- The four new years are:
- On the first of Nisan, the new year for the kings and for the festivals;
- On the first of Elul, the new year for the tithing of animals;
- Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Shimon say, in the first of Tishrei
- On the first of Tishrei, the new year for years, for the Sabbatical years and for the Jubilee years and for the planting and for the vegetables
- On the first of Shevat, the new year for the trees, these are the words of the House of Shammai;
- The House of Hillel says, on the fifteenth thereof.
- At four times the world is judged:
- On Pesach, for the crops.
- On Shavuot, for the fruits of the tree.
- On Rosh Hashnah, all the world passes before Him like sheep, as it says,
- "He that fashioneth the hearts of them all, that considereth all their doings." (Psalms 33:15)
- And on Sukkot, they are judged for the water.
- On six months messengers go out:
- On Nisan, because of Pesach;
- On Av, because of the fast
- On Elul, because of Rosh Hashnanah;
- On Tishrei, to correct for the festivals
- On Kislev, because of Chanukah;
- On Adar, because of Purim;
- And when the Temple existed, they also went out on Iyar, because of the little Pesach.
- On two months they desecrate the Shabbat, on Nisan and on Tishrei.
- For in those months, they were sent out to Syria to correct for the festivals.
- And when the Temple existed, they desecrated Shabbat in all of them--
- To correct for the sacrifices.
- Regardless of whether the moon was clearly visible or not clearly visible,
- They desecrate the Shabbat for it;
- Rabbi Yosei says:
- If it was clearly visible, they do not desecrate the Shabbat for it.
Mishnah 7 Mishnah/Seder Moed/Tractate Rosh Hashanah/Chapter 1/7/Translation
Mishnah 8 Mishnah/Seder Moed/Tractate Rosh Hashanah/Chapter 1/8/Translation
Mishnah 9 Mishnah/Seder Moed/Tractate Rosh Hashanah/Chapter 1/9/Translation