Index:Studies on the legend of the Holy Grail.djvu

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Studies on the legend of the Holy Grail.djvu

note at p. 64

"In making up the slips, the summary of Borron's poem dropped out. In order not to disturb the page form, which was fixed before the omission was noticed, it has been inserted after the Grand St. Graal with a subpagination.

CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.

Description of the leading forms of the Romance: Conte del Graal—Joseph d'Arimathie—Didot-Perceval—Queste del Saint Graal—Grand Saint Graal-Parzival—Perceval le Gallois—Mabinogi of Peredur—Sir Perceval—Diu Crône—Information respecting date and authorship of these works in the MSS. page 1

CHAPTER II.

Summaries—Conte du Graal: Psuedo-Chrestien, Chrestien, Gautier de Doulens, Manessier, Gerbert—Wolfram—Heinrich von dem Türlin—Didot-Perceval—Mabinogi of Peredur—Thornton MS. Sir Perceval—Queste del Saint Graal—Grand Saint Graal—Robert de Borron's poem, Joseph of Arimathea page 8

CHAPTER III.

The legend formed of two portions: Early History of Grail, Quest—Two forms of each portion distinguished—Grouping of the various versions—Alternative hypotheses of development—Their bearing upon the alleged Celtic origin of the Grail—Closer examination of the various accounts of the Grail: The first use made of it and its first possessor; its solace of Joseph; its properties and the effect produced by it; its name; its arrival in England; the Grail-keeper and his relationship to the Promised Knight—Three different stages in the development of the Queste—The work and the qualification of the Promised Knight—Conclusions: Priority over Early History of Quest—Chronological arrangement of the versions page 65

CHAPTER IV.

SKETCH OP THE LITERATURE CONNECTED WITH THE GRAIL CYCLE.

Villemarqué—Halliwell—San Marte (A. Schulz)—Simrock—Rochat—Furnivall's reprint of the Grand St. Graal and of Borron—J. F. Campbell—Furnivall's Queste—Paulin Paris—Potvin's Conte du Graal—Bergmann—Skeat's Joseph of Arimathea Hucher: Grail Celtic, date of Borron Zarncke, Zur Geschichte der Q-ralsage; Grail belongs to Christian legend Bircli- Hirschfeld develops Zarncke's views : Grand St. Graal younger than Queste, both presuppose Chrestien and an earlier Q.ueste, the Didot-Perceval, which forms integral part of Borron's trilogy; Mabinogi later than Chrestien; various members of the cycle dated Martin combats Birch-Hirschfeld : Borron later than Chrestien, whose poem represents oldest stage of the romance, which has its roots in Celtic tradition Hertz Criticism of Birch-Hirschfeld .. . . .. page 97

CHAPTER V.

Relationship of the Didot-Perceval to the Conte du Graal The former not the source of the latter Relationship of the Conte du Graal and the Mabinogi Instances in which the Mabinogi has copied Chrestien Examples of its independence The incident of the blood drops in the snow Differences between the two works The machinery of the Mabinogi and the traces of it in the Conte du Graal The stag hunt The Mabinogi and Manessier The sources of the Conte du Graal and the relation of the various- parts to '*. a common original Sir Perceval Steinbach's theory Objections to it The counsels in the Conte du Graal Wolfram and the Mabinogi Absence of the Grail from the apparently oldest Celtic form . . . . page 127

CHAPTER VI.

The Lay of the Great Fool Summary of the Prose Opening The Aryan Expulsion and Return Formula Comparison with the Mabinogi, Sir Perceval, and the Conte du Graal Comparison with various Gaelic marchen, the Knight of the Red Shield, the Rider of Grianaig Originality of the Highland tale Comparison with the Fionn legend Summary of the Lay of the Great Fool Comparison with the stag hunt incident in the Conte du Graal and the Mabinogi The folk-tale of the twin brethren The fight against the witch who brings the dead to life in Gerbert and the similar incident in the folk-tale of the Knight of the Red Shield Comparison with the original form of the Mabinogi Originality of Gerbert . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . page 152

CHAPTER VII.

The various forms of the visit to the Grail Castle in the romances Conte du Graal: Chrestien; Gautier-Manessier ; G-autier-Gerbert Didot-Perceval Mabinogi Conte du Graal ; Gawain's visit to the Grail Castle Heinrich von dem Tiirlin Conte du Graal : Perceval's visit to the Castle of Maidens Inconsistency of these varying accounts ; their testimony to stories of different nature and origin being embodied in the romances Two main types : feud quest and unspelling quest Reasons for the confusion of the two types Evidence of the confusion in older Celtic literature The Grail in Celtic literature : the gear of the Tuatha do Danann ; the cauldron in the Ultonian cycle ; the Mabinogi of Bran wen ; vessel of balsam and glaive of light in the contemporary folk-tale The sword in Celtic literature : Tethra ; Fionn ; Manus Parallels to the Bespelled Castle ; the Brug of Oengus, the Brug of Lug, the Brug of Manannan Mac Lir, Bran's visit to the Island of Women, Cormac Mac Art, and the Fairy Branch ; Diarrnaid and the Daughter of King Under the Waves Unspelling stories : The Three Soldiers ; the waiting of Arthur ; Arthur in Etna ; the Kyffhauser Legend, objections to Martin's views concerning it G-a wain's visit to the Magic Castle and Celtic parallels ; The Son of Bad Counsel ; Fionn in Giant Land ; Fionn in the House of Cuana ; Fionn and the Yellow Face The Vanishing of the Bespelled Castle Comparison with the Sleeping Beauty cycle The "Haunted Castle" form and its influence on Heinrich's version The Loathly Grail Messenger . , . . , . . . page 170

CHAPTER VIII.

The Fisher King in the Conte du Graal, in the Queste, and in Borron and the Grand St. Graal The accounts of latter complete each other The Fish is the Salmon of Wisdom Parallel with the Fionn Saga The nature of the Unspelling Quest The Mabinogi of Taliesin and its mythological affinities Brons, Bran, Cernunnos Perceval's silence : Conte du Graal explanation late ; explanation from the Fionn Saga Comparison of incident with geasa ; nature of latter ; references to it in Celtic folk-tales and in old Irish literature, Book of Eights, Diarmaid, Cuchulainn Geasa and taboo page 207 /

CHAPTEE IX.

Summing up of the elements of the older portion of the cycle Parallelism with Celtic tradition The Christian element in the cycle : the two forms of the Early History ; Brons form older Brons and Bran The Bran conversion legend The Joseph conversion legend, Joseph in apocryphal literature, the Evangelium Nicodemi The Bran legend the starting point of the Christian transformation of the legend Substitution of Joseph for Bran Objection to this hypothesis Hypothetical sketch of the growth of the legend page 215

CHAPTER X.

The Moral and Spiritual import of the Grail-Legend universally recognised Popularity of the Arthurian Eomance Seasons for that Popularity Affinities of the Mediaeval Eomances with early Celtic Literature ; Impor- tance of the Individual Hero ; Knighthood ; the role of Woman ; the Celtic Fairy and the Mediaeval Lady ; the Supernatural M. Eenan's views The Quest in English Literature, Malory The earliest form of the Legend, Chrestien, his continuators The Queste and its Ideal The Sex-Relations in the Middle Ages Criticism of Mr. FurniTall's estimate of the moral import of the Queste The Merits of the Queste The Chastity Ideal in the later versions Modern English Treatments : Ttfsnysojj, Hawker Possible Source of the Chastity Ideal in Popular Tradition The Perceval Quest in Wolfram ; his Moral Conception ; the Question ; Parzival and Con- duiramur The Parzival Questand Faust Wagner's Parsifal The Christian element in the Legend Ethical Ideas in the folk-tale originals of the Grail Romances : the Great Fool ; the Sleeping Beauty Conclusion page 228

APPENDIX A. : The Relationship of Wolfram to Chrestien . . . . page 261

APPENDIX B. : The Grand St. Graal Prologue and the Brandan Legend .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. page 264

INDEX I. The Dramatis Personæ of the Legend . . . . . . page 266

INDEX II page 275