Law "on Functioning of Languages on the Territory of the Moldavian SSR"

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Law regarding Functioning of Languages on the Territory of the Moldavian SSR
Parliament of the Republic of Moldova (unknown translator)
Republic of Moldova
PARLIAMENT
LAW No 3465 dated 01.09.1989
Functioning of Languages on the Territory of the Moldavian SSR

Published: 01.10.1989 in M.Of. No 009

MODIFIED ZP206/29.05.03; MO149/18.07.03 art.598

see also: DECISION No 3466 dated 01.09.1989 Decision "on the entry in force of the Law of Moldavian SSR "on Functioning of Languages on the Territory of the Moldavian SSR

Definition by the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic of the status of Moldavian language as state language is aimed at to contribute the completeness of the Republic's souvereignity and creation of the necessary guarantees for its full-fledged and comprehensive realisaion in all spheres of political, economic, social and cultural life. The Moldavian SSR supports education and satisfaction of cultural needs of Moldavians living abroad in their native language, and taking in cosideration the reality of Moldo-Romanian linguistic identity - of Romanians, domiciled on the territory of the USSR.

Giving to Moldavian the status of state language, the Moldavian SSR guarantees protection of Constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens of any nationality, living on the territory of the Moldavian SSR, independently of the used language, in conditions of equality of all citizens before the law.

To provide state protection and guarantee the development of Gagauz language, Moldavian SSR provides the necessary guarantees for successive development of its social functions.

Moldavian SSR provides on its territory conditions for usage and development of Russian language, as language of international (interethnic) communicaton in the USSR, as well as of languages of other nationalities living in the Republic.

CHAPTER 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS[edit]

Article 1.[edit]

In accordance with the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Moldavian SSR, the state language of the Moldavian SSR is Moldavian language, functioning on the basis of the Latin alphabet. Moldavian, as state language, is used in all spheres of political, economic, social and cultural life and, therefore, fulfills on the territory of the Republic the function of international (interethnic) communication language.

Moldavian SSR guarantees to all inhabitants of the Republic free education of state language, on the level necessary to exercise work functions.

Article 2.[edit]

In localities where the majority of population is of Gagauz nationality, the language of official spheres is: state, Gagauz or Russian languages.

Article 3.[edit]

Russian laanguage, as a language of international (interethnic) communication in USSR, is used on the territory along with Moldavian language as a language of international (interethnic) communciation, which provides for fulfillment of real nationl-Russian and Russian-national bilingualism.

Article 4.[edit]

Moldavian SSR guarantees the usage of Ukrainian, Russian, Bulgarian, Hebrew, Yiddish, Romani languages, languages of other ethnic groups living on the territory of the Republic, for satisfaction of national-cultural needs.

Article 5.[edit]

The present law does not regulate the usage of languages in interpersonal relations, in record keeping activity of the rail and air transport (except the sphere of passenger service), as well as military divisions and institutions depending on the Minstry of Defence of USSR, military divisions of KGB of USSR and Ministry of Internal Affais of USSR.

CHAPTER II. RIGHTS AND GUARANTEES FOR THE CITIZEN TO CHOOSE A LANGUAGE[edit]

Article 6.[edit]

Regarding institutions of state power, state administration and public organisations, as well as companies, other instituions and organisations located on the territory of the Moldavian SSR, the language of oral and written communication - Moldavian or Russian - is chosen by the citizen. Te citizen's right to use Gagauz language in the aforementioned conditions is guaranteed in localities with population of Gagauz nationality.

In localities, where the majority of population is composed of Ukrainian, Russian, Bulgarian nationalities, the native or other convenient language is used.

Article 7.[edit]

For cadres, employed in the institution of state power, state management and public organisations, as well as employed in companies, intitutions and organisations, who due to their service communicate with citizens (health protection, education, culture, mass media, transportation, telecommunications, trade, sphere of services, housing service companies, law enforcement institutions, accident and emergency service and others), independently from the nationality, in order to ensure citizen's right to chose the language, are established the requirement to know Moldavian, Russian, and in localities with Gagauz population - Gagauz languages, at the level of communication which is sufficient for the fulfillment of professional obligations. The volume and level of knowledge of langauges are established by the Ministers' Council of the Moldavian SSR in accordance with the valid legislation.

Article 8.[edit]

On the held in Moldavian SSR meetings, sessions, plena, conferences, gatherings, manifestations and other events, the choice of langauge by participants is not limited.

CHAPTER III. LANGUAGE IN THE INSTITUTIONS OF STATE POWER, STATE ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC ORGANISATIONS, COMPANIES, INSTITUTIONS, ORGANISATIONS[edit]

Article 9.[edit]

The working language in the institutions of state power, state management and public organisations is the gradually introduced state language. The translation in Russian language is guaranteed.

The record keeping language in the institutions of state power, state management and public organisations is the state language. The documents are translated in Russian language when necessary.

In the localities with Gagauz nationality population, the working and record keeping languages in the institutions of state power, state management and public organisations are the state language, native language or another convenient language.

Article 10.[edit]

Acts of institutions of state power, state management and public organisations are elaborated and are adopted in the state language with consecutive translation in Russian language, in the localities with Gagauz nationality population - in the state language, Gagauz language or Russian language with consecutive translation.

Acts of institutions of state power, state management and public organisations on the territory where the majority consists of Ukrainian, Russian, Bulgarian ot other nationality may be adopted in the native or other language with consecutive translation into the state language.

Article 11.[edit]

When institutions of state power, state management and public organisations address the citizen in written, Moldavian or Russian language is used, in localities with Gagauz nationality population - Moldavian, Gagauz and Russian. When documents are delivered to the citizen, in accordance with the choice of the citizen, either Moldavian or Russian or Moldavian and Russian, in localities with Gagauz nationality population - Moldavian, Gagauz or Russian or Moldavian, Gagauz and Russian languages.

Institutions of state power, state management, public organisations, companies, institutions and organisations accept and work on documents, presented by citizens, in Moldavian or Russian languages, in the localities with Gagauz nationality population - in the state language, Gagauz language or Russian language. Documents presented in other languages, should be translated in Moldavian or Russian languages.

Article 12.[edit]

Record keeping in companies, institutions and organisations, located on the territory of Moldavian SSR, is carried out in teh state language. Reference (normative-technical) documentation may be done in the langauge of original.

Taking in consideration the demographic situation, procedural necessity, the record keeping in companies, institutions and organisations listed as established by the Council of Ministers of Moldavian SSR, in accordance with the proposals of cantonal and city Councils of people's representatives, may also be carried out in Russian or another convenient language.

Correspondence among companies, organisations and institutions located on the territory of the Republic is carried out in the state language or in the language of record keeping.

Article 13.[edit]

Correspondence among institutions of state power, state management and public organisations, as well as among them and companies, institutions and organisations located on the territory of Moldavian SSR, is carried out in state or another convenient language.

Article 14.[edit]

Documents and other information sent abroad from Moldavian SSR is prepared in Russian or other convenient language.

CHAPTER IV. LANGUAGE OF RECORD KEEPING IN CRIMINAL, CIVIL AND ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS, ARBITRATION, NOTARY SERVICES, REGISTRY OFFICES[edit]

Article 15.[edit]

Legal procedure in criminal, civil and administrative matters of Moldavian SSR is carried out in the state language or in the convenient language for the majority of persons involved in the case.

Participants in the case who do not know the language of the legal procedure are guaranteed to have the right to have access to the case related documents, participation in activities of criminal prosecution and court activities with the help of a translator, as well as the right to testify and to plead in the native language.

[Art.15 (2) modified ZP206/29.05.03; MO149/18.7.03 Art.598] Participants in the case who do not know the language of the legal procedure are guaranteed to have the right to have access to the case related documents, participation in activities of criminal prosecution and court activities with the help of a translator, as well as the right to testify and to plead in the native language. Documents related to the criminal prosecution and court documents are delivered to the accused, defendant and other persons involved in the case (litigation), in the language which is known by the aforementioned persons, in accordance with the order established by the legal procedure legislation.

[Art.15 (3) modified ZP206/29.05.03; MO149/18.7.03 Art.598] Investigatory and court documents are delivered to the accused, defendant and other persons involved in the case (litigation), in the language which is known by the aforementioned persons, in accordance with the order established by the legal procedure legislation.

Статья 16.[edit]

Органы государственного арбитража осуществляют свою деятельность на государственном языке или на языке, приемлемом для участвующих в споре сторон.

Статья 17.[edit]

Нотариальное делопроизводство в государственных нотариальных конторах и исполнительных комитетах районных, городских поселковых и сельских Советов народных депутатов, а также делопроизводство в органах регистрации актов гражданского состояния Молдавской ССР ведется на государственном или русском языке. В исполнительных комитетах местных Советов народных депутатов документы оформляются на государственном языке, по желанию граждан - и на русском языке, а в нотариальных конторах и органах регистрации актов гражданского состояния - на государственном и русском языках.

CHAPTER V. LANGUAGE IN THE FIELDS OF NATIONAL EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND CULTURE[edit]

Article 18.[edit]

The Moldavian SSR guarantees the right to receive prescolar education, general medium, medium special (technical), professional-technical and higher education in Moldavian and Russian languages and creates conditions for realisation for citizens with other nationalities, living in the Republic, of right to education in native language (Gagauz, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Hebrew, Yiddish, etc.)

Article 19.[edit]

Prescolar institutions and secondary schools are created following the principle of single language. Record keeping, meetings, sessions, audiovisual information are carried out in these institutions in the language of instruction and education.

Prescolar institutions and secondary schools are created following the principle of bilingualism in those localities, where the number of children and students does not allow to open single language prescolar institutions and secondary schools. Meetings, sessions, audiovisual information are carried out in these institutions in the equal measure in respective education and instruction languages, whereas the record keeping is carried out in the state langauge.

Article 20.[edit]

In the special secondary, professional-technical and higher education institutions, the education is provided in state and Russian languages in specialities necessary to the Moldavian SSR. For satisfaction of economic and cultural needs of the Republic are created study groups and classes with teaching in langauges functioning on the territory of the Moldavian SSR (Gagauz, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Yiddish, etc.). In the target nationality groups, the teaching of special objects is carried out in native language of pupils and students.

Article 21.[edit]

In the education institutions of all levels, the learning of Moldavian is provided as a study object - in classes and groups with Russian or other langauge of teaching (for students of Gagauz and Bulgarian antionalities - in the volume necessary for communication) and the teaching of Russian - in classes and groups with Moldavian or other langauge of teaching.

Pupils and students, upon graduation from the education institution pass graduation examination, respectively in Moldavian or Russian language, which creates conditions for enlargement of communication spheres on the whole territory of the Republic.

Article 22.[edit]

Moldavian SSR creates teh necessary conditions for the development of Moldavian and Gagauz national science and culture, as well as for scientific and cultural activity in other languages, functioning in the Republic. The Ph.D exams are carried out in Moldavian, Russian or other language, determined by respective specialised council.

Article 23.[edit]

Scientific, scientific-practical conferences, symposia ans seminars, other activities of Republican importance are carried out in the state language (while Rusian translation is provided), whereas the all-Union importance activities - in Russian language.

CHAPTER VI. LANGUAGE IN APPELLATIONS AND INFORMATION[edit]

Статья 24.[edit]

Населенные пункты и иные географические объекты на территории Молдавской ССР имеют единственное официальное наименование в его первоначальной молдавской и соответственно гагаузской формах (без перевода и адаптации) с учетом исторических традиций данной местности. Правильное написание наименований населенных пунктов и иных георграфических объектов устанавливается по специальным справочникам.

Наименования площадей, улиц, переулков, городских районов образуется на государственном языке без перевода (в местностях с населением гагаузской национальности - на гагаузском), а в сельской местности, где большинство составляет население украинской, русской или болгарской национальности, - на приемлемом языке.

Статья 25.[edit]

Наименования министерств, государственных комитетов и ведомств, предприятий, учреждений и организаций и их структурных подразделений образуются на государственном языке с переводом на русский язык, в местностях с населением гагаузской национальности - и на гагаузский язык. Наименования, приведенные в кавычках, не переводятся, а транскрибируются.

Статья 26.[edit]

Имя собственное гражданина Молдавской ССР молдавской национальности состоит из имени (или нескольких имен) и фимилии (одинарной или двойной). Фамилия не изменяется по родам, отечество употребляется без применения суффиксов. При передаче молдавских имен и фамилий на другие языки специфика их написания на молдавском языке сохраняется без адаптации.

Правописание имен и фамилий представителей других национальностей, проживающих в республике, настоящим Законом не регистрируется.

Статья 27.[edit]

Официальные бланки, тексты печатей, штампов и штемпелей выпускаются на государственном и русском языках, в соответствующих местностях - на государственном, гагаузском и русских языках. Бланки (формуляры), использующиеся в социальной сфере (в учреждениях связи, сберегательных кассах, на предприятиях бытового обслуживания населения и др.) выпускаются на государственном и русском языках (в соответствующих местностях - на государственном, гагаузском и русском языках) и заполняются по желанию гражданина на одном из языков бланка (формуляра).

Статья 28.[edit]

Вывески с наименованием органов государственной власти, государственного управления и общественных организаций, предприятий, учреждений и организаций, таблички с наименованием площадей, улиц, переулков, населенных пунктов и иных географических объектов изготовляются на государственном и русском языках, в соответствтующих местностях - на государственном, гагаузском и русском языках и располагается слева (сверху) на государственном языке и справа (снизу) на русском языке, в соответствующих местностях - слева (сверху) на гагаузском языке, в центре (снизу) на государственном языке, справа (ниже) на русском языке.

Статья 29.[edit]

Тексты публичных объявлений, извещений, рекламы и другой визуальной информации оформляются на государственном языке при необходимости с переводом на русский язык, в соответствующих местностях - на государственном, а также гагаузском или русском языке. Наименование товаров и продуктов, этикетки (ярлыки) товаров, маркировка, инструкции к товарам, произведенным в республике, а также любая визуальная информация, представленная населению республики, оформляются на государственном и русском языках.

Во всех случаях тексты визуальной информации располагаются в порядке предусмотренном статьей 28 настоящего Закона. Шрифт текстов на государственном языке не должен быть меньших размеров, чем на других языках.

В сельской местности, где большинство составляют население украинской, русской или болгарской национальности, визуальная информация может оформляться и на соответствующих языках.

CHAPTER VII. STATE PROTECTION OF LANGUAGES[edit]

Article 30.[edit]

Leaders of state power institutions, state management and public organisations, as well as companies, institutions and organisations, located on the territory of Moldavian SSR, are personally liable for the enforcement of requirements of the present Law, in the limit of their depending sphere and in accordance with the valid legislation.

Article 31.[edit]

Propaganda of animosity, disregard to the language of any nationality, creation of obstacles for functioning of the state language and of other languages on the territory of the Republic, as well as infringement of citizens' rights based on language reasons, make responsible in accordance with the order etablished by the legislation.

Article 32.[edit]

The control of enforcement of the legislation regarding functioning of languages on the teritory of Moldavian SSR is being carried out by the Supreme Council of Moldavian SSR, through a specially created commission , and in raions (cantons) - respective Councils of people's representatives of Moldavian SSR.

President of Presidium of the Supreme Council f Moldavian SSR - М.Snegur

Member of Presidium of the Supreme Council of Moldavian SSR - D.Nidelcu

Kishinev 1 September 1989. No 3465-XI