Manual of the New Zealand Flora/Cruciferæ

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Manual of the New Zealand Flora by Thomas Frederick Cheeseman
Cruciferæ

Order III. CRUCIFERÆ.

Herbs, very rarely undershrubs, with pungent watery juice. Leaves alternate, entire lobed or pinnately divided, the lower ones often forming a rosette at the base of the stem; stipules wanting. Flowers perfect, in terminal racemes, which are often short and corymb-like when the flowering commences, but lengthen out as it advances, usually without bracts. Sepals 4, free, deciduous. Petals 4, free, hypogynous, placed cross-wise. Stamens 6, 2 of them shorter than the other 4; sometimes reduced to 4 or even 2 (Lepidium). Ovary usually 2-celled; style short or wanting; stigma entire or 2-lobed. Ovules few or numerous. Fruit a pod, long or short, usually divided into 2 cells by a thin partition called the replum, from which the 2 valves fall away at maturity; more rarely the pod is indehiscent or transversely jointed. Seeds without albumen, entirely filled by the large embryo, which is variously bent or folded, the radicle either lying along the edges of the cotyledons (accumbent) or placed along the back of one of them (incumbent).

The Crucifers form a large and extremely natural family comprising about 180 genera and between 1500 and 2000 species. The species are distributed over the whole world, but are most plentiful in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and especially so in southern Europe and Asia Minor. They are rare in the tropics, particularly where there are no mountain-ranges. Most of them possess antiscorbutic and stimulating properties, and many are staple articles of food. Not a few of the cultivated species (and others) have become naturalised in New Zealand, as will be seen from the list of introduced plants appended to this work. Of the New Zealand genera, Pachycladon and Nolothlaspi are endemic; the remainder are widely spread outside the colony.

* Pods long and narrow.
Pods terete, linear-oblong, tumid. Seeds in two rows in each cell. Cotyledons accumbent 1. Nasturtium.
Pods flat, linear, acute; valves opening elastically from the base. Seeds in one row. Cotyledons accumbent 2. Cardamine.
Pods terete or obtusely 4–6-angled, 1–3-nerved. Seeds in one row. Cotyledons incumbent 3. Sisymbrium
** Pods short and broad.
Alpine herb with stellate pubescence. Pods compressed, boat-shaped, not winged. Seeds 3–5 in each cell 4. Pachycladon.
Pods compressed, oblong to obcordate, valves turgid, keeled. Seeds numerous 5. Capsella.
Pods much compressed, ovate to orbicular, often winged. Seeds 1 in each cell 6. Lepidium.
Alpine herbs with sweet-scented flowers. Pods large, much compressed, obovate, very broadly winged. Seeds numerous 7. Notothlaspi.


1. NASTURTIUM, R. Br.

Glabrous or pubescent branched herbs. Leaves generally pinnate or pmnately lobed, sometimes entire. Mowers small, yellow or white. Sepals short, equal, spreading. Petals short, scarcely clawed. Stamens 2, 4, or 6. Stigma entire or 2-lobed. Pod almost terete, long or short; valves generally 1-nerved; septum thin, transparent. Seeds small, turgid, usually arranged in two rows; cotyledons accumbent.

A genus of between 20 and 30 species, some of them very widely dispersed, but most abundant in the temperate and warm regions of the Northern Hemisphere.


1. N. palustre, D.C. Syst. ii. 191.—A slender leafy branched herb with weak or decumbent stems 6–20 in. long, glabrous or slightly hairy. Leaves variable, usually lyrately pinnatifid, auricled at the base with the lobes toothed or irregularly lobed, sometimes almost entire, toothed or sinuate-lobed. Flowers small, yellow, in lax racemes. Pedicels slender, ebracteate. Petals about equalling the sepals. Pods oblong, turgid, slightly curved when ripe, 1614 in. long. Seeds numerous, crowded, in 2 series.—Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 10; Kirk, Students Fl. 25. N. terrestre, R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew. iv. 110; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 14. N. semipinnatifidum, Hook. Journ. Bot. i. 246. N. sylvestre, A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 309, (non R. Br.); A. Cunn. Precur. n. 625; Raoul, Choix de Plantes, 47.

North and South Islands: Common in moist places from the North Cape to the Bluff. Usually in lowland districts, but ascending to over 2000 ft. in the river-valleys of Canterbury and Otago. Summer and autumn. An abundant plant in the temperate portions of both hemispheres.

The common water cress of Europe (Nasturtium officinale, R. Br.) is now plentifully naturalised throughout New Zealand. It is easily known by its aquatic habit, creeping or floating stem, pinnate leaves, and white flowers.


2. CARDAMINE, Linn.

Annual or perennial often flaccid herbs, glabrous or slightly pubescent. Leaves entire or more frequently pinnately divided. Flowers white or purplish. Sepals equal at the base. Petals clawed. Stigma simple or 2-lobed. Pod long, narrow-linear, compressed; valves usually flat, openmg elastically; septum membranous, transparent. Seeds numerous, flattened, in one series; cotyledons accumbent.

A rather large genus of over 60 species, inhabiting the temperate and cool regions of both hemispheres. Of the seven species found in New Zealand one is a very widely diffused plant, another extends to Australia, the remaining five are endemic.

A. Rootstock slender, short.
Slender, usually flaccid. Leaves pinnate (reduced to a single pinnule in var. uniflora). Flowers small 1. C. hirsuta.
Small, depressed. Leaves all radical, spathulate. Flowers small 2. C. depressa.
Leaves all radical, pinnatifid at the base. Flowers large 3. C. bilobata.
Tall, slender, branched and leafy. Flowers in elongated racemes. Seeds pitted 4. C. stylosa.
B. Rootstock stout, fleshy, as thick as the finger, crowned with numerous rosulate radical leaves.
Flowering-stems 6–18 in. Leaves almost glabrous. Pods narrow, 115112 in. broad 5. C. fastigiata.
Flowering-stems 6–24 in. Leaves villous. Pods broad, 1614 in. 6. C. latesiliqua.
Flowering-stems short, 2–4 in. Leaves covered with stellate pubescence. Pods narrow 7. C. Enysii.


1. 'C. hirsuta, Linn. Sp. Plant. 655.—A very variable glabrous or slightly hairy annual or perennial herb, usually much branched from the base. Stems erect or decumbent, occasionally as much as 18 in. high, but usually from 6–12 in., in alpine varieties sometimes reduced to 1 in. or 2 in. Lower leaves pinnate; leaflets few, rounded or ovate, entire or toothed, usually stalked, sometimes reduced to 1. Cauline leaves few, pinnatifid with narrow segments. Flowers usually small, few or many, sometimes reduced to 1. Petals narrow, erect or slightly spreading. Stamens sometimes 4 only, especially in European specimens. Pods erect, slender, {frac|2}}–34 in. long, very narrow; style short.—Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 13; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12; Kirk, Students' Fl. 26.

Var. debilis, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12.—Erect or decumbent, often much branched. Leaflets in several pairs, rounded or cordate. Pods slender, with long slender styles.—C. debilis, Banks and Sol. ex D.C. Syst. ii. 265; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 626; Raoul, Choix de Plantes, 47. Sisymbrium hetetophyllum, Forst. Prodr. n. 250; A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 310.

Var. corymbosa. Hook. f. l.c.—Smaller. Leaflets in 2 pairs or reduced to a terminal one. Flowers in few-flowered corymbs.—C. corymbosa, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 6; Hook. Ic. Plant, t. 686.

Var. subcarnosa, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 5.—Stout and fleshy. Leaflets 3–6 pairs, obovate or oblong. Flowers numerous, large, corymbose.

Var. uniflora, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12.—Small, the leaves reduced to one pinnule. Flowers on a slender 1-flowered scape, rather large, sometimes 14 in. diam.

North and South Islands, Chatham Island, Stewart Island: The variety debilis abundant throughout. The remaining varieties not uncommon in mountain districts in the South Island, and extending to the Auckland and Campbell Islands. Altitudinal range from sea-level to 6500 ft.

Widely distributed in the temperate regions of both hemispheres, and exceedingly variable wherever it is found.


2. C. depressa, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 6.—A small glabrous or pilose stemless perennial. Leaves numerous, crowded, rosulate, 1–2 in. long, elliptic or ovate-spathulate, quite entire or varying from crenate to deeply lobulate, rounded at the tip or retuse, narrowed into petioles of variable length. Flowers small, either solitary on slender scapes or in few-flowered corymbs. Pods 12–112 in. long, stout, erect; styles short, stout.—Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12; Kirk, Students' Fl. 27.

Var. depressa, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12.—Larger, usually glabrous. Leaves generally lobulate.—C. depressa. Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 6, t. 3 and 4b.

Var. stellata, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12.—Smaller, glabrous or pilose. Leaves entire or nearly so.—C. stellata, Hook. f. Fl. Antarct. i. 7, t. 4a.

South Island: Var. depressa: Nelson—Wairau Mountains and Lake Tennyson, Travers, T. F. C. Marlborough—Mount Mouatt, Kirk! Canterbury—Hopkins River and Lake Ohau, Haast. Otago—Lake District, Hector and Buchanan. Auckland and Campbell Islands: Both varieties abundant, ascending to nearly 2000ft., Sir J. D. Hooker, Kirk!

Chiefly distinguished from reduced forms of C. hirsuta by the habit, spathulate leaves, and stout erect pods.

3. C. bilobata, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 27.—Perfectly smooth and glabrous, 4–12 in. high. Rootstock rather stout. Leaves all radical, on slender petioles 1–4 in. long; blade 12–112 in. long, oblong or obovate, in small specimens sometimes entire, but usually pinnatifid with a very large terminal lobe and 1 or 2 pairs (rarely more) of small spreading lobes at its base. Flowering-stems 1–3, few-flowered, naked; pedicels slender, 12–1 in. long or more. Flowers large, white, sometimes nearly in. diam. Pods 34–1 in. long, narrow-linear, spreading; style long and slender.

South Island: Canterbury—Broken River, T. F. C. Otago—Kurow Mountains, Mount Ida Range, Hector Mountains, Petrie! Altitudinal range 1000–3000 ft.

The fully developed state of this plant is well marked by the peculiarly lobed leaves, large flowers, and spreading pods with long slender styles. But small varieties, with the leaves entire or nearly so, show a tendency to approach C. depressa.


4. C. stylosa, D.C. Syst. Veg. ii. 248.—A tall rather coarse perfectly glabrous leafy branching herb 2–3 ft. high; erect or decumbent. Leaves 3–5 in. long, oblong-lanceolate or oblong-spathulate, entire or more usually minutely and remotely sinuate-toothed, sometimes lobed or pinnatifid at the base; uppermost sessile, auricled at the base; lower on long petioles. Racemes very long, 1–2 ft. Pedicels stout, short, spreading. Flowers small, white. Pods horizontally spreading, 1–12 in. long, 112 broad; style stout. Seeds red-brown, with a reticulate testa.—Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 12; Kirk, Students Fl. 27. C. divaricata, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 13. Arabis gigantea, Hook. Ic. Plant. t. 259.

Kermadec Islands: Macaulay Island, not uncommon, T. F. C. North Island: In several localities from Mongonui southwards, but often rare and local. South Island: Marlborough—Queen Charlotte Sound, Banks and Solander! Picton, J. Rutland; Mount Stokes, J. Macmahon.

Readily known by its large size and branched leafy habit long racemes, and horizontally spreading pods and pitted seeds. It is a common Australian and Tasmanian plant.


5. C. fastigiata, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 13.—Rootstock long, stout, tapering, often as thick as the finger, bearing at tiie top a rosette of densely crowded radical leaves Leaves 112–3 in. long, linear- or lanceolate-spathulate, acute, sharply and deeply inciso-serrate, gradually narrowed into a broad flat petiole, thick and coriaceous, glabrous or with a few weak hairs on the margins. Cauline leaves similar, but smaller and less toothed. Flowering-stems usually several springing from the top of the rootstock among the radical leaves, simple or branched, 6–18 in. high. Flowers numerous, white, corymbose, about 13 in. diam. Petals 13 in. long, spathulate, on long claws. Pods erect or nearly so, straight or curved, acute at both ends, narrow-linear, 1–2 in. long, 115112 broad. Seeds compressed, red-brown.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 28. Arabis fastigiata, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 324. Pachycladon elongata, Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 216. Notothlaspi Hookeri, Buch. l.c. xx. (1888) 255, t. 13.

South Island: Nelson—Wairau Gorge, Sinclair! T. F. C. Marlborough—Macrae's Run, Monro; Upper Awatere, Kirk! Canterbury—River-bed of the Macaulay, Haast. Otago—Mountains near Lakes Wanaka and Ohau, Buchanan! Altitudinal range 2500–5000 ft.

This and the two following species differ from Cardamine in the seeds being 2-seriate.


6. C. latesiliqua, Cheesem. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xv. (1883) 298.—Rootstock stout, spongy, as thick as the finger, often branched at the top, each division furnished with a rosette of densely crowded radical leaves. Flowering-stems few or many, erect or spreading, branched, leafy at the base, 6–24 in. high. Radical leaves 3–6 in. long, 1323 in. broad, narrow linear-spathulate to obovate-spathulate, gradually narrowed to the base, coarsely serrate above, thick and coriaceous, more or less villous, especially on the margins. Upper cauline leaves smaller, lanceolate, nearly entire. Flowers rather large, white, very numerous. Petals nearly 12 in. long, spathulate, on long claws. Pods erect or suberect, usually curved, somewhat turgid, 112–212 in. long, 1614 in. broad. Seeds numerous, compressed, reddish-brown.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 28.

South Island: Nelson—Mount Arthur, T. F. C, Bryant! Gibbs! Mount Owen and the Raglan Mountains, T. F. C. Altitudinal range 3000–5500 ft. December–January.

A handsome plant, with much of the habit and general appearance of C. fastigiata, but easily distinguished by the villous leaves, larger flowers, and much broader pods, which have a turgid appearance very unusual in the genus.


7. C. Enysii, Cheesem. MSS.—Short, stout, 2–4 in. high. Rootstock thick and fleshy, perpendicular, 12 in. diam., bearing at its summit numerous radical leaves, and a short flowering-stem which is much branched from the base, and forms a rounded or pyramidal head 2–5 in. diam. Leaves 12–112 in. long, 1312 in. broad, oblong-spathulate, obtuse or subacute, narrowed into a broad flat petiole, rather thin, sharply serrate, sometimes almost pinnatifid, more or less densely clothed on both surfaces with stellate pubescence. Cauline leaves linear or linear-spathulate, toothed towards the tip. Flowers numerous, corymbose, white. Pedicels slender, spreading, 1413 in. long. Petals spathulate, with long claws. Pods (immature) narrow-linear, flat, about 1 in. long. Seeds numerous, in 2 series.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 28.

South Island: Canterbury—Mountains at the head of the Broken River, alt. 6500 ft., J. D. Enys and T. F. C; Craigieburn Mountains, alt. 6000ft., Cockayne! Otago—Mount Ida, 5000 ft., Petrie!

A very remarkable plant, easily separated from the two preceding species by the smaller size, depressed habit, and stellate pubescence. The seeds are too immature in all my specimens to allow me to determine the position of the radicle, and it is possible that the plant may not belong to Cardamine.

3. SISYMBRIUM, Linn.

Annual or more rarely perennial erect herbs, either glabrous or more or less tomentose or hairy. Flowers small, white or yellow, usually in rather lax racemes. Sepals short or long, equal or the lateral saccate. Petals with long claws. Style short; stigma 2-lobed. Pod long, slender, terete or slightly compressed; valves convex; septum membranous. Seeds usually numerous, not margined, in a single row in each cell; cotyledons incumbent.

A genus of about 80 species, widely spread in Europe and from thence to eastern Asia, and with a few representatives in most temperate countries. The single New Zealand species is endemic.


1. S. novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 11.—An erect slender sparingly branched herb 6–18 in. high, usually hoary with minute stellate pubescence, rarely almost glabrous. Leaves chiefly radical, very variable in size and shape, 12–2 in. long; petiole long or short; blade 14–1 in., obovate to narrow-oblong, quite entire or sinuate-toothed or pinnatifid; lobes usually blunt. Cauline leaves few, smaller. Flowers small, white. Fruiting racemes rather lax; pedicels slender, 1334 in. long. Pods 1–2 in. long, 115120 in. broad, narrow-linear, obtuse, spreading, glabrous; valves slightly convex, midrib distinct; style very short. Seeds numerous, small; cotyledons incumbent.—Kirk, Students Fl. 30.

South Island: Nelson—Wairau Gorge, Travers, Rough. Canterbury—Broken River, Coleridge Pass, Porter's Pass, Kirk! Enys! Mackenzie Plains and Lake Tekapo, T. F. C. Otago—Not uncommon in the eastern and central portions of the district, Petrie! Altitudinal range from sea-level to 3000 ft. December–January.


4. PACHYCLADON, Hook. f.

A short stout depressed alpine herb, clothed with stellate pubescence. Rootstock long, thick and fleshy. Leaves small, rosulate. Flowers small, white. Sepals equal. Petals with long claws. Stamens free, toothless. Pod laterally compressed, linear-oblong; valves boat-shaped, keeled, not winged; nerves obscure; septum imperfect. Seeds 3–5 in each cell, obovoid; funicles short. Cotyledons incumbent.

The genus consists of a single species, confined to the southern portion of the colony. Sir J. D. Hooker remarks that in technical characters it is intermediate between the tribes Sisymbrieæ and Lepidineæ, but is probably referable to the latter.


1. P. novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 724.—Root very long, fusiform, stout and fleshy, as thick as the finger, in old specimens branched above, crowned with a dense rosette of imbricating radical leaves. Leaves 14–1 in. long; blade oblong, pinnatifldly lobed, gradually narrowed into a short flat petiole, clothed with stellate pubescence. Cauline leaves few, smaller, digitately lobed. Peduncles numerous, springing from below the leaves and slightly longer than them, 2–5-flowered. Petals obovate-spathulate, almost twice as long as the sepals. Pods on short stout pedicels, 1513 in. long, laterally compressed; valves keeled, not winged. Seeds 3–5 in each cell, obovoid, red-brown.—Ic. Plant. t. 1009; Buch, in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) t. 24, f. 1; Kirk, Students Fl. 32. Braya novæ-zealandiæ, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 13.

South Island: Otago—Mount Alta, Hector and Buchanan! Mount St. Bathan's, Mount Pisa, Mount Kyeburn, Mount Cardrona, &c., Petrie! 4500–6500 ft.

A very singular plant. Mr. Buchanan's P. glabra (Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. t. 24, f. 2) is a form with rather larger and almost glabrous leaves, with sharply pointed ascending lobes. It passes insensibly into the ordinary state.


3. CAPSELLA, Medicus.

Annual or rarely perennial branched herbs, of small size and weak habit, glabrous or pilose. Radical leaves entire or pinnatifid. Flowers small, white, racemed. Sepals spreading, equal at the base. Petals short. Pods oblong, ovoid, or obcordate, laterally compressed; valves convex or boat-shaped; septum thin; style short. Seeds numerous, in 2 rows. Cotyledons incumbent.

A small genus, scattered over the temperate regions of both hemispheres.


1. C. procumbens, Fries Novit. Fl. Suec. Mant. i. 14.—Slender, perfectly glabrous. Stems numerous from the root, 2–6 in. long, decumbent at the base, ascending at the tips. Leaves 1434 in. long; lower ovate, oblong, or spathulate, entire or lobed or irregularly pinnatifid, petioled; upper smaller, more sessile, often entire. Flowers white, very small. Racemes elongating in fruit; pedicels filiform, spreading. Pod ovoid, 1615 in. long; valves boat-shaped. Seeds 10–15 in each cell. Benth. Fl. Austral, i. 81. C. elliptica, C. A. Mey. in Ledeb. Fl. Alt. iii. 199; Kirk, Students Fl. 33.

South Island: Otago—On cliffs exposed to sea-spray: Oamaru; Waikouaiti; near Dunedin; Petrie! September–October.

A widely distributed plant, found in Europe, western and central Asia, north-west and South America, and Australia.

C. bursa-pastoris, Mœnch, the common "Shepherd's Purse," is now established as a weed in most parts of the colony. It is an erect annual, with spreading pinnatifid radical leaves and triangular cuneate or obcordate pods, arranged in a long lax raceme.


6. LEPIDIUM, Linn.

Erect or spreading, glabrous or pubescent, annual or perennial herbs, sometimes almost shrubby. Leaves entire or divided. Flowers small, white, ebracteate. Sepals short, equal at the base. Petals short, equal, sometimes wanting. Stamens often reduced to 4 or 2. Pods variable, oblong, ovate, obcordate, or orbicular, much compressed laterally, notched at the summit or entire, winged or not; septum narrow, membranous. Seeds one in each cell, suspended from the top of the septum; cotyledons incumbent.

A large genus of nearly 100 species, found in most temperate or warm climates. The New Zealand species are highly variable, and several are very difficult of discrimination. All are endemic.

A. Leaves undivided; serrate, crenate, or quite entire; never pinnate or pinnatifid.
Stout, erect or diffuse, 12–24 in. high. Leaves sharply serrate. Pods entire, not winged 1. L. oleraceum.
Slender, flexuous, suberect, 12–18 in. Leaves spathulate, serrate above. Pods winged and notched above 2. L. Banksii.
Slender, decumbent, 9–12 in. Leaves long-petioled, crenate. Pods ovate, winged and notched above 3. L. obtusatum.
Stems prostrate, filiform, 2–5 in. Leaves linear-spathulate, 13–1 in., entire. Pods ovate-orbicular, notched 4. L. Kirkii.
 
B. Lower leaves pinnate or pinnatifid.
* Flowers hermaphrodite.
Procumbent, glabrous. Leaves pinnatifid, segments toothed at the tips. Racemes short, lateral. Pods ovate 5. L. flexicaule.
Procumbent or suberect, hairy. Leaves pinnate, segments finely serrate on the upper edge. Racemes long, terminal. Pods minute, orbicular 6. L. tenuicaule.
** Flowers diœcious.
Almost glabrous. Erect, leafy, 6–12 in. high, paniculately branched above. Pods ovate 7. L. Kawarau.
Hoary and scabrid. Erect, strict, 2–5 in. high. Leaves almost all radical, coriaceous. Racemes short, dense. Pods ovate 8. L. Matau.
Hairy. Suberect, 2–5 in. high. Root very long and stout. Leaves all radical. Racemes lax, open. Pods ovate-rhomboid 9. L. sisymbrioides.


1. L. oleraceum, Forst. Prodr. n. 248.—Stout or slender, erect or diffuse, perfectly glabrous, 10–24 in. high. Stem branched, leafy above, often naked and woody below, scarred. Leaves 1–4 in. long, obovate- or oblong-spathulate to narrow-spathulate, narrowed into a short flat petiole, sharply serrate or incised; upper smaller and narrower, more entire, toothed at the tip only. Flowers numerous, in terminal simple or branched racemes, in large specimens often corymbosely arranged at the ends of the branches. Stamens 4. Pods ovate or ovate-oblong, subacute, wingless, entire at the tip, 16 in. long; pedicels slender, spreading.—Forst. Pl. Esc. 30; A. Cunn. Precur. n. 628; Raoul, Choix de Plantes, 47; Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 15; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 14; Kirk, Students' Fl. 34.

Var. frondosum, Kirk, l.c.—Stout, fleshy, much branched. Leaves large, 2–5 in., broadly oblong or cuneate-oblong, serrate.

Var. acutidentatum, Kirk, l.c.—Branches slender, leafy. Leaves 1–2 in., oblong- or linear-spathulate, acutely toothed towards the tip. North Island: Var. frondosum: Banks and Solander; Three Kings Island, Little Barrier Island, Cuvier Island, T. F. C. Var. acutidentatum: Shaded and rocky places near the sea; once plentiful, but now fast becoming scarce. South Island: Queen Charlotte Sound, Banks and Solander! Nelson Harbour, Kirk! Banks Peninsula, Armstrong; Oamaru, Port Chalmers, Catlin's River, Petrie! Stewart Island: Kirk. Auckland Islands: Bolton, Kirk! Chatham Islands: H. H. Travers, Cox! Nau. November–March.

Best known as "Cook's scurvy-grass." The entire plant has a heavy disagreeable smell and hot biting taste. It was originally discovered by Banks and Solander during Cook's first voyage, and at that time must have been abundant, for Dr. Solander speaks of it as "copiose in littoribus marinis," and Cook states that boat-loads of it were collected and used as an antiscorbutic by his crew. It is now quite extinct in several of the localities he visited, and is fast becoming rare in others. Its disappearance is due to cattle and sheep, which greedily eat it down in any locality they can reach. The figure in the unpublished Banksian plates represents var. frondosum; but the specimens in the set of Banks and Solander's plants presented to the colony by the Trustees of the British Museum all belong to var. acutidentatum.


2. L. Banksii, T. Kirk, Students' Fl. 35.—Perfectly glabrous. Stems slender, flexuous, branched, suberect, 12–18 in. long. Leaves 1–2 in., distant, oblong- or linear-spathulate, sharply serrate or toothed above, belov? gradually narrowed into a short petiole or almost sessile. Racemes terminal. Flowers small. Stamens 4. Pods ovate, cordate at the base, slightly winged, broadly notched above; style equal to or slightly exceeding the notch.—L. oleraceum, A. Rich. Fl. Nouv. Zel. 310, t. 35 {non Forst.).

South Island: Queen Charlotte Sound and Astrolabe Harbour, A. Richard; Pelorus Sound, J. Rutland! Kenepuru, J. Macmahon.

Mr. Kirk appears to have founded this species on A. Richard's plate, quoted above, and on a single specimen collected by Mr. Rutland in Pelorus Sound. Judging from this scanty material, there appears to be little to separate it from L. oleraceum var. acutidentatum, except the slightly winged pod notched at the summit. But some of Mr. Petrie's Otago specimens of L. oleraceum show a minute notch, as also do those collected by Mr. Cox on the Chatham Islands. I much fear that the species is of doubtful validity.


3. L. obtusatum, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxiv. (1892) 423.—Stems leafy, branched, prostrate or suberect, 6–12 in. long. Lower leaves on broad flat petioles, sometimes 2 in. long; blade 1–2 in., oblong or oblong-spathulate, gradually narrowed into the petiole, obtuse, coarsely crenate or serrate. Cauline leaves sessile or nearly so, obovate or oblong-spathulate. Racemes numerous, terminating small leafy branches. Flowers small, white. Stamens 4. Fruiting pedicels slender, 13 in. long. Pods broadly ovate, slightly winged above, with a broad shallow notch; style short, stout, about equalling the notch.—Kirk. Students' Fl. 35.

North Island: Auckland—Sea-cliffs to the north of the Manukau Harbour, rare, T. F. C. Wellington—Maritime rocks at the entrance to Port Nicholson, Miss Kirk! October–February.

This is allied to L. oleraceum, but can be readily distinguished by the slender often prostrate habit, the long petioles of the radical leaves, their crenate margins, and by the notched pods. My specimens from the north of the Manukau Harbour are suberect; Mr. Kirk's are mostly prostrate.


4. L. Kirkii, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xxii. (1890) 439.—Small, prostrate, glabrous or nearly so. Stems many from the top of a short stout rootstock, prostrate, branched, flexuous, almost filiform, 2–4 in. long. Radical leaves entire, narrow-linear or linear-spathulate, 13–1 in. long, sheathing at the base, obtuse at the tip; cauline similar but smaller. Racemes short, elongating in fruit. Flowers minute. Sepals ovate, concave. Petals narrow, slightly shorter than the sepals. Stamens 4. Pods on slender pedicels about their own length, ovate-orbicular, minutely notched at the tip; style short, exceeding the notch.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 37.

South Island: Otago—Saline situations in the Maniototo Plains, Petrie! December–January.

An exceedingly well marked little plant, not closely allied to any other.


5. 'L. flexicaule, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 380.—Perfectly glabrous, smooth and fleshy. Stems numerous, branched, flexuous, procumbent; branches ascending at the tips. Lower leaves 2–3 in. long, petiolate, linear-oblong, pinnatifid; lobes 2–6 pairs, entire or toothed at the tips. Cauline leaves smaller, sessile or shortly petiolate, linear-spathulate or cuneate, coarsely toothed towards the apex. Racemes 1–2 in. long, lateral or terminal, leaf-opposed. Flowers small. Petals linear, obtuse. Stamens 2. Fruiting pedicels rather longer than the pod. Pod broadly ovate, slightly winged above, notched at the apex; style not exceeding the notch.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 35. L. incisum, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. i. 15; Handb. N.Z. Fl. 14 (not of Roth).

North Island: Auckland—Mercury Bay, Banks and Solander! shores of the Manukau and Waitemata Harbours, Kirk! T. F. C; Rangitoto Island, T. F. C. South Island: Near Westport, W. Townson! November–January.

This appears to be an exceedingly local plant, and is fast becoming extinct in the few habitats at present known. It is well characterized by the procumbent habit, lateral racemes, and diandrous flowers.


6. L. tenuicaule, T. Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 381.—More or less clothed with minute soft whitish hairs, rarely glabrous. Stems numerous, slender, branched, procumbent or sub-erect, 6–12 in. long. Radical leaves numerous, thin, 1–4 in. long, linear-oblong, pinnate or pinnatifid; leaflets sometimes stalked, finely and sharply serrate or laciniate on the upper edge; teeth irregular, sometimes piliferous; petiole sheathing at the base. Cauline leaves usually few, sometimes absent, oblong-spathulate to linear, sessile or shortly petiolate, entire or serrate. Flowers very numerous, minute, in long and slender terminal racemes. Petals wanting. Stamens 4. Pod very small, orbicular, shorter than the slender pedicel, winged above, minutely notched; style scarcely longer than the notch.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 37. L. australe, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 381.

South Island: Otago—Usually near the sea; Oamaru, Hampden, Awamoko, Weston, Orepuki, Petrie! Stewart Island: Dog Island; Ruapuke, Kirk! November–January.

A distinct but highly variable species, easily recognised by the minute orbicular pods. Mr. Kirk's L. australe is a state with the stems more erect than usual, and with more numerous cauline leaves.


7. L. Kawarau, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xvii. (1885) 270.—Diœcious, erect or diffuse, glabrous or slightly hairy, 6–12 in. high or more. Stems leafy, much branched above. Radical leaves numerous, 3–5 in. long, linear-oblong, pinnatifid or pinnate with a broad rachis; leaflets rather distant, linear, entire or with 1–3 linear lobes on the upper edge, rarely on the lower as well; petioles sheathing at the base. Cauline leaves many, lower like the radical but sessile, gradually passing into the uppermost, which are narrow-linear, entire. Racemes very numerous at the ends of the branches, forming a much-branched panicle. Flowers small. Petals apparently wanting in both sexes. Stamens 4–6. Fruiting pedicels spreading or ascending, rather longer than the pods. Pods ovate or ovate-oblong, notched at the apex; style slightly exceeding the notch.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 36.

Var. dubium, Kirk, l.c.—Taller, much more hairy, almost scabrid; branches few, long, lax. Cauline leaves shorter and broader, pinnatifid. Petals present in tue male flowers.

South Island: Otago—Kawarau River, Cromwell, Petrie! Var. dubium: Near Duntroon, Petrie! November–December.

Allied to L. Matau, with which it entirely agrees in the flowers and pods. It differs in the greater size, branched leafy habit and almost glabrous leaves, which are much larger and have long and narrow toothed pinnæ. The var. dubium has a distinct appearance, but barely seems entitled to specific rank.


8. L. Matau, Petrie in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xix. (1887) 323.—Diœcious, erect, hoary with short scabrid hairs, 2–5 in. high. Root stout, woody. Stems one or several from the root, stout, somewhat strict, branched above. Radical leaves numerous, coriaceous, scabrid, 1–2 in. long, linear or linear-oblong, deeply pinnatifid or almost pinnate; segments rounded or oblong, rarely linear, entire or lobed on the upper edge. Cauline leaves oblong or ovate, sessile, usually entire. Flowers small, in short and dense racemes at the ends of the branches. Petals wanting in both sexes. Stamens 4. Fruiting pedicels patent or slightly decurved, rather longer than the pods. Pods ovate, not winged, shortly notched above; style short, slightly exceeding the notch.—Kirk, Students Fl. 36.

South Island: Otago—Alexandra South, Gimmerburn, Petrie! November–December.

Best recognised by the strict habit, scabrid and coriaceous leaves, short dense racemes, and apetalous diœcious flowers.


9. L. sisymbrioides, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 14.—Diœcious, pubescent or almost glabrous, suberect, 2–5 in. high. Root stout and woody, often as thick as the finger, very long and tapering, much divided at the top. Leaves nearly all radical, numerous, crowded, spreading, 1–2 in. long, linear or linear-oblong in outline, deeply pinnatifid; segments many, small, short, entire or lobulate on the upper edge; petioles flat, often dilated at the base. Flowering-stems numerous, slender, branched, spreading or suberect, usually with a few small entire cauline leaves below, sometimes naked. Flowers small, in terminal racemes; males with 4 narrow-petals or apetalous; females always apetalous. Stamens 4. Pods about half as long as the slender spreading pedicels, ovate-rhomboid, acute at both ends, slightly winged above, minutely notched; style exceeding the notch.—Kirk. Students' Fl. 37. L. Solandri, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 380.

South Island: Canterbury—Broken River district, Haast, Enys! Kirk! T. F. C.; Mackenzie Plains, J. F. Armstrong; Lakes Tekapo and Pukaki, T. F. C.;' Lake Ohau, Haast. Otago-Waitaki Valley, Lake Wanaka, Buchanan! Kurow, Petrie! Altitudinal range 800–3000 ft. December–January.

A distinct species, at once separated from the two preceding by the more depressed habit, lax racemes, and ovate-rhomboid pods. The stout cylindrical root often descends for distances altogether out of proportion to the short stems. Mr. Enys on one occasion showed me specimens nearly 4 ft. in length.


7. NOTOTHLASPI, Hook. f.

Small fleshy simple or branched alpine herbs, glabrous or slightly hairy. Leaves all radical, or radical and cauline, spathulate, petiolate. Flowers rather large, white, densely crowded in a terminal raceme, or corymbose ar the tips of the branches. Sepals erect, equal at the base. Petals spathulate. Pods rather large, obovate or oblong, much compressed, valves very broadly winged. Seeds numerous in each cell, reniform, attached by slender long funicles. Cotyledons incumbent; radicle often very long.

The genus is confined to the mountains of the South Island of New Zealand.

Stem simple. Flowers densely crowded on a stout terminal peduncle or scape. Style very short 1. N. rosulatum.
Stem usually much branched. Flowers corymbose at the ends of the branches. Style long 2. N. australe.


1. N. rosulatum, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 15.—A very remarkable scout erect leafy pyramidal fleshy herb 3–9 in. high; stem very short or almost wanting. Leaves all radical, very numerous, most densely crowded, fleshy, imbricated, forming a rosette or cushion, spathulate, crenate or dentate, when young clothed with white cellular ribband-like hairs, glabrous or nearly so when old, narrowed into a petiole of variable length. Scape very stout, sometimes as thick as the finger, covered with densely crowded sweet-scented flowers, forming a conical or pyramidal raceme. Pods 12–1 in. long, obovate, very broadly winged, notched at the top; style very short; stigma 2-lobed. Seeds numerous, subreniform, pitted; radicle very long, twice folded, first upwards then downwards and backwards over the back of the cotyledons.—Kirk, Students' Fl. 38. N. notabile. Buch. in Trans. N.Z. Inst. xiv. (1882) 344, t. 25.

South Island: Nelson and Canterbury—Not uncommon on dry shingle-slopes on the mountains, but easily overlooked. Otago—Mount Ida, P. Goyen. Altitudinal range 2000–5000 ft. December–February.

One of the most singular plants in the colony. When in flower or fruit it has a conical or pyramidal shape; but flowerless specimens form rosettes or cushions of closely packed imbricating leaves, from which no doubt has arisen the local name of "penwiper plant." The flowers are deliciously fragrant.


2. N. australe, Hook. f. Handb. N.Z. Fl. 15.—Small, densely tufted, usually much branched from the base; branches leafy, spreading, 1–4 in. long. Leaves radical and cauline, numerous, 12–112 in. long, petiolate, linear- or oblong-spathulate, entire or crenate, glabrous or with a few cellular hairs, often recurved. Flowers very numerous, corymbose, about 14 in. diam. Pod much smaller than in the preceding species, 1312 in. long, broadly oblong or elliptic, winged, barely notched at the top; style long, almost 13 the length of the pod. Seeds numerous, pitted; radicle long, slender.—Kirk, Students Fl. 38. Thlaspi (?) australe, Hook. f. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. 325.

Var. stellatum, Kirk, l.c. 39.—Stems not branched. Leaves narrow linear-spathulate; petioles pubescent. Flowers numerous, on long 1-flowered peduncles.

South Island: Nelson—An abundant plant on the mountains, from 2500 to 5000 ft. Var. stellatum: Mount Rintoul, F. G. Gibbs, W. H. Bryant.

A pretty little plant, originally discovered by Sir David Monro. Although very common in the Nelson District, it has not been observed further south than Lake Tennyson.