Irish Vertebrate Animals: selected from the Papers of John Templeton

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Art. II. Irish Vertebrate Animals: selectedfrom the Papers of the late John Templeton, Esq., Cranmore. By Robert Templeton, Esq.

Irish Vertebrate Animals: selected from the Papers of John Templeton

Robert Templeton 1837. Irish vertebrate animals selected from the papers of the late John Templeton Esq., Mag. Nat. Hist Volume 1: (n. s. ): 403-413, 403-413

MAMMALIA

FERAE

  • Meles (Cuv.) Taxus Flem. Nearly extinct.
  • Mustela (Linn., Cuv.) Martes Linn. Common.
  • Putorius Cuv.
  • vulgaris Gmel. Common.
  • Erminea Linn. Rare.
  • Lutra (Cuv.) vulgaris Desm. Occasionally.
  • Canis (Linn., Flem.) Lupus Linn. Extinct.
  • Vulpes (Flem.) vulgaris Flem. Not uncommon.
  • Phoca (Linn.) vitulina Linn. Common.
  • Sorex (Linn.) Araneus Linn. Common.
  • Erinaceus (Linn.) europaeus Linn. Common.

PRIMATES

  • Vespertilio (Linn., Geoff.) pipistrellus f Gmel. (Sub nomine "V. murini" in Temp. MSS.) Common.
  • Plecotus (Geoff.) auritus Linn. Common.

GLIRES

  • Mus Linn.
  • sylvaticus Linn. Common.
  • Musculus Linn. Common.
  • Rattus Linn. Occasionally : nearly extinct.
  • decumanus Pall. Common : naturalised.
  • Lepus Linn.
  • timidus Linn. var. hibernicus. Common.
  • Cuniculus Linn. Common.

UNGUICULATA

  • Cervus (Linn.) E'laphus Linn. Wild in the south and west of Ireland.

CETACEA

  • Delphinus (Linn.. Cuv.) Delphis Linn. Common.
  • Phocaeana Cuv.
  • communis. Common.
  • O'rca Fab. Common.
  • Hyperodon (Lacep.) bidens Flem. Occasionally.
  • Physeter (Linn., Lacep.)
  • Tursio Linn. Thrown ashore on the western coast occasionally.
  • Balaeana (Linn., Lacep.) Mysticetus. On the north-western coast, thrown on shore.

AVES

RAPTORES

  • A'quila Briss.
  • Chrysaetos Vig. Occasionally in the mountainous districts.
  • albicilla Briss. Common on the bold coasts.
  • Haliseaetus Meyer. Occasionally met with.
  • Falco Linn.
  • islandicus Lath. In 1803, I received a skin of this bird, which had been shot at Randalstown, county Antrim.
  • peregrinus Gmel. Common.
  • Subbuteo Linn. A rare species. I have only observed a few specimens- one was seen during the breeding season, at the rocks of Ballynascreen Mountains, in 1800 : it was noisy and bold. Another was seen in 1802, at Lough Bray Rocks, county Wicklow.
  • AE'salon Gmel. Common.
  • Tinnunculus Linn. Common.
  • A'stur (Cuv.) palumbarius Will. A specimen in Dublin Museum. Breed occasionally on the rocks at Magilligan.
  • Nisus (Cuv.) fringillarius Will. Falco Nisus Linn. Occasionally.
  • Buteo (Bechst.) vulgaris Will. Not rare.
  • Circus Bechst.
  • rufus Briss. Occasionally met with.
  • cyaneus Flem. Occasionally.
  • O'tus Cuv.
  • vulgaris Flem. Common.
  • brachyotos Flem. Occasionally met with.
  • Strix (Linn.) flammea Linn. Common.

INSESS0RES

  • Lanius (Linn.) excubitor Linn. I have met with two specimens : one was shot in the county Down, and received from R. Maxwell, Esq.; the other in the county Antrim, in 1802.
  • Muscicapa (Linn.) grisola Linn. A summer visitant : a pair built in the lime trees at Cranmore, during the months of July, 1801 and 1802.
  • Cinclus (Bechst.) aquaticus Bechst. Common.
  • Turdus Linn.
  • viscivorus Linn. Common,
  • pilaris Linn. Common,
  • musicus Linn. Common,
  • iliacus Linn. Common.
  • Merula Linn. Common,
  • torquatus Linn. Summer visitant.
  • Oriolus {Linn.) Galbula Linn. A pair shot at Donaghadre, in 1824, by Mr. J. Russell.
  • Accentor (Bechst.) modularis Cuv. Common.
  • Sylvia Lath.
  • Rubecula Lath. Common.
  • Locustella Lath. Not very uncommon during spring and summer.
  • Phragmitis Bechst. A summer visitant.
  • arundinacea Lath. I once saw in the neighbourhood of Belfast.
  • Atricapilla Lath. Rare: was seen at Cranmore, June 17. 1818, and twice since .then,
  • hortensis Lath. Bred at Cranmore, May 1820.
  • cinerea Lath. A summer visitant.
  • Trochilus Lath. Common in summer.
  • Regulus (Cuv.) aurocapillus Selb. Common.
  • Motacilla Linn.
  • alba Linn. Common.
  • Boarula Linn. Common.
  • flava Bay. A rare summer visitant, appearing commoner about Lough Neagh than elsewhere.
  • A'nthus (Bechst.) pratensis Bechst. Common.
  • Saxicola Bechst.
  • OEnanthe Bechst. A common summer visitant.
  • Rubetra Bechst. Less common than the preceding.
  • Rubicola Bechst. Common.
  • Parus Linn.
  • major Linn. Common,
  • caeruleus Linn. Common,
  • ater Linn. Common.
  • caudatus Linn. Seldom met with in the north.
  • Bombycilla (Briss.) garrula Bonap. Sometimes seen about Belfast, but more common in Tullamore Park, county Down : has been several times shot in the county Derry.
  • Alauda Linn.
  • arvensis Linn. Common.
  • arborea Linn. In particular districts, not uncommon.
  • Emberiza Linn.
  • nivalis Linn. Tolerably common,
  • miliaria Linn. Common.
  • Schoeniculus Linn. Common.
  • Citrinella Linn. Common.
  • Fringilla Cuv.
  • Coelebs Linn. Common,
  • montifringilla Linn. An occasional visitant.
  • Pyrgita Cuv.
  • domestica Linn. Common,
  • montana Linn. A doubtful native.
  • Coccothraustes (Temm.) Chloris Temm. Common.
  • Carduelis Briss.
  • communis. Not common.
  • Spinus Linn. Rare visitant.
  • Linaria Steph.
  • rubra minor Will. (Fringilla Linaria Linn.) Common.
  • Linaria (Steph.) cannabina Linn. Common.
  • montium Gmel. A winter visitant.
  • Pyrrhula Briss.
  • vulgaris Temm. Occasionally.
  • enucleator Temm. A doubtful native.
  • Loxia Briss.
  • curvirostra Linn. An occasional visitant. Several were observed at Cranmore, varying much in colour from reddish-brown to dark olive.
  • pityopsittacus Bechst. Received from Rainey Maxwell, Esq., Grenville, where it was shot, May 1 802.
  • leucoptera Gmel. Shot at Grenville, near Belfast, January 11. 1802.
  • Sturnus (Linn.) vulgaris Linn. Common.
  • Pastor (Temm.) roseus Temm. An occasional visitant.
  • Fregilus (Cuv.) Graculus Selb. Common on the rocky coasts.
  • Corvus Linn., Cuv.
  • Corax Linn. Common.
  • Comix Linn. Common.
  • frugilegus Linn. Common.
  • Monedula Linn. Common.
  • Pica (Cuv.) caudata Flem. Common.
  • Garrulus (Briss.) glandarius Flem. Exceedingly common in the midland and southern counties.

SCANSO'RES

  • Picus (Linn.) major Linn. One specimen, sent to Dr. M'Donnell from C. Derry, in August, 1802 another met with since.
  • Certhia (Linn.) familiaris Linn. Not uncommon.
  • Troglodytes (Cuv.) europaeus Selb. Common.
  • Upupa {Linn.) Epops Linn. One shot near Carrickfergus, in 1818.
  • Cuculus (Linn.) canorus Linn. Common.
  • Alcedo (Linn.) Ispida Linn. Not uncommon.
  • Hirundo Linn.
  • rustica Linn. Common.
  • urbica Linn. Common.
  • riparia Linn. Common.
  • Cypselus {Illig.) A'pus Flem. Common.
  • Caprimulgus (Linn.) europaeus Linn. Rare about Belfast, but uncommon at Mourne, county Down.

RASO'RES

  • Columba Linn.
  • Palumbus Linn. Common.
  • Livia Briss. (Rock Dove.) Common.
  • Turtur Linn. Rare. Seen at Cranmore and Shane's Castle.
  • Lagopus ( Vieill.) scoticus Temm. Common.
  • Perdix (Briss.) cinerea Briss. Common.
  • Coturnix (Briss.) vulgaris Flem. Common.

GRALLATO'RES

  • Charadrius Linn.
  • pluvialis Linn. Common.
  • Hiaticula Linn. Common.
  • Squatarola (Cuv.) grisea Briss. Not uncommon.
  • Vanellus (Cuv.) cristatus Mey. Common.
  • Strepsilas (Illig.) interpres Leach. An occasional visitant.
  • Calidris (Illig.) arenaria Illig. Occasional visitant.
  • Haematopus (Linn.) ostralegus Linn. Common about the shores.

+ Note Grus cinerea Bechst. In Smith's History of Cork, it is stated that this bird was seen in the remarkable frost of 1789.

  • A'rdea Linn.
  • cinerea Lath. Common.
  • Garzetta Linn. There is a specimen in the Dublin Museum, which was shot in the harbour of Cork, in 1792.
  • stellaris Linn. Occasionally met with.
  • Platalea (Linn.) Leucorodia Linn. An individual of this species was shot,some years since, at Ballydrain Lake, county Antrim.
  • Ibis (Lacep.) Falcinellus Temm. Shot in the bog meadows near Belfast,Sept. 30. 1819, by Mr. J. Dinnon.
  • Numenius Briss.
  • arquata Lath. Common.
  • phae'opus Lath. Common.
  • Totanus Bechst.
  • Calidris Bechst. Common.
  • ochropus Temm. Seen four times at Cranmore.
  • Hypoleucos Temm. Common summer visitant.
  • Glottis Bechst. An occasional visitant.
  • Limosa Briss.
  • rufa Briss. Tolerably common.
  • melanura Leisl. Rare : a winter visitant.
  • Scolopax Linn.
  • Rusticola Linn. Common.
  • Sabini Vigors. Rare.
  • major Gmel. A doubtful native.
  • Gallinago Linn. Common.
  • Gallinula Linn. Common.
  • Tringa Briss.
  • pugnax Linn. An occasional visitant. One, in the collection of the late John Montgomery, was shot at Castledawson.
  • subarquata Temm. Occasionally seen.
  • variabilis Mey. Common.
  • nigricans Montig. An occasional visitant : a rare specimen in the possession of the late John Montgomery, Esq.
  • Canutus Linn. A rare winter visitant.
  • Phalaropus (Briss.) lobatus Flem. A rare winter visitant.
  • Rallus (Linn.) aquaticus Linn. Common.
  • Crex Bechst.
  • pratensis Bechst. Common.
  • Porzana Selb. A few specimens have been met with.
  • Gallinula (Lath.) chloropus Lath. Common.
  • Fulica (Linn.) atra Linn. Common.

NATATO'RES

  • A'nser Briss.
  • segetum Steph. Shot in the bog meadows near Belfast in the winter of 1801.
  • albifrons Steph. In large flocks during our very severe winters.
  • leucopsis Bechst. Common.
  • torquatus Frisch. Common.
  • Cygnus {Mey.) ferus Ray. Met with occasionally about the Lough.
  • Tadorna (Leach.) Bellonii Steph. Occasionally met with.
  • A'nas Linn.
  • clypeata Linn. Occasionally.
  • acuta Linn. Occasionally.
  • A'nas (Linn.') Boschas Linn. Common.
  • Crecca Linn. Common.
  • Mareca (Steph.) Penelope Selb. Common.
  • Oidemia (Flem.) nigra Flem. An occasional visitant. In the Dublin Museum, there is a specimen from Waterford.
  • Fuligula Ray.
  • ferina Steph. Occasionally.
  • marila Steph. Common.
  • cristata Steph. Not uncommon.
  • Clangula (Flem.) chrysophthalmus Steph. Not uncommon,
  • Mergus Linn.
  • Merganser Linn. Common.
  • Serrator Linn. Not rare.
  • Podiceps Lath.
  • rubricollis Lath. A specimen caught in the spring of 1797 at Bearsbridge,county Down.
  • auritus Lath. Not very common.
  • minor Lath. Common.
  • Colymbus (Linn.) glacialis Linn. Not uncommon.
  • U'ria Briss.
  • Troile Lath. Common in Belfast Lough.
  • Grylle Common.
  • ratercula (Briss.)
  • arctica Steph. Not uncommon.
  • F'lca (Linn.) Torda Linn. Common.
  • A alacrocorax (Briss.) Carbo Steph. Common.
  • Pha (Briss.) Bassana Briss. Common.
  • Sulna Linn.
  • Ster Dougallii Mont. A specimen shot in Belfast Lough.
  • Hirundo Linn. Common.
  • minuta Linn. Several years ago, I observed a single pair in Belfast Lough, in a tour round the shores, at Lecale, on the 5th and 6th of June, 1810. They appeared on the shore as common as S.hirundo ; their note sharper and more tremulous than that of the latter
  • Larus Linn.
  • Sabini Sab., sub nomine " minutus " in Temp. MSS.
  • ridibundus Linn. Common.
  • tridactylus Lath.
  • canusto. Common.
  • argentatus Brunn. Common.
  • fuscus Linn. Not so common as the preceding.
  • marinus Linn. Occasionally.
  • Lestris (Illig.) parasiticus Temm. Occasionally.
  • Procellaria (Linn.) pelagica Linn. Common.

REPTILIA

SAU'RIA

  • Lacerta(Cuv.)agilis Flem. Common.

BATRICHIA

  • Rana (Laurent) temporaria Linn. Common.
  • Triton Laurent. -
  • palustris Flem. Common.
  • aquaticus Flem. Common.
  • vulgaris Flem. Not uncommon.

PISCES

O'SSEI

ACANTHOPTERY'GII.

  • Perca (Linn., Cuv.) fluviatilis Linn. Common.
  • Labrax (Cuv.) Lupus Cuv. First noticed as Irish by Dr. Brown. It is caught in Belfast Bay.
  • Trigla Linn.
  • Hirundo BL, sub nomine "laevis" Not uncommon along the coast,and brought to the markets along with haddock.
  • Lyra Linn. Taken with the hook on our coast, but in no great numbers.
  • Gurnardus Linn. Very numerous during the summer and autumnal months.
  • Cuculus Bl. Occasionally.
  • Cottus (Linn.) Scorpius Bl. Not uncommon in small bays, where much fucus abounds; but not exceeding 9 in. or 10 in. They are very wary, permitting the hand to approach them within a couple of inches, before they quit their station on the rock, but then darting away with inconceivable velocity.
  • Aspidophorus (Lacep.) cataphractus Linn. The only specimen which I have known of this, caught on our shores, was received by Dr. M'Donnell of Belfast, from Carnalloc Bay, and presented by him to Dr. James Drummond.
  • Gasterosteus Linn., Cuv.
  • aculeatus Linn. Common,
  • pungitius Linn. Rare.
  • Spinachia (Flem.) vulgaris Flem. Not uncommon.
  • Sparus (Linn., Cuv.) auratus Linn. Often taken during the summer and autumnal months, principally when currents sweep along the rocky shore.
  • Scomber (Linn., Cuv.) Scombrus Linn. Common.
  • Caranx (Cuv.) trachurus Lacep. Not common on the coast.
  • Zeus (Linn.) Faber Linn. A few individuals are caught, from time to time, on our coasts.
  • Lampris (Retz.) luna Risso. Only one specimen of this fish has been noticed as occurring on our shores at Magilligan, county Derry.
  • Mugil (Linn.) cephalus Cuv, Common.
  • Atherina {Linn.) Presbyter Cuv. On the coast of Ireland, it is caught in abundance during the spring months. It is brought from Portaferry into Belfast market.
  • Blennius Linn., Cuv.
  • guttorugine Mont. On the 22d of June, 1811, I received this little fish from Mr. M'Skimmin, who informed me he had procured it from the lobster traps by the Carrickfergus fishermen, who declared it was never taken but when the traps laid in 12 or 14 fathoms water.
  • Pholis Linn. Very common in the little pools in the rocks along the shores.
  • Gunnellus (Flem.) vulgaris Flem. Occasionally.
  • Zoarces (Cuv.) viviparus Linn. One specimen found on the coast of Down, near Donaghadee.
  • Anarhichas (Linn.) Lupus Linn. On the coast of Ireland, this fish does not seem to be common, as it is not mentioned by Drs. Brown or Smith,in their county histories ; it is, however, sometimes met with in Belfastmarket, most probably caught by the Carrickfergus fishermen in the bay.
  • Gobius Linn.
  • niger Linn. A mutilated specimen on the shore of Belfast Lough, near Rockport.
  • minutus Pall. Several specimens, but not of greater length than 2 in.; stated to be common on the sandy shores, lodging under large shells when the tide is out.
  • Callionymus {Linn.) Lyra Linn. A fine specimen was caught in the bay by the Carrickfergus fishermen, and was in possession of the late J. Miller, Esq. A female was found in the belly of a cod-fish, in 1821.
  • Lophius (Linn.) piscatorius Linn. Seldom found of greater length than 4 ft. ; not uncommon on the coast.
  • Labrus Linn.
  • maculatus ? Bl. Tinea of Shaw, is common, and considered of the same species as the L. Balanus of Pennant, which occurs along with it, but not in the same numbers. They haunt the rocky parts of the coast, and live on the smaller Crustacea and Mollusca.
  • variegatus Gmel. Both the specimens of this beautiful fish were caught in Strangford Lough.

MALACOPTERY'GII

  • Cyprinus (Linn., Cuv.) Carpio Linn. Naturalised.
  • Gobio (Cuv.) fluviatilis Will., Flem. These fish first appeared in the river Lagan in 1801, having ascended the canal from Lough Neagh, where they have been inhabitants perhaps for centuries.
  • Tinea (Cuv.) vulgaris Flem. Although sometimes taken in our rivers, I have every reason to believe it a naturalised species.
  • Abramis (Cuv.) Brama Linn. A great number of the Irish lakes produce this fish. In Lough Erne they are particularly abundant
  • Leuciscus (Klein.) erythropthalmus Linn. Exceedingly common in the north of Ireland, where it is mistaken for the roach.
  • E'sox (Cuv.) Lucius Linn. Common.
  • Belone (Cuv.) vulgaris Flem. Common.
  • Scomberesox (Lacep.) Saurus Flem. This curious and rare fish appears to visit the coast of Ireland very seldom ; for, notwithstanding all my enquiries about the natives of our coast, I was never able to procure a specimen, until one was caught near the Long Bridge, Belfast, and brought to me in 1820.
  • Salmo Linn., Cuv.
  • Salar Linn. Common.
  • Trutta Linn. Common.
  • Fario Linn. Common.
  • Salmulus Ray. Not uncommon.
  • alpinus Don. Char. Lough Neagh. See Dubourdieu's Antrim, where this fish is figured and described by Mr. Templeton- W. T. In a lake in the county Donegal, near Dunfanaghy, I observed some boys catching small char with lines and hooks, baited with common earth-worms. In Lough Neagh, however, where they are found in the greatest plenty, and of the largest size (sometimes reaching to the length of 15 in.), I have never heard of any being taken with a hook ; and, indeed, in this lake the manners of these fish correspond exactly with those of the gilt char of Winandermere.f The Lough Neagh whiting (the name by which it is there known) is taken from the end of September to the middle of November. In Lough Esk, in the county Monaghan, I have known them caught agreeing exactly in their colour with those of Lough Neagh.
  • O'smerus (Arted.) Eperlanus Flem., the smelt, is sometimes taken on our coasts in considerable abundance ; but, often, several years intervene during which they are rarely to be met with.
  • Corregonus (Cuv.) Pollan Thomps. Sub nomine " Lavaretus" in Temp.MSS.
  • Clupea Linn. Cuv.
  • Harengus Linn. Native.
  • Sprattus Bl. They appear, during the autumnal months, in the bays, and as far up the rivers as the tide flows, in considerable quantities.
  • Pilchardus Bl. Seems very local, being nearly confined to the south coast, especially about Cork, where the principal fishery is.
  • Gadus Linn.
  • Moorhua Linn. Plentiful.
  • OEglefinus Linn. Common.
  • luscus Linn. The first specimen of this fish was found in Belfast market, by Dr. M'Gee, March 20. 1812. A great number were taken by the Carrickfergus fishermen in the autumn of 1822.
  • Merlangus Cuv.
  • vulgaris Flem. Common.
  • Pollachius Linn. Not uncommon.
  • carbonarius Linn. In every bay along the northern coast the young of this species are caught during the summer months. The mature,in the market, usually above 2 ft. long, are only bought by the poor.
  • Merluccius (Cuv.) vulgaris Flem. Not uncommon.
  • Lota (Cuv.) Molva Linn. Very common.
  • Motella Cuv.
  • Mustella Linn. The first specimen I met with was shown to me by Mr. M'Skimmin of Carrickfergus. Several have been met with since.
  • tricirrhatus Don. The largest specimen I have seen was in Belfast market, November, 1801, about 18 in. long : it is very rare.
  • Phycis (Artedi) furcatus Flem. On the 24th of January, 1812, I found a specimen of this rare fish among haddock : it was one of the largest size, being about 20 in. long.
  • Platessa Cuv.
  • vulgaris Flem. Extremely common,
  • flesus Flem. Common.
  • Limanda Flem. A rare fish in Ireland.
  • microcephalia Flem. The specimens which have been seen by me agree exactly with the figure and description of Pennant, but in no respect with that given by Donovan. It is rare on the coast.
  • Hippoglossus (Cuv.) vulgaris Flem. This is generally taken on our coast on the hooks which are set for cod-fish, baited with the animal of Buccinum undatum ; but they never appeared to be caught on the coast of Ireland in such abundance as to induce the establishment of a regular fishery.
  • Pleuronectes Flem.
  • maximus Linn. Plentifully along the northern coast.
  • Rhombus Linn. More common than the preceding; on the sandy banks all round the coast,
  • megastoma Don. Although not common, several specimens have been met with.
  • Solea (Cuv.) vulgaris Flem. Common.
  • Lepadogaster (Gouan) bimaculatus Flem. Two specimens found in a dredge, August, 1811.
  • Cyclopterus (Linn.) lumpus Linn. Not very common.
  • Liparis (Artedi) Montagui Don. Of this I found an individual adhering to a plant of Fucus serratus in a pool on the shore of Carrickfergus Bay, about two miles below the castle, on the 1st of April, 1807."(Temp. MSS.) This note appears at the foot of the page containing a drawing, made by the late Mr. Templeton, of the fish it alludes to, which was considered by him as distinct from L. vulgaris, though he had not determined its species. The drawing having been submitted to me by my friend Robert Templeton, Esq., I have no hesitation in considering it the L. Montagui.- W. Thompson. Belfast, Nov. 1836.
  • Anguilla (Cuv.) acutirostris Yarr. is the common eel of the rivers about Belfast. From the observations I have been able to make, I am led to conclude that the eel deviates not from the mode by which fishes in general produce their young. Towards the month of October, both the milk and the roe may be found in eels ; and why should it, therefore, be supposed that this spawn is not deposited as the spawn of other fishes.Great numbers of eels, inhabiting the shallow watery mud on the shore of Belfast Lough, were killed during a severe winter.. . Eels maybe caught at all seasons in the fresh water, though not, perhaps, with a bait. On the 14th of January, 1803, the Lagan Canal, at Lambeg Bridge, having the water nearly runoff, and ice half an inch thick, and perfectly transparent, covering the surface, I observed many eels, which had been disturbed by the falling of the water, moving about, both under the ice and when its breaking had uncovered the water :some were 2 ft. long, others 18 in., and many smaller. . . . The largest eel I have known to be caught was got at a lough near Ballygowan, county Down. Judging from its skin, which I saw on the 5th of August, 1807, I think that this eel must have been about 5 ft. long. In the time of watering flax, I have often observed eels leave their watery residence, and run through the grass, in all probability in search of purer water. . . . There are three varieties of the eel : one sharp-nosed, brownish yellow, with yellowish white belly; one bluntnosed, black, with silvery white belly ; and one more like the last, but differing from both, found occasionally in the Bann.
  • Conger Cuv. vulgaris. Common. Several years ago, a vessel was wrecked on the coast of Rathlin, laden with salt herrings. The congers ate voraciously of the salt fish, and great numbers died, and were washed on shore, after this unlucky feast, for several days.
  • Ophidium imberbe. The only specimen I have observed was thrown on the shore of Belfast Lough, near Whitehouse Point, on January 9 1809. It was a large specimen, not less than 1 ft. long, and agreed so exactly with the figure in the British Zoology, and differed so much from that of Mr. Montagu (Wern. Trans., p. 95. pi. 4. § 2.), that I am led to believe there are two distinct species, of which Pennant has described the one, and Montagu the other.
  • Ammodytes (Linn.) lancea Cuv. Inhabits all our sandy shores over which the tide flows with a swift current.

LOPHOBRA'NCHII

  • Syngnathus Cuv.
  • A' cus Linn. Rather a scarce fish, although found on both the southern and northern extremities of the island. Seem to breed in spring, as those caught at that time have the ovaries exposed to view.
  • Syngnathus barbarus Linn., Penn. I have seen three specimens.
  • Ophidion Linn. Caught in Belfast Lough.

PLECTOGNA'THII

  • Tetrodon {Linn.) stellatus Don. The only specimen I have known to be found on the shores of Ireland was seen on the Tramore Strand, county Waterford, by Dr. Gabriel Stokes ; and it appears only two have been detected in England, so that this fish can hardly be considered a native of our seas.
  • Orthagoriscus (Schn.) Mola Flem. A very doubtful native,


CARTILAGI'NEI


ELEUTHEROPO'MI

  • Accipenser (Linn.) Sturio Linn. Occasionally, in the rivers of Ireland, a few are taken.
  • Scyllium Cuv.
  • Catulus Linn. Not uncommon.
  • stellare Linn. Occasionally
  • Carcharias (Cuv.) Vulpes Gmel Rare on the coast, but occasionally seen about the Copeland Isles.
  • Lamna {Cuv.) cornubica Gmel., Don. A specimen caught in Belfast Lough.
  • Galeus (Cuv.) vulgaris Flem. A specimen, 5 ft. long, caught in Belfast Lough.
  • Mustelus (Cuv.) laevis Will., Flem. Sometimes caught in Carrickfergus Bay, by the fishermen, who denominate it stinkard, from its unpleasant effluvium.
  • Selache (Cuv.) maximus Linn, Taken in considerable numbers off the coast of Connemara.
  • Spinax (Cuv.) Acanthias Linn. Eaten by the poorest fishermen, when other fish are scarce,
  • Squatina (Dum.) A'ngelus Cuv. Often taken by the fishermen.
  • Torpedo (Dum.) vulgaris Flem. First noticed by Dr. Smith as Irish. I have known of a few specimens caught since his time. (Temp. MSS.)
  • Raia Cuv.
  • Batis Linn. Common.
  • rubus Bl. Not uncommon in Belfast Lough.
  • clavata Linn. In almost every sandy bay on our coast
  • Pastinaca Linn. Occasionally on the coast

CYCLO'STOMI

  • Petromyzon Lew.
  • marinus Linn. Found in many Irish rivers of 4 or 5 lb. weight,
  • fluviatilis Linn, Not plentiful in Irish rivers.
  • Ammocoetes (Dum.) branchialis Flem. An inhabitant of the rivulets of Ireland ; often observed, about the month of May, in the small rivers about Belfast, on the gravelly fords, where five or six appear to unite their efforts to excavate a place wherein to deposit their eggs.
  • Myxine (Linn.) glutinosa Linn. Has been found at Carrickfergus.