As meat is the most costly and extravagant of all articles of food, it behooves the housewife to save all left-overs and work them over into other dishes. The so-called inferior pieces--not inferior because they contain less nourishment, but inferior because the demand for such meat is less--should be used for all dishes that are chopped before cooking, as Hamburg steaks, curry balls, kibbee, or for stews, ragouts, pot roasts and various dishes where a sauce is used to hide the inferiority and ugliness of the dish. We have no occasion here to spend money on good looks.
If one purchases meat for soup, the leg and shin are the better parts. This, however, is not necessary in the ordinary family, as there are always sufficient bones left over for daily stock. All meat left over from beef tea, tasteless as it is, may be nicely seasoned and made into curries or into pressed meat, giving again a nice dish for lunch or supper. Remember, that where the flavoring of the beef has been drawn out into the water, as in making beef tea, another decided flavor must be added to make the made-over dish palatable. For this reason, curries, pressed meats, served with either Worcestershire or tomato sauce, are chosen.
Cold mutton may be made into pilau, hashed on toast with tomato sauce, hashed with caper sauce, made into escalloped mutton, barbecued mutton, casserole, or macaroni timbale; all sightly dishes, quite handsome enough to place before the choicest guest. Spiced meats, as beef _à la mode_, may be served cold with cream horseradish sauce and aspic jelly. If warm, they will be made into ragouts, or some form of dish with a brown or tomato sauce. It is well to bear in mind that white meats will be served with white or yellow sauces; dark meats with brown or tomato sauces. The coarse tops of the sirloin steak, the tough end of the rump steak, if broiled, cannot possibly be eaten, as the dry heat renders them difficult of mastication. Cut them off before the steak is broiled, and put them aside to use for Hamburg steaks, curry balls, timbale or cannelon, making a new and sightly dish from that which would otherwise have been thrown away.
If you use ham, and have had a piece boiled, after the even slices are taken off, chip the remaining tender pieces for frizzled ham, making it as frizzled beef is made. The bits around the bone that cannot possibly be sliced, will be chopped and made into potted or deviled ham. Throw the bone into the stock pot.
A meat chopper or grinder, which costs but a dollar and a half or two dollars, will save its price in the utility of these scraps in less than a month.
The water in which you boil a leg of mutton, chicken, turkey or a fresh beef's tongue, or such vegetables as string beans, peas, rice, macaroni or barley, put aside and use in place of plain water to cover the bones for stock-making. The water in which cabbage is boiled should be saved alone and used the next day for a soup Crécy; the flavor of the cabbage, with a carrot that has been slightly browned in butter, makes a delightful soup without the addition of meat.
The uncooked tough bits or pieces of beef may be made into any of the following dishes:
Chop uncooked tough meat very fine; put it twice through a grinder. To each pound, allow a tablespoonful of grated onion, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a teaspoonful of salt, just a dash of pepper, and a half cup of toasted piñon nuts. Form into balls about the size of an egg, stand in a baking pan, add a half pint of strained tomatoes, a tablespoonful of butter, and bake slowly thirty minutes, basting three or four times. If more than one pound of meat is used, all the ingredients must be increased accordingly.
The genuine Hamburg steaks are rich in onion and very rich in fatty matter, too much so to be wholesome; so we will modify them, that they may be eaten even by dyspeptics or persons with weak digestion. Put twice through a meat chopper the tough ends of steaks or bits of the round. To each pound of this meat allow a half teaspoonful of celery seed, a teaspoonful of grated onion. Form into thick even cakes, being sure that the center and sides are the same thickness. These may now be broiled over a clear fire, or under the gas lights in your gas broiler, or they may be dropped into a thoroughly heated iron pan. As soon as browned on one side, turn and brown the other. If the steaks are an inch thick, it will take eight minutes for perfect cooking. An exceedingly satisfactory way is to brown them quickly over a hot fire, then put the pan in the oven and allow them to cook for five minutes. Dust with salt, season with a little butter and pepper, and send to the table on a very hot dish; or serve with brown or tomato sauce. If they have been cooked over the fire, or in the oven, put a tablespoonful of butter into the pan in which they were cooked, add a tablespoonful of flour, a half cup of stock, and a half cup of strained tomatoes. When boiling, add a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, and pour over the steaks.
Put twice through the meat chopper one pound of tough meat, season with a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper, and, if you like, a little celery seed or chopped celery top; take this chopped meat into your hands, and form it into a roll about four inches in diameter and six inches long. Roll this in a piece of oiled paper, put it in a baking pan, bake in a quick oven thirty minutes, basting the paper with melted butter three or four times. When done, remove the paper, dish the cannelon, and pour around plain tomato sauce.
Cut any left-over pieces of uncooked tough meat into cubes of one inch. Put a couple of tablespoonfuls of suet into a saucepan; when rendered out, remove the cracklings. Dust the bits of meat with a tablespoonful of flour, throw them into the hot suet, and shake until brown. Draw the meat to one side, and add to the fat in the pan a second tablespoonful of flour; mix, add one pint of water or stock, stir until boiling, add a teaspoonful of salt, a bay leaf, slice of onion, a teaspoonful of browning or kitchen bouquet; cover and simmer gently until the meat is tender, about an hour and a half. The proportions given here are for one pound of beef. This may be served plain, or in a border of rice, or with dumplings. If dumplings, put a pint of flour into a bowl, add a teaspoonful of salt and one of baking powder; mix thoroughly and add sufficient milk to just moisten; drop by spoonfuls over the top of the stew, cover the saucepan and cook for ten minutes. Do not lift cover during the ten minutes or the dumplings will fall.
Chop fine any left-over tough bits of lean beef. Cook together for a moment a gill of strained tomatoes and one cup of bread crumbs; add to the meat, rub to a smooth paste, season with a quarter of a teaspoonful of celery seed, a half teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper; mix, and then stir in carefully the well-beaten whites of two eggs; fill into custard cups, stand in a pan of boiling water, and cook in a moderate oven twenty minutes. Serve with tomato sauce. This recipe is for one pound of beef.
Cut pieces of cold boiled or roasted beef into cubes of one inch; to each quart of this allow two tablespoonfuls of butter, two of flour and a pint of stock. Rub the butter and flour together, add the stock, stir until boiling; add a tablespoonful of onion juice, a teaspoonful of browning or kitchen bouquet, a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of tomato catsup, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley; add the meat; stand over the back part of the stove until thoroughly hot; serve on a heated platter garnished with triangular pieces of toasted bread. A few left-over olives, mushrooms, or even a chopped truffle, may be added.
Chop sufficient cold cooked meat to make one pint, season it with a teaspoonful of salt and a quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper. Put a half cup of stock or water, two tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs and a tablespoonful of butter over the fire; when hot, add to it the meat; take from the fire and stir in carefully two well-beaten eggs. Put this in greased custard cups, stand them in a baking pan half filled with boiling water, and bake in a moderate oven fifteen or twenty minutes; serve with tomato sauce or sauce Béchamel.
Chop sufficient cold cooked beef to make one pint; add to it a teaspoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of onion juice, a dash of cayenne, a quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper, and a grating of nutmeg. Put a half pint of milk over the fire. Rub together one tablespoonful of butter and two tablespoonfuls of flour, add them to the hot milk, stir until you have a smooth thick paste; take from the fire; mix with it the meat, and turn out to cool. When cold, form into croquettes. Beat one egg, add to it a tablespoonful of warm water, and beat again. Dip the croquettes first into this, then roll them in bread crumbs, and fry them in smoking hot fat. They may be served plain or with tomato sauce.
Beef Steak Pudding
Cut cold cooked steak into cubes of a half inch. To each pint of these allow a half pint of milk, six tablespoonfuls of flour, two eggs, and two tablespoonfuls of chopped suet. Put the flour into a bowl; beat the eggs, add to them the milk, then add gradually to the flour; make perfectly smooth. Cover the bottom of a baking dish with a layer of the batter, put in the bits of steak, sprinkle over the chopped suet, then a dusting of salt and pepper, and, if you like, a few drops of onion juice; now put over the remaining quantity of the batter, and bake in a moderately quick oven an hour and a half.
Take any pieces of cold cooked meat, chop them fine, season carefully with salt, pepper, chopped parsley or celery. To each pint allow two tablespoonfuls of melted butter. For the crust you may use left-over cold mashed potatoes; if so, add a little milk and stir them over the fire until smooth and hot. If potatoes are boiled for the purpose, add salt, butter and milk, and beat them until light. Line to the depth of one inch, a baking dish, put the meat in the center, cover the top with mashed potatoes, smooth, brush with milk and bake in a moderate oven a half hour.
Scrape and cut into fancy pieces one good-sized carrot and one turnip. Put these into a saucepan, cover with a pint of stock, and cook slowly until the vegetables are tender. Have ready, cut into cubes of one inch, sufficient cold cooked beef to make a quart; add it to the vegetables, simmer a few minutes until the meat is hot; have ready also one cup of rice that has been boiled thirty minutes in clear water, drained and dried. Arrange this in a border around the meat dish. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter and flour into a saucepan; mix. Drain the liquor from the meat and vegetables, which should now measure one pint; if not, add sufficient stock to make a pint; add this to the butter and flour, and stir until boiling. Dish the meat and vegetables in the centre of the rice border. Take the sauce from the fire, add a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper and the yolks of two eggs. Reheat for just an instant, strain over the meat mixture, dust with chopped parsley, and serve at once.
Chop sufficient cold cooked beef to make one pint; add to it a teaspoonful of salt, and a quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper. Beat two eggs until light, add to them a half pint of water or stock; stir into this one and a half cups of flour, beat until smooth, add a teaspoonful of baking powder and the meat. Drop this by spoonfuls into smoking hot fat; cook about three minutes, drain on brown paper, and serve either on a folded napkin, or in a dish with tomato sauce.
Minced Beef on Toast
Take the meat from between the bones of a rib roast, or any little bits that would not be serviceable in other dishes, chop them fine, and to each pint, allow one tablespoonful of butter, one of flour and a half pint of tomatoes or stock. Mix the butter and flour together, then add the tomatoes strained or stock; when boiling add the meat, and a palatable seasoning of salt and pepper. Stand the mixture over hot water until smoking hot, and serve on squares of toasted bread.
Barbecue of Cold Beef
Cut cold-roasted or boiled beef into thin slices. Put into your saucepan two tablespoonfuls of butter, two tablespoonfuls of catsup and two tablespoonfuls of sherry; stir until hot; drop the slices of beef into this, cover the saucepan, shake occasionally for a minute, until the beef is smoking hot, and send at once to the table. This is exceedingly nice made and served from a chafing dish. This dish may be made by omitting the sherry and using a teaspoonful of Worcestershire sauce, a teaspoonful of mushroom catsup and two tablespoonfuls of stock.
Salt Beef Hash No. 1
Cold cooked corned beef is best made into hash. Chop sufficient to make one pint. Chop the same quantity of cold boiled potatoes; mix the two together, put them into a saucepan, add a half pint of stock, a tablespoonful of butter, teaspoonful of onion juice and a quarter of a teaspoonful of black or white pepper. Stir carefully and constantly until the mixture reaches the boiling point. Serve at once on buttered toast.
Salt Beef Hash No. 2
Chop enough cold cooked corned beef to make a pint; chop the same quantity of cold boiled potatoes; mix the two together. Put them into a stewing pan, add one pint of stock; simmer for just a moment; take from the fire, add two eggs well beaten, a dash of pepper; turn the mixture into a baking dish and bake in a quick oven twenty minutes.
Rechauffee of Beef
Cut any left-over cold beef into thin slices. Cut into slices three cold boiled potatoes. Peel two tomatoes, cut them into halves, squeeze out the seeds, and then cut the tomatoes into small bits. Chop one good sized onion. Put a layer of tomato in the bottom of a baking dish, then beef, then a seasoning of onion, salt and pepper, and if you have it, a little chopped celery, then potatoes, then again tomatoes, beef, and so continue until you have used the materials, having the last layer tomatoes. Dust the top with bread crumbs, put over a few bits of butter and bake a half hour in a moderately quick oven.
Cut any cold left-over steak into thin slices, and cut these slices into bits one inch long. Put one quart of flour in a bowl, and add to it one cupful of chopped uncooked suet. Chop the suet and flour together for a minute, add a level teaspoonful of salt, a saltspoonful of black pepper, and sufficient cold water to just moisten. Take the dough on the board and roll it out into a sheet; make it a little larger than an ordinary pie dish. Season the bits of meat, put them on one-half the sheet, lay over the top twelve good fat oysters, brush the under half of the dough with the white of egg or water; fold over the other half and make two or three holes in the top. Put it in a cheese cloth and steam for two hours. Remove the cloth, brush the pudding with the yolk of the egg and bake in a quick oven a half hour.
Panada of Beef
Chop sufficient cold cooked beef to make one pint; season it with a teaspoonful of salt, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley and a dash of pepper. Put this in the bottom of a baking dish. Crush six Uneeda biscuits, pour over them a half pint of milk, let them stand a minute or two, add one egg, well beaten, a half teaspoonful of salt and a saltspoonful of pepper. Pour this over the beef and bake in a moderate oven twenty minutes to a half hour.
Other meats may be substituted for beef.
Tough pieces of uncooked mutton may be put twice through the meat chopper and used for curry balls or for stuffing for tomatoes or egg plant; in fact, in almost any way that one would serve uncooked beef. Having fewer pieces of uncooked scrap mutton than of beef, we are less accustomed to seeing them used.
Put any pieces of tough uncooked mutton twice through the meat chopper; season the meat with salt, pepper and onion juice. Form into little balls the size of an English walnut. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a saucepan; when hot, throw the balls into the butter, and shake until carefully browned. Lift them from the saucepan, and to the butter in the pan add a teaspoonful of curry, a tablespoonful of flour, mix and add a half pint of stock; stir carefully until boiling; pour this over the balls, cook, slowly for twenty minutes, add two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice and serve in a border of rice. Cocoanut milk may be used instead of stock.
While mutton belongs to the red meats, when carefully cooked it may be used in many ways in which you would use chicken or veal. Capers and tomato, with a slight flavoring of mint, are more agreeable with mutton than with almost any other meats.
Chop sufficient cold boiled mutton to make a pint. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter and one onion sliced into a saucepan; stir until the onion is slightly brown; then add a half pint of stock or milk and four tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs. Stand this on the back of the stove for about five minutes while you blanch and chop fine a dozen almonds. Add these to the meat, then add a teaspoonful of curry powder, and a teaspoonful of salt. Beat three eggs until light, stir them into the meat, then turn the whole into the saucepan. Rub the bottom of the baking dish first with a clove of garlic, then sprinkle over a tablespoonful of lemon juice and put here and there a few bits of butter; put on this the mixture, and bake in a quick oven twenty minutes. Serve in the dish in which it is baked, and pass with it plain boiled rice.
Chop sufficient cold cooked mutton to make a pint. Put a half cup of stock, two tablespoonfuls of bread crumbs and a tablespoonful of butter over the fire. When hot, take from the fire, add the meat and three eggs well beaten; add a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper. Put the mixture into greased custard cups, stand in a baking pan half filled with boiling water, and cook in a moderate oven fifteen to twenty minutes. Serve with sauce Béchamel. The bottom of the cups may be garnished with chopped mushrooms, capers, or chopped truffles, or dusted thickly with chopped parsley.
Chop sufficient cold boiled mutton to make a pint; add to it a half pint of bread crumbs and sufficient white of egg to bind the whole together; add a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of white pepper. Form into balls the size of English walnuts; drop into a kettle of boiling water; pull the kettle to one side of the fire where it cannot possibly boil, and cook the klopps slowly for five or six minutes. When done they will float on the surface. Lift, drain carefully, put on to a heated dish, pour over cream celery or cream oyster sauce, and serve with them peas and boiled rice.
Curry of Mutton
Put two tablespoonfuls of butter and one sliced onion into a pan; cook slowly until the onion is perfectly tender; add one clove of garlic mashed, a teaspoonful of curry powder and a teaspoonful of turmeric; mix thoroughly, add a half pint of stock, or, better, cocoanut milk; stir until boiling, add one quart of cold cooked mutton chopped fine; heat thoroughly, add a tablespoonful of lemon juice, and pour at once into a platter that has been garnished with boiled rice.
Mutton with Anchovy
Chop sufficient cold boiled mutton to make one pint; mash fine three anchovies. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter into a saucepan, add one sliced onion, cook until the onion is soft and yellow, add a clove of garlic mashed, add to this the anchovies and a half pint of stock; simmer gently for fifteen minutes, and press through a sieve. Add a tablespoonful of capers, two or three leaves of mint that have been bruised, and the mutton chopped fine. Heat over boiling water for fifteen minutes, and serve on squares of toasted bread. This may be served plain or the top of each piece may be capped with a carefully poached egg.
Cut into bits any pieces of cold cooked mutton; put them into a saucepan, cover with water, add a grated onion, a bay leaf and two or three cardamom seeds. Sprinkle over a half cup of rice that has been carefully washed; cover the kettle and simmer slowly until the rice is tender. Dish the mutton, putting the rice over the top, cover the whole with a nicely made tomato sauce, and send at once to the table.
Any pieces of cold-roasted or boiled mutton may be cut into dice and used for an ordinary mutton salad. At serving time arrange this neatly on lettuce leaves, or any accessible green; season with salt and pepper, and cover with mayonnaise dressing to which has been added a tablespoonful of capers.
Where celery, lettuce or other fresh greens cannot be procured, canned asparagus may be mixed with the mutton or may be served with it as a garnish; giving an exceedingly agreeable accompaniment. Where asparagus cannot be obtained, a can of peas may be drained, washed, drained again, and added to the mutton before it is mixed with the mayonnaise dressing, or the mutton may be mixed with mayonnaise and filled into tomatoes that have been peeled and the centers scooped out. Stand each on a little nest of lettuce leaves or on a bunch of cress, and garnish the top with capers.
French Lamb Stew
1 quart of bits of cold left-over lamb or mutton 1 pint of green peas 1 quart of water 3 stalks of mint 1 teaspoonful of onion juice 1 teaspoonful of salt 1 saltspoonful of pepper
Put the lamb, water and all the seasoning into a saucepan. Shell and wash the peas, put them over the top, cover the pan and bring quickly to a boil, lift the lid, and boil rapidly twenty minutes until the peas are tender. Rub together the butter and flour, stir them carefully into the stew, bring again to boiling point and serve.
Lamb Stew with Tomatoes
Follow the preceding recipe, using a quart of strained tomatoes in place of a quart of water.
In purchasing a chicken for timbale, select a large one, but not an old fowl. After the chicken has been drawn, remove the white meat, which is used uncooked for timbales. The dark meat may be cooked at once and utilized for boudins, croquettes, salad, cecils, creamed hash, or served on toast with sauce Bordelaise, or used in chafing dish next day. Or if you prefer to use it raw, devil the legs and use the bones for soup.
Chop fine the uncooked white meat of a chicken; this should weigh a half pound. Then rub it with the back of a wooden spoon against the side of a bowl until perfectly smooth. Put one cup of white bread crumbs and a half cup of milk over the fire; stir until boiling; when cold, rub this thoroughly with the meat, and press it through an ordinary flour sieve. Stir into it carefully the well-beaten whites of five eggs, add a teaspoonful of salt, a dash of white pepper; fill into greased timbale cups, stand in a baking pan of boiling water, cover with oiled paper, and bake in a moderate oven fifteen to twenty minutes. The bottoms of the cups may be garnished with chopped truffle, chopped mushrooms, chopped parsley, or nicely cooked green peas. Serve with the timbales either a plain cream sauce or a cream mushroom sauce. Peas are the usual accompaniment.
Or the timbale molds may be lined with this mixture, and the centers filled with creamed mushrooms; put enough of the timbale mixture over the top to hold in the stuffing; they will then be cooked and served in the usual manner.
Deviled Chicken Legs
Carefully remove the bones from the legs of an uncooked chicken. To a half cup of bread crumbs add twelve chopped almonds, two tablespoonfuls of toasted piñon nuts, a tablespoonful of parsley, a half teaspoonful of salt and a dash of cayenne; moisten with two tablespoonfuls of butter. Stuff this into the spaces from which you have taken the bones, tie the legs top and bottom to keep in the stuffing. Place the bones from the carcass of the chicken in the soup kettle, cover with cold water, and when the water reaches boiling point place the legs on top of the bones and cook continuously for two hours. They may be served hot with sauce, or cold, cut into thin slices garnished with aspic.
English Chicken Balls
Chop fine the dark meat left over from timbales, add a half can of finely chopped mushrooms, a teaspoonful of salt, a half teaspoonful of pepper, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a dozen blanched and finely chopped almonds and one raw egg; mix thoroughly and form into balls the size of an English walnut. Arrange these over the bottom of a saucepan, cover with stock, add a bay leaf, a slice of onion and of carrot; cook slowly a half to three-quarters of an hour; drain, saving the stock. Dish the balls in the center of a platter, put around the edge a row of potato bullets, outside of that small triangles of toast. Put a tablespoonful of butter and one of flour into a saucepan; mix, add a half pint of stock in which the balls were cooked, stir until boiling, take from the fire, add the yolk of one egg beaten with two tablespoonfuls of cream; add a half teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper; strain this over the balls and serve.
The remains of cold chicken or turkey may be used in precisely the same manner, or made into croquettes, using the same rule as for beef croquettes. With an accompaniment of mayonnaise of celery, or mayonnaise of tomato, they make an extremely good luncheon dish. For an evening entertainment they may be simply garnished with cooked peas. Meat croquettes are usually made into pyramid forms; they may, however, be made into cylinders. Boudins of chicken or turkey are also exceedingly nice.
Creamed Hash on Toast
This is one of the tastiest of all the warmed-over chicken dishes. Chop the chicken fine, and to each pint allow one tablespoonful of butter, one of flour and a half pint of milk. Rub the butter and flour together, add the milk, stir over the fire until boiling, season the meat with a teaspoonful of salt and a dash of pepper, add to the milk sauce, and stir over hot water for fifteen minutes. The flavoring may be changed by adding three or four chopped mushrooms, or, if you have it, a chopped truffle; but it is exceedingly good plain. Heap this on squares of nicely toasted bread, serve at once, or you may garnish the tops with carefully poached eggs.
Wash a half cup of rice; throw it into boiling water, boil for twenty minutes, drain, add a half cup of milk, a tablespoonful of butter, a level teaspoonful of salt and a quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper; stir until you have a rather smooth thick paste. Brush custard cups, line them to the depth of a half inch with this rice mixture; make a plain milk sauce, as in preceding recipe, and add a pint of seasoned chicken. Fill the space in the rice cups with this cream mixture, put over a covering of rice, stand the cups in a pan of boiling water, and bake in a moderate oven for twenty to twenty-five minutes. Turn these carefully on a heated dish, pour around cream sauce and serve. They may be garnished with green peas, mushrooms or truffles. While this is an exceedingly economical dish it is at the same time an elegant one.
Chop fine sufficient cold-roasted duck, chicken, or turkey to make one pint. Cut a good-sized onion into very thin slices. Pare, core, and chop fine one apple. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter in a saucepan, add the apple and the onion; toss until brown, then add not more than an eighth of a teaspoonful of powdered mace, a half teaspoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of curry powder, a tablespoonful of flour, a teaspoonful of sugar; mix and add a half pint of stock or water; now add the meat, stir constantly until smoking hot, then stand over hot water, covering closely for twenty minutes. Add two tablespoonfuls of lemon juice and serve in a border of rice.
Mock Terrapin or à la Newburg
Pieces of cold-roasted chicken, turkey or duck may be used for making terrapin or à la Newburg. Cut the meat into pieces of fairly good size; measure, and to each pint of this allow a half pint of sauce; rub together two tablespoonfuls of butter and one of flour. Rub to a smooth paste the hard boiled yolks of three eggs; add to the butter and flour a gill and a half (three-quarters of a cup) of milk; stir until smoking hot. Do not let the mixture boil; then add this a little at a time to the yolks of the eggs, rubbing until you have a perfectly smooth golden sauce; press this through a sieve. Before beginning the sauce, sprinkle the chicken with four tablespoonfuls of sherry or Madeira, the latter preferable. Add the chicken to the sauce, stir until each piece is thoroughly covered; add a half teaspoonful of salt, just a drop of extract of nutmeg or a grating of nutmeg, an eighth of a spoon of white pepper (black pepper, of course, may be used); cover and stand over hot water, stirring occasionally until the mixture is smoking hot.
This may be made from either chicken or turkey cut into dice; add an equal quantity of canned mushrooms; for instance, to one pint of cold chicken, add one can of mushrooms. Put two tablespoonfuls of butter and two of flour in a saucepan; mix without browning, then add two cups (one pint) of chicken stock; stir constantly until boiling, add two tablespoonfuls of thick cream, and the yolks of four eggs; strain, add the chicken and mushrooms, a level teaspoonful of salt, a quarter of a teaspoonful of white pepper, ten drops of celery extract or just a little celery seed. Stand this mixture over hot water, watching carefully until it is thoroughly heated; remember that any boiling will curdle the egg. Serve this on a heated dish either in a border of rice or garnished with squares of toasted bread. This mixture is also served in bread patês, or it may be served in chicken muffin cases.
Chop cold cooked chicken or turkey very fine; to each pint allow a half can of mushrooms chopped fine. Put one tablespoonful of butter and two of flour into a saucepan, mix, and add a half pint of chicken stock. When smooth and thick take from the fire, add the yolks of two eggs, the chicken and mushrooms, a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper, a teaspoonful of onion juice, a grating of nutmeg and a tablespoonful of chopped parsley; stir over the fire for a moment; turn out to cool; when cold form into cutlet-shaped croquettes, dip in egg and bread crumbs, and fry in smoking hot fat. These may be served plain, with a garnish of peas, or they may be served with sauce Béchamel.
Portions of cold duck may be cut into convenient pieces, sprinkled with wine, about four tablespoonfuls to the pint, and allowed to stand while you make sauce Bordelaise. Put one tablespoonful of butter and one of flour into a saucepan; mix, add a teaspoonful of browning or kitchen bouquet and a half pint of stock; stir until boiling, add a tablespoonful of grated onion, a half teaspoonful of salt, a dash of pepper and, if you have it, a tablespoonful of finely-chopped ham; cook for five minutes and strain; add three or four fresh mushrooms or a half dozen canned mushrooms and the duck. Stand over boiling water until the mixture is thoroughly heated. Send to the table garnished with triangles of toasted bread. A few stoned olives or sliced olives may be added in the place of the mushrooms, and you would then have salmi of duck.