Insects, Their Ways and Means of Living/Index

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search



==INDEX ==

A Acrididae, OE8 dë'des, adult, 338 larva, 339 pupa, 339 dëdes aegypti, 33 , 339, 34o carrier of yellow lever, 339 Aesop and the cicada, 83 Agile meadow grasshopper, 53 Alimentary canal, c) /Imblycorypha oblongifolia, 39 habits, 40 song, 41 me collective, 43 American cockroach, 79 /Inabrus simplex, _ 4 Ancient insects, 77 Angular-winged katydids, 4-43 Annual cicadas, 84 song, 184 /lnopheles, 331, 34 ° punctipennis, sec Malaria mos- quitoes Antennae, 12 Aphids, ISOE apple, 57, 6 birth, 164 cornicles, 174 eggs, 57 feeding, garden, I7L 172 hatching, I59-16 mouth parts, 153 parasites, 78 predators, stem mothers, 162 wing production, 164-166 young, 162

Aphis, 153 apple-grain, 7 o green apple, rosy apple, Aphis-lion, 176 Arthropoda, OE6 Asilidae, 3OE4 Australian cockroach, 79 B Beetles, blister, lady, 75, OE3 o May, OE3 o young, 237 Behavior, 10E6 Black cricket, 60 in New England, 60 rivalry of males, 62 sBlack-horned tree cricket, 67 antennal marks, 67 attraction of female by male, 68, 69 song, 68 Blatella germanica, sec German roach Blood of insects,  OE Blowflies, 352 Botflies, 35OE Brain, liT, II8 Broad-winged tree cricket, 65 antennal marks, 67 song, 64 Bush crickets, 69 song, 7 ° Bush katydids, 38 song, 39

[ 355 1


INDEX

C Camel crickets, 55 Cantharidin, OE3 Carboniferous dragonflies, 95 insects, 86, 89, 9 ° plants, 87, 88 Caterpillar, OE6OE alimentary canal, OE89, OE9 o celery, OEOE9 jaws, 86 life, OE6OE nature, OEOE8 silk glands, OE87 press, OE88 spinneret, OE86 spinning of cocoon, OESOE, OE83 structure, OE37 tent, transformation to moth,oE93-3o5 Caterpillar and moth, OE6OE Cecropia moth, OEOES, OEOE9 Cellulose, digestion of, by ter- mites, 137 Chitin OE56 Chloealtis conspersa, 3 ° musical apparatus, 3 ° song, 3 o, 3 I Chrysalides, OE51 Cicadas, annual, 184 periodical, 184--OEOE 5 Cicadidae, Circotettix carlingianus, 3OE verruc ulatu s , Cockroaches, 79 Collembola, OE47 Common meadow grasshopper, 5OE song, 53 Coneheads, 50 Conocephalus fasciatus, 54 song, 54 Corn-root aphis, Coulee cricket, 54

Cricket family, 55 Crickets, 55 bush, 69 camel, 55 European, 55 field, 58 foot, 55 mole, 58 musical organs, 56, 57 tree, 63 Croton bug, see German roach Culex, 33 I eggs, 33 I food, 337, 338 larva, 33  male and female, 335 mouth parts, 335-337 D Deer flies, 3oEo Diapheromera Jemorata, 7  Digestion,  IO Diptera, 315 Double soma, 3o4 Dragonflies, 95 adult, OE33 Carboniferous, 95 young, OE33 E Ears of grasshoppers, 3 ° of katydids, 36 Egg laying of cicada, OEIOE Eggs of aphids, 157 , I58 of cicada, OEIOE Culex mosquito, 33 I grasshopper, 5, 6, 7 bouse fly, 343 roaches, 8o, 8 I tent caterpillar, OE6OE Enzymes, i I i Epicauta vittata, OEOE European house cricket, 55

[ 356 ]


INDEX

F Fat-body, OE6o, OE9 OE Field crickets, 58 Flies, 314 horn fly, 348 horsefly, 32o--3oE4 house fly, 34oE-347 in general, 315 larva, 325 pupa, 3oE7 stable fly, 348, tsetse fly, 348 young, OE3 l Food exchange by termites, 144 Foot of cricket, 55 of grasshopper, 3 katydid, 3 OE Fork-tailed bush katydid, 39 song, 39 Four-spotted tree cricket, 67

G Gadflies, 3oEo Ganglia, 118 Garden aphids, I7I , i72 Genus, defined, OE-v German roach, 79 egg case, 8 l hatching, 81, 8oE Germ cells, lOO, lO, 124, 304 Glossina, see Tsetse tir palpalis, 350 morsitans, 350 Grasshopper,  adults, 17 cousins, 26 definition, OE destruction of eggs by blister beetles, OE3, 24 devastation by, I8 ears, .30 egg laying, 4, 5 egg-pod, 5 eggs, 6, 7

Grasshopper, growth, 13, 14 hatching, 8, 9 head, 12 males and females, 3 migration, 18 molting, I4-I6 oviposttor, 4 parasite, I9, OEo songs, 3 o, 3 I spiracles, 13 wings, 29 young, I, 8, Il Grasshopper family, 28 Grasshopper's cousins, 26 Green apple aphis, 6OE-168 Green bugs, Gryllus, 58, 60 assimilis, see Black cricket domesticus, 55, 60

H Handsome meadow grasshopper, 54 song, 54 Halteres, 319 Heart, I 12 Hexapoda, see Insecta Histoblast, OE59 Histogenesis, OE6o Histolysis, 2_ç 9 Honey dew, 155 Hormones, I 19 Horsefly, 3oEo larva, 3oE5 mouth parts, 321-323 pupa, 3oE5 sucking pump, 3oE2 House centipede, 8oE, 83 House fly, 34oE breeding places, 343 eggs, 343 larva, 343 mode of feeding, 346 mouth parts, 345, 346

[ 357 ]


House fly, pupa, 345 puparium, 344 unsanitary habits, 347 Hypermetamorphosis, OESo Hyperparasite, 18 [ Hypopharynx, 1o8 I lmaginal discs, 9-59 Imago, defined, 9-59 lnsecta, OE8 Intestine, 11o J Jumping bush cricket, 69 song, 7 ° June bugs, OE3 o K Katydid, 43 habits, 46 musical instruments, 47, 48 song, 44, 48, 49 true, 43 Katydid family, 32 Katydids, 32 angular-winged, 4' bush, 38 ears, 36 musical instrtnnents, 34-36 round-headed, 37 song, 33, 34 young, i 1 King termite, 134 L Labium, Io8 Labrum, Io8 Lady-beetles, 175, z3o Ladvbird beetles, [75, -3 ° Larva, characters, OE46 &finition, 9-45 nature, 9.49 of Aëdes, 339 Anopheles, 340, 341

INDEX

Larva of Culex, 33 I, 339-, 333 of files, 39-5 house fly, 343 mosquitoes, 39-9 wasps and bees, 9-59- Leaf insect, 7 I, 79-, 73 Legs of insects, 1o 7 Lepisma, 93 Lire of a caterpillar, 9-69- Locustidae, 39- Locusts, 9- seventeen-year, 189- Luna moth, OEOES, 9-3 ° M .Iachilis, 93 Maggots, 9-59- ,4alacosoma americana, see Tent caterpillar Malaria mosquitoes, 34 ° adult, 340 eggs, 340 larva, 34 o, 341 pupa, 34 [ Malaria parasite, 342 Malpighian tubules, [[6 Mandibles, I+ 7 Mantids, 73 Mantis, praying, 73-76 eggs, 75, 76 Maxillae, 1o8 May beetles, 23o Mayfly, 96 Meadow grasshoppers, 59--54 Mecostethus gracili«, 3 [ Metabolism of pupa, Metamorphosis, [4, complete, 9-45 defined, OEOE7 diagram, 43 incomplete, of tent caterpillar, 9-97, 9-99-3o4 .lio-ocentrum retinerve, 41, 43 song, 43

[ 358 ]


INDEX

Microcentrum rhombifolium, 4x, 4 OE, 43 song, 41, 42, 43 Mde cricket, 58 song, 58 Molting of grasshopper, 4, I6 Mormon cricket, 54 Mosquitoes, 3oE9 adult, 33% 335, 338 .¢ë'des, 33 I /lnopheles, 33 I, 34o cornrnon, 33  Culex, 33 I larvae, 3oE9 rnalaria, 33 I, 34o Stegomyia, 338 yellow lever, 338 young, OE39 Moth of tent caterp]llar, 3o5 characters, 3o6, 3o7 egg laying, 3IoE ernergence from pupa, 3o5, 3o6 rnouth parts, 3o6, 3o7 proboscis, 3o7, 3o8 reproductive organs, 3   Moths, Cecropia, 2oE8 celery, OEoE9 Luna, OEoES, OE3 o Promethea, OEoE8 tent caterpillar, 3o5 Mouth parts, IoE, o 7 Musca domestica, see House fly Muscidae, 342 Musical instruments of cicada, of crickets, 56, 57 grasshoppers, 3% 3  msects, 33, 34 katydids, 34, 35, 36 Myiasis, 35oE N Nagana, 349 Narrow-winged tree cricket, 66, 67

Narrow-winged tree cricket, an- tennal rnarks, 66, 67 song, 67 Nemobius vittatus, 58 song, 58, 59 Neoconocephalus ensiger, 5o song, 5 retusus, 5o robustus, 5  song, 5 I Neocurtilla hexadactyla, 57 Neoxabia bipunctata, 69 Nervous systern,  17 Nyrnph, defined, 245 O Oecanthus angustipennis, see Nar- row-winged tree cricket latipennis, see Broad-winged tree cricket nigricornis, see Black-horned tree cricket nigricornis quadripunctatus, 68 niveus, see Snowy tree cricket Oesophagus, x o Orchelimum agile, . 3 laticauda, vuAgare, 5oE, 53 Oriental roach, 79, 8o Origin of insect wings, 9 , 9 OE Orocharis saltator, 7 o Ovaries, IOEOE Ovipositor, 4, IOE3 Ox warble, 352 P Paleodictyoptera, 9% 92 Parasites, defined, x79 of aphids, 77-79 grasshopper, 9, OEo Parthenogenesis, Periodical cicada, abdomen, OEo 5 adults, I99

[ 359 ]


INDEX

Periodical cicada, air chamber, 205 broods, 2rs-OEr 7 death of adults, 214 digging methods, 19o , 191 egg laying, 212-2 I4 eggs, 212, OEI 9 food, OE0O front leg of nymph, 19o hatching of eggs, head of aduh, 2oi huts, turrets, 192 mouth parts, OEoI-2O 5 musical instruments, 199 , OEo 7- nymphal chambers, I87-189 stages, 186, 187 nymphs, 185-i93 , ovipositor, 199 races, salivary pump, 204 song of large variety, 21o, OE! I of small variety, OEil, sucking mechanism, transformation, 193-199 two varieties, 99 young nymphs, 223-225 Phagocytes, 259 , Phaneroptera, 38 Pharynx, I o Phylloxera, I72 Phylum, OE6 Physiology of tent caterpillar, 283 Plant lice, 152 Plasmodium, 342 Proboscis of moth, 3o7, 3o8 Promethea moth, 228, 2°-9 Propupa of tent caterpillar, 296- OE98 Protoplasm, IOO Pterophylla camellifolia, see Katy- did Pupa, OE5 o, 253 , 54 added stage in metamorphosis,

Pupa, definition, of flies, 3OE7 house fly, 345 mosquitoes, 334, 339, 34 I tent caterpillar, OE98 reason for, OE57 Puparium, of house fl, 344 Queen termite, 1.34, I49 R Rat-tailed maggot, 327 Reproduction, lO Reproductive organs, I2 Respiration, ! 14 Reticulitermes,  36 lire history, 136-I41 Rhadophorinae, 55 Roaches, 77, 8o and other ancient insects, 77 eggs, 8% 81 Robber flies, 324 Rocky Mountain locust, I7, 18, 19 Rosy apple aphis, I68-17o Round-headed katydids, 37 /lmblycorypha oblongifolia, 39 angular-winged, 4 fork-tailed bush, 39 Microcentrum, 4 I, 43 Phaneroptera, 38 Scudderia, 38, 39 S Sarcophaga kellyi,  9 2 I Scudderia, 38 fl«rcata, see Fork-tailed bush katydid Segments of body, 12 Sense organs, 121

[ 360 ]


INDEX

Seventeen-year locust, see Periodi- cal cicada Shield-bearers, 54 Sleeping sickness, 349 Slender meadow grasshopper, 54 Snowy tree cricket, 65 antennal marks, 66 musical instruments, 57 song, 66 Soldiers of termites, 3 Soma, o4, 304 Somatic cells, o 4 Song of insects, 33, 34 of cicada, 21o--212 crickets, 58, 60, grasshoppers, 3 katydids, 39, 41, 4 OE, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 5 , 53, 54 Spiracles, 3, I*4- Spirochetes, 34 ° Stagmomantis carolina, 73 Stimulus, o6 Stomach, Io 9 Stridulation, 33 Striped ground cricket, 58-6o song, 58, 59 Syrphid flies, 77 larvae feeding on aphids, ,76, '77 Sword-bearing conehead, 5o song, 51 T Tabanida, 320 Tent caterpillar, 26OE behavior on leafless tree, OE78, 279 cocoon, OE82 egg, OE63 egg mass, 263, 264 epidermis, OE95 fat-body, OEgoE feeding habits, 27% 27% OE73, .76

Tent caterpillar, general external form, OE85, OE86 head, OE84, OE85 internal organs, OE89-OE91 jaws, OE86 jumping from trees, OE8o, OES manner of feeding, OE77 metamorphosis, OE93 molts, OE75 moth, 305 newly-hatched, OE65 prepupal stage, OE95 propupa, OE96, OE97 pupa, OE98 silk glands, OE86 press, OE88 spinneret, OE86 spinning cocoon, OESOE, OE83 structure and physiology, OE83 tents, 270 weavlng tent, 272 , 273 young, 26OE in egg, 312, 313 Termites, 125 /Ïme collective, 43 castes, I31 , 14I , 142 community lire, 34 destruction by, OE9 digestion of cellulose, '37 egg laying,  50,  5  food exchange, 144 fungus grown for food, 48 king, 34 lire history, 36-4 I males and femmes, 33 nests aboveground, 48 in trees, 148 underground, 47 queen, 34, I49 Reticulitermes,  36 short-winged form, 33, I4° soldiers, 3 I tropical termites, 46 winged form, I33

[.361 ]


INDEX

Termites, wingless males and females, 14o workers, 131 young, I36 Testes, Tettigoniidae, 32 Thorax, 12 Thysanura, 24. 7 Tracheae, I 14 Tree crickets, 63 antennal marks, 66, 67 attraction of males for females, 68, 69 black-horned, 67 broad-winged, 65 four-spotted, 67 musical organs, 56, 57 narrow-winged, 67 Neoxabia, 69 Oecanttus, 65-68 snowy, 65 song, 65, 66, 67 two-spotted, 69 Triungulins, OE3 Tropisms, True katydid, 43 Trypanosoma, 349 Tsetse fly, 348, 349, 35 ° mouth parts, 350, 351 Two-spotted tree cricket, 69 song, 69

W Walking stick, 7 OE Walking stick insects, 7 I Wasps and bees, larvae, OE3o, OE38, Ways and means of living, 99 White ants, IOE8 White grubs, OE3 o Wings, 83, 84 evolution, 3  5 of bees, 319 beetles, 3  8 butterflies and moths, 3  8 dragonflies, 3  6 flies, 319 grasshoppers, 318 roaches, 83, 84, 3  8 termites, 146 , 36 wasps, 319 origin, 91, 9 OE Wigglers, OE3 o, 3OE9 Woolly aphis, 172 X Xiphidium, 54 Y Yellow lever, 339 Yellow fever mosquito, 331, 339, 340