Lays of Ancient Rome/Virginia

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Lays of Ancient Rome by Thomas Babington Macaulay
Virginia
Verginia, or Virginia, was the subject of an almost certainly apocryphal story of Ancient Rome, related in Livy's Ab Urbe Condita, designed to show the evil character of the decemvir Appius Claudius Crassus, who began to lust after Verginia, a beautiful plebeian girl. When she rejected him, Claudius tried to forcefully claim her, but her father Verginius stabbed and killed her, to assure her freedom. The people supported Verginius and overthrew Claudius, subsequently reestablishing the Roman Republic.
Excerpted from Verginia on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The murder of Verginia, by Romanino


Virginia

Fragments of a Lay Sung in the Forum on the Day Whereon Lucius
Sextius Sextinus Lateranus and Caius Licinius Calvus Stolo Were
Elected Tribunes of the Commons the Fifth Time, in the Year of
the City CCCLXXXII.

        Ye good men of the Commons, with loving hearts and true,
   Who stand by the bold Tribunes that still have stood by you,
   Come, make a circle round me, and mark my tale with care,
   A tale of what Rome once hath borne, of what Rome yet may bear.
   This is no Grecian fable, of fountains running wine,
   Of maids with snaky tresses, or sailors turned to swine.
   Here, in this very Forum, under the noonday sun,
   In sight of all the people, the bloody deed was done.
   Old men still creep among us who saw that fearful day,
   Just seventy years and seven ago, when the wicked Ten bare sway.

        Of all the wicked Ten still the names are held accursed,
   And of all the wicked Ten Appius Claudius was the worst.
   He stalked along the Forum like King Tarquin in his pride:
   Twelve axes waited on him, six marching on a side;
   The townsmen shrank to right and left, and eyed askance with fear
   His lowering brow, his curling mouth which always seemed to sneer;
   That brow of hate, that mouth of scorn, marks all the kindred still;
   For never was there Claudius yet but wished the Commons ill;
   Nor lacks he fit attendance; for close behind his heels,
   With outstretched chin and crouching pace, the client Marcus steals,
   His loins girt up to run with speed, be the errand what it may,
   And the smile flickering on his cheek, for aught his lord may say.
   Such varlets pimp and jest for hire among the lying Greeks:
   Such varlets still are paid to hoot when brave Licinius speaks.
   Where'er ye shed the honey, the buzzing flies will crowd;
   Where'er ye fling the carrion, the raven's croak is loud;
   Where'er down Tiber garbage floats, the greedy pike ye see;
   And wheresoe'er such lord is found, such client still will be.

      Just then, as through one cloudless chink in a black stormy sky
   Shines out the dewy morning-star, a fair young girl came by.
   With her small tablets in her hand, and her satchel on her arm,
   Home she went bounding from the school, nor dreamed of shame or harm;
   And past those dreaded axes she innocently ran,
   With bright frank brow that had not learned to blush at gaze of man;
   And up the Sacred Street she turned, and, as she danced along,
   She warbled gayly to herself lines of the good old song,
   How for a sport the princes came spurring from the camp,
   And found Lucrece, combing the fleece, under the midnight lamp.
   The maiden sang as sings the lark, when up he darts his flight,
   From his nest in the green April corn, to meet the morning light;
   And Appius heard her sweet young voice, and saw her sweet young face,
   And loved her with the accursed love of his accursed race,
   And all along the Forum, and up the Sacred Street,
   His vulture eye pursued the trip of those small glancing feet.


      Over the Alban mountains the light of morning broke;
   From all the roofs of the Seven Hills curled the thin wreaths of
   smoke:
   The city-gates were opened; the Forum all alive
   With buyers and with sellers was humming like a hive:
   Blithely on brass and timber the craftsman's stroke was ringing,
   And blithely o'er her panniers the market-girl was singing,
   And blithely young Virginia came smiling from her home:
   Ah! woe for young Virginia, the sweetest maid in Rome!
   With her small tablets in her hand, and her satchel on her arm,
   Forth she went bounding to the school, nor dreamed of shame or harm.
   She crossed the Forum shining with stalls in alleys gay,
   And just had reached the very spot whereon I stand this day,
   When up the varlet Marcus came; not such as when erewhile
   He crouched behind his patron's heels with the true client smile:
   He came with lowering forehead, swollen features, and clenched fist,
   And strode across Virginia's path, and caught her by the wrist.
   Hard strove the frightened maiden, and screamed with look aghast;
   And at her scream from right and left the folk came running fast;
   The money-changer Crispus, with his thin silver hairs,
   And Hanno from the stately booth glittering with Punic wares,
   And the strong smith Muræna, grasping a half-forged brand,
   And Volero the flesher, his cleaver in his hand.
   All came in wrath and wonder, for all knew that fair child;
   And, as she passed them twice a day, all kissed their hands and smiled;
   And the strong smith Muræna gave Marcus such a blow,
   The caitiff reeled three paces back, and let the maiden go.
   Yet glared he fiercely round him, and growled in harsh, fell tone,
   "She's mine, and I will have her, I seek but for mine own:
   She is my slave, born in my house, and stolen away and sold,
   The year of the sore sickness, ere she was twelve hours old.
   'Twas in the sad September, the month of wail and fright,
   Two augers were borne forth that morn; the Consul died ere night.
   I wait on Appius Claudius, I waited on his sire:
   Let him who works the client wrong beware the patron's ire."

      So spake the varlet Marcus; and dread and silence came
   On all the people at the sound of the great Claudian name.
   For then there was no Tribune to speak the word of might,
   Which makes the rich man tremble, and guards the poor man's right.
   There was no brave Licinius, no honest Sixtius then;
   But all the city, in great fear, obeyed the wicked Ten.
   Yet ere the varlet Marcus again might seize the maid,
   Who clung tight to Muræna's skirt, and sobbed, and shrieked for aid,
   Forth through the throng of gazers the young Icilius pressed,
   And stamped his foot, and rent his gown, and smote upon his breast,
   And sprang upon that column, by many a minstrel sung,
   Whereon three mouldering helmets, three rusting swords, are hung,
   And beckoned to the people, and in bold voice and clear
   Poured thick and fast the burning words which tyrants quake to
   hear.

      "Now, by your children's cradles, now by your fathers' graves,
   Be men to-day, Quirites, or be forever slaves!
   For this did Servius give us laws? For this did Lucrece bleed?
   For this was the great vengeance wrought on Tarquin's evil seed?
   For this did those false sons make red the axes of their sire?
   For this did Scævola's right hand hiss in the Tuscan fire?
   Shall the vile fox-earth awe the race that stormed the lion's den?
   Shall we, who could not brook one lord, crouch to the wicked Ten?
   Oh, for that ancient spirit which curbed the Senate's will!
   Oh, for the tents which in old time whitened the Sacred Hill!
   In those brave days our fathers stood firmly side by side;
   They faced the Marcian fury; they tamed the Fabian pride:
   They drove the fiercest Quinctius an outcast forth from Rome;
   They sent the haughtiest Claudius with shivered fasces home.
   But what their care bequeathed us our madness flung away:
   All the ripe fruit of threescore years was blighted in a day.
   Exult, ye proud Patricians! The hard-fought fight is o'er.
   We strove for honors—'twas in vain; for freedom—'tis no more.
   No crier to the polling summons the eager throng;
   No Tribune breathes the word of might that guards the weak from wrong.
   Our very hearts, that were so high, sink down beneath your will.
   Riches, and lands, and power, and state—ye have them:—keep them still.
   Still keep the holy fillets; still keep the purple gown,
   The axes, and the curule chair, the car, and laurel crown:
   Still press us for your cohorts, and, when the fight is done,
   Still fill your garners from the soil which our good swords have won.
   Still, like a spreading ulcer, which leech-craft may not cure,
   Let your foul usance eat away the substance of the poor.
   Still let your haggard debtors bear all their fathers bore;
   Still let your dens of torment be noisome as of yore;
   No fire when Tiber freezes; no air in dog-star heat;
   And store of rods for free-born backs, and holes for free-born feet.
   Heap heavier still the fetters; bar closer still the grate;
   Patient as sheep we yield us up unto your cruel hate.
   But, by the Shades beneath us, and by the gods above,
   Add not unto your cruel hate your yet more cruel love!
   Have ye not graceful ladies, whose spotless lineage springs
   From Consuls, and High Pontiffs, and ancient Alban kings?
   Ladies, who deign not on our paths to set their tender feet,
   Who from their cars look down with scorn upon the wondering street,
   Who in Corinthian mirrors their own proud smiles behold,
   And breathe the Capuan odors, and shine with Spanish gold?
   Then leave the poor Plebeian his single tie to life—
   The sweet, sweet love of daughter, of sister, and of wife,
   The gentle speech, the balm for all that his vexed soul endures,
   The kiss, in which he half forgets even such a yoke as yours.
   Still let the maiden's beauty swell the father's breast with pride;
   Still let the bridegroom's arms infold an unpolluted bride.
   Spare us the inexpiable wrong, the unutterable shame,
   That turns the coward's heart to steel, the sluggard's blood to flame,
   Lest, when our latest hope is fled, ye taste of our despair,
   And learn by proof, in some wild hour, how much the wretched
   dare."


      Straightway Virginius led the maid a little space aside,
   To where the reeking shambles stood, piled up with horn and hide,
   Close to yon low dark archway, where, in a crimson flood,
   Leaps down to the great sewer the gurgling stream of blood.
   Hard by, a flesher on a block had laid his whittle down:
   Virginius caught the whittle up, and hid it in his gown.
   And then his eyes grew very dim, and his throat began to swell,
   And in a hoarse, changed voice he spake, "Farewell, sweet child! Farewell!
   Oh! how I loved my darling! Though stern I sometimes be,
   To thee, thou know'st, I was not so. Who could be so to thee?
   And how my darling loved me! How glad she was to hear
   My footstep on the threshold when I came back last year!
   And how she danced with pleasure to see my civic crown,
   And took my sword, and hung it up, and brought me forth my gown!
   Now, all those things are over—yes, all thy pretty ways,
   Thy needlework, thy prattle, thy snatches of old lays;
   And none will grieve when I go forth, or smile when I return,
   Or watch beside the old man's bed, or weep upon his urn.
   The house that was the happiest within the Roman walls,
   The house that envied not the wealth of Capua's marble halls,
   Now, for the brightness of thy smile, must have eternal gloom,
   And for the music of thy voice, the silence of the tomb.
   The time is come. See how he points his eager hand this way!
   See how his eyes gloat on thy grief, like a kite's upon the prey!
   With all his wit, he little deems, that, spurned, betrayed, bereft,
   Thy father hath in his despair one fearful refuge left.
   He little deems that in this hand I clutch what still can save
   Thy gentle youth from taunts and blows, the portion of the slave;
   Yea, and from nameless evil, that passeth taunt and blow—
   Foul outrage which thou knowest not, which thou shalt never know.
   Then clasp me round the neck once more, and give me one more kiss;
   And now mine own dear little girl, there is no way but this."
   With that he lifted high the steel, and smote her in the side,
   And in her blood she sank to earth, and with one sob she died.

      Then, for a little moment, all people held their breath;
   And through the crowded Forum was stillness as of death;
   And in another moment brake forth from one and all
   A cry as if the Volscians were coming o'er the wall.
   Some with averted faces shrieking fled home amain;
   Some ran to call a leech; and some ran to lift the slain;
   Some felt her lips and little wrist, if life might there be found;
   And some tore up their garments fast, and strove to stanch the wound.
   In vain they ran, and felt, and stanched; for never truer blow
   That good right arm had dealt in fight agains a Volscian foe.

      When Appius Claudius saw that deed, he shuddered and sank down,
   And hid his face some little space with the corner of his gown,
   Till, with white lips and bloodshot eyes, Virginius tottered nigh,
   And stood before the judgment-seat, and held the knife on high.
   "Oh! dwellers in the nether gloom, avengers of the slain,
   By this dear blood I cry to you, do right between us twain;
   And even as Appius Claudius hath dealt by me and mine,
   Deal you by Appius Claudius and all the Claudian line!"
   So spake the slayer of his child, and turned, and went his way;
   But first he cast one haggard glance to where the body lay,
   And writhed, and groaned a fearful groan, an then, with steadfast feet,
   Strode right across the market-place unto the Sacred Street.

      Then up sprang Appius Claudius: "Stop him; alive or dead!
   Ten thousand pounds of copper to the man who brings his head."
   He looked upon his clients; but none would work his will.
   He looked upon his lictors, but they trembled, and stood still.
   And, as Virginius through the press his way in silence cleft,
   Ever the mighty multitude fell back to right and left.
   And he hath passed in safety unto his woeful home,
   And there ta'en horse to tell the camp what deeds are done in Rome.

      By this the flood of people was swollen from every side,
   And streets and porches round were filled with that o'erflowing tide;
   And close around the body gathered a little train
   Of them that were the nearest and dearest to the slain.
   They brought a bier, and hung it with many a cypress crown,
   And gently they uplifted her, and gently laid her down.
   The face of Appius Claudius wore the Claudian scowl and sneer,
   And in the Claudian note he cried, "What doth this rabble here?
   Have they no crafts to mind at home, that hitherward they stray?
   Ho! lictors, clear the market-place, and fetch the corpse away!"
   The voice of grief and fury till then had not been loud;
   But a deep sullen murmur wandered among the crowd,
   Like the moaning noise that goes before the whirlwind on the deep,
   Or the growl of a fierce watch-dog but half aroused from sleep.
   But when the lictors at that word, tall yeomen all and strong,
   Each with his axe and sheaf of twigs, went down into the throng,
   Those old men say, who saw that day of sorrow and of sin,
   That in the Roman Forum was never such a din.
   The wailing, hooting, cursing, the howls of grief and hate,
   Were heard beyond the Pincian Hill, beyond the Latin Gate.
   But close around the body, where stood the little train
   Of them that were the nearest and dearest to the slain,
   No cries were there, but teeth set fast, low whispers and black frowns,
   And breaking up of benches, and girding up of gowns.
   'Twas well the lictors might not pierce to where the maiden lay,
   Else surely had they been all twelve torn limb from limb that day.
   Right glad they were to struggle back, blood streaming from their heads,
   With axes all in splinters, and raiment all in shreads.
   Then Appius Claudius gnawed his lip, and the blood left his cheek,
   And thrice he beckoned with his hand, and thrice he strove to speak;
   And thrice the tossing Forum set up a frightful yell:
   "See, see, thou dog! what thou hast done; and hide thy shame in hell!
   Thou that wouldst make our maidens slaves must first make slaves of men.
   Tribunes! Hurrah for Trubunes! Down with the wicked Ten!"
   And straightway, thick as hailstones, came whizzing through the air,
   Pebbles, and bricks, and potsherds, all round the curule chair:
   And upon Appius Claudius great fear and trembling came,
   For never was a Claudius yet brave against aught but shame.
   Though the great houses love us not, we own, to do them right,
   That the great houses, all save one, have borne them well in fight.
   Still Caius of Corioli, his triumphs and his wrongs,
   His vengeance and his mercy, live in our camp-fire songs.
   Beneath the yoke of Furius oft have Gaul and Tuscan bowed:
   And Rome may bear the pride of him of whom herself is proud.
   But evermore a Claudius shrinks from a stricken field,
   And changes color like a maid at sight of sword and shield.
   The Claudian triumphs all were won within the city towers;
   The Claudian yoke was never pressed on any necks but ours.
   A Cossus, like a wild cat, springs ever at the face;
   A Fabius rushes like a boar against the shouting chase;
   But the vile Claudian litter, raging with currish spite,
   Still yelps and snaps at those who run, still runs from those who smite.
   So now 'twas seen of Appius. When stones began to fly,
   He shook, and crouched, and wrung his hands, and smote upon his thigh.
   "Kind clients, honest lictors, stand by me in this fray!
   Must I be torn in pieces? Home, home the nearest way!"
   While yet he spake, and looked around with a bewildered stare,
   Four sturdy lictors put their necks beneath the curule chair;
   And fourscore clients on the left, and fourscore on the right,
   Arrayed themselves with swords and staves, and loins girt up to fight.
   But, though without or staff or sword, so furious was the throng,
   That scarce the train with might and main could bring their lord along.
   Twelve times the crowd made at him; five times they seized his gown;
   Small chance was his to rise again, if once they got him down:
   And sharper came the pelting; and evermore the yell,—
   "Tribunes! we will have Tribunes!"— rose with a louder swell:
   And the chair tossed as tosses a bark with tattered sail
   When raves the Adriatic beneath an eastern gale,
   When Calabrian sea-marks are lost in clouds of spume,
   And the great Thunder-Cape has donned his veil of inky gloom.
   One stone hit Appius in the mouth, and one beneath the ear;
   And ere he reached Mount Palatine, he swooned with pain and fear.
   His cursed head, that he was wont to hold so high with pride,
   Now, like a drunken man's, hung down, and swayed from side to side;
   And when his stout retainers had brought him to his door,
   His face and neck were all one cake of filth and clotted gore.
   As Appius Claudius was that day, so may his grandson be!
   God send Rome one such other sight, and send me there to see!

This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.