civil War (295-307).
5. Great progress of industry after the war (401-406).
6. Rise and growth of trusts and combinations (406-412, 472-474).
III. Commerce and transportation.
1. Extent of colonial trade and commerce (32-35).
2. British regulation (69-70).
3. Effects of the Revolution and the Constitution (139-140, 154).
4. Growth of American shipping (195-196).
5. Waterways and canals (230-236).
6. Rise and extension of the railway system (298-300).
7. Growth of American foreign trade (445-449).
IV. Rise of organized labor.
1. Early phases before the Civil War: local unions, city federations, and national unions in specific trades (304-307).
2. The National Trade Union, 1866-1872 (574-575).
3. The Knights of Labor (575-576).
4. The American Federation of Labor (573-574).
a. Policies of the Federation (576-577).
b. Relations to politics (579-581).
c. Contests with socialists and radicals (577-579).
d. Problems of immigration (582-585).
5. The relations of capital and labor.
a. The corporation and labor (410, 570-571).
b. Company unions and profit-sharing (571-572).
c. Welfare work (573).
d. Strikes (465, 526, 580-581).
e. Arbitration (581-582).
American Foreign Relations
I. Colonial period.
1. Indian relations (57-59).
2. French relations (59-61).
II. Period of conflict and independence.
1. Relations with Great Britain (77-108, 116-125, 132-135).
2. Establishment of connections with European powers (128).
3. The French alliance of 1778 (128-130).
4. Assistance of Holland and Spain (130).
III. Relations with Great Britain since 1783.
1. Commercial settlement in Jay treaty of 1794 (177-178).
2. Questions arising out of European wars [1793-1801] (176-177, 180).
3. Blockade and embargo problems (193-199).
4. War of 1812 (199-201).
5. Monroe Doctrine and Holy Alliance (205-207).
6. Maine boundary—Webster-Ashburton treaty (265).
7. Oregon boundary (284-286).
8. Attitude of Great Britain during Civil War (354-355).
9. Arbitration of Alabama claims (480-481).
10. The Samoan question (481-482)
11. The Venezuelan question (482-484).
12. British policy during Spanish-American War (496-497).
13. Controversy over blockade, 1914-1917 (598-600).
14. The World War (603-620).
IV. Relations with France.
1. The colonial wars (59-61).
2. The French alliance of 1778 (128-130).
3. Controversies over the French Revolution (128-130).
4. Commercial questions arising out of the European wars (176-177, 180, 193-199).
5. Attitude of Napoleon III toward the Civil War (354-355).
6. The Mexican entanglement (478-479).
7. The World War (596-620).
V. Relations with Germany.
1. Negotiations with Frederick, king of Prussia (128).
2. The Samoan controversy (481-482).
3. Spanish-American War (491).
4. The Venezuelan controversy (512).
5. The World War (596-620).
VI. Relations with the Orient.
1. Early trading connections (486-487).
2. The opening of China (447).
3. The opening of Japan (448).
4. The Boxer rebellion and the "open door" policy (499-502).
5. Roosevelt and the close of the Russo-Japanese War (511).
6. The Oriental immigration question (583-584).
VII. The United States and Latin America.
1. Mexican relations.
a. Mexican independence and the Monroe Doctrine (205-207).
b. Mexico and French intervention—policy of the United States (478-479).
c. The overthrow of Diaz (1911) and recent questions (594-596).
2. Cuban relations.
a. Slavery and the "Ostend Manifesto" (485-486).
b. The revolutionary period, 1867-1877 (487).
c. The revival of revolution (487-491).
d. American intervention and the Spanish War (491-496).
e. The Platt amendment and American protection (518-519).
3. Caribbean and other relations.
a. Acquisition of Porto Rico (493).
b. The acquisition of the Panama Canal strip (508-510).
c. Purchase of Danish West Indies (593).
d. Venezuelan controversies (482-484, 512).
e. Extension of protectorate over Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Nicaragua (513-514, 592-594).


This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.

The author died in 1948, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 60 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.