Journal of Major Andre
|Journal of Major André
|Note: John André was a British officer during the American Revolution, serving as an aide to many high ranking British generals including the Commander-in-Chief of British forces in America. However, he is best known for his role in Benedict Arnold's treason, when he was captured after meeting with Arnold in order to take West Point and General Washington. Although, Arnold escaped, André was tried by an American court-martial and hanged on October 2, 1780, as a spy. Much later André's body was returned to England and interred at Westminster Abbey. In 1902, his journal from 1777-1778 was discovered. The following is a complete transcription of that journal, which was originally published in 1904.|
June 11, 1777 The Commander in Chief came from Amboy to Brunswick, joining on the road the escort of the provision train, consisting of the 7th, 26th and part of the 71st Regiments.
12th Several regiments from Amboy and Bonham Town joined the Army at Brunswick, and encamped on the heights above the town and bridges. The Army to take the field was brigaded- vide orders.
13th The Army ordered to march in one column. The First Division under the command of Lieutenant General Earl Cornwallis, the second under Lieutenant General DeHeister. For the order of march and the General Officers and Brigades assigned to each Division, see the Orders of this day.
Distribution of Corps into Brigades the 12th of June, 1777
1st Brigade Lt. Col. Trelawney 1st, 23rd, 40th Battalion Guards
2nd Brigade Brig. Gen. Agnew 4th, 15th, 44th
3rd Brigade Lt. Col. Markham 10th, 27th, 46th
4th Brigade Lt. Colonel Mawhood 17th, 35th, 64th
The 1st and 3rd Brigade commanded by Major-General Vaughan; the 2nd and 4th Brigade commanded by Major-General Grey.
From the Orders it appeared that the First Division was to form in column of march on the Princeton Road at 11 o'clock in the evening, but with respect to the Second Division, altho' it was expressed they were to strike tents, no place of rendezvous was appointed, nor were they directed to form in column, tho' the order of march was given. General DeHeister had understood he was included in the Order given to the First Division to assemble on the Princeton Road, and purposed bringing up his column in the rear of Lord Cornwallis's. General Grey, on the other hand, abiding by the letter of the Order, thought we were to remain on our ground till further Orders should be received. The Adjutant General (*this must have been Andre himself) gave the latter explanation to it. The Second Division struck tents in the evening and lay on their arms.
14th At daylight Lord Cornwallis's Division having begun to move, a message was sent intimating it had been expected the the Second Division would have been already formed in the rear of the First. At 6 o'clock the Second Division would have been already formed in the rear of the First. At 6 o'clock the Second Division, being formed in order of march on the Princeton Road, began to move. Lord Cornwallis, having exchanged a few shots with a flying party of the Rebels at ye Millstone (Hillsborough or Somerset Court House), repaired the Bridge which they had begun breaking down, and crossing the river hutted on the heights of the Western bank. The Second Division hutted at Middlebush, six miles from Brunswick and two from the Millstone.
15th We changed the disposition of the Troops at Middlebrush. Distribution of the part of the Army not moving with the main body:
Rhode Island Major General Prescott Hessian: Stirn, Ditfurth, Huyne, Bunow British: 22nd, 43rd, 54th (New York)
York Island Lt. General Knyphausen Hessians at Kings Bridge: 45th, 63rd, Hereditary Pr., Trumbach, Pr. Charles Hessians at Independence: Stein, Block, Weissenbach
Amboy Colonel Eybe 55th British Battalion of Anspach Waldeckers
Brunswick Brigadier General Matthew 7th, 26th, 35th, 38th
Guards, Remains of Raille's Hessian Brigade
The Piquets were ordered to be relieved in future at daybreak- to have a double piquet at that hour.
Great symptoms of a disposition to plunder being perceived in the Troops, the Commander-in-chief sent a message to General DeHeister, desiring him to warn the Hessians not to persist in such outrages, as they would be most severely punished. Most of the Brigades received the same instructions from the Officers commanding them.
16th Two Sergeants of the Light Dragoons and one trooper were either killed or taken prisoner this morning. They were on a patrole. This morning at daybreak we began throwing up three redoubts near Headquarters and the provision train. Twelve hundred with a proportionable number of officers were employed on this duty. The Troops desisted working at the redouts at 11 o'clock at night. It was reported that the Rebel Army had quitted the heights above Bound Brook.
17th The women who had followed the Army were sent back to Brunswick. A Sergeant from the Welsh Fusiliers deserted, it was said, in consequence of his wife being sent away. The troops retained their same position; the Enemy seemed to vary theirs. The few tents we saw scattered on the hills appeared every day in different spots. The Rebel Light Horse were frequently seen hovering about Lord Cornwallis's Camp and the avenues to both camps were infested by ambuscades which fired on our patroles and out sentries.
18th Orders were given for the Second Division to march. Two Hessians were killed this evening and four others wounded on an advances post from Lord Cornwallis's Camp.
19th The whole marched in one column at 6 o'clock this morning, the second Division in front and by the right. The Army arrived at Brunswick before noon, and encamped on the heights round it on either side the Raritan; General Leslie's Brigade extending to Bonham Town.
20th In the morning the piquet of the Grenadiers was fired upon by about 200 of the Rebels, who came upon them from the wood. Upon a party of Grenadiers marching to support their piquet, the Enemy retired; no one was hurt. General Grey being Major General of the day, the affair of the plundering a house at the landing came under his notice; he confined a Corporal and three soldiers of the 5th regiment. The 17th Dragoons, 35th, 38th, and 52nd, Foot marched to Amboy; the 7th and 26th Regiments took up their ground. The flat boats, carriages and pontoons were sent to Amboy. A great deal of firing was heard towards 8 o'clock in the evening in the direction of the Rebel Camp, both of cannon and small arms. The piquets were ordered to load in consequence of General Grey's reporting that this was always neglected.
21st General Howe referred the affair of the soldiers of the 5th regiment, confined for plundering a house, to a regimental Court Martial. It is worth notice that the Hessian Officer who exclaimed against this depradation confessed the Hessians had been concerned, yet confined none, but complained of the British to General DeHeister. A Hessian Subaltern's Guard was next door to the house plundered. Major General Vaughan proceeded to Amboy, escorted by Koehler's Battalion. About 200 of the Enemy made their appearance at Bonham Town, but did not advance upon the Troops there.
22nd Several men deserted last night, four from the 44th, three from the 27th, one from the 23rd and some others from other Corps. At 2 o'clock in the morning the whole Army struck tents, but the Second Division (which was encamped two miles from Brunswick on the road to Amboy, and therefore waited for the Troops encamped near Brunswick) did not begin to move till 7. At about 5 the Rebels appeared at the Jager post, and a few shots were fired. The Army had scarce begun to march when a body of the Enemy shewed themselves on the heights behind Brunswick and where the Hessian Grenadiers had been encamped. They fired several cannon across the river. The other body, which had marched from Bound Brook on the North East of the Raritan and had shewn themselves at the Jager post, proceeded from there towards Piscataqua and fell in with the column of march at the place where the Quibbletown Road meets and turns into the Amboy Road. They attacked the Light Infantry but were immediately driven back; they however, shifted their position from one thicket to another and hung upon the flanks and rear for some distance. They killed or wounded about twenty of our people and a woman, a Grenadier's wife.
In the front Brigadier General Leslie advanced with his Brigade and took post at Short Hills, a mile or two beyond Bonham Town towards Amboy. In consequence of the firing in the rear, the Second Division halted for a little time at Bonham Town, and the baggage was sent forward. The Second Division was again halted near Amboy for nigh two hours by an ill comprehended or ill-delivered Order. The 4th, 15th, 27th, 44th and 64th Regiments and Stirn's Brigade or Hessians crossed from Amboy to Staten Island and encamped at Prince's Bay. General Grey crossed and took up his quarters at Billop's.
24th The Hessian Brigade embarked at Prince's Bay. The 64th were ordered by General Grey to change their ground.
25th The Regiments at Amboy received Orders to strike their tents and send them with their baggage to the water's side. Those at Staten Island had orders to leave theirs standing, and repair by 8 o'clock in the evening to Billop's Point. The transports, with the Hessian Brigades aboard, went round from Prince's Bay to Amboy. The movement of the Troops at Staten Island was meant to be secret; that of those at Amboy might appear as a preparation to embark or to cross over to Staten Island. The Hessian transports, coming up to Amboy at the same time, might well seemed destined to receive Troops on board. At about 10 in the evening the Troops crossed from Staten Island to Amboy. The Army lay on their arms, on the Brunswick and Woodbridge Roads.
26th Two columns being formed, the Right commanded by Lieutenant-General Lord Cornwallis and the Left by Major General Vaughan. The Right marched a little before sunrise and took the Woodbridge Road. The Left began moving at sunrise and took the Bonham Town Road. The Right passing thro' Woodbridge turned to the left and by a circuit gained the road to Scotch Plain. On their march they fell in, not far from Woodbridge, with a part of the Rebels, who fled on their approach, leaving, it is said, some killed and wounded.
The left proceeding for a few miles on the Bonham Town Road, turned into the Quibbletown Road, and taking afterwards to the right at Metuchen Meeting House, fell into the Scotch Plain Road and came up with the rear of the Right Column.. Colonel Prescott, with the 28th and 35th Regiments and the Hessian Battalion of Loos and Donop, was detached to Bonham Town on the Left Column turning into the Quibbletown Road. The Army was now in one column. The front soon reached Ash Swamp, where they came up with a considerable body of the Rebels, commanded by Lord Stirling, who had taken post on the rising ground, in order (it was supposed) to cover the retreat of about seventy wagons, which they had begun to draw off on the news of our approach, and the hindermost of which were discovered by the head of the Column. They made very little resistance, but dispersed as the Grenadiers of the Guards and a few companies of the Light Infantry advanced upon them. A troop of Light Dragoons pursued the fugitives and took about thirty prisoners, killing or wounding several more. In this affair Captain Finch of the Guards was mortally wounded. The Enemy left three brass field pieces on the ground. They were French guns. From the accounts of deserters Washington's whole Army had left the mountains; the main body were at Quibbletown and Lord Stirling with the advanced Guard at Rahway. Lord Stirling was to watch our movements and they were to press on, upon our beginning to embark. It was reported that in consequence of this information the plan of our march was, that the right hand column should by turning Washington's left, get between his army and the mountains, whilst the left marched straight to Quibbletown and attacked him. It seems that upon Lord Stirling being discomfited, the alarm was given ant their retired precipitately to the hills. We could see the wagons ascending the Mountain, and could judge of the steepness of the ascent by the frequent halts they made. The Army proceeded to Westfield, where they lay on their arms.
27th At 9 in the morning we marched by the left, bringing with us about sixty prisoners picked up at different places and driving the cattle we met on the road. The spirit of depradation was but too prevalent on these marches. This day, however, it was much restrained in the Second Column (then in front). We scarcely met a man at home excepting the old and infirm. The Army hutted this night along the banks of Rahway, six miles from Amboy.
28th The Army marched to Amboy. Several Regiments crossed to Staten Island and a great many horses.
29th More troops, horses and artillery crossed to Staten Island. A report was current that Sullivan (a rebel general) was at Rahway with 4000 men.
30th The remainder of the Army crossed unmolested from Amboy to Staten Island. The Regiments were encamped on different parts of the Island. The 4th, 15th, 23rd, 27th, 42nd, 44th, and 64th encamped at Prince's Bay under the command of General Grey.
July 1st, Some of the corps which had encamped towards the middle of the Island, marched forward to Cole's Ferry. General Grey received orders to embark the regiments under his command the next day, excepting the 17th and 42nd which were to march by way of the Rose and Crown to Cole's Ferry.
2nd The transports which were to take the six regiments at Prince's Bay having sailed for Cole's Ferry by some misunderstanding the day before, General Grey marched the eight regiments to that place, where they encamped near the rest of the Army, which assembled and encamped on the heights about Cole's Ferry this day. Some Provincials were stationed on the western shore of the island at Elizabeth Town, Point Ferry, New Blazing Star, Old Blazing Star, &c.
8th Part of the Troops embarked according to ye Orders of the day before.
9th Remainder of the Troops under orders for embarkation embarked.
10th General Grey came to New York.
14th 38th and 35th came from Staten Island and landed at New York. One Battalion of Anspach, that of Koehler, together with the 7th and 26th regiments came up at the same time in their transports and lay off New York.
17th Sir William Howe embarked on board the Eagle, Lord Cornwallis and General Grant on board the Isis, and General Grey on board the Somerset. The fleet lay off the narrows.
19th A signal was made to prepare for sailing.
20th The fleet weighed anchor and the transports moved down to Sandy Hook Bay. The Men-of Way came to an anchor again near the narrows.
22nd In the morning the fleet sailed from Sandy Hook.
30th Made Cape Henlopen; stood off the whole night.
31st Stood in again for the mouth of the Bay; stood off at night. NB Ships with commanding officers of the corps and principals of departments are distinguished by a swallow tail in their vanes.
Agents and the Divisions with which they are respectively charged. Parrey, Foot Guards, British Light Infantry, etc. Grenadiers Dickenson, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Brigade British Harris, 5th Brigade, Corp de Reserve. Provincials and Nay Victualers Sutherland, Light Dragoons, Barker, British Artillery, Engineers Vessels, Hessian Chasseurs, Jagers and Grenadiers Toulmin, the three Hessian Regiments, Pontoons, Hospital Ships and Army Victualers.
August 1st, Stood to the Southward.
14th Made Cape Charles and came to an anchor at 11 at night.
16th Sailed into the Capes and came to an anchor off New Point Comfort; vessels having been stationed on the different shoals fro the direction of the fleet. See their disposition and bearings in the preceding pages.
17th Anchored near the Wolf's Trap.
18th Off Point Look-out at the mouth of Potomack. Raisonable was station here.
19th Off Patuxen River
20th Off Poplar's Island
21st Off Patapsco River
22nd Off Swan Point
23rd Off Sassafas River. A pilot came on board the Somerset.
24th The fleet proceeded to Turkey Point. The Augusta, Isis and Nonsuch lay off Sassafras River with the Somerset. Orders for disembarking received. The Somerset lay at the same place. A white man and three negroes came off. This long boat and pinnace came ashore. The people were inclined to traffick for fresh provisions, but wanted salt and other articles in preference to money.
25th The transports, frigates and the Roebuck sailed up Elk River and lay opposite Cecil Court House, excepting the Roebuck, which could not come so far. The Troops landed on the West side of the Elk River in five disembarkations.
First Disembarkation 1st and 2nd Light Infantry 1st and 2nd Grenadiers Hessian and Anspach Jagers
Second Disembarkation Hessian Grenadiers Queen's Rangers Guards 4th and 23rd Regiments
Third Disembarkation 28th, 49th, 5th, 10th, 27th, 40th, 55th, 15th, 42nd,
Fourth Disembarkation 44th, 17th, 33rd, 37th, 46th, 64th, 77th
Fifth Disembarkation Brigade of Stirn consisting of Donop, Du Corps, Mirbach and Loos (* possibly Lossberg)
The Light Infantry were advanced about 4 miles in front towards the head of Elk, and the rest of the Army hutted in a direction parallel with the river. At the embarkation of the Troops at Staten Island the Regiments were brigaded as follows:
Queen's Rangers Light Infantry, British Grenadiers, Brigade of Guards commanded by Brigadier General Matthews.
First Brigade 4, 23, 28, 49, Major General Vaughan (* did not sail with the fleet), afterwards General Grant.
Second Brigade 5, 10, 27, 40, 55, Major General Grant
Third Brigade 15, 42, 44, 17, Major General Grey
Fourth Brigade 33, 37, 46, 64, Brigadier General Agnew
Fifth Brigade 71st Regiment, three Battalions- Brigadier General Leslie
Reserve 71st and 26th British (* did not sail with fleet), one battalion of Anspach * and Ferguson's Rifle Corps- 16th Regiment of Dragoons mounted and dismounted. Colonel Donop: Hessian and Anspach Jagers, three battalions of Hessian grenadiers.
Hessian Regiments Major General Stirn Du Corps, Donop, Mirbach, Loos
26th The Light Dragoons and wagon horses were landed. It was ordered that the stores and camp equipage should be left aboard. There was a good deal of plunder committed by the troops, notwithstanding the strictest prohibitions. No method was yet fixed upon for supplying the troops with fresh provisions in a regular manner. The soldiers slaughtered a great deal of cattle clandestinely.
27th A Proclamation was issued (it is annexed). A quantity of stores, &c. were landed; some regiments received their stores and camp equipage. An order given the preceding to march at three o'clock this morning was countermanded on account of heavy rains. The order was only to part of the Army. Lord Cornwallis, General Grey, and Sir William Erskine reconnoitered the road toward the Head of Elk. They found the habitations in general deserted, but some cattle remaining in the fields. The road they reported to be through very rugged and broken ground. This part of the country is not very thickly settled. The chief produce is orchard fruit and Indian corn; the latter of the most luxuriant growth, often from ten to fifteen feet in height. The crew of a four oar boat who landed this morning on the East shore of Elk, were surprised and their boats taken. Some riflemen made use of her immediately after, to row within shot of a galley and fire upon her.
BY HIS EXCELLENCY SIR WILLIAM HOWE, K.B.
GENERAL AND COMMANDER IN CHIEF, ETC. ETC. ETC.
Sir William Howe, regretting the calamities to which many of His Majesty's faithful subjects are still exposed by the continuance of the rebellion, and no less desirous of protecting the innocent than determined to pursue with the rigors of war all those whom His Majesty's forces, in the course of their progress, may find in arms against the King, doth hereby assure the peaceable inhabitants of the Province of Pennsylvania, the Lower Counties on Delaware, and the Counties of Maryland, on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay that in order to remove any groundless apprehension which may have been raises of their suffering by depredations of the army under His command, he hath issued the strictest orders to the troops for preservation of regularity and good discipline, and has signified most exemplary punishment shall be inflicted upon those who shall dare to plunder the property, or molest the persons of any of His Majesty's well-disposed subjects.
Security and Protection are likewise extended to all persons inhabitants of the Province and Counties aforesaid, who, not guilty of having assumed legislative or judicial authority, may have acted illegally in subordinate stations, and, conscious of this misconduct, been induced to leave their dwellings, provided such persons do forthwith return, and remain peaceably at their usual places of abode.
Considering moreover that many officers and private men, now actually in arms against His Majesty, may be willing to relinquish the part they may have taken in this Rebellion, and return to their due allegiance: Sir William Howe doth therefore promise a free and general pardon to all such officers and private men, as shall voluntarily come and surrender themselves to any detachment of His Majesty's forces, before the day on which it shall be notified that the said indulgences is to be discontinued.
Given under my hand at headquarters of the army, the 27th day of August, 1777.
By His Excellency's Command
Robert MacKenzie, Secretary
28th This morning the Light Troops, British and Hessian Grenadiers, 1st, 2nd, and 5th Brigades marched to the Head of Elk. The remainder of the Army under Lieutenant-General Knyphausen changed the disposition of their encampment. The advanced part of the Army took a considerable quantity of tobacco, Indian corn, oats and other articles. It seems the rebels had had very large stores there, and had been employed since the landing of the troops in carrying them away. Washington had been there on the 27th and dined at the house now General Howe's Headquarters. General Grey sent out a party from the 3rd Brigade for cattle; they brought in eighteen head; a distribution was made of it the next day. The flank corps were encamped on the northwest side of Elk, the other advanced corps between the forks of the river. Both branches are fordable. The sloops lay within, a mile of the Troops.
29th The following orders were sent late in the evening to Lieutenant-General Knyphausen:
Head of Elk, 29th August, 1777
Finding it advisable to make a movement to my right with this Corps, I have ordered on battalion of the 5th Brigade to join your Excellency tomorrow afternoon.
In pursuance of the plan I have in view I am to beg your Excellency will advise with the Admiral, whom I have seen and consulted this morning upon the measures necessary to be taken for the crossing of the 3rd Brigade British and the Dragoons under the command of Major-General Grey over to the Cecil Courthouse tomorrow, and that they may move in time for him to take post one mile or two beyond the courthouse on the road leading to Christien Bridge; and it is my wish that the Battalion of the 71st may pass over to join Major-General Grey as soon as it arrives at the ferry.
I am likewise to desire that everything may be settled for the remainder of your corps to cross to the same place on Sunday, and that your Excellency may as soon afterwards as possible, take the most advantageous position to be found on the above mentioned roads, four or five miles advanced from the Courthouse.
Sir William Erskine, who has the best idea of the country that information can afford, will wait upon your Excellency to morrow, and attend upon the march to receive your commands; form him you will become particularly acquainted with my intentions and the route I wish you to take in the execution of them.
The situation of the enemy being known to Sir William Erskine, I flatter myself that after communicating with him your Excellency will agree in opinion with me that there is not the slightest risk in the division of your corps for a night.
My wish is to have as many cattle and horses collected as possible, and driven with the Army, wherefore I am to beg your Excellency will order parties for that purpose.
I shall hope we may join on Tuesday, and do beg leave to refer your Excellency to Sir William Erskine for further particulars respecting the movement of our two corps for forming this junction. There are some Declarations on board the Roebuck similar to the one enclosed, for which your Excellency will be pleased to send, and have distributed in the country as you pass along.
If the soldiers carry with them two days salt provisions, four days bread and one days rum, taking three days rum upon the baggage wagons, which may be issued daily by the respective commanding officers, it will be sufficient for the march, depending upon two days fresh provisions to be got in the country. Your Excellency will be pleased to order a deputy commissary and assistants to attend your column. I have the honor to be etc. etc. etc.
30th In consequence of the above orders, which General Knyphausen communicated to General Grey, the 3rd Brigade together with three troops of Light Dragoons, paraded on their ground at ½ past 5 o'clock, and at 6 marched to the ferry, where they were embarked and crossed over to the Courthouse. As General Grey thought it material the troops should move immediately into the country, they did not wait for the artillery, but marched forward and took post on a height near Cecil Church. Two parties were left in different places on the road, and a strong guard remained at the courthouse to bring up the artillery and baggage. Two of the guns arrived two hours after the troops, and the other two with the ammunition wagons, baggage etc. came in the afternoon. In the evening one battalion of the 71st regiment joined the detachment, and was encamped in front of the left of the line. General Grey say only a small body of the Rebels at Cecil Church, who first drew up, and immediately after ran off. Two pairs of colors were found in the church. The inhabitants on th road had all quitted their houses. But at Cecil Church several yet remained. A great part of the cattle had been driven away. Detachments to the right and left under colonel Mawhood and Major Murray swept in what they could meet with. Other parties were sent out, on coming to our ground, to drive in cattle and gather roots. On this march the piquets, augmented to forty men per battalion, formed the advance guard.
31st Lieutenant-Colonel Bird with 150 men, marched at 4 o'clock this morning to the surprise of a party of militia said to be at Ellis's Tavern; he was thence to proceed to Middleneck, between the forks of Bohemia River, to drive in cattle. There were no militia at Ellis's Tavern nor was any one to be seen on the road, but a few affrighted peopled who probably had not had time to make their escape, and three or four people on horseback, who retired before us and stopped at every rising ground to see if the troops continued advancing; some had arms, but they did not appear accoutred as Light Dragoons. The detachment proceeded to Middleneck, crossing two mill-dams, the one upon a branch of Bohemia Creek the other on a rivulet running into the branch. At each of the passes Colonel Bird left a party, and posted a strong detachment between them on the road leading to Warwick. Colonel Bird marched with the remainder to the lower part of the neck (George's Wharf) from whence a good quantity of cattle was taken. From the want of expertness in the drivers, only 350 sheep, 55 horned cattle and about 24 horses or mules were brought in. several people assisted in bringing in their cattle and of their own accord drove it to camp next day. Some Hessians belonging to a baggage guard demolished a whole flock of sheep which the owners were voluntarily driving to us. Colonel Bird's detachments returned to camp at 4 o'clock in the afternoon. The remainder of General Knyphausen's command crossed the ferry this morning and encamped with the 3rd Brigade.
September 1st Great complaints were made of the plunder committed by the troops, chiefly the Hessians.
2nd The corps under General Knyphausen marched to Carson's Tavern, five miles from Cecil Church. Dectachments of 100 men each marched to the right and left of the Column, at about half a mile distance to collect cattle. The piquets formed the advanced Guard. A few rebel Light Dragoons were seen on the road, and two or three militiamen in arms picked up. At a mill near Carson's, 60 barrels of flour were taken. The inhabitants were in general fled and a great deal of cattle driven off.
3rd General Knyphausen marched to Aiken's Tavern a village four miles from Carson's. The main body of the Army under Sir William Howe had just passed this place and marched towards Iron Hill when General Knyphausen came up. By this time a considerable drove of cattle had been collected and was a very seasonable supply to the other column, which had none. The whole however, had a very narrow escape, having gone near half a mile on a road leading to the Enemy's posts. The van of Sir William Howe's column, consisting, of chasseurs and light infantry, fell in with a body of about 500 rebels posted a little beyond Aiken's on the road to Iron Hill. They disposed of themselves amongst some trees by the roadside, and gave a heavy fire as our troops advanced, but upon being pressed ran away and were pursued above two miles. At first retreating they fired from any advantageous spot they passed, but their flight afterwards became so precipitate that great numbers threw down their arms and blankets. Amongst their dead were two or three officers. A wounded man who was left on the field was found to be quite drunk. It seems the whole had received an extraordinary quantity of strong liquor, and that the detachment was composed of volunteers and looked upon as a corps from which great exertions were to be expected. They were commanded by a General Maxwell. The attempts made by our troops to get round them were defeated by their being unable to pass a swamp. Of the chasseurs and light infantry, the only troops engaged, three or four were killed and twelve or fourteen wounded.
4th A grand guard of cavalry mounted.
5th Some men of Ferguson's Corps fired by mistake on a patrole of Light Dragoons and wounded a man and a horse.
6th A Corps left at the head of Elk under Major-General Grant, joined the main body of the Army with a train of provisions for several days. They were encamped, 1st Brigade in front of the 4th Brigade, and 2nd Brigade rear the 40th regiment. That day the camp equipages, excepting the bell tents, was sent on board the transports at the head of Elk, and form henceforward all communication with the shipping ceased. A regulation was made by General Grey for the method of hutting for the 3rd Brigade. The general reports concerning Washington's arms were that they were posted between Brandywine and Christien's Creeks; that he had a body of men at Christien Bridge up to which gondolas came, and that Wilimington, which he had in his rear, was fortified and covered by gallies in either creek.
7th Several deserters came in. They said that Washington had advanced towards Newport, and all insisted that their General was in the intention to stand an action. They rendered this intelligence more to be relied on by quoting part of his order. The light dragoons who deserted from the rebels solder their horses by auction at a very advanced price.
8th The Army marched in three divisions and by the left at daybreak, passing Newark and White Clay Creek they came in a march of about ten miles to the New Garden Road, where they were encamped.
9th The Army received Orders to be in readiness to march at 1 o'clock in the afternoon in two columns. The troops, however, did not move till sunset. The 3rd and 4th Brigades were at first in the right hand column, but the road being found very bad, were ordered, together with a brigade of artillery and the baggage of that column, to turn back and take the road General Knyphausen had marched. This movement was attended with a great deal of trouble and protracted the march of the Brigade in the rear till near 3 o'clock the next day. It was fortunate we had not an enterprising well-informed enemy near us. The line of baggage was produced, by the badness of the road and insufficiency of the horses, to a very great length, and the 4th Brigade, which was in front of it, had by quickening their pace to reach General Knyphausen, gained so much upon the carriages that there was a space of two or three miles between them. It was with some difficulty at a crossroad that it was ascertained which way the front of the column had passed. General Howe's Column had reached Kennett's Square early in the morning and the whole was encamped there (10 miles).
10th and 11th The Army marched in two columns under Lord Cornwallis and General Knyphausen. (Sir William Howe was with the former) and proceeded to the forks of Brandywine, crossed the ford there and by a circuit of about fifteen miles came upon the enemy's right flank, near Birmingham Meeting House. The latter took the straight road to Chad's Ford, opposite to which the Rebel Army lay.
The design, it seemed was that General Knyphausen, taking post at Chad's Ford, should begin early to cannonade the Enemy on the opposite side, thereby to take up his attention and make him presume an attack was then intended with the whole Army, whilst the other column should be performing the detour. Lord Cornwallis's wing being engaged was to be the signal for the troops under General Knyphausen to cross the ford when they were to push their advantage. The event fell little short of the project. General Knyphausen posted himself early in the day on the heights opposite the Rebel Army. This was distributed on all the most advantageous eminences overlooking the ford which lay beneath. On one of these hills they had thrown up a small breastwork with two guns, on a 12 pounder, and beneath this, flanking the ford and road, another battery of three guns and a howitzer. Felled trees obstructed the passage at other fords near this place. It was not without some opposition that General Knyphausen took up his ground, and whilst he was there a body of 2000 men crossed the river and came upon his right. They were driven back by one or two regiments. On the left, Sir William Howe drawing near Birmingham found the Rebels posted on the heights to oppose him. Washington had drawn part of his Army here about two hours before, on receiving the first intimation of General Howe's approach. At about 4 o'clock the attack began near the Meeting House. The guards were formed upon the right, the British Grenadiers in the center, and the light infantry and chasseurs on the left. The Hessian Grenadiers supported the Guards and British Grenadiers, and the 4th British supported the Light Infantry and the left of the grenadiers. The 3rd Brigade under General Grey was the reserve. The guards met with very little resistance and penetrated to the very height overlooking the 4 gun battery of the rebels at Chad's ford, just as General Knyphausen had crossed. The Hessian grenadiers were to their left and not so far advanced. The British grenadiers divided after passing Birmingham Meeting House, the 1st Battalion inclining to the right and the 2nd pushing about a mile beyond the village of Dilworth. The light infantry and chasseurs inclined to the left, and by this means left an interval which was filled up by part of the 4th Brigade. The light infantry met with the chief resistance at a hill on which the rebels had four pieces of cannon. At the end of the day the 2nd battalion grenadiers received a very heavy fire; the 64th regiment, which was near them was engaged at the same time. The rebels were driven back by superior fir of the troops, but these were too much exhausted to be able to charge or pursue. The reserve moved centrically in the rear of the whole and inclined successively tot he parts most engaged. General Knyphausen, as was preconcerted, passed the ford upon hearing the other column engaged, and the troops under him pushed the enemy with equal success. Night and the fatigue the soldiers had undergone prevented any pursuit. It is remarkable that after reconnoitering after the action, the right of General Howe's camp was found close on General Knyphausen's left, and nearly in line, and in forming the general camp next day, scarce any alteration was made. We took this day eleven pieces of ordnance, five French brass guns, three Hessian and three American, viz: a brass 6-pounder, a howitzer an iron gun of a particular construction. The ammunition wagons, horses, &c. were likewise taken.
12th Parties were sent from the different regiments to find their wounded in the woods and bury their dead. The village of Dilworth was fixed upon for the Hospital. General Grant with the 1st and 2nd Brigades and Rangers marched to Concord (two miles)
13th Lord Cornwallis with the Light Infantry and Grenadiers marched to Concord and proceeded from thence with General Grant towards Chester. The 15th and 64th regiments took post at Concord. The 17th regiment took possession of Wilmington.
14th the wounded were conveyed to Wilmington, which place was fixed upon for the General Hospital. A great many deserters came in the 12th and 13th. The Rebel Army was said to be at Derby.
15th Surgeons came from the Rebel Army to attend their wounded. They went with their patients to the Turk's Head (5 miles). Two men, one of the Light Infantry and on of the Grenadiers, were executed at Lord Cornwallis's camp for plunder.
16th The Army marched from Brandywine to Goshen. The greatest part of the day it rained excessively hard. The 3rd Brigade, Battalion of Donop, and Rangers covered the baggage, which form the badness of the road could not all get up that evening. Some shots were fired on the column at Turk's Head five miles from Brandywine, where a soldier of the 33rd Regiment was killed and another wounded; an officer was likewise slightly wounded. There was a good deal of firing heard in the direction of Lord Cornwallis's Corps, which was now near the White Horse on the Lancaster Road. The Rebels were said to be within a mile or two of the White Horse. We found that at the time the firing was heard several of the militia made their appearance and were driven off by the advanced corps. A few of them were taken prisoners, amongst which were two officers, and fifteen or twenty killed.
17th A colonel and major of the rebels were taken this morning in a house, by a single light dragoon. The troops received orders to be ready to march on the shortest notice. At 3 o'clock the orders were given for marching, but part of the artillery having taken a wrong road and the night promising rain, the march was deferred till 3 o'clock the next morning. The 1st and 3rd Brigades only marched this evening. They joined Lord Cornwallis near the White Horse on the Lancaster Road.
18th The Army marched to White Horse, and after a short halt proceeded to Trudusfrin on the road to Swede's Ford on the Schuylkill. On this march we passed over the ground thru which the rebels had gone very recently. It should seem that after the affair of Brandywine they had marched to Chester, Derby, Philadelphia and Germantown; that they had recrossed the Schuylkill at Swede's Ford, had come to White Horse and from thence had suddenly turned to the right to gain the Schuylkill again near the Yellow Spring, where they crossed it a third time.
19th The main Army of the rebels was said to be at Coventry on the Reading Road. A Brigade under a General Wayne was said to be very near us, for the purpose of attacking our rear on the next march. An order was given for marching the next morning, but was afterwards countermanded. Three companies of Light Infantry, who the proceeding day had taken possession of 4000 barrels of flour at Valley Forge, were this day reinforced by the Grenadiers, 1st Battalion Light Infantry, and the Guards. A report prevailed in camp that Sir William Erskine was taken. It was without any foundation; he returned to camp form reconnoitering an brought in 150 horses. Deserters from the Rebels came in daily. Three artillery men who were straggling this morning fell into the enemy's hands. In the store at Valley Forge were taken, besides the 4000 barrels of flours, a great quantity of camp kettles, axes, horseshoes, nails &c.
20th Intelligence having been received of the situation of General Wayne and his design of attacking our rear, a plan was concerted for surprising him, and the execution entrusted to Major General Grey. The troops for this service were the 40th and 55th regiments, under colonel Musgrave, and the 2nd Battalion Light Infantry, the 42nd and 44th regiments under General Grey. General Grey's detachment marched at 10 o'clock at night, that under colonel Musgrave at 11. No soldier of either was suffered to load; those who could not draw their pieces took out the flints. We knew nearly the spot where the rebel corps lay, but nothing of the disposition of their camp. It was represented to the men that firing discovered us to the enemy, hid them from us, killed our friends and produced a confusion favorable to the escape of the rebels and perhaps productive of disgrace to ourselves. On the other hand, by not firing we knew the foe to be wherever fire appeared and a charge ensured his destruction; that amongst the enemy those in the rear would direct their fire against whoever fired in front, and they would destroy each other. General Grey's detachment marched by the road leading to the White Horse, and took every inhabitant with them as they passed along. About three miles from camp they turned to the left and proceeded to the Admiral Warren, where, having forced intelligence from a blacksmith, they came in upon the out sentries, piquet and camp of the rebels. The sentries fired and ran off to the number of four at different intervals. The piquet was surprised and most of them killed in endeavoring to retreat. On approaching the right of the camp we perceived the line of fires, and the light infantry being ordered to form in front, rushed along the line putting to the bayonet all they came up with, and, overtaking the main herd of the fugitives, stabbed great numbers and pressed on their rear till it was thought prudent to order them to desist. Near 200 must have been killed, and a great number wounded. 71 prisoners were brought off; 40 of them badly wounded were left at different houses on the road. A major, a captain, and two lieutenants were amongst the prisoners. We lost Captain Wolfe killed and one or two private men; four or five were wounded, one an officer, Lieutenant Hunter of 52nd Light Company. It was about 1 o'clock in the morning when the attack was made, and the rebels were then assembling to move towards us, with the design of attacking our baggage. Colonel Musgrave marched a different way and took post on the Philadelphia Road at the Paoli. It was thought he would have first fallen in with their outposts. By our attacking them on the flank next to Colonel Musgrave's post, they retired the opposite way and his detachment saw nothing of them.
Wayne's Corps consisted of
Chambers 1st Battalion, late DeHaas 2nd Battalion, Grier 7th Battalion, Hubley 10th Battalion
Butler 4th Battalion Johnson 5th Battalion Broadhead 8th Battalion Humpton 11th Battalion
21st The Army marched from Trudusfrin to Valley Forge and was posted in an extent of three miles from Fatland Ford to some distance beyond Moore Hall. Large bodies of the enemy were seen on the opposite shore; they frequently fired on our sentries.
22nd There was reason to believe the enemy had quitted the opposite side of the river. In the evening the guards passed the river at Fatland Ford and the Hessian Chasseurs and some grenadiers passed at some distance above Moore Hall. Some light dragoons crossed at dusk at Long Ford. The guns of the Hessians and those of the 3rd Brigade fired a few shot across the river opposite their encampments to deceive the enemy with respect to the ford at which it was intended the army should pass. The Hessians and light dragoons returned at night. At the rising of the moon the troops were in readiness to march and at … o'clock began crossing at Fatland Ford.
23rd At … o'clock the troops, artillery and baggage had all passed and were drawn up on the opposite shore. As soon as the men had dried themselves, the whole marched and proceeded to Norrington where the Army was encamped, with their right on the Reading Road, and their left to the Schuylkill. A battalion of light infantry was posted at Swede's Ford. Three hundred militia who were stationed there quitted it as the army drew near. They left five iron 12 pounders on traveling carriages, some ammunition, stores , and a pair of colors were found in the neighborhood. Washington was said to be at the 32 mile stone from Philadelphia on the Reading Road.
24th The Army remained at Norrington. A few persons came in from Philadelphia. Several deserters came in from Washington's Army.
25th The Army marched in two columns to Germantown, and encamped on the heights near that place. On the march some militia were seen in front of the right-hand column. A good many people came in from Philadelphia; most of them represented that place as in the greatest confusion and expressed fears of its being burnt. A few rebels dragoons with a captain were taken by a party of Burgoyne's. A Commodore fell into our hands the same day. Some wagons and a considerable magazine of hay were taken possession of within two miles of Philadelphia, and four iron 12-pounders on field carriages were found in the woods near Germantown. Major Washington was said to be at Pottsgrove. It rained very hard at night.
26th This morning the British and Hessian grenadiers marched at 8 o'clock towards Philadelphia and took possession of the town. The Rebels had withdrawn part of their shipping to Burlington, and rested in hopes of opposing ours with armed vessels, gondolas &c., which lay near a fort on Mud Island, seven miles below Philadelphia.
27th The Delaware, rebel frigate, attempted to pass the town in her way to Burlington, or was approaching to fire upon the town, but ran ashore and struck to the grenadiers, who brought down their field guns and two 12 pounders to bear upon her. Howitzers were likewise brought against her. A schooner which was coming up at the same time also struck, but as we were not able to take possession of her, she got off in the night. Another frigate, seeing the fate of the Delaware, would not venture near enough to receive much damage, but returned to her station near Mud Island. There has been since great reason to believe their intention was to set fire to the town. Alexander, the captain of the Delaware, was put in jail. The militia, of which there were skulking parties about the right of our encampment, wounded three of four men and two officers of Wemy's Corps. Washington was supposed to be beyond Perkiomy Creek.
28th Sir William Howe visited Philadelphia. A lieutenant and 50 seamen came from Wilmington to man the Delaware frigate.
29th A soldier of Wemy's Corps was executed for desertion.
30th General Grey visited Philadelphia. Major Galloway (a man of considerable property in this province) valued the numbers of inhabitants who have quitted Philadelphia, at one-sixth; some respectable Quakers said one-third. Some operations were making at this time near the mouth of the Schuylkill towards opening the communication with the ships. Lieutenant-Colonel Stirling marched from Germantown with the 10th and 42nd Regiments, in order to take possession of some rebel works at Billingsport below Mud Island, on the Jersey shore of Delaware.
30th Deserters continued coming in; they related that on the 28th Major Washington fired a feu de joie and administered rum to his army, on account of a victory gained over General Burgoyne.
October 1st Other deserters came in; they said the reverse of former accounts, and insisted that Burgoyne had had great success.
2nd Lieutenant Colonel Stirling took possession of Billingsport. About 300 militia who were in it having evacuated the work and spiked the cannon.
3rd Our communication with the ships was only by land.
4th Some intimations had been received the 3rd of the designs of the rebels to attack us, which were very little credited. In the morning of the 4th a rebel flanker was taken prisoner by a sentry from a light infantry piquet. The patrols of the 1st Light Infantry fell in with a party of the Rebels, some men of which they took prisoners; they learnt from them they Washington's whole army had marched the preceding evening from the 19th mile-stone; that he was within a very small distance and was to begin his attack immediately. Whilst this intelligence was circulating, their first onset began upon the 2nd light infantry and 40th regiment. These not only maintained themselves a great while, but drove the rebels off repeatedly, till, from their unsupported position, fresh bodies of men appeared and pressed on both their flanks and rear. The light infantry then fell back and the 40th regiment, under lieutenant-colonel Musgrave, threw themselves into a house from the avenues to which they had driven the rebels. They here for upwards of an hour resisted the efforts of the enemy, who in vain brought several pieces of cannon upon them and attempted to storm the house, until released by the 44th regiment. The 1st light infantry, who were on the right of the line, were attacked soon after, and the 4th regiment, which was on their left and have moved forward from their encampment, was engaged at the same time. In this quarter the rebels did not gain ground upon the troops. The line now began to move in support of the advanced corps, the Guards, 28th and 27th regiments were drawn towards the right of the 4th regiment and 1st light infantry. The 37th and 15th regiments were moved from the 4th and 3rd brigade across Germantown to the left of the 5th and 55th, which had marched forward inclining somewhat to the right, and by that means were formed to the left of the 4th regiment and 1st and 2nd brigades, consisting of only the 4th, 49th, 5th and 55th, and the 1st light infantry, supported on the right by the Guards 28th and 27th regiments, (*these regiments having been detached from their brigades, as likewise the 40th, 10th and 42nd are not considered when the brigades are mentioned. The 23rd regiment was also detached) and on the left by the 37th and 15th, formed the right wing and fell under the command of Major general Grant, and as far as from the irregularity of an action they could be considered as forming a line, their front was northeast and towards Abingdon. The 37th, 5th and 15th were the only regiments engaged, and on this side the enemy was repulsed and pursued a considerable distance. General Grant, finding it not possible to come up with them, left Abingdon to his right and marched his column to Whitemarsh Church, where he joined Lord Cornwallis's rear.
On the left and on the west side of Germantown the 4th and 3rd brigades and Hessians moved forward from their encampment in a direction parallel with the village. This as far as near the marketplace, was occupied by the rebels, who had pressed on upon the retreat of the 2nd light infantry, leaving the 40th regiment besieged in the rear. The 4th brigade received orders by inclining to their right to enter Germantown and drive the enemy from it. From some misunderstanding, or from receiving some fire, they did not immediately go into the village, but halted on the skirts of it, and kept up a very heavy fire against a distant column they had some intimation of in front. The 17th and 44th regiments were therefore ordered to wheel to the right and drive out the rebels. This was executed, the 44th crossing the village and moving up the skirts on the opposite side, and the 17th moving up the street. General Grey headed the 44th regiment. Lord Cornwallis cam up as the rebels had retired, and took the command of the left wing, with which he pursued as far as Whitemarsh Church, leaving a corps at Chestnut Hill. At Chestnut Hill the 2nd Battalion Grenadiers, who had marched from Philadelphia, joined Lord Cornwallis. The 2nd light infantry, having received the submissions of about 150 men, who found themselves cut off by the 44th crossing Germantown above them, marched forward at some distance on the right of the 44th, and fell in with the left column near Whitemarsh Church. The grenadiers were pushed across Wisahicon Creek, but received orders to retire again and bring up the rear of the colmn, which was marched back to Germantown and encamped on the same ground it had left. The rebels were each equipped with a piece of white paper in his hat, which made us imagine they meant a surprise by night. Their disposition for the attack is not easily traced; it seems to have been too complicated; nor do their troops appear to have been sufficiently animated for the execution of it in every part, altho' the power of strong liquor had been employed. Several, not only of their soldiers but officers, were intoxicated when they fell into our hands. Besides the attacks above mentioned a column showed themselves to the jagers, and another came within sight of the Guards, but did not wait to be engaged. We supposed the rebels to have lost between 200 and 300 killed, with the proportion of wounded. On our side about 300 were killed or wounded. Amongst the killed were brigadier-general Agnew and Lieutenant-Colonel Bird of the 15th regiment. We took 380 prisoners, whereof 50 were officers. It has been said since that the 2nd light infantry and 40th regiment had been left unsupported through some mistake, for that the 55th and 5th regiments had been ordered to move towards them and again unfortunately countermanded and drawn off to the right.
5th and 6th The disposition of the camp was altered. Major Washington was said to be beyond Perkiomy Creek. Accounts were received that the Fleet was in the Delaware, and that a reinforcement of 3000 men was arrived at New York.
7th Reports prevailed that the Rebels intended another attack.
11th The Camp was alarmed by a false report that the enemy was very near our piquets with their whole army. There was a good deal of firing from the gallies near Mud Island. In the morning a party of the rebels landed on Province Island, where was a battery guarded by a captain and … -men, who were a detachment from a field officer, and who were posted at some distance in the rear. The field officer with his detachment retired by the ferry from the island; part of the captain's command at the battery were taken, and the remainder rescued by an officer of engineers, who brought up some British and Hessian grenadiers and obliged the rebels to return with a boat full of men which they were carrying off. The field officer and captain have since been tried by a court martial; the sentence has not been published, but it is said they are selling out. The disposition of the camp was again altered.
12th There was some firing from the Rebel gondolas near Mud Island.
13th and 14th Major Washington was said to be moving to his left towards Montgomery Meeting House. There was a feu-de-joie in the Rebel Camp, on account of successes to the Northward. Out batteries on Province Island obliged the rebel ships to move their station.
17th Lord Rawdon, aide-de-camp to Lieutenant-General Clinton, arrived at Chester from New York, with accounts of the taking of Forts Montgomery, Clinton, Independence, and Constitution on the North River, and of the destroying the Rebel shipping, booms, &c. in the night a deserter came in, who informed that he came from an advanced corps of 400 men with two field pieces, which had halted at Whitemarsh Church. The general officers were informed of it and the commanding officers of regiments were warned of the probability of some alarm, but desired not to disturb the men till further reasons appeared for it.
18th General Grey, with the 2nd Light Infantry, the 33rd, 64th, 44th regiments marched at about 10 o'clock in the morning toward Whitemarsh Church. General Grant marched at the same time by the Skippack Road, with the 1st light infantry, 5th, 23rd, 42nd, and 55th regiments. The two columns met at Whitemarsh and returned together. We learnt that the night before General Wayden (*Weedon) with 400 or 500 men had arrived there at 4 o'clock, that he had made large fires along a considerable extent of ground, and at 10 o'clock had retired again. He termed this a maneuver.
Upon the march our dragoons gave chase to a party of the Rebel Cavalry, but could not come up with them.
At 5 o'clock the whole was returned to camp, and at sunset firing was heard in the direction of the Rebel encampment. This was a feu-de-joie on account of the taking of General Burgoyne and the Northern Army.
19th The Army marched in three columns towards Philadelphia, and took a new position, extending from the Delaware to the Schuylkill.
20th The rebels fired a feu-de-joie at Red Bank, Mud Island and from their ships.
21st Colonel Donop crossed the Delaware with three battalions of Hessian grenadiers, that of Mirbach and the chasseurs.
22nd In the evening Colonel Donop attacked the rebels lines at Red Bank, but was repulsed with considerable loss; himself wounded and a prisoner.
23rd In the morning before day break the Augusta and Roebuck came up within three-quarters of a mile of Mud Island. A very warm cannonade began, as soon as it was light between these ships and the rebel floating batteries and gallies; some shells were at the same time thrown from our batteries on province island, at the fort on Mud Island, and the medium 12 pounders at the same place fired from time to time at the fort and gallies. It was said the Vigilant was to have come up on another side and battered the fort, but that she struck and could not be got off again. The Augusta it seems had also struck and was aground during the whole cannonade. Towards 10 o'clock a party of grenadiers were brought to Province Island in order, had the plan succeeded in other respects, to cross to the island and storm. The Augusta, about this time, took fire by some accident and not long after blew up. The Merlin, having run ashore, was set fire to and also blown up. For these or other reasons the assault of the grenadiers did not take place. During the cannonade four fire-ships were sent down amongst the fleet, but burnt to the water's edge without doing any mischief.
24th We could receive neither confirmation or contradiction of the report with respect to General Burgoyne.
25th The works carried on near Philadelphia were a bridge across the Schuylkill. This was of boats, and at first from Grey's ferry or Lower ferry; it was afterwards removed to Middle Ferry, which is where the center street of Philadelphia, from Delaware to Schuylkill, terminates. This bridge was carried away by a high flood the 29th, and another of floating logs built in its room. The other works were ten redoubts, which were laid out at intervals from the Delaware to the Schuylkill and begun soon after we took possession of Philadelphia. These were afterwards completed. The works for reducing Mud Island had hitherto consisted of a battery for a 13 inch mortar (there was a howitzer and a mortar in each battery) and two batteries for two howitzers and two mortars (8 inch); besides these on either side the mouth of Schuylkill was a battery of two medium 12 pounders.
With respect to provisions, the army was singularly situated; they were brought once or twice by land from Chester; since that we received them by stealth at night, the flat boats bringing them past the fort; the boats had never yet been insulted.
Parties of the Enemy appeared at the opposite side of the Schuylkill. It was said Washington had sent a large detachment across under General Potter. The rebels worked daily at Red Bank and at Mud Island. Patrols were pushed the day before as far as Germantown without having seen any rebel post.
26th The letters were given for the packet. Accounts were received that General Vaughan had stormed and burnt Esopus on the North River. A body of the rebels appeared at the Bridge guard on the other side of the Schuylkill, and fired on the sentries.
27th Very heavy rain.
28th Very heavy rain. Major Cuyler, aide-de-camp to the Commander in chief, went with the despatches for England to Derby Creek, in order to get on board the packet. The 71st regiment escorted him. An officer of the quartermaster general's department came from General Burgoyne, informing Sir William Howe of the Convention made with the rebels, by which General Burgoyne and his Army were to be allowed to return to England on condition of not serving during the present war unless exchanged.
November 5th The Rebels opened a battery upon the ships from the Jersey shore, at some distance below Red Bank, which obliged some of them to move. Sir William Howe visited Province Island. The 27th and 28th regiments were marched there and took post on the island. The 17th regiment moved to Philadelphia and hutted near the 49th.
6th A report prevailed that Rhode Island was in possession of the rebels.
7th A steward and boat's crew deserted from one of the rebel ships. A light dragoon came in; he knew nothing of the Rhode Island affair. It has appeared since that an unsuccessful attack had been made on Rhode Island.
9th A sergeant and six light dragoons and a few grenadiers of the guards were taken by a party of the rebel cavalry.
10th Our batteries on Province Island opened upon the rebel fort. They consisted of six 24 pounders, two 32 pounders, two 12 pounders, two 8 inch howitzers, two 8-inch and one 13-inch mortar.
A party of the Light dragoons fell in and were engaged with a superior patrol of cavalry of the rebels. Two of our dragoons were taken prisoners and three or four horses killed. Our party however brought off with them two prisoners, of which one was a Frenchman and called himself a major in the French service. The same man had been some days before at the outpost with a flag of truce, and had said he intended requesting of General Howe a passage to Europe for himself and several other French officers who intended quitting the rebels.
Accounts were received that the fleet with the reinforcement from New York was in the river.
11th The batteries played with very little interruption day and night upon the fort.
12th Two brigs and two sloops laden with provisions passed between Province Island and the fort. They received very little damage either from the fort or the gallies, one only (a small sloop) having had part of her rigging shot away, ran ashore at the mouth of the Schuylkill- her cargo was saved. The others were brought up the Schuylkill to Province Island Ferry.
13th The batteries kept up their fire.
14th Two floating batteries having been constructed to cooperate with the land batteries and ships in the cannonade of Mud Island, one of them was this day brought down the Schuylkill and moored between Province Island and the fort. But the enemy's defences being not as yet destroyed and the ships not being able to come up, the fire from the blockhouses was so hot that the crew jumped overboard and waded ashore after firing a very few shots.
15th The Vigilant (an old North Country ship cut down and so reconstructed as to carry fourteen 24 pounders and to draw only 11 ½ feet water) was brought up and moored between Province and Mud Island. A sloop carrying six 18 pounders was moored close to her. These, with the batteries ashore, and the Somerset, Isis, Roebuck, Pearl and a galley below the chevaux de frise kept up an incessant cannonade the whole day. The Rebel floating batteries fired a good deal on the ships. The grenadiers of the guards were on Province Island in readiness to storm, had it been required. At – o'clock at night the rebels evacuated the fort and set fire to the barracks. They left in it twenty eight pieces of cannon, several of which were good and unspiked. The place was very much battered, every gun dismounted, and a great many dead bodies were found, scarce covered in trous de loups or ditches. Ten other pieces of cannon were afterwards found sunk in a scow.
17th At night the 1st grenadiers, 1st light infantry and 33rd received orders to march at 2 in the morning; they crossed the Schuylkill at the bridge and marched under the command of Lord Cornwallis to Chester.
Sir Thomas Wilson with the Troops from New York, viz: the 7th, 26th, 63rd, two battalions of Anspach, and corps of Jagers landed on the Jersey shore at Billingsport. They were joined there by Lord Cornwallis.
18th The rebels appeared busy in landing cannon or other heavy stores at Red Bank. Their wagons were seen in motion.
19th A detachment of the rebels was observed marching on the shore of Delaware opposite to Philadelphia.
20th Several deserters came in from the Rebel vessels. They said the design of the rebels was to set fire to their ships and retire up the river with the gallies.
21st At 4 o'clock in the morning the rebels set fire to their ships near League Island. The tide afterwards brought them some distance higher up the river, where they burnt and blew up. Some of their gallies at the same time ran past the town and escaped towards Burlington. It was said that fifteen ships, floating batteries, &c. were burnt, and that seven gallies passed the town, four the night of the 20th and three this night.
The Light Corps which previous to the 18th, when Lord Cornwallis was detached, were advanced, were not drawn back within the redoubts and abbatis. The field pieces were placed in the redoubts, and the system became totally defensive. The rebel scouts and light horse hovered round all the outposts and perpetually provoked the piquets. Captain Cornwallis came from Red Bank, where he left Lord Cornwallis in possession of the works at 11 o'clock this morning; the rebels had left some cannon and stores there.
22nd The Light Infantry of the guards and Simcoe's Battalion made a patrol in front to endeavor to overtake some of the flying parties which infested the avenues to the camp. The guards found that a number of them had taken post at Norris's house, whither they had brought materials and where they were working to make it defensible. They made their escape before the troops could reach them; a few only fell in the way of the troops. Simcoes' people killed six and the Guards three, and took one prisoner. None of our troops were either killed or wounded.
23rd The first vessel came to Philadelphia. The ships were obliged to pass singly through an opening left by the rebels for their own shipping; the weighing the chevaux de frise was said to be a work of great labor and perhaps not to be effected. The rebels light horse shewed themselves daily before the piquets. Four or five of them came pretty near the sentries in making a charge towards General Grey, who was riding a little way in front.
24th Several shots were exchanged in the morning between the rebel patrols and those of the jagers and light infantry.
25th A partrol of jagers fell in with one of those of the rebels. A jager's horse was shot. The Queen's Rangers (Simcoes') killed a rebel dragoon.
26th A piquet of the jagers of Lord Cornwallis's Corps at Glocester was attacked, and 25 of them were killed, wounded or taken.
27th Lord Cornwallis having sent over his baggage and cattle, crossed from Glocester. The rebels had assembled in his rear, and begun firing on the last troops who embarked, but the Vigilant, a galley and an armed schooner having brought their guns to bear and cross their fire upon the places where they were collecting, dispersed them; we had a seaman and a soldier wounded. The troops marched to Philadelphia and were quatered- 1st grenadiers, 1st light infantry, 7th, 33rd, and 63rd in the rope walks, and the 26th in the town. The 27th regiment came back to their ground in front.
29th The letters were given for the packet.
30th The works at Province Island were destroyed and the island evacuated. These works consisted, since the reduction of Mud Island, of a redoubt round the Ferry House, which was occupied by the 10th regiment. The 10th regiment came into quarters in Philadelphia.
December 3rd, The troops received orders in the evening to be in readiness to march at 6 o'clock the next morning. At 11 the orders were countermanded, and they were told they were not to march till further orders.
4th At 10 in the evening the corps destined to march got under arms and the army began moving at 12 in one column. The advanced corps received a few shot near Germantown, at Beggars' Town and at Chestnut Hill, but met with no considerable body. On the road a house was burnt, form which the light infantry had been fired upon. From Chestnut Hill the smoke and huts of the Rebel camp were discernible; their position was along a ridge of hills from Whitemarsh Church eastward in an extent of about three miles. Not long after the rear of the army had come up, a body of the rebels under a General Irvine attacked the advanced posts of the light infantry; these being supported by a few companies, a very heavy fire ensued. The rebels were driven back with some loss and the general wounded and taken prisoner. Only five or six of the rebel dead were found on the field; amongst these was a major. Of ours, captain Sir James Murray was wounded and three or four men; one was killed. The army lay at Chestnut Hill. In the evening the 5th, 27th and 71st regiments were sent to Philadelphia to escort provision the next day.
5th The rebels still remained on the hills, but appeared to be drawing their force towards their right, on which side we appeared to threaten them. The Commander-in-Chief observing they were not to be attacked with advantage on this side, determined upon a movement towards their left, and at 10 in the evening the Army marched in one column and came by Cheltenham and Jenkins Town opposite their other flank. General Grey, with the chasseurs, Simco's, grenadiers, light infantry and the 3rd Brigade, turned off from the grand column into the White Church Road, where he halted. The grand column proceeded as far as Abingdon and there also turned to the left and came near Edge Hill, where Sir William Howe halted.
6th At half past 11, whilst the men were receiving some refreshments, a note came from the Commander-in-Chief to Major General Grey, desiring him not to move until he heard or saw signs of the main column being in motion. General Grey was then, as preconcerted, to advance to Tyson's Tavern on the Limekiln Road, where he was to drive in a post of the enemy and draw up in view of their camp.
Whilst from this demonstration they presumed an attack impending from that quarter, Sir William Howe with the Elite and the main Army was to have made the real attack, should it have been thought fit to hazard one.
General Grey having waited far beyond the hour at which he had expected orders to advance, or to have intimation of Sir William Howe being in motion, determined to move forward. He advanced with the guns upon the road, the chasseurs in two columsn, on on either side the guns, the light infantry of the guards to the right, and Simco's Corps on the left.
About a mile after turning into the Limekiln Road, the firing from the enemy began from a woody ridge to the left. The Chasseurs and Simco's formed and advanced upon them and the light infantry of the guards with great activity and ardor ran round the foot of the ridge and came upon their flank in time enough to intercept a few in their flight. Between twenty and thirty of them were killed or wounded and fifteen taken prisoners. They were pursued to the skirts of their main encampment. One man of Simco's was killed and 9 jagers killed or wounded. The Corps took post on the ground from which the rebels had been driven, with the jagers in front. The light infantry of the guards advanced to the right and Simco's advanced to the left. The light infantry of the guards were very briskly attacked about an hour after taking post, by very superior numbers, but they maintained their ground and repulsed the enemy, with the loss on their side of only one man.
It was some time before we heard anything of the other column, excepting only a few shot from time to time, which we knew could not be the attack expected. Sir William Erskine at length appeared with two battalions of Hessians, which being posted on our right filled up the interval between Sir William Howe and us. We learnt that the same time we were engaged the second battalion light infantry had also a skirmish with Morgan's Battalion of riflemen. Only five companies were brought to action, and of these from circumstances of ground, &c., which we are unacquainted with, three only could act with vigor; these drove them a considerable distance and threw them into confusion, but being unsupported and being called off, the rebels made their retreat without suffering much. The 4th regiment received a very heavy fire a little time after this, from a flying party probably of the same corps. The whole of the affair took place in a very thick wood. Our loss was between 30 and 40 men killed and wounded; that of the rebels was probably no greater.
7th The fullest information being procured of the enemy's position, most people thought an attack upon ground of such difficult access would be a very arduous undertaking; nor was it judged that any decisive advantage could be obtained, as the enemy had reserved the most easy and obvious retreat. Probably for these reasons, the Commander-in chief determined to return to Philadelphia. In the afternoon the main body of the army began retreating, and gained the old York Road unmolested. The corps under General Grey, after affecting to make a movement to their left, passed through a wood and debouched into the Limekiln Road, retreating by the same route and in the same order in which they had advanced, till they fell in with Sir William Howe's column at Shoemaker's Mill.
The Rebels however were soon aware of our retreat, and their light troops watched the rear of General Grey's column, whose march was much retarded by the insufficiency of the horses and the badness of the roads, over which two 12 pounders he had with him were carried with some difficulty. At the crossroad leading from Abingdon to Germantown, a body of horse and foot pressed on the rearmost parties drove them in. The Jagers who had successively formed on each height and filed off to the next, were at this time drawn up on very good ground, in posture of defence. The rebels formed to a fence and delivered a very brisk fire, but the light infantry of the guards, posting themselves with great readiness, returned their fire and drove them back. Two or three shot from the jager's cannon contributed not a little to rid us of them; not a man on our side was hurt. The march was continued without further inconvenience, and the troops returned to their several encampments behind the redoubts at Philadelphia.
10th A pontoon bridge was laid across the Schuylkill at Grey's Ferry.
11th At 3 in the morning, Lord Cornwallis passed the Schuylkill with the light infantry, grenadiers, guards, 23rd, 28th, 49th, 27th, 33rd, - 100 chasseurs and Lengerke's battalion and the 16th and 17th light dragoons.
12th The wagons of the Army were escorted to the other side of the Schuylkill by the 42nd regiment, and were employed in bringing in forage. It was said that great depredations had been committed by the soldiers on this march. The whole of the cattle which the troops had procured was stopped at the bridge and delivered to the commissary, to the great disappointment of many people. In the evening General Grey crossed the bridge at Middle Ferry in order to secure the retreat of the wagons, but it being very soon after reported that Lord Cornwallis was returned and had brought in the forage, General Grey received orders to retire to camp again.
15th Lord Cathcart with 40 dragoons surprised a troop of the Rebel Cavalry, and killed or took prisoners several of them.
16th Several deserters came in. The quarter majors were employed in distributing quarters to the troops in Philadelphia. Deserters came in daily, sometimes to the number of 14 or 15 a day.
22nd The pontoon bridge having been laid over the Schuylkill, a considerable body was appointed to the defense of the lines, and the Army marched across the river, and hutted to an extent of three miles from Derby to Grey's Ferry. The wagons were employed in the rear in collecting forage, which was conveyed to the Philadelphia side of the Schuylkill.
23rd 4000 men under Smallwood were said to be at Wilmington, and Morgan with his riflemen was said to be about 4 miles off in front. 13 horses and 11 men of the 17th dragoons were taken on a patrol. The two men whose horses were cam in on foot. It seems they had crossed a bridge and were intercepted at their return by a body of horse and foot of the enemy.
24th In the morning a few shots were fired by sentries of the 1st light infantry, at a party of the rebels who passed along their front. Several cannon shot were heard in the afternoon, towards Philadelphia. We afterwards heard the rebels had shewn themselves on the right of the lines, and fired a few shots into the town.
25th Major-General Grant, with four battalions or infantry, the 17th light dragoons, and eight of the light companies, took post on the south side of Derby Creek, covering a quantity of meadowland from which the forage was taken. On approaching their ground they saw a command of the rebels, which soon dispersed, leaving a few killed and wounded on the field. Two or three were taken prisoners. At night General Grant returned to camp.
26th General Grey marched with six battalions and took position about 3 miles from Derby in order to bring away some forage. The Hessian grenadiers, through whose encampment General Grey passed, joined him and took post with his corps, and the two battalions of light infantry moved forward and to their left, which brought them very near the right of General Grey's line. In the evening General Grey returned to camp.
27th The remainder of the forage within our compass was brought in, and in the evening the corps on the south side of Derby Creek were withdrawn across the bridges, and the 17th and 42nd regiments were brought across Cobbs' Creek. The Light infantry were posted between Derby and Cobbs' Creek. It snowed very hard.
28th At about 8 in the morning the army marched towards Philadelphia. The light infantry took post about the bridge at Grey's until it was taken up, whilst the rest of the army marched to Middle Ferry, where they halted until the light infantry came up, when the whole crossed the Schuylkill and repaired to their several encampments and quarters. A party of the rebels which was approaching, in hopes of firing upon the rear of the column, was decoyed nearer than they were aware, by a dragoon who personated a rebel horseman; 29 of them were taken. It snowed and was very cold the whole day.
29th Very hard frost.
30th The Army came into winter quarters in Philadelphia.
In consequence of the determination taken to evacuate Philadelphia, the 5th brigade (26th, 63rd, 7th) 46th and 55th regiments, Simco's and Stirn's brigade, were passed over the Delaware at Cooper's Ferry and the wagons with provisions and stores for the march packed there under their cover.
17th The Army received orders to parade at 6 in the afternoon at their brigade parades; from these they were marched to the works, behind which they lay on their arms.
18th Before daybreak, General Grant with the 1st and 2nd brigade and the Hessian Grenadiers marched in different columns to Glocester Point, where he crossed the Delaware in flat boats.
At sunrise the 3rd and 4th brigades and the guards were put in motion and came to Glocester Point, where they also crossed. The grenadiers and light infantry passed last. The Vigilant was stationed a little above the point, and her guns could graze the neck of land thro' which the troops passed, so as to render the embarkation very secure. No shot was fired, nor did an enemy appear until the whole were on the opposite shore. The 46th and 55th marched the same morning from Cooper's Ferry to Glocester Point, where they joined their respective brigades.
As soon as the troops were passed, General Knyphausen, with the Hessians grenadiers and the 1st and 2nd brigades, marched to Haddonfield. Lord Cornwallis with the light infantry, British Grenadiers, guards and 3rd and 4th brigade followed soon after and halted for the night within two miles of Haddonfield.
19th General Leslie with the corps from Cooper's Ferry brought up the wagons of the army to Haddonfield, where they were left, the General proceeding with his corps to Foster Town. Lord Cornwallis's column moved before day break and, passing Haddonfield soon after General Leslie, came to Evesham. The grenadiers on coming to their ground found a captain of militia expiring; he had been shot by the Queen's Rangers.
20th The troops at Evesham were under arms at 4 o'clock in the morning, and at 5 marched, proceeding through Foster Town to Mount Holly, a little way beyond Foster Town. General Leslie's Corps joined the rear of the column. The rebels, supposed about 900 in number, under General Maxwell, had quitted Mount Holly the morning before. General Knyphausen having in the evening of the 19th moved the train across a deep ravine a mile and a half on his road from Haddonfield, marched early the 20th to Moorestown, and on the 21st came to Mount Holly and encamped with the remainder of the Army now assembled in one body. Colonel Allen's corps was posted at a pass in the rear on Rancocas Creek.
22nd The Army was under arms at 4 o'clock in the morning, and marched soon after through Slab Town to the Black Horse. General Leslie with the 5th brigade took and intermediate road between that of the column and Burlington, where it was supposed there might be some rebel troops; by that means flanking the baggage. The 5th brigade afterwards fell into the Black Horse Road and brought up the rear. We learnt at the Black Horse that Maxwell, with a large body of men, had quitted that place at 2 in the morning. Several papers were found warning us to beware of being Burgoyned. A deserter was executed on the march.
23rd The army marched in two columns, the 5th brigade under General Leslie forming the advance of that on the left. Lord Cornwallis, who commanded that column, proceeded to the Riding Sun, 4 ½ miles and turning to the right marched to Crosswicks, 3 ½ miles. Near the Rising Sun the rebels had destroyed a bridge, which it took some time to repair. At Crosswicks a piquet of the enemy fired at the head of the column, and retired to join a body on the other side of the creek (Crosswicks Creek) the bridge over which they hastily destroyed. The Queen's Rangers followed them very soon. But they retreated with great speed after firing a few shot across the rivulet. A captain of Simco's was dangerously wounded. One or two of the enemy were killed by grape shot from a 3 pounder brought on a height in front of Crosswicks whilst the bridge was repairing. The 16th dragoons, supported by a battalion of grenadiers and light infantry, were pushed in pursuit two miles on the Allentown Road, as far as another creek where the enemy were at work destroying the bridge. Simco's corps pursued at the same time some distance on the Allentown Road.
General Leslie with the 5th brigade masked the Bordentown Road when the column turned off at the Rising Sun. He afterward proceeded to Bordentown, where he lay on his arms all night. The rebels cannonaded his corps from a wood on the opposite side of a creek which enters the Delaware there, but without effect. A jager was wounded by a musket shot.
General Knyphausen hutted about two miles on the right of Crosswicks.
24th General Leslie joined Lord Cornwallis at 6 in the morning, and the Division marched immediately after and came to Allentown, four miles. A good deal of attention was paid to enforcing the orders respecting plunder, and also the Battalion horses and followers of the army not mixing in the line of march.
25th The troops received orders to be under arms at 4 o'clock, and marched by the left as soon as the baggage had got into the front. This reversion of the order of march took up some time, and it was late before the rear was in motion. The Queen's Rangers during this time masked the Provincetown Road, and the chasseurs, who had been posted on the west side of Doctor's Creek, were withdrawn to the same side with the army. A body of the enemy soon showed themselves, and passing thro' the village advanced a little towards the jagers, but were dispersed again by a shot or two from their 3 pounders. It was said Morgan's corps of riflemen were close at hand. The ground of the encampment on which the rear was detained was very open, and some cavalry was kept ambuscaded a little time, in hopes of cutting off some of the most adventurous in pressing on the column. They were withdrawn again without having had an opportunity of trying their success. As the rear quitted the ground a few of the rebels possessed themselves of the house which had been Lord Cornwallis's headquarters, but were very speedily dislodged by a gun of the light infantry. The division halted at Upper Freehold (the Rising Sun).
26th Lord Cornwallis's Division marched in the same order as the preceeding day, at 5 o'clock. There was a little firing as the rear was put in motion. The division halted within two miles of Freehold or Monmouth Courthouse. The roads the army had marched thro' were in a general way sandy, and the land, except in the neighborhood of Allentown, deemed poor. The weather, which after the first two or three days march, which were rainy, was very sultry, and as we approached Freehold water was very scarce. The rebels had added to this by stopping up the wells. From several concurring testimonies there was little doubt of Washington having crossed the Delaware and gained Princeton or Cranberry. It was asserted he had passed at Coryel's Ferry on the 21st three days after crossing at Glocester point. Since Black Horse camp, General Knyphausen's division, consisting of the 1st and 2nd brigades, British 17th dragoons and brigade of Stirn, marched in a column on our right thro' Recceles Town and Embles Town. That column had with them the provision train, pontoons and part of artillery. On the 25th General Knyphausen fell into the Monmouth Road about five miles beyond the Rising Sun, and the next day took a camp at Freehold connecting with the other division.
27th The army haldted at Freehold.
28th General Knyphausen marched from Freehold at 4. The baggage joined and followed his division. Simco's corps and the 5th brigade took post on the Cranberry Road. At 5 o'clock Lord Cornwallis moved. Parties of horse and foot appeared on the heights to the left of the Cranberry Road, and colonel Simco with two or three companies was sent along the skirt of the wood, to endeavor to get around them. He fell in with a very superior body of militia, whom he charged with his mounted company, killing or wounding several of them. Himself and three or four of his own were wounded, but all brought off.
As Lord Cornwallis's division moved off the ground on which General Knyphausen had been encamped, the enemy began to show themselves. At first only a few of their light horse appeared; a corps soon came out of the wood to the left, but a few cannon shot made them retire again, and their light horse only continued to follow. Some of these having ventured so far as to afford a chance of intercepting them, two or three troops of the 16th dragoons charged into the fields after them, but found a large body of infantry ambuscaded, who gave them a heavy fire and obliged them to retreat. Immediately after this a column appeared to out left and rear, marching very rapidly and in good order. The 1st light infantry were fronted about to the advancing enemy, the guards, Hessian and British grenadiers were halted and faced to the left, and orders being sent to the 3rd, 4th, 5th brigades to return and be ready to support, the whole began moving back. The rebel corps as soon retreated, nor was a shot scarcely fired until we had recrossed the Cranberry Road. The troops found themselves now arranged with the light infantry on the right, the guards in the center and the grenadiers on the left. The Hessian grenadiers were in the rear of the light infantry, and the 3rd and 4th brigade supported the grenadiers and guards. The guards first fell into action by receiving a very heavy fire from a wood on their right. They soon dislodged the enemy from it, and drove them as far as they had strength to pursue. The enemy had yet cannon and troops on an advantageous height in front, from which it was necessary to force them. The grenadiers were therefore led on, and the rebels were driven back across a deep morass, upon their main army. This was not effected without loss, but more from heat and fatigue under which many died, then from the enemy's shot. To this height our cannon, consisting of twelve 6-pounders, two medium 12 pounders, and two howitzers, were brought and opposed to that of the enemy, whose whole force occupied the opposite hills. Whilst the guards and grenadiers were engaged the light infantry, pressing forward on the right upon the Cranberry Road, had headed the swamp which divided the two armies, and gained an eminence very near the enemy's left flank, but without meeting any opposition. The 3rd brigade, upon the attack of the guards, moved into the woods on their right and penetrated across the morass to the hill, where the light infantry took post a few minutes after. The Hessian grenadiers and 4th brigade remained as a second line, and the 5th brigade kept in the rear as a reserve. In this situation the cannonade took place which lasted until the evening, when the troops wre withdrawn to a new position half a mile to the rear, where they lay on their arms in a convenient arrangement for proceeding on their march, and better covered from some guns the enemy had brought round at a considerable distance on our left, and fired with a great elevation. A body of the rebels attempted to possess themselves of the hill from which the grenadiers were retiring; but were immediately attacked and put to flight with some loss. Another corps was as unsuccessful in endeavoring to annoy the light infantry as they recrossed the swamp; after this they did not venture to advance. The wounded were brought into the village of Freehold, and those whose cases would admit of it, brought away when the division marched.
At twelve o'clock the Division marched from Freehold, and in the morning joined Major General Grant and General Knyphausen within miles of Middletown.
29th General Knyphausen marched to Middletown.
30th Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis marched at 3 in the morning and joined the other division at Middletown. The 1st, 2nd, 5th, and Stirn's brigade were sent forward to occupy the heights of Neversink, and the baggage received orders to follow. At 10 in the evening the remainder of the troops marched to the heights.
31st The troops were arranged on the heights and the embarkation of baggage, stores &c. began. During the succeeding days the embarkation was carried on.
A bridge of boats was thrown across the gap in the isthmus, which till lately had connected Sandy Hook with the main, and the troops were marched into the hook and embarked on board transports. The 3rd, 4th and 5th brigades were landed on Long Island; the 1st and 2nd on Staten Island and the guards, Hessians and cavalry on York Island.
Thus was completed a march of many mile thro' the enemy's country, in defiance of every obstacle they threatened or attempted to throw in our way; nor was it only by repelling and pursuing them at Freehold that a superiority both of skill and powers was shewn; but throughout the whole march they were perplexed in their conjectures by the secrecy observed respecting our route and by false movements made to deceive them; neither could their militia or light troops with their boasted knowledge of the country and dexterity in hovering round us, find an opportunity to give the least annoyance to a column of 8 or 10 miles in length.
11th The French fleet, of 12 sail of the line and 4 or 5 ships of inferior force, came to an anchor off Sandy Hook.
12th The 44th and 15th regiments were added to these, and Colonel O'Hara took the command and marched from Bedford to be embarked for Sandy Hook. They were here employed in throwing up a battery of two 8 inch howitzers and three 32 pounders. 8 companies from the light infantry and grenadiers were distributed on board the ships of war. The companies were chosen by lot and the whole drew at their own request. The ardor to serve and the confidence in Lord Howe were as conspicuous in the seamen of the transports, who almost to a man were volunteers to go on board the King's ships. Those at the Hook at this time were: The Eagle 64 Somerset 64 St. Albans 64 Nonsuch 64 Trident 64 Preston 50 Experiment 50 Isis 50 Roebuck 44 Phoenix 44 Apollo Amazon 32 Pearl 32 Richmond 32 Brune 32 Venus 36 Delaware 26
with three sloops, three fireships, two bombs and three galleys. The flank companies came ashore again and the 23rd regiment (Welsh fusiliers) took that duty.
22nd The French fleet weighed anchor and sailed from the Hook for Rhode Island.
The Cornwall of Admiral Byron's fleet and the Raisonable and Renown came in within a few days after the departure of the French fleet; and on the 6th of August Lord Howe sailed from the hook. The French fleet went into Rhode Island harbor. Lord Howe arrived off that port the 9th and on the 10th the French put to sea. On the 12th a very heavy gale of wind dispersed both fleets as they were on the point of coming to action.
Whilst the French ships lay off Sandy Hook, they landed a considerable boy of men in Shrewsbury River and took in water. They captured about twenty sail of trading vessels and one or two sloops of war, an object of no consequence compared with the expectations they well might have.
Lord Howe came into the hook when the fleet's rendezvous was assigned. The vessels missing were out bound....; they fell into the hands of the French.
The Isis, after the gale of wind, met with the Cesar of 74 guns, and engaged her with such success as, notwithstanding the difference of force, to compel her to sheer off. The Preston also engaged a disabled ship of superior size until others came to her assistance. The rendezvous of the French fleet was off Rhode Island, from whence on the 17th they sailed for Boston. The Monmouth of Admiral Byron's fleet came in.
August 2nd Lord Howe sailed again from the hook. (Lord Howe arrived off Boston the 31st August, two days after the French fleet). About this time the regiments were withdrawn again from Sandy Hook.
25th Some provision ships came in. during these transactions the rebels had landed 20,000 men on Rhode Island and were carrying on approaches against Newport. The garrison of this place was:
Major General Losberg: Landgrave, Huyne
Brigadier General Brown: Roy. Arty, B. Wav
Brigadier General Smith: 43rd, 22nd
Col. Voit: 1st and 2nd Anspach (*sent under General Prescott before French fleet arrived as reinforcements)
Lt. Colonel Innes, Part of Artillery, Flank Corps of 54th, Hessian chasseurs, marines of different ships.
M.G. Huyne: Ditfurth, Bunau
M.G. Prescott: 54th, 38th
Washington, weakened by detachments, and possibly finding some inconvenience in drawing subsistence for his troops at the White Plains, where he had taken post, withdrew to strong grounds behind the Croton River.
26th The 1st battalion grenadiers, 1st light infantry and 3rd and 4th brigades marched under major general Grey to Flushing Fly (from Bedford). General Grey in person proceeded to Flushing, where he met Sir Henry Clinton. Transports for the troops, with 2 or 3 frigates, lay at this time at Whitestone, 3 miles beyond Flushing.
27th The troops marched to Whitestone and were embarked on board the transports. Sir Henry Clinton, General Grey came on board the Carisfort frigate, commanded by Captain Fanshaw. Between 5 and 6 in the afternoon the fleet got under way, and about an hour after came to an anchor off City Island.
28th The fleet remained at an anchor the whole morning. The Rose and Raven with a considerable number of sloops and schooners joined us; their destination was Rhode Island, but fear of falling in with the French, they had put into Huntingdon Bay. At five in the afternoon the fleet weighed anchor and at 12 at night came to with a calm.
29th Wind contrary, the ships remained at anchor.
30th The fleet got under way at five in the morning and stood to the eastward. The order of sailing and the ships in company were
Zebra: Collins (flanked by galleys)
Diligent: Farnham, Light infantry (flanked left by Rose: Reed, grenadiers; flanked right by Galatea: Jordan)
Ordnance and Horse Vessels
Camilla: 4th Brigade, Collins
Tower: Henry, 3rd Brigade
Vigilant: Christian (joined at Rhode Island)
Lord Rawdon went ahead on the 30th in the Diligent, to get intelligence from Rhode Island. The Fleet anchored off Block Island.
31st Wind contrary. The fleet remained anchored off Block Island.
September 1st The fleet got under way at one o'clock in the morning, and half an hour after two in the afternoon arrived in Rhode Island Harbor. The Diligent was standing out as we came near the mouth of the harbor. Lord Rawdon returned on board and informed the General that the rebels, after a stay of 22 days on the island, had evacuated it; that their last detachment had crossed to the continent the day before, and that a sally had been made from the garrison, which had followed them as far as the strong grounds at the northern extremity of the island.
A very important stroke would probably have been struck had we arrived a day or two sooner, by cutting off their retreat. Sir Henry Clinton and General Grey went ashore at Newport and returned on board next day.
2nd Towards sunset the fleet weighed anchor and stood back toward the sound.
3rd We passed Fisher's Island and stood for New London. Sir Henry Clinton and General Grey came on board the Galatea, to work up more expeditiously and obtain a nearer view of the place. Alarm guns were fired ashore. It was Sir Henry Clinton's intention, on approaching somewhat nearer to the place, to have landed the troops and proceeded immediately to destroy what shipping or stores were to be found; but captain Fanshaw adduced unforeseen difficulties, asserting that the troops could not be landed that evening. The fleet was indeed much scattered and many ships very far astern. The Vigilant and Raven had both been disabled by running foul of each other. It therefore became a matter of deliberation whether the troops should be landed next day, after giving the enemy so much time to collect force and to remove whatever was valuable; and it was thought more advisable, after having spread an alarm here, to proceed to New Bedford in Buzzard's Bay. General Grey returned on board the Carisfort and Sir Henry Clinton sailed this evening in the Galatea for New York.
4th The rebels appeared to be at work on the beach. At five in the afternoon the fleet sailed away from New London, and at sunset bore away for the eastward.
5th At three in the morning we discovered several sail of large ships. The Commodore in consequence changed his course and stood for Rhode Island. At seven in the morning the strange fleet came up with us. It consisted of several sail of the line of Lord Howe's squadron. Captain Fanshaw went on board Lord Howe's ship. Lord Howe told Captain Fanshaw that he would remain off Block Island until he heard the issue of of our expedition. At 8 o'clock the fleet stood its course again towards Buzzard's Bay with a view to Bedford. The flat boats were hoisted out whilst the transports were under way. The Carisfort, in passing thro' the bay struck twice upon the rocks, but got off again immediately. A little before sunset the ships reached their stations in Clark's Cove, and the Troops from the transports assembled in the flat boats at Captain Henry's boat (*he conducted the landing) and landed without opposition. The light infantry and grenadiers were the first disembarked, and this was conducted with the greatest rapidity. As soon as the light infantry and grenadiers were landed and the boats returned to fetch the remainder of the troops, they marched on with all expedition to New Bedford, and six companies under Sir James Murray were sent into the town to burn the vessels at the wharves, the stores, &c. In the meantime the advanced corps took post at the entrance of the town and crossroads north of it until, the rest of the troops being disembarked and at hand, they proceeded to the head of the river (7 miles) and took post on the heights on either side that pass. The burning party, being reinforced by three companies of the 42nd regiment, proceeded up the banks of the river destroying everything at McPherson's and other wharves. The 33rd and 64th passed the grenadiers and light infantry at the bridge at the head of the river, and marched a little way down the opposite shore upon the Fair Haven Road. Everything being consumed on the west side of the river, the troops marched down the other shore, and in passing Fair Haven the 33rd entered that place and destroyed everything of stores and shipping, falling afterwards in the rear of the column. This was to proceed to Skonticut Neck, a very narrow point of land which juts out opposite to Clark's Neck, from which place the boats and vessels had crossed over to Skonticut to receive it on board when the service should have been performed. Colonel Donkin with the 17th and 44th regiments, had been landed here and guarded the isthmus in the meantime. The guide very unaccountably carried us thro' a wrong road which led to a rebel battery on a point between Fair Haven and Skonticut Neck, thinking perhaps we might, by going along the beach, gain our place of embarkation.
After destroying the battery, which we found evacuated, we followed the course of the shore over trackless ground until stopped by a run of water which obliged us to turn to our left to search and fall into the road which headed the run, a detour which brought us back to Fair Haven; from hence we gained the neck and joined Colonel Donkin at about 6 in the morning. At 12 General Grey came on board the Carisfort, the whole being reembarked. We had a few men wounded by people lurking in the swamps behind stone fences, and by a few shots which were fired as the grenadiers and light infantry took possession of the heights near Crane's Mills (the head of the river). The rebels carried from New Bedford four pieces of brass cannon from which they fired a shot or tow as they retired on the Boston Road. A company of militia and the artillery men belonging to those guns were, we heard, the only troops there.
Three or four men of the enemy were found bayoneted, one and officer. They had fired at the advanced party and were not alert enough to get off. Major General Grey determined to proceed from thence to Martha's Vineyard, and wrote to Sir Robert Pigot at Rhode Island to desire he would send vessels to receive cattle.
7th The fleet got under way this morning, but the wind failing, came to an anchor at 11 o'clock, when a boat from the town came on board with a letter from a rebel major proposing an exchange of prisoners; to which General Grey consented, provided the men of ours in their hands were brought on board before the fleet sailed. They were not brought.
At 1 o'clock two of the galleys with some armed boats under the command of Captain Browne of the Scorpion, and four light infantry companies under Captain Baillie put off form the fleet to destroy a large vessel on the stocks on Aponeganset Neck, which service they effected. They received a few shot from the shore on their return.
At 10 o'clock at night the Cornwallis and Dependence galleys with some armed boats, destroyed two large schooners which lay in the harbor near Fair Haven. It was not executed without receiving heavy fire of musketry from the shore. The Lieutenant of the Fowey and one seaman were wounded.
8th The fleet got under way at noon. The General was obliged to reduce the allowance of provisions to two-thirds. Came to an anchor about two leagues from Quickso's Hole.
9th Sailed at 7 in the morning. The ships could not all get thro' the hole before the tide turned.
10th The fleet weighed anchor at 6 in the morning and turned thro' the Vineyard Sound, passing Tarpaulin Cove, Wood's Hole Harbor and Falmouth. The galleys went into the last place and cut out two sloops and a schooner, and burned another vessel. At 1 o'clock the Carisfort came to an anchor off Holmes Hole. The transports and small vessels were ordered into the harbor, excepting those which carried the grenadiers and light infantry and 33rd regiment, which troops general Grey intended taking with him to Nantucket.
General Grey's proposal to Captain Fanshaw was in the following words:
Carisfort 9th September, 1778
"Major-General Grey proposes to Captain Fanshaw that whilst part of the troops and ships are employed in destroying the rebel vessels which may be found at Falmouth, Barker's Harbor and Wood's Hole Harbor and in procuring the necessary refreshments from Martha's Vineyard, that a body of troops with such of the Men-of-War and galleys as he shall think proper, be detached without delay to Nantucket Island, which is one of the most noted resorts of privateers in America, the destruction of which must be thought of infinite service.
The pilots inform him that the distance is not more than three hours from Holmes Hole, that the ships can anchor perfectly secure within half a mile of Nantucket Cliff, where it is proposed to land the troops, who will proceed to the town, which is two miles distant, attended by galleys, and there destroy or secure such vessels and stores as may be found; the former are supposed to amount, form the accounts o the different pilots, to 200 sail, and on the bar they agree there is nine feet water."
To this Captain Fanshaw made the following reply:
"Captain Fanshaw is ready to proceed with the King's ships and transports under his order, according to Major General Grey's proposal.
Captain Fanshaw wishes generally throughout the course of service on which the fleet is employed, to have it understood that he has not an opinion to offer on the propriety of any movement; but will always endeavor to promote whatever may be required for the King's service.
General Grey wished Captain Fanshaw to proceed to the Nantucket service without coming to an anchor off Holmes Hole Harbor, as the wind was fair; but Captain Fanshaw insisted on the necessity of assembling his captains, the deliberation lasted until the wind changed.
In the evening a flag of truce with three committee-men came on board. They professed the most peaceable dispositions and the utmost readiness to comply with the General's requisitions. General Grey ordered them ashore to direct the inhabitants to drive in their sheep and cattle, or that troops should be marched thro' the island; likewise to being in their arms, or that the colonel and captains of the militia should be sent prisoners to New York.
11th A detachment of 150 men from each of the corps in the harbor disembarked under lieutenant-colonel Stirling. He consented not to march into the country provided the inhabitants should immediately furnish 10,000 sheep and 300 oxen, with hay for them. 20 vessels from Rhode Island arrived to take in stock.
12th Wind unfavorable for Nantucket. A quantity of stock was embarked for Rhode Island, and the vessels sailed.
The 17th, 37th and 46th regiments (*the 150 men from each corps are here alluded to) were ordered from their different positions to the beach. The 44th under Colonel Donkin, marched towards the southeast of the island. Only 229 stand of arms having been brought in, the colonel and five captains were confined. The committee-men were likewise confined for having concealed a quantity of ammunition.
13th The 17th, 37th and 46th regiments embarked. More arms, sheep and oxen were brought in. Two men having deserted, the inhabitants were required to restore them, on pain of having a double number of their friends seized. A tender arrived from Lord Howe with orders to the fleet to return to New York. The Nantucket Expedition was of course set aside. The cattle and sheep were embarked on board the men-of-war and transports. Colonel Donkin was ordered to return from Chilmark.
14th The remainder of the cattle was embarked. The troops embarked. The deserters were restored and the militia officers and committeemen released, with a solemn injunction to abstain from taking part any more in the war or persecuting others fro their political opinions; they were also bound to assist the King's ships with water or provisions whenever they should call upon them to do it. The public money which had been required, was paid, being a tax just collected by authority of the Congress. A salt work was destroyed this day.
15th The signal was made for sailing at 6 in the morning, but the transports were so dilatory that it was sunset before they came up with the Commodore. The whole sailed. A schooner and sloop taken in Holmes Hole Harbor were burnt.
16th The fleet arrived off Rhode Island and lay to, to send off some flat boats and pilots belonging to that place. Part of the cattle sent to Rhode Island was destined for Lord Howe's fleet, but this being sailed the vessels had waited for us, and now joined the fleet and proceeded with us into the sound.
At 4 we past New London, the wind blowing very fresh. The rebels fired their alarm guns and made smokes. Towards 11 at night, the gale was very violent, and the fleet lay to.
17th In the morning the fleet was much separated- the headmost ships were off Huntingdon Bay. At 10 the Carisfort and some transports came to an anchor at Whitestone. The whole got up next day, having suffered no loss but a few rowboats, and some horses which one vessel was obliged to disburden herself of. Amongst these were General Grey's and Family's.
COPY OF GENERAL GREY'S REPORT TO SIR HENRY CLINTON
Carisfort, off Whitestone, September 18, 1778
In the evening of the 4th instant the fleet with a detachment under my command sailed from New London and stood to the eastward with a very favorable wind. We were only retarded in the run from thence to Buzzard's Bay, by altering our course for some hours in the night in consequence of our discovering a strange fleet, which was not known to Lord Howe's until morning. By 5 o'clock in the afternoon of the 5th the ships were at anchor in Clark's Cove, and the boats having been previously hoisted out, the debarkation of the troops took place immediately. I proceeded without loss of time to destroy the vessels and stores in the whole extent of Acushnet River (about 7 miles) particularly at Fair Haven and Bedford, and having dismantled and burnt a fort mounting 11 guns, with a magazine and barracks for the east side of the river, completed the re-embarkation before noon the next day. I refer your excellency to the annexed returns for damage done the enemy, as well as we could ascertain it, and for our own casualties.
The wind did not admit of any further movements of the fleet on the 6th and 7th than hauling a little distance from the shore. Advantage was taken of these circumstances to burn a large privateer ship on the stocks, and to send a small armament of boats with two galleys to destroy a vessel or two, which being in the stream, the troops had not been able to set fire to. From the difficulties in passing out of Buzzard's Bay into the Vineyard Sound, thro' Quickso's Hole, and from head winds, the fleet did not reach Holmes Hole Harbor in the island of Martha's Vineyard until the 10th. The transports with the light infantry, grenadiers and 33rd regiment were anchored without the harbor, as I had at that time a service in view for those corps whilst the business of collecting cattle should be carrying on upon the island. Contrary winds obliged me to relinquish my designs.
On our arrival off the harbor the inhabitants sent persons on board to ask my intentions with respect to them, to which a requisition was made of:
the arms of the militia
the public money
300 oxen and 10,000 sheep
They promised each of these articles should be delivered without delay. I afterwards found it necessary to send small detachments into the island and detain the deputed inhabitants for a time to accelerate their compliance with the demand. On the 12th I was able to embark on board the vessels which arrived that day from Rhode Island, 6000 sheep and 130 oxen.
The 13th and 14th were employed in embarking cattle and sheep on board our own fleet; in destroying some salt works; in burning or taking in the inlets what vessels or boats could be found, and in recovering the arms of the militia. I here again refer your excellency to the returns.
On the 15th the fleet left Martha's Vineyard, and after sustaining the next day a very severe gale of wind, arrived the 17th at Whitestone without any material damage. I consider myself much obliged to the commanding officers of corps, and the troops in general for the alacrity with which every service was performed.
I have the honor etc.
ACCOUNT OF VESSELS AND STORES DESTROYED IN ACUSHNET RIVER THE 5TH
8 sail of large vessels from 200-300 ton burthen, mostly prizes, 3 taken by the French. 6 armed vessels carrying from 16 to 10 guns, a number of sloops and schooners amounting in all to about 70 sail, inclusive of whale boats and other small craft.
26 store houses at New Bedford, several at Fair Haven, or at McPherson's Wharf and Crane's Mill. These were filled (as well as some private houses which were consumed) with great quantities of rum, sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, tobacco, medicines, cotton, gunpowder, sail cloth, cordage, &c. 2 large rope walks, at Falmouth in the Vineyard Sound the 10th. Brought away by the galley, two sloops and a schooner, one loaded with staves, &c. Burnt one sloop in Old Town Harbor, Martha's Vineyard; burnt by the Scorpion, a brig, 150 ton, a schooner 70 ton, a sloop and 23 whaleboats taken or detroyed; a quantity of plank brought off at Holmes Hole. 4 vessels with several boats taken or destroyed; a salt-work destroyed.
ARMS AND AMMUNITION AT MARTHA'S VINEYARD
49 bayonets, 77 pouches, 25 swords, 4 pistols, 1 drum, powder, flints, and leaden balls. In Acushnet River 13 pieces of iron ordnance, a quantity of powder blown up, barracks for 200 men burnt. Martha's Vineyard, 10,000 sheep, 300 cattle and 900 pounds in Continental currency, a tax levied by ye Congress.
RETURN OF KILLED, WOUNDED AND MISSING AT BEDFORD IN BUZZARD'S BAY, 7TH SEPTEMBER, 1778
Killed: 1 light infantry , 1 total
Wounded: 2 light infantry, 1 grenadier, 1 of 42nd, 1 of 64th , 4 total
Missing: 3 light infantry, 3 grenadiers, 1 of 33rd, 8 of 42nd, 1 of 46th , 16 total
Five men of the 42nd cam in afterward, having made their escape.
18th, 19th, 20th The troops of General Grey's Expedition landed and marched to New Bedford. General Grey came to New York.
22nd The grenadiers, light infantry and 3rd and 4th brigades crossed in transports and flat boats from Red Hook to Paulus' Hook. The guards and volunteers of Ireland joined these corps from York Island. The whole lay at Bergen that night, except the light infantry, which was pushed on to towards English Neighborhood.
23rd At 5 in the morning the troops under Lord Cornwallis, consisting of the light infantry, grenadiers, volunteers of Ireland, 3rd and 4th brigades and a detachment of dragoons under Major Gwynn moved from Bergen to English Neighborhood, where they were encamped with their left to Newbridge. About 60 militia who were posted at the Liberty Pole at the head of English Neighborhood Creek, were surprised by Captain Needham of the dragoons. A few were killed and 27 taken.
24th The position of the grenadiers was changed.
25th A redoubt was begun on the heights beyond Newbridge. One battalion of the guards was moved to the wood between the North River at the right of the line.
27th At night a body of rebels appeared on the heights beyond Hackensack, lighted fires and seemed busied in throwing up entrenchments; they retired next day.
At 10 the same evening (27th) in consequence of a preconcerted plan with Sir Henry Clinton, detachments from Lord Cornwallis's division of the army marched in two columns to endeavor to surprise some light horse and militia lying in or near Tapaan. At the same time some troops were to cross from the other side of the North River to land above them.
General Grey marched at 10 with the 2nd light infantry, 2nd grenadiers, 33rd and 64th regiments and 50 dragoons, up the road on the west side of Hackensack River. Lord Cornwallis marched two hours after, up the Kloster Road, with the 1st grenadiers, the guards, and 42nd and 37th regiments. The troops which crossed from General Knyphausen's division were the rangers, Emerick's Corps, and the 71st regiment; they landed at day break. General Grey advancing received certain intelligence of the situation of the dragoons, a whole regiment of which lay at Old Tappan, ten miles from Newbridge. He was successful enough to come unperceived within a mile of the place, so as to enable him to detach six companies of light infantry by 3 in the morning to spread round the houses and barns where they lay, whilst the rest, after a little halt, marched on upon the road to them. The whole corps within six or eight men were killed or taken prisoners. The horses, saddles, accoutrements, &c fell into our hands.
Amongst the prisoners were the colonel, major, a captain and 3 or 4 subalterns. The rest were killed (*this was the massacre of Baylor's dragoons, at Old Tappan N.J.).
From hence the column proceeded to the Cackiat (*Kakiat) Road, where it turned to the right and crossing the Hackensack at Perry's Mills, came to Tappan. The light infantry on approaching the village had been detached to the left, in order to surround any body of the enemy which might be there. They had, however, to the number of 200, escaped an hour or two before and the troops could only kill or secure a few fugitives of a rear guard.
There were taken (militia included) 13 officers, and 47 privates. We imagined about 100 were killed.
28th After sending out parties to collect cattle, the detachment returned to camp in two columns by the Kloster and Schralenberg Road. The 71st, Rangers and Emerick's recrossed the North River at Dobbs Ferry.
30th A foraging party in front.
October 2nd, A foraging party in front.
5th Foraging in front.
8th Foraging. The hay collected during our stay in Jersey was put on board sloops, and conveyed from the forks of Hackensack and Overpeck to New York.
13th The foraging having been completed and cattle collected, the troops hutted their position between Hudson's and Hackensack River, and marched on the 14th to Bergen, and on the 15th crossed from Forbes Hook (*Paulus Hook NJ) to their former positions on York Island, Long Island and Staten Island.
25th Ten regiments, viz:
4th, 5th, 35th, 40th, 15th, 46th, 27th, 49th, 28th, 55th embarked for an expedition under the command of Major General Grant and Commodore Hotham, with the following men-of-war:
Nonsuch, 64 guns, Captain Griffiths
St. Albans, 64 guns, Captain Onslow
Preston, 50, Commodore Hotham
Isis, 50, Commodore Raynor
Centurion, 50, Commodore Braithwaite
Venus, 36, Commodore Ferguson
November 2nd The fleet sailed from the Hook on the intended expedition.
15th The troops were put into winter quarters.
RETURN OF TROOPS UNDER THE COMMAND OF SIR HENRY CLINTON, 1778
(Post: Fit for Duty; Effective; Date)
New York: 13,800; 16,943; Nov. 14
Rhode Island: 4,627; 5,740; Oct. 30
Nova Scotia: 2,398; 3,073; –
The Floridas: 1,062; 1, 679; June 1
Sailed under General Campbell: 941; 1,102; Oct. 25
Under Lt. Colonel Campbell: 2,290; 3,303; Nov. 5
Bermuda: 211; 230; Oct. 4
Providence: 179; 225; Nov. 5
Sailed under General Grant: 4,369; 5,262;
Total Fit for Duty: 29,877
Total Effective: 37,557
END OF JOURNAL
This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.