# Mishnah/Seder Moed/Tractate Eruvin/Chapter 1

 Seder Moed, Tractate Eruvin: Chapter 1

1:1

An alleyway - how high can it be? To twenty amot one must lower it.
Rabbi Yehudah says it is not necessary.
Wider than ten amot, one must reduce.
If there is a tzurat hapetach (form of a doorway), that is wider than ten amot, it is not necessary to reduce it's size.

1:2

A Kosher Mavoy- Beit Shamai says: A lehi and a beam. Beit Hillel says: A lehi or a beam. Rabbi Eliezer says: two lehis. In the name of Rabbi Yishmael, said one student before Rabbi Akiva: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not argue on a mavoy that is lower than 4 amot, for it is kosher with a lehi or a korah. About what do they disagree? On the width (of a mavoy) that is greater than 4 amot until 10 amot; Beit Shammai says it needs a lehi and a beam, and Beit Hillel says either a lehi or a beam. Rabbi Akiva says that they argued about both cases.

1:3

The beam which was mentioned, it must be wide enough to hold an ariah, and an ariah is half a brick of three tefachim.
It is okay for the beam to be a tefach wide so that it can hold the ariah sideways.

1:4

It [the beam] must be wide enought to hold an ariah and strong enough to hold an ariah.
Rabbi Yehuda says it [the beam] must be wide enough, but it doesn't have to be strong enough [to hold an ariah].

1:5

If [the beam] is made out of straw or reeds, view it as if it were made out of metal.
If [the beam] is bent, view it as if it were straight.
If [the beam] is rounded, view it as if it were square.
Anything [round] that is three tefachim in circumference, it has a width of one tefach

1:6

The Lechis that were mentioned need to be ten tefachim high, and the thickness is irrelevant.
Rabbi Yose says that they must be three tefachim thick.

1:7

One can make a lehi out of anything - even out of a living being - rabbi Yosei forbids this.
And it [the lehi made out of a living creature] imparts tumah (impurity) like a gravestone, but rabbi Meir says it is tahor (pure).
It is acceptable to write a bill of divorce [on a living animal]. Rabbi Yosei of the Galil doesn't allow this.

1:8

A caravan that is camped in a valley and is surrounded by animal related objects can carry within [that perimeter] only if the fence is 10 tefachim high and the gaps aren't larger than the walls.
Any gap that is 10 amot is permitted because it is like a door; larger than that is forbidden.

1:9

Surround an area with three ropes, one on top of the other, and there isn't [a gap of] 3 tefachim between one rope and another;
The ropes themselves must be a tefach and a little bit - the whole thing must be ten tefachim.

1:10

They can surround with reeds, as long as there isn't [a gap of] three tefachim between one reed and another.
They spoke [specifically] about a caravan - so says rabbi Yehuda. The [other] rabbis say they were talking only about a caravan in the present case [as an example].
Any mehitza which is not [made of] vertical and horizontal [parts] is not a [valid] mehitza - so says rabbi Yose son of rabbi Yehuda.
The [other] rabbis say: one of [those] two things.
Four things [leniencies] are permitted in an army camp. They can take wood from any place, they are exempt from washing their hands, they [are permitted to eat] demai, and from making an eruv.