Hoyle's Games Modernized/Chess Close

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CLOSE GAMES.

All games which commence with any other move than 1. P to K 4, or in which Black replies with any other move than 1. ... P to K 4, are called Close Games. These Openings are resorted to either by the first player, if he has to meet an opponent who is well versed in book knowledge, or by the second player, if he is afraid to trust himself in the wide field of the Open Games, with all the numerous variations and combinations, which the first player, knowing what Opening he proposes to adopt, might have prepared.

The Close Games require a considerable knowledge of pawn-play, which is a specialty, only to be acquired by long experience. In the Open Games the attack is mostly made with pieces, while in close or irregular games the pawns are pushed forward, and the pieces are posted behind them in strategical positions, and only come into action after the dispositions of the plan of campaign are matured. Any attempt at full treatment at the Close Games would therefore be out of place in an elementary treatise.

The French Defence and the Sicilian Defence are, however, exceptions. They are very frequently played. To these, therefore, it will be necessary to devote special attention.


THE FRENCH DEFENCE.

WHITE. BLACK.
1. P to K 4 1. P to K 3

This move of Black constitutes the French Defence. It gives a safe but dull game, with the exception of a few variations. The game may continue as follows:

2. P to Q 4 2. P to Q 4
3. P to K 5 3. P to Q B 4

To prevent the establishment of a centre. It may be taken as a principle—always try to prevent or break the formation of a centre.

4. P to Q B 3 4. Kt to Q B 3
5. P to K B 4 ...

In anticipation of Black's probable 5. ... Q to Kt 3, when White would have to develop his K Kt.

... 5. Q to Kt 3
6. Kt to B 3 6. B to Q 2
7. P to Q Kt 3 ...

In order to play his Bishop to K 3, which he cannot do now, because the Kt P would be en prise.

... 7. R to B sq.
8. B to K 3 8. Kt to R 3
9. B to Q 3 ...

To prevent 9. ... Kt to B 4, attacking Bishop and Queen's Pawn. 9. ... Kt to K Kt 5 would be loss of time, as White would play 10. B to Kt sq., and then drive the Knight back.

... 9. P takes P
10. P takes P 10. Kt to Q Kt 5
11. P to K R 3 ...

The White Bishop cannot move, because of Kt to B 7: ch., and if 11. Castles, Black would win the exchange with 11. ... Kt takes B; 12. Q takes Kt, B to Kt 4.

... 11. Kt takes B: ch.
12. Q takes Kt 12. B to Kt 5: ch.
13. K to B 2 (or Q Kt to Q 2) ...

With a very good game for Black.


Second Variation.

WHITE. BLACK.
1. P to K 4 1. P to K 3
2. P to Q 4 2. P to Q 4
3. Kt to Q B 3 3. Kt to K B 3
4. P to K 5

P to K 5 on White's third move having been found unsatisfactory, the modified form here given is now fashionable.

... 4. K Kt to Q 2
5. P to B 4 5. P to Q B 4

Again the attempt to break the centre.

6. P takes P 6. Kt to Q B 3

As the pawn cannot be defended, Black utilises his time by bringing an additional piece into play.

7. Kt to B 3 7. B takes P
8. B to Q 3 8. P to B 3

Again an attack upon the centre.

9. P takes P 9. Kt takes P
10. Q to K 2 10. Castles
11. P to Q R 3 11. P to Q R 3
The game is so far even.


THE SICILIAN DEFENCE.

WHITE. BLACK.
1. P to K 4 1. P to Q B 4

This move of Black constitutes the Sicilian Defence, its main object being to prevent White from establishing a centre.

2. Kt to Q B 3 2. Kt to Q B 3

White might also play 2. B to B 4, or 2. Kt to K B 3; the development of the Q Kt is, however, generally adopted.

3. Kt to B 3 3. P to K 3
4. P to Q 4 4. P takes P
5. Kt takes P 5. Kt to B 3
6. Kt (Q 4) to Kt 5 6. B to Kt 5
7. P to K R 3 7. B takes Kt: ch.
8. Kt takes B 8. P to Q 4

Black remains with an isolated Queen's pawn after the exchanges which follow; but as in most forms of the Sicilian Defence, Black's Queen's pawn is weak, the position arising from Black's text-move is not inferior to any other he can obtain.

9. P takes P 9. Kt takes P
10. Kt takes Kt 10. Q takes Kt
11. Q takes Q 11. P takes Q
12. B to K B 4 12. Castles
13. Castles 13. B to K 3
Even game.


THE QUEEN'S GAMBIT.

The Queen's Gambit, 1. P to Q 4, P to Q 4; 2. P to Q B 4, P takes P; 3. P to K 3, or 3. P to K 4, or 3. Kt to K B 3, &c., is rarely played, because the Gambit pawn cannot, as in the King's Gambit, be defended by Black with the Knight's pawn; therefore the offered Gambit is usually declined (say, by 2. ... P to K 3), and the games take the form of close openings. The Queen's Gambit Declined is a very popular Opening in tournaments.


THE FIANCHETTO.[105]

The Fianchetto takes various form—viz., the King's Fianchetto, wherein White commences with 1. P to K Kt 3, and 2. B to Kt 2; and the Queen's Fianchetto, where White plays 1. P to Q Kt 3, and 2. B to Kt 2; the King's Fianchetto Defence, where Black defends with 1. ... P to K Kt 3, and 2. ... B to Kt 2; and the Queen's Fianchetto Defence, where Black defends with 1. ... P to Q Kt 3, and 2. ... B to Kt 2. The Double Fianchetto is where either White or Black develops both Bishops at Kt 2. The shape of White's development against either Fianchetto defence should be as under:

WHITE. BLACK.
1. P to K 4 1. P to K Kt 3
2. P to K B 4 2. P to K 3
3. P to Q 4 3. B to Kt 2
4. Kt to K B 3 4. P to Kt 3
5. P to B 3 5. B to Kt 2
6. B to Q 3 6. Kt to K 2
7. B to K 3 7. P to Q 4
8. P to K 5 8. Kt to Q 2
9. Q Kt to Q 2, &c.

All kindred Openings should be treated after this manner—viz., the opposing player should aim at the formation of a strong centre, so as to close the diagonal occupied by the Bishop.


105 ^  Meaning Flank.

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