International Copyright Relations of the United States

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
International Copyright Relations of the United States  (2005) 
by United States Copyright Office
This work is referred to as Circular 38a. OCLC 83513084all editions (1971). OCLC 2540182all editions (1976) and OCLC 41714542all editions 1999. The current edition is located at http://www.copyright.gov/circs/

General Information[edit]

This publication sets forth United States copyright relations of current interest with the other independent nations of the world.

There is no such thing as an “international copyright” that will automatically protect an author’s writings throughout the world. Protection against unauthorized use in a particular country basically depends on the national laws of that country. However, most countries offer protection to foreign works under certain conditions that have been greatly simplified by international copyright treaties and conventions. There are several such treaties and conventions affecting copyright, including the Berne Union for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Property (Berne Convention); the Universal Copyright Convention (UCC); the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), one of several agreements comprising the Marrakesh Agreement of April 15, 1994, which created the World Trade Organization (WTO); and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) treaties, the WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT).

An author who wishes copyright protection for his or her work in a particular country should first determine the extent of the protection available to works of foreign authors in that country. If possible, this should be done before the work is published anywhere, because protection may depend on the facts existing at the time of first publication.

If the country in which protection is sought is a party to one of the international copyright conventions, the work generally may be protected by complying with the conditions of that convention. Even if the work cannot be brought under an international convention, protection under the specific provisions of the country’s national laws may still be possible. There are, however, some countries that offer little or no copyright protection to any foreign works. For current information on the requirements and protection provided by other countries, it may be advisable to consult an expert familiar with foreign copyright laws. The U. S. Copyright Office is not permitted to recommend agents or attorneys or to give legal advice on foreign laws.

List of Relations[edit]

How to Use This List

Each entry below gives a country name (and any alternate name) and a statement of copyright relations. The following abbreviations are used to refer to specific multilateral agreements or bilateral relations:

BAC · Party to the Buenos Aires Convention of 1910, as of the date given. U. S. ratification deposited with the Government of Argentina, May 1, 1911; proclaimed by the President of the United States, July 13, 1914.

Berne · Party to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works as of the date given. Appearing within parentheses is the latest Act of the Convention to which the country is party. The effective date for the United States is March 1, 1989. The latest Act of the Convention to which the United States is party is the revision done at Paris on July 24, 1971.

Note that “Berne (Paris)” means the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works as revised at Paris on July 24, 1971 (Paris Act). “Berne (Stockholm)” means the said Convention as revised at Stockholm on July 14, 1967 (Stockholm Act). “Berne (Brussels)” means the said Convention as revised at Brussels on June 26, 1948 (Brussels Act). “Berne (Rome)” means the said Convention as revised at Rome on June 2, 1928 (Rome Act). “Berne (Berlin)” means the said Convention as revised at Berlin on Nov. 13, 1908 (Berlin Act). In each case the reference to the Act signifies adherence to the substantive provisions of such Act only, e.g., Articles 1 to 21 and the Appendix of the Paris Act. Articles 22 to 38 deal with administration and structure.

Bilateral · Bilateral copyright relations with the United States by virtue of a proclamation or treaty, as of the date given. Where there is more than one proclamation or treaty, only the date of the first one is given.

None · No copyright relations with the United States.

Phonograms · Party to the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms Against Unauthorized Duplication of Their Phonograms, Geneva, 1971, as of the date given. The effective date for the United States is March 10, 1974.

SAT · Party to the Convention Relating to the Distribution of Programme-Carrying Signals Transmitted by Satellite, Brussels, 1974, as of the date given. The effective date for the United States is March 7, 1985.

UCC Geneva · Party to the Universal Copyright Convention, Geneva, 1952, as of the date given. The effective date for the United States is Sept. 16, 1955.

UCC Paris · Party to the Universal Copyright Convention as revised at Paris, 1971, as of the date given. The effective date for the United States is July 10, 1974.

Unclear · Has not established copyright relations with the United States, but may be honoring obligations incurred under former political status.

WCT · Party to the World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty, Geneva, 1996, as of the date provided. The effective date for the United States is March 6, 2002, the date the treaty entered into force.

WPPT · Party to the World Intellectual Property Organization Performances and Phonograms Treaty, Geneva, 1996, as of the date provided. The effective date for the United States is May 20, 2002, the date the treaty entered into force.

WTO · Member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), established pursuant to the Marrakesh Agreement of April 15, 1994, to implement the Uruguay Round Agreements. These Agreements affect, among other things, intangible property rights, including copyright and other intellectual property rights. The effective date of United States membership in the WTO is Jan. 1, 1995. A country’s membership in the WTO is effective as of the date indicated.

Relations as of January 2005[edit]

Afghanistan · None

Albania · Berne (Paris) March 6, 1994; WTO Sept. 8, 2000; WPPT May 20, 2002

Algeria · UCC Geneva Aug. 28, 1973; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; Berne (Paris) April 19, 1998

Andorra · UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Berne (Paris) June 2, 2004

Angola · WTO Nov. 23, 1996

Antigua and Barbuda · WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) March 17, 2000

Argentina · Bilateral Aug. 23, 1934; BAC April 19, 1950; UCC Geneva Feb. 13, 1958; Berne (Paris) June 10, 1967; Phonograms June 30, 1973; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Armenia[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973; SAT Dec. 13, 1993; Berne (Paris) Oct. 19, 2000

Australia · Bilateral March 15, 1918[2]; Bilateral Jan. 1, 2005[3]; Berne (Paris) April 14, 1928; UCC Geneva May 1, 1969; Phonograms June 22, 1974; UCC Paris Feb. 28, 1978; SAT Oct. 26, 1990; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Austria · Bilateral Sept. 20, 1907; Berne (Paris) Oct. 1, 1920; UCC Geneva July 2, 1957; SAT Aug. 6, 1982; UCC Paris Aug. 14, 1982; Phonograms Aug. 21, 1982; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Azerbaijan[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973; Berne (Paris) June 4, 1999; Phonograms Sept. 1, 2001

Bahamas, The · Berne (Brussels) July 10, 1973; UCC Geneva Dec. 27, 1976; UCC Paris Dec. 27, 1976

Bahrain · WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) March 2, 1997

Bangladesh · UCC Geneva Aug. 5, 1975; UCC Paris Aug. 5, 1975; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) May 4, 1999

Barbados · UCC Geneva June 18, 1983; UCC Paris June 18, 1983; Berne (Paris) July 30, 1983; Phonograms July 29, 1983; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Belarus[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973; Berne (Paris) Dec. 12, 1997; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Belgium · Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral July 1, 1891[4]

Belize · UCC Geneva Dec. 1, 1982; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) June 17, 2000

Benin · Berne (Paris) Jan. 3, 1961; WTO Feb. 22, 1996

Bhutan · None

Bolivia · BAC May 15, 1914; UCC Geneva March 22, 1990; UCC Paris March 22, 1990; Berne (Paris) Nov. 4, 1993; WTO Sept. 12, 1995

Bosnia and Herzegovina · UCC Geneva May 11, 1966; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; Berne (Paris) March 1, 1992; SAT March 6, 1992

Botswana · WTO May 31, 1995; Berne (Paris) April 15, 1998

Brazil · BAC Aug. 31, 1915; Berne (Paris) Feb. 9, 1922; Bilateral April 2, 1957; UCC Geneva Jan. 13, 1960; Phonograms Nov. 28, 1975; UCC Paris Dec. 11, 1975; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Brunei · WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Bulgaria · Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1921; UCC Geneva June 7, 1975; UCC Paris June 7, 1975; Phonograms Sept. 6, 1995; WTO Dec. 1, 1996; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Burkina Faso · Berne (Paris) Aug. 19, 1963; Phonograms Jan. 30, 1988; WTO June 3, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Burundi · WTO July 23, 1995

Cambodia · UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955

Cameroon · Berne (Paris) Sept. 21, 1964; UCC Geneva May 1, 1973; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; WTO Dec. 13, 1995

Canada · Bilateral Jan. 1, 1924; Berne (Paris) April 10, 1928; UCC Geneva Aug. 10, 1962; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Cape Verde · Berne (Paris) July 7, 1997

Central African Republic · Berne (Paris) Sept. 3, 1977; WTO May 31, 1995

Chad · Berne (Paris) Nov. 25, 1971; WTO Oct. 19, 1996

Chile · Bilateral May 25, 1896; Bilateral Jan. 1, 2004[5]; BAC June 14, 1955; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Berne (Paris) June 5, 1970; Phonograms March 24, 1977; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

China · Bilateral Jan. 13, 1904[6]; Bilateral March 17, 1992[7]; Berne (Paris) Oct. 15, 1992; UCC Geneva Oct. 30, 1992; UCC Paris Oct. 30, 1992; Phonograms April 30, 1993; WTO Dec. 22, 2001

Chinese Taipei (Taiwan)[6] · WTO Jan. 1, 2002

Colombia · BAC Dec. 23, 1936; UCC Geneva June 18, 1976; UCC Paris June 18, 1976; Berne (Paris) March 7, 1988; Phonograms May 16, 1994; WTO April 30, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Comoros · Unclear

Congo, Democratic Republic of the · Berne (Paris) Oct. 8, 1963; Phonograms Nov. 29, 1977; WTO Jan. 1, 1997

Congo, Republic of the · Berne (Paris) May 8, 1962; WTO March 27, 1997

Costa Rica[8] · Bilateral Oct. 19, 1899; BAC Nov. 30, 1916; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Berne (Paris) June 10, 1978; UCC Paris March 7, 1980; Phonograms June 17, 1982; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; SAT June 25, 1999; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Cote d’Ivoire · Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1962; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Croatia · UCC Geneva May 11, 1966; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; Berne (Paris) Oct. 8, 1991; SAT Oct. 8, 1991; Phonograms April 20, 2000; WTO Nov. 30, 2000; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Cuba · Bilateral Nov. 17, 1903; UCC Geneva June 18, 1957; WTO April 20, 1995; Berne (Paris) Feb. 20, 1997

Cyprus · Berne (Paris) Feb. 24, 1964; UCC Geneva Dec. 19, 1990; UCC Paris Dec. 19, 1990; Phonograms Sept. 30, 1993; WTO July 30, 1995

Czech Republic · UCC Geneva Jan. 6, 1960; UCC Paris April 17, 1980; Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1993; Phonograms Jan. 1, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Denmark · Bilateral May 8, 1893; Berne (Paris) July 1, 1903; UCC Geneva Feb. 9, 1962; Phonograms March 24, 1977; UCC Paris July 11, 1979; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Djibouti · WTO May 31, 1995; Berne (Paris) May 13, 2002

Dominica · WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Aug. 7, 1999

Dominican Republic[8] · BAC Oct. 31, 1912; UCC Geneva May 8, 1983; UCC Paris May 8, 1983; WTO March 9, 1995; Berne (Paris) Dec. 24, 1997

Ecuador · BAC Aug. 31, 1914; UCC Geneva June 5, 1957; Phonograms Sept. 14, 1974; UCC Paris Sept. 6, 1991; Berne (Paris) Oct. 9, 1991; WTO Jan. 21, 1996; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Egypt · Berne (Paris) June 7, 1977; Phonograms April 23, 1978; WTO June 30, 1995

El Salvador · Bilateral June 30, 1908, by virtue of Mexico City Convention, 1902; Phonograms Feb. 9, 1979; UCC Geneva March 29, 1979; UCC Paris March 29, 1979; Berne (Paris) Feb. 19, 1994; WTO May 7, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Equatorial Guinea · Berne (Paris) June 26, 1997

Eritrea · None

Estonia · Berne (Paris) Oct. 26, 1994; WTO Nov. 13, 1999; Phonograms May 28, 2000

Ethiopia · None

European Community · WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Fiji · Berne (Brussels) Dec. 1, 1971; UCC Geneva March 13, 1972; Phonograms April 18, 1973; WTO Jan. 14, 1996

Finland · Berne (Paris) April 1, 1928; Bilateral Jan. 1, 1929; UCC Geneva April 16, 1963; Phonograms April 18, 1973; UCC Paris Nov. 1, 1986; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

France · Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral July 1, 1891[4]; UCC Geneva Jan. 14, 1956; Phonograms April 18, 1973; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Gabon · Berne (Paris) March 26, 1962; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Gambia, The · Berne (Paris) March 7, 1993; WTO Oct. 23, 1996

Georgia[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973; Berne (Paris) May 16, 1995; WTO June 14, 2000; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Germany[9] · Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887[10]; Bilateral April 15, 1892; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Bilateral July 12, 1967[11]; Phonograms May 18, 1974; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; SAT Aug. 25, 1979; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Ghana · UCC Geneva Aug. 22, 1962; Berne (Paris) Oct. 11, 1991; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Greece · Berne (Paris) Nov. 9, 1920; Bilateral March 1, 1932; UCC Geneva Aug. 24, 1963; SAT Oct. 22, 1991; Phonograms Feb. 9, 1994; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Grenada · WTO Feb. 22, 1996; Berne (Paris) Sept. 22, 1998

Guatemala[8] · BAC March 28, 1913; UCC Geneva Oct. 28, 1964; Phonograms Feb. 1, 1977; WTO July 21, 1995; Berne (Paris) July 28, 1997; WCT Feb. 4, 2003; WPPT Jan. 8, 2003

Guinea · Berne (Paris) Nov. 20, 1980; UCC Geneva Nov. 13, 1981; UCC Paris Nov. 13, 1981; WTO Oct. 25, 1995; WCT May 25, 2002; WPPT May 25, 2002

Guinea-Bissau · Berne (Paris) July 22, 1991; WTO May 31, 1995

Guyana · Berne (Paris) Oct. 25, 1994; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Haiti · BAC Nov. 27, 1919; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Berne (Paris) Jan. 11, 1996; WTO Jan. 30, 1996

Honduras[8] · BAC April 27, 1914; Berne (Paris) Jan. 25, 1990; Phonograms March 6, 1990; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT May 20, 2002 ; WPPT May 20, 2002

Hong Kong[12] · WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) July 1, 1997; Phonograms July 1, 1997

Hungary · Bilateral Oct. 16, 1912; Berne (Paris) Feb. 14, 1922; UCC Geneva Jan. 23, 1971; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; Phonograms May 28, 1975; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Iceland · Berne (Rome) Sept. 7, 1947; UCC Geneva Dec. 18, 1956; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

India · Berne (Paris) April 1, 1928; Bilateral Aug. 15, 1947; UCC Geneva Jan. 21, 1958; Phonograms Feb. 12, 1975; UCC Paris April 7, 1988; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Indonesia · Bilateral Aug. 1, 1989; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Sept. 5, 1997; WCT March 6, 2002

Iran · None

Iraq · None

Ireland · Berne (Brussels) Oct. 5, 1927; Bilateral Oct. 1, 1929; UCC Geneva Jan. 20, 1959; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Israel · Bilateral May 15, 1948; Berne (Brussels) March 24, 1950; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Phonograms May 1, 1978; WTO April 21, 1995

Italy · Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral Oct. 31, 1892; UCC Geneva Jan. 24, 1957; Phonograms March 24, 1977; UCC Paris Jan. 25, 1980; SAT July 7, 1981; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Jamaica · Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1994; Phonograms Jan. 11, 1994; WTO March 9, 1995; SAT Jan. 12, 2000; WCT June 12, 2002; WPPT June 12, 2002

Japan[13] · Berne (Paris) July 15, 1899; UCC Geneva April 28, 1956; UCC Paris Oct. 21, 1977; Phonograms Oct. 14, 1978; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT Oct. 9, 2002

Jordan · Berne (Paris) July 28, 1999; WTO April 11, 2000; Bilateral Dec. 17, 2001[14]; WCT April 27, 2004; WPPT May 24, 2004

Kazakhstan[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973; Berne (Paris) April 12, 1999; Phonograms Aug. 3, 2001

Kenya · UCC Geneva Sept. 7, 1966; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; Phonograms April 21, 1976; SAT Aug. 25, 1979; Berne (Paris) June 11, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Kiribati · Unclear

Korea, North · Unclear

Korea, South · UCC Geneva Oct. 1, 1987; UCC Paris Oct. 1, 1987; Phonograms Oct. 10, 1987; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Aug. 21, 1996

Kuwait · WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Kyrgyz Republic[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973; WTO Dec. 20, 1998; Berne (Paris) July 8, 1999; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT Aug. 15, 2002; Phonograms Oct. 12, 2002

Laos · UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955

Latvia · Berne (Paris) Aug. 11, 1995; Phonograms Aug. 23, 1997; WTO Feb. 10, 1999; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Lebanon · Berne (Rome) Sept. 30, 1947; UCC Geneva Oct. 17, 1959

Lesotho · Berne (Paris) Sept. 28, 1989; WTO May 31, 1995

Liberia · UCC Geneva July 27, 1956; Berne (Paris) March 8, 1989

Libya · Berne (Paris) Sept. 28, 1976

Liechtenstein · Berne (Paris) July 30, 1931; UCC Geneva Jan. 22, 1959; WTO Sept. 1, 1995; Phonograms Oct. 12, 1999; UCC Paris Nov. 11, 1999

Lithuania · Berne (Paris) Dec. 14, 1994; Phonograms Jan. 27, 2000; WTO May 31, 2001; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Luxembourg · Berne (Paris) June 20, 1888; Bilateral June 29, 1910; UCC Geneva Oct. 15, 1955; Phonograms March 8, 1976; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Macau · WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Dec. 20, 1999

Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of · Berne (Paris) Sept. 8, 1991; SAT Nov. 17, 1991; UCC Geneva July 30, 1997; UCC Paris July 30, 1997; Phonograms March 2, 1998; WCT Feb. 4, 2004

Madagascar · Berne (Brussels) Jan. 1, 1966; WTO Nov. 17, 1995

Malawi · UCC Geneva Oct. 26, 1965; Berne (Paris) Oct. 12, 1991; WTO May 31, 1995

Malaysia · Berne (Paris) Oct. 1, 1990; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Maldives · WTO May 31, 1995

Mali · Berne (Rome) March 19, 1962; WTO May 31, 1995; WCT April 24, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Malta · Berne (Rome) Sept. 21, 1964; UCC Geneva Nov. 19, 1968; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Mauritania · Berne (Paris) Feb. 6, 1973; WTO May 31, 1995

Mauritius · UCC Geneva March 12, 1968; Berne (Paris) May 10, 1989; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Mexico · Bilateral Feb. 27, 1896; UCC Geneva May 12, 1957; BAC April 24, 1964; Berne (Paris) June 11, 1967; Phonograms Dec. 21, 1973; UCC Paris Oct. 31, 1975; SAT Aug. 25, 1979; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Micronesia, Federated States of · Berne (Paris) Oct. 7, 2003

Moldova[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973; Berne (Paris) Nov. 2, 1995; Phonograms July 17, 2000; WTO July 26, 2001; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Monaco · Berne (Paris) May 30, 1889; Bilateral Oct. 15, 1952; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; Phonograms Dec. 2, 1974; UCC Paris Dec. 13, 1974

Mongolia · WTO Jan. 29, 1997; Berne (Paris) March 12, 1998; WCT Oct. 25, 2002; WPPT Oct. 25, 2002

Morocco · Berne (Paris) June 16, 1917; UCC Geneva May 8, 1972; UCC Paris Jan. 28, 1976; SAT June 30, 1983; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Mozambique · WTO Aug. 26, 1995

Myanmar, Union of · WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Namibia · Berne (Paris) March 21, 1990; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Nauru · Unclear

Nepal · None

Netherlands and Possessions · Bilateral Nov. 20, 1899; Berne (Paris) Nov. 1, 1912; UCC Geneva June 22, 1967; UCC Paris Nov. 30, 1985; Phonograms Oct. 12, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

New Zealand · Bilateral Dec. 1, 1916; Berne (Rome) April 24, 1928; UCC Geneva Sept. 11, 1964; Phonograms Aug. 13, 1976; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Nicaragua[8] · BAC Dec. 15, 1913; UCC Geneva Aug. 16, 1961; SAT Aug. 25, 1979; WTO Sept. 3, 1995; Phonograms Aug. 10, 2000; Berne (Paris) Aug. 23, 2000; WCT March 6, 2003; WPPT March 6, 2003

Niger · Berne (Paris) May 2, 1962; UCC Geneva May 15, 1989; UCC Paris May 15, 1989; WTO Dec. 13, 1996

Nigeria · UCC Geneva Feb. 14, 1962; Berne (Paris) Sept. 14, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Norway · Berne (Paris) April 13, 1896; Bilateral July 1, 1905; UCC Geneva Jan. 23, 1963; UCC Paris Aug. 7, 1974; Phonograms Aug. 1, 1978; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Oman · Berne (Paris) July 14, 1999; WTO Nov. 9, 2000

Pakistan · Berne (Rome) July 5, 1948; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Palau · Unclear

Panama · BAC Nov. 25, 1913; UCC Geneva Oct. 17, 1962; Phonograms June 29, 1974; UCC Paris Sept. 3, 1980; SAT Sept. 25, 1985; Berne (Paris) June 8, 1996; WTO Sept. 6, 1997; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Papua New Guinea · WTO June 9, 1996

Paraguay · BAC Sept. 20, 1917; UCC Geneva March 11, 1962; Phonograms Feb. 13, 1979; Berne (Paris) Jan. 2, 1992; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Peru · BAC April 30, 1920; UCC Geneva Oct. 16, 1963; UCC Paris July 22, 1985; SAT Aug. 7, 1985; Phonograms Aug. 24, 1985; Berne (Paris) Aug. 20, 1988; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT July 18, 2002

Philippines · Bilateral Oct. 21, 1948; Berne (Paris) Aug. 1, 1951; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT Oct. 4, 2002; WPPT Oct. 4, 2002

Poland · Berne (Paris) Jan. 28, 1920; Bilateral Feb. 16, 1927; UCC Geneva March 9, 1977; UCC Paris March 9, 1977; WTO July 1, 1995; WPPT Oct. 21, 2003; WCT March 23, 2004

Portugal · Bilateral July 20, 1893; Berne (Paris) March 29, 1911; UCC Geneva Dec. 25, 1956; UCC Paris July 30, 1981; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; SAT March 11, 1996

Qatar · WTO Jan. 13, 1996; Berne (Paris) July 5, 2000

Romania · Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1927; Bilateral May 14, 1928; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Phonograms Oct. 1, 1998; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Russia[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973; SAT Dec. 25, 1991; UCC Paris March 9, 1995; Berne (Paris) March 13, 1995; Phonograms March 13, 1995

Rwanda · Berne (Paris) March 1, 1984; UCC Geneva Nov. 10, 1989; UCC Paris Nov. 10, 1989; WTO May 22, 1996

St. Kitts and Nevis · Berne (Paris) April 9, 1995; WTO Feb. 21, 1996

Saint Lucia · Berne (Paris) Aug. 24, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Phonograms April 2, 2001; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines · UCC Geneva April 22, 1985; UCC Paris April 22, 1985; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Aug. 29, 1995

Samoa · Unclear

San Marino · None

São Tomé and Principe · Unclear

Saudi Arabia · UCC Geneva July 13, 1994 ; UCC Paris July 13, 1994; Berne (Paris) March 11, 2004

Senegal · Berne (Paris) Aug. 25, 1962; UCC Geneva July 9, 1974; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT May 18, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Serbia and Montenegro · Berne (Paris) June 17, 1930; UCC Geneva May 11, 1966; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; SAT Aug. 25, 1979

Seychelles · Unclear

Sierra Leone · WTO July 23, 1995

Singapore · Bilateral May 18, 1987; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Dec. 21, 1998

Slovakia · UCC Geneva Jan. 6, 1960; UCC Paris April 17, 1980; Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1993; Phonograms Jan. 1, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Slovenia · UCC Geneva May 11, 1966; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; Berne (Paris) June 25, 1991; SAT June 25, 1991; WTO July 30, 1995; Phonograms Oct. 15, 1996; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

Solomon Islands · WTO July 26, 1996

Somalia · Unclear

South Africa · Bilateral July 1, 1924; Berne (Brussels) Oct. 3, 1928; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Spain · Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral July 10, 1895; UCC Geneva Sept. 16, 1955; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; Phonograms Aug. 24, 1974; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Sri Lanka · Berne (Rome) July 20, 1959; UCC Geneva Jan. 25, 1984; UCC Paris Jan. 25, 1984; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Sudan · Berne (Paris) Dec. 28, 2000

Suriname · Berne (Paris) Feb. 23, 1977; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Swaziland · WTO Jan. 1, 1995; Berne (Paris) Dec. 14, 1998

Sweden · Berne (Paris) Aug. 1, 1904; Bilateral June 1, 1911; UCC Geneva July 1, 1961; Phonograms April 18, 1973; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Switzerland · Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral July 1, 1891[4]; UCC Geneva March 30, 1956; UCC Paris Sept. 21, 1993; SAT Sept. 24, 1993; Phonograms Sept. 30, 1993; WTO July 1, 1995

Syria · Unclear

Tajikistan[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973; Berne (Paris) March 9, 2000

Tanzania · Berne (Paris) July 25, 1994; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Thailand · Bilateral Sept. 1, 1921; Berne (Paris) July 17, 1931; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Togo · Berne (Paris) April 30, 1975; WTO May 31, 1995

Tonga · Berne (Paris) June 14, 2001

Trinidad and Tobago · Berne (Paris) Aug. 16, 1988; UCC Geneva Aug. 19, 1988; UCC Paris Aug. 19, 1988; Phonograms Oct. 1, 1988; WTO March 1, 1995; SAT Nov. 1, 1996

Tunisia · Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; UCC Geneva June 19, 1969; UCC Paris June 10, 1975; WTO March 29, 1995

Turkey · Berne (Paris) Jan. 1, 1952; WTO March 26, 1995

Turkmenistan[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973

Tuvalu · Unclear

Uganda · WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Ukraine[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973; Berne (Paris) Oct. 25, 1995; Phonograms Feb. 18, 2000; WCT March 6, 2002; WPPT May 20, 2002

United Arab Emirates · WTO April 10, 1996; Berne (Paris) July 14, 2004

United Kingdom · Berne (Paris) Dec. 5, 1887; Bilateral July 1, 1891[4]; UCC Geneva Sept. 27, 1957; Phonograms April 18, 1973; UCC Paris July 10, 1974; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Uruguay · BAC Dec. 17, 1919; Berne (Paris) July 10, 1967; Phonograms Jan. 18, 1983; UCC Geneva April 12, 1993; UCC Paris April 12, 1993; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Uzbekistan[1] · UCC Geneva May 27, 1973

Vanuatu · Unclear

Vatican City (Holy See) · Berne (Paris) Sept. 12, 1935; UCC Geneva Oct. 5, 1955; Phonograms July 18, 1977; UCC Paris May 6, 1980

Venezuela · UCC Geneva Sept. 30, 1966; Phonograms Nov. 18, 1982; Berne (Paris) Dec. 30, 1982; WTO Jan. 1, 1995; UCC Paris Feb. 11, 1997

Vietnam · Bilateral Dec. 23, 1998[15]; Bilateral Dec. 10, 2001

Yemen · Unclear

Zambia · UCC Geneva June 1, 1965; Berne (Paris) Jan. 2, 1992; WTO Jan. 1, 1995

Zimbabwe · Berne (Rome) April 18, 1980; WTO March 5, 1995

Statutory Provisions[edit]

Section 104 of title 17 of the United States Code is reprinted below:

§ 104. Subject matter of copyright: National origin

(a) Unpublished Works.—The works specified by sections 102 and 103, while unpublished, are subject to protection under this title without regard to the nationality or domicile of the author.

(b) Published Works.—The works specified by sections 102 and 103, when published, are subject to protection under this title if—

(1) on the date of first publication, one or more of the authors is a national or domiciliary of the United States, or is a national, domiciliary, or sovereign authority of a treaty party, or is a stateless person, wherever that person may be domiciled; or
(2) the work is first published in the United States or in a foreign nation that, on the date of first publication, is a treaty party; or
(3) the work is a sound recording that was first fixed in a treaty party; or
(4) the work is a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work that is incorporated in a building or other structure, or an architectural work that is embodied in a building and the building or structure is located in the United States or a treaty party; or
(5) the work is first published by the United Nations or any of its specialized agencies, or by the Organization of American States; or
(6) the work comes within the scope of a Presidential proclamation. Whenever the President finds that a particular foreign nation extends, to works by authors who are nationals or domiciliaries of the United States or to works that are first published in the United States, copyright protection on substantially the same basis as that on which the foreign nation extends protection to works of its own nationals and domiciliaries and works first published in that nation, the President may by proclamation extend protection under this title to works of which one or more of the authors is, on the date of first publication, a national, domiciliary, or sovereign authority of that nation, or which was first published in that nation. The President may revise, suspend, or revoke any such proclamation or impose any conditions or limitations on protection under a proclamation.

For purposes of paragraph (2), a work that is published in the United States or a treaty party within 30 days after publication in a foreign nation that is not a treaty party shall be considered to be first published in the United States or such treaty party, as the case may be.

(c) Effect of Berne Convention.—No right or interest in a work eligible for protection under this title may be claimed by virtue of, or in reliance upon, the provisions of the Berne Convention, or the adherence of the United States thereto. Any rights in a work eligible for protection under this title that derive from this title, other Federal or State statutes, or the common law, shall not be expanded or reduced by virtue of, or in reliance upon, the provisions of the Berne Convention, or the adherence of the United States thereto.

(d) Effect of Phonograms Treaties.—Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b), no works other than sound recordings shall be eligible for protection under this title solely by virtue of the adherence of the United States to the Geneva Phonograms Convention or the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty.

Endnotes[edit]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Each of the following Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan (but not the CIS countries Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia), is a successor state to the Soviet Union’s copyright treaty obligations, in particular, the obligations under the UCC Geneva, and accordingly is a member of the UCC Geneva effective May 27, 1973, the date the Soviet Union became a party. The successor status in each case was confirmed in a bilateral trade agreement between each of these countries and the United States, effective in each case on the date set forth below. Note that the successor status is consistent with the treatment by UNESCO (secretariat for the UCC) of these countries. The effective dates of the bilateral agreements with the United States confirming the successor status are as follows: Armenia (April 2, 1992); Azerbaijan (April 21, 1995); Belarus (Feb. 16, 1993); Georgia (Aug. 13, 1993); Kazakhstan (Feb. 18, 1993); Kyrgyz Republic (Aug. 21, 1992); Moldova (July 2, 1992); Russia (June 17, 1992); Tajikistan (Nov. 24, 1993); Turkmenistan (Oct. 25, 1993); Ukraine (June 23, 1992); Uzbekistan (Jan. 13, 1994)
  2. Bilateral copyright relations between Australia and the United States of America were established, effective March 15, 1918, by Presidential Proclamation No. 1439 of April 3, 1918, 40 Stat. 1764 (1919).
  3. Bilateral copyright relations between Australia and the United States were further developed pursuant to the Agreement between the United States of America and Government of Australia on the Establishment of a Free Trade Area, signed May 18, 2004, and effective Jan. 1, 2005.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Bilateral copyright relations between the United States and Belgium, France, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland were established by Presidential Proclamation No. 307. of July 1, 1891, 27 Stat. 981 (1891), effective that same date, under the authority of the Chase Act of 1891.
  5. Bilateral copyright relations between Chile and the United States were further developed pursuant to the Agreement between the United States of America and the Republic of Chile on the Establishment of a Free Trade Area, signed June 6, 2003, and effective Jan. 1, 2004.
  6. 6.0 6.1 The government of the People’s Republic of China views this treaty as not binding. In the territory administered by the authorities on Taiwan, the treaty is considered to be in force.
  7. Bilateral copyright relations between the People’s Republic of China and the United States of America were established, effective March 17, 1992, by a Presidential Proclamation of the same date, under the authority of section 104 of title 17 of the United States Code, as amended by the Act of Oct. 31, 1988 (Public Law 100-568, 102 Stat. 2853, 2855).
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 This country became a party to the Mexico City Convention, 1902, effective June 30, 1908, to which the United States also became a party, effective on the same date. As regards copyright relations with the United States, this Convention is considered to have been superseded by adherence of this country and the United States to the Buenos Aires Convention of 1910.
  9. The dates of adherence by Germany to multilateral treaties include adherence by the Federal Republic of Germany when that country was divided into the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. However, through the accession, effective Oct. 3, 1990, of the German Democratic Republic to the Federal Republic of Germany, in accordance with the German Unification Treaty of Aug. 31, 1990, the German Democratic Republic ceased, on the said date, to be a sovereign state. Previously, the German Democratic Republic had become party to the Paris Act of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works on Feb. 18, 1978, but ceased to be a party to the said Convention on Oct. 3, 1990. The German Democratic Republic had also been a member of the Universal Copyright Convention, having become party to the Geneva text of the said Convention on Oct. 5, 1973, and party to the revised Paris text of the same Convention on Dec. 10, 1980.
  10. Date on which the accession by the German Empire became effective.
  11. Bilateral copyright relations between the United States and Germany were established effective July 12, 1967, by Presidential Proclamation No. 3792 of that same date, at 32 fr 10341, under the authority of Copyright Act of 1909 as amended at 55 Stat. 732.
  12. Prior to the return of Hong Kong to China, bilateral copyright relations existed with Hong Kong through the United Kingdom (from Aug. 1, 1973), and Phonogram Convention Membership existed through the United Kingdom (from March 4, 1975).
  13. Bilateral copyright relations between Japan and the United States, which were formulated effective May 10, 1906, are considered to have been abrogated and superseded by the adherence of Japan to the UCC Geneva, effective April 28, 1956.
  14. Bilateral copyright relations between Jordan and the United States were established pursuant to the Agreement between the United States of America and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on the Establishment of a Free Trade Area, signed Oct. 24, 2000, and effective Dec. 17, 2001.
  15. Bilateral copyright relations between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the United States were established effective December 23, 1998, by Presidential Proclamation No. 7161 of that same date, at 63 fr 71571 (1998), under the authority of sections 104(b)(5) and 104A(g) of title 17 of the United States Code, as amended.
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).